Articles | Volume 14, issue 12
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6345–6367, 2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Review article 26 Jun 2014
Review article | 26 Jun 2014
Overview of the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory: site description and selected science results from 2008 to 2013
J. Ortega et al.
Anna L. Hodshire, Michael J. Lawler, Jun Zhao, John Ortega, Coty Jen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jared F. Brewer, Jack K. Kodros, Kelley C. Barsanti, Dave R. Hanson, Peter H. McMurry, James N. Smith, and Jeffery R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9321–9348,Short summary
Processes that control the growth of newly formed particles are not well understood and limit predictions of aerosol climate impacts. We combine state-of-the-art measurements at a central-US site with a particle-growth model to investigate the species and processes contributing to growth. Observed growth was dominated by organics, sulfate salts, or a mixture of these two. The model qualitatively captures the variability between different days.
F. Yu, G. Luo, S. C. Pryor, P. R. Pillai, S. H. Lee, J. Ortega, J. J. Schwab, A. G. Hallar, W. R. Leaitch, V. P. Aneja, J. N. Smith, J. T. Walker, O. Hogrefe, and K. L. Demerjian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13993–14003,Short summary
The role of low-volatility organics in new particle formation (NPF) in the atmosphere is assessed. An empirical formulation in which formation rate is a function of the concentrations of sulfuric acid and low-volatility organics significantly overpredicts NPF in the summer. Two different schemes predict quite different nucleation rates (including their spatial patterns), concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol first indirect radiative forcing in North America.
L. Zhou, R. Gierens, A. Sogachev, D. Mogensen, J. Ortega, J. N. Smith, P. C. Harley, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, A. Turnipseed, A. Rusanen, S. Smolander, A. B. Guenther, M. Kulmala, T. Karl, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8643–8656,
Y. Y. Cui, A. Hodzic, J. N. Smith, J. Ortega, J. Brioude, H. Matsui, E. J. T. Levin, A. Turnipseed, P. Winkler, and B. de Foy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11011–11029,
J. Zhao, J. Ortega, M. Chen, P. H. McMurry, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7631–7644,
Hao Guo, Clare M. Flynn, Michael J. Prather, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Louisa Emmons, Forrest Lacey, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Arlene M. Fiore, Gus Correa, Lee T. Murray, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Michelle Kim, John Crounse, Glenn Diskin, Joshua DiGangi, Bruce C. Daube, Roisin Commane, Kathryn McKain, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Chelsea Thompson, Thomas F. Hanisco, Donald Blake, Nicola J. Blake, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13729–13746,Short summary
The NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission built a climatology of the chemical composition of tropospheric air parcels throughout the middle of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The level of detail allows us to reconstruct the photochemical budgets of O3 and CH4 over these vast, remote regions. We find that most of the chemical heterogeneity is captured at the resolution used in current global chemistry models and that the majority of reactivity occurs in the
hottest20 % of parcels.
Andreas Tilgner, Thomas Schaefer, Becky Alexander, Mary Barth, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Athanasios Nenes, Havala O. T. Pye, Hartmut Herrmann, and V. Faye McNeill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13483–13536,Short summary
Feedbacks of acidity and atmospheric multiphase chemistry in deliquesced particles and clouds are crucial for the tropospheric composition, depositions, climate, and human health. This review synthesizes the current scientific knowledge on these feedbacks using both inorganic and organic aqueous-phase chemistry. Finally, this review outlines atmospheric implications and highlights the need for future investigations with respect to reducing emissions of key acid precursors in a changing world.
Taylor S. Jones, Jonathan E. Franklin, Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Kristian D. Hajny, Johannes C. Paetzold, Adrian Wenzel, Conor Gately, Elaine Gottlieb, Harrison Parker, Manvendra Dubey, Frank Hase, Paul B. Shepson, Levi H. Mielke, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13131–13147,Short summary
Methane emissions from leaks in natural gas pipes are often a large source in urban areas, but they are difficult to measure on a city-wide scale. Here we use an array of innovative methane sensors distributed around the city of Indianapolis and a new method of combining their data with an atmospheric model to accurately determine the magnitude of these emissions, which are about 70 % larger than predicted. This method can serve as a framework for cities trying to account for their emissions.
Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Hongyu Guo, Paul J. Wooldridge, Ronald C. Cohen, Kenneth S. Docherty, J. Alex Huffman, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Particle-phase nitrates are an important component of atmospheric aerosols and chemistry. In this manuscript, we systematically explore the application of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the organic and inorganic nitrate fractions of aerosols in the atmosphere. While AMS has been used for a decade to quantify nitrates, methods are not standardized. We make recommendations for a more universal approach based on this analysis of a large range of field and laboratory observations.
Dongwook Kim, Changmin Cho, Seokhan Jeong, Soojin Lee, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Jose L. Jimenez, Rainer Volkamer, Donald R. Blake, Armin Wisthaler, Alan Fried, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Jack Dibb, Christoph J. Knote, and Kyung-Eun Min
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
CHOCHO was simulated using a 0-D box model constrained by measurements during the KORUS-AQ mission. High CHOCHO concentrations were observed over highly populated cities and industrial areas. Aromatics were the most important precursors of CHOCHO production. Loss path to aerosol was the highest sink contributing to ~20 % of SOA formation. CHOCHO uptake rate can be affected by aerosol viscosity and irradiation. Finally, our work highlights the lacking knowledge to explain the CHOCHO solubility.
Delaney B. Kilgour, Gordon A. Novak, Jon S. Sauer, Alexia N. Moore, Julie Dinasquet, Sarah Amiri, Emily B. Franklin, Kathryn Mayer, Margaux Winter, Clare K. Morris, Tyler Price, Francesca Malfatti, Daniel R. Crocker, Christopher Lee, Christopher D. Cappa, Allen H. Goldstein, Kimberly A. Prather, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We report measurements of gas-phase volatile organosulfur molecules made during a mesocosm phytoplankton bloom experiment. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), methanethiol (MeSH), and benzothiazole accounted for on average over 90 % of total gas-phase sulfur emissions. This work focuses on factors controlling the production and emission of DMS and MeSH and the role of non-DMS molecules (such as MeSH and benzothiazole) in secondary sulfate formation in coastal marine environments.
Sabrina Chee, Kelley Barsanti, James N. Smith, and Nanna Myllys
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11637–11654,Short summary
We explored molecular properties affecting atmospheric particle formation efficiency and derived a parameterization between particle formation rate and heterodimer concentration, which showed good agreement to previously reported experimental data. Considering the simplicity of calculating heterodimer concentration, this approach has potential to improve estimates of global cloud condensation nuclei in models that are limited by the computational expense of calculating particle formation rate.
Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O'Dell, David Crisp, Akhiko Kuze, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Paul O. Wennberg, Abhishek Chatterjee, Michael Gunson, Annmarie Eldering, Brendan Fisher, Matthäus Kiel, Robert R. Nelson, Aronne Merrelli, Greg Osterman, Frédéric Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra K. Dubey, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. Garcia, David Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Martine De Mazière, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Coleen M. Roehl, Matthias Schneider, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
We provide an analysis of an eleven year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations derived using an optimal estimation retrieval algorithm on measurements made by the GOSAT satellite . The new product (version 9) shows improvement over the previous version (v7.3) as evaluated against independent estimates of CO2 from ground-based sensors and atmospheric inversion systems. We also compare the new GOSAT CO2 values to collocated estimates from NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2.
Trude Eidhammer, Adam Booth, Sven Decker, Lu Li, Michael Barlage, David Gochis, Roy Rasmussen, Kjetil Melvold, Atle Nesje, and Stefan Sobolowski
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4275–4297,Short summary
We coupled a detailed snow–ice model (Crocus) to represent glaciers in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Hydro model and tested it on a well-studied glacier. Several observational systems were used to evaluate the system, i.e., satellites, ground-penetrating radar (used over the glacier for snow depth) and stake observations for glacier mass balance and discharge measurements in rivers from the glacier. Results showed improvements in the streamflow projections when including the model.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Gracie Wong, Anne Mielnik, Sanjeevi Nagalingam, Nicole Jenna Gross, Alex B. Guenther, Taehyoung Lee, Taehyun Park, Jihee Ban, Seokwon Kang, Jin-Soo Park, Joonyoung Ahn, Danbi Kim, Hyunjae Kim, Jinsoo Choi, Beom-Keun Seo, Jong-Ho Kim, Jeong-Ho Kim, Soo Bog Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11505–11518,Short summary
We present experimental proofs illustrating the emission of an unexplored volatile organic compound, tentatively assigned as ketene, in an industrial facility in South Korea. The emission of such a compound has rarely been reported, but our experimental data show that the emission rate is substantial. It potentially has tremendous implications for regional air quality and public health, as it is highly reactive and toxic at the same time.
Jeanie A. Aird, Rebecca J. Barthelmie, Tristan J. Shepherd, and Sara C. Pryor
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 1015–1030,Short summary
Low-level jets (LLJs) are pronounced maxima in wind speed profiles affecting wind turbine performance and longevity. We present a climatology of LLJs over Iowa using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and determine the rotor plane conditions when they occur. LLJ characteristics are highly sensitive to the identification criteria applied, and different (unique) LLJs are extracted with each criterion. LLJ characteristics also vary with different model output resolution.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11201–11224,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions is predictable and is explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated with SOA in urban regions.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Jared F. Brewer, Ke Li, Jonathan M. Moch, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Hyunkwang Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Su Keun Kuk, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Xuan Wang, Pengfei Liu, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Katherine R. Travis, Johnathan W. Hair, Bruce E. Anderson, Jack E. Dibb, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Qiang Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Geostationary satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) has tremendous potential for monitoring surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We integrated data from surface networks, aircraft, and satellites with the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model to enhance our ability to relate AOD to PM2.5. We attributed 550 nm AOD mainly to secondary aerosols in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and explained the opposite seasonality between AOD and PM2.5 by seasonality in PBL heights and relative humidity.
Yenny Gonzalez, Róisín Commane, Ethan Manninen, Bruce C. Daube, Luke D. Schiferl, J. Barry McManus, Kathryn McKain, Eric J. Hintsa, James W. Elkins, Stephen A. Montzka, Colm Sweeney, Fred Moore, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano Jost, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea R. Thompson, Eric Ray, Paul O. Wennberg, John Crounse, Michelle Kim, Hannah M. Allen, Paul A. Newman, Britton B. Stephens, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Benjamin A. Nault, Eric Morgan, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11113–11132,Short summary
Vertical profiles of N2O and a variety of chemical species and aerosols were collected nearly from pole to pole over the oceans during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography mission. We observed that tropospheric N2O variability is strongly driven by the influence of stratospheric air depleted in N2O, especially at middle and high latitudes. We also traced the origins of biomass burning and industrial emissions and investigated their impact on the variability of tropospheric N2O.
Min Huang, James H. Crawford, Joshua P. DiGangi, Gregory R. Carmichael, Kevin W. Bowman, Sujay V. Kumar, and Xiwu Zhan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11013–11040,Short summary
This study evaluates the impact of satellite soil moisture data assimilation on modeled weather and ozone fields at various altitudes above the southeastern US during the summer. It emphasizes the importance of soil moisture in the understanding of surface ozone pollution and upper tropospheric chemistry, as well as air pollutants’ source–receptor relationships between the US and its downwind areas.
Jun Inoue, Yutaka Tobo, Kazutoshi Sato, Fumikazu Taketani, and Marion Maturilli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4971–4987,Short summary
A cloud particle sensor (CPS) sonde is an observing system to obtain the signals of the phase, size, and the number of cloud particles. Based on the field experiments in the Arctic regions and numerical experiments, we proposed a method to correct the CPS sonde data and found that the CPS sonde system can appropriately observe the liquid cloud if our correction method is applied.
Lucía Caudillo, Birte Rörup, Martin Heinritzi, Guillaume Marie, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Antonio Amorim, Farnoush Ataei, Rima Baalbaki, Barbara Bertozzi, Zoé Brasseur, Randall Chiu, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Xu-Cheng He, Victoria Hofbauer, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Brandon Lopez, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Dario Massabò, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Antti Onnela, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Meredith Schervish, Wiebke Scholz, Benjamin Schulze, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Mihnea Surdu, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Steffen Vogt, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Wang Yonghong, Wu Yusheng, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Kristina Höhler, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Neil M. Donahue, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We performed experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN at low temperatures to simulate new particle formation in the upper free troposphere (at −30 °C and −50 °C). We measured particle and gas phase and found that most of the compounds that are present in the gas phase are detected as well in the particle phase. The major compounds in the particles are C8-10 and C18-20. Specifically, we showed that C5 and C15 compounds are detected in a mixed system with isoprene and α-pinene at −30 °C, 20 % RH.
Stefanie Kremser, Mike Harvey, Peter Kuma, Sean Hartery, Alexia Saint-Macary, John McGregor, Alex Schuddeboom, Marc von Hobe, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Alex Geddes, Richard Querel, Adrian McDonald, Maija Peltola, Karine Sellegri, Israel Silber, Cliff S. Law, Connor J. Flynn, Andrew Marriner, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Carson C. Hume, Graeme Plank, Geoffrey Graham, and Simon Parsons
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3115–3153,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions over the Southern Ocean are poorly understood and remain a major source of uncertainty in climate models. This study presents ship-borne measurements, collected during a 6-week voyage into the Southern Ocean in 2018, that are an important supplement to satellite-based measurements. For example, these measurements include data on low-level clouds and aerosol composition in the marine boundary layer, which can be used in climate model evaluation efforts.
Frederick W. Letson, Rebecca J. Barthelmie, Kevin I. Hodges, and Sara C. Pryor
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2001–2020,Short summary
Windstorms during the last 40 years in the US Northeast are identified and characterized using the spatial extent of extreme wind speeds at 100 m height from the ERA5 reanalysis. During all of the top 10 windstorms, wind speeds exceeding the local 99.9th percentile cover at least one-third of the land area in this high-population-density region. These 10 storms followed frequently observed cyclone tracks but have intensities 5–10 times the mean values for cyclones affecting this region.
Sho Ohata, Tatsuhiro Mori, Yutaka Kondo, Sangeeta Sharma, Antti Hyvärinen, Elisabeth Andrews, Peter Tunved, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Henri Servomaa, Daniel Veber, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Stergios Vratolis, Makoto Koike, Yugo Kanaya, Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, Yongjing Zhao, Yutaka Tobo, Junji Matsushita, and Naga Oshima
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
Reliable values of mass absorption cross sections (MAC) of black carbon (BC) are required to determine mass concentrations of BC at Arctic sites using different types of filter-based absorption photometers. We successfully estimated MAC values for these instruments through comparison with independent measurements of BC by continuous soot monitoring system called COSMOS. These MAC values are consistent with each other and applicable to study spatial and temporal variation of BC in the Arctic.
Jessie M. Creamean, Julio E. Ceniceros, Lilyanna Newman, Allyson D. Pace, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Matthew E. Rhodes
Biogeosciences, 18, 3751–3762,Short summary
Microorganisms have the unique ability to form ice in clouds at relatively warm temperatures, especially specific types of plant bacteria. However, to date, members of the domain Archaea have not been evaluated for their cloud-forming capabilities. Here, we show the first results of Haloarchaea that have the ability to form cloud ice at moderate supercooled temperatures that are found in hypersaline environments on Earth.
Richard H. Moore, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Adam T. Ahern, Stephen Zimmerman, Lauren Montgomery, Pedro Campuzano Jost, Claire E. Robinson, Luke D. Ziemba, Edward L. Winstead, Bruce E. Anderson, Charles A. Brock, Matthew D. Brown, Gao Chen, Ewan C. Crosbie, Hongyu Guo, Jose L. Jimenez, Carolyn E. Jordan, Ming Lyu, Benjamin A. Nault, Nicholas E. Rothfuss, Kevin J. Sanchez, Melinda Schueneman, Taylor J. Shingler, Michael A. Shook, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Nicholas L. Wagner, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4517–4542,Short summary
Atmospheric particles are everywhere and exist in a range of sizes, from a few nanometers to hundreds of microns. Because particle size determines the behavior of chemical and physical processes, accurately measuring particle sizes is an important and integral part of atmospheric field measurements! Here, we discuss the performance of two commonly used particle sizers and how changes in particle composition and optical properties may result in sizing uncertainties, which we quantify.
Christina J. Williamson, Agnieszka Kupc, Andrew Rollins, Jan Kazil, Karl D. Froyd, Eric A. Ray, Daniel M. Murphy, Gregory P. Schill, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea Thompson, Ilann Bourgeois, Thomas B. Ryerson, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, Donald R. Blake, Thao Paul V. Bui, Maximilian Dollner, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Charles A. Brock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9065–9088,Short summary
Aerosols in the stratosphere influence climate by scattering and absorbing sunlight and through chemical reactions occurring on the particles’ surfaces. We observed more nucleation mode aerosols (small aerosols, with diameters below 12 nm) in the mid- and high-latitude lowermost stratosphere (8–13 km) in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) than in the Southern Hemisphere. The most likely cause of this is aircraft emissions, which are concentrated in the NH at similar altitudes to our observations.
Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Meredith A. Fish, Julie Dinasquet, Gavin C. Cornwell, M. Dale Stokes, Michael D. Burkart, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9031–9045,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties by triggering droplet freezing at relative humidities below or temperatures above the freezing point of water. The ocean is a significant INP source; however, the specific identities of marine INPs remain largely unknown. Here, we identify 14 ice-nucleating microbes from aerosol and precipitation samples collected at a coastal site in southern California, two or more of which are likely marine.
Eleni Dovrou, Kelvin H. Bates, Jean C. Rivera-Rios, Joshua L. Cox, Joshua D. Shutter, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8999–9008,Short summary
We examined the mechanism and products of oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide with the main isomers of isoprene hydroxyl hydroperoxides, via laboratory and model analysis. Two chemical mechanism pathways are proposed and the results provide an improved understanding of the broader atmospheric chemistry and role of multifunctional organic hydroperoxides, which should be the dominant VOC oxidation products under low-NO conditions, highlighting their significant contribution to sulfate formation.
Jack C. Hensley, Adam W. Birdsall, Gregory Valtierra, Joshua L. Cox, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8809–8821,Short summary
We measured reactions of butenedial, an atmospheric dicarbonyl, in aqueous mixtures that mimic the conditions of aerosol particles. Major reaction products and rates were determined to assess their atmospheric relevance and to compare against other well-studied dicarbonyls. We suggest that the structure of the carbon backbone, not just the dominant functional group, plays a major role in dicarbonyl reactivity, influencing the fate and ability of dicarbonyls to produce brown carbon.
Rebecca A. Wernis, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Robert J. Weber, Yutong Liang, John Jayne, Susanne Hering, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
cTAG is a new scientific instrument that measures concentrations of organic chemicals in the atmosphere. cTAG is the first instrument capable of measuring small, light chemicals as well as heavier chemicals and everything in between on a single detector, every hour. In this work we explain how cTAG works and some of the tests we performed to verify that it works properly and reliably. We also present measurements of alkanes that suggest they have three dominant sources in a Bay Area suburb.
Beata Opacka, Jean-François Müller, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Maite Bauwens, Katerina Sindelarova, Jana Markova, and Alex B. Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8413–8436,Short summary
Isoprene is mainly emitted from plants, and about 80 % of its global emissions occur in the tropics. Current isoprene inventories are usually based on modelled vegetation maps, but high pressure on land use over the last decades has led to severe losses, especially in tropical forests, that are not considered by models. We provide a study on the present-day impact of spaceborne land cover changes on isoprene emissions and the first inventory based on high-resolution Landsat tree cover dataset.
Jin Liao, Glenn M. Wolfe, Reem A. Hannun, Jason M. St. Clair, Thomas F. Hanisco, Jessica B. Gilman, Aaron Lamplugh, Vanessa Selimovic, Glenn S. Diskin, John B. Nowak, Hannah S. Halliday, Joshua P. DiGangi, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Christopher D. Holmes, Charles H. Fite, Anxhelo Agastra, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Carsten Warneke, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Kanako Sekimoto, Alan Fried, Dirk Richter, Petter Weibring, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Steven S. Brown, Caroline C. Womack, Michael A. Robinson, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Patrick R. Veres, and J. Andrew Neuman
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Formaldehyde is an important oxidant precursor and affects the formation of O3 and other secondary pollutants in wildfire plumes. We disentangle the processes controlling HCHO evolution from a variety of wildfire plumes sampled by NASA DC-8 during FIREX-AQ field campaign. We find that OH abundance rather than normalized OH reactivity is the main driver of fire-to-fire variability in HCHO secondary production and estimate an effective HCHO yield per VOC molecule oxidized in wildfire plumes.
Isabelle Steinke, Paul J. DeMott, Grant Deane, Thomas C. J. Hill, Mathew Maltrud, Aishwarya Raman, and Susannah M. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Over the oceans, sea spray aerosol is an important source of particles that may initiate the formation of cloud ice, which then has implications for the radiative properties of marine clouds. In our study, we focus on marine biogenic particles that are emitted episodically and develop a numerical framework to describe these emissions. We find that further cloud-resolving model studies and targeted observations are needed to fully understand the climate impacts from marine biogenic particles.
Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Dongwook Kim, Jack E. Dibb, Maximilian Dollner, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3631–3655,Short summary
We utilize a set of high-quality datasets collected during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography Mission to investigate the impact of differences in observable particle sizes across aerosol instruments in aerosol measurement comparisons. Very good agreement was found between chemically and physically derived submicron aerosol volume. Results support a lack of significant unknown biases in the response of an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) when sampling remote aerosols across the globe.
Stefano Galmarini, Paul Makar, Olivia Clifton, Christian Hogrefe, Jesse Bash, Roberto Bianconi, Roberto Bellasio, Johannes Bieser, Tim Butler, Jason Ducker, Johannes Flemming, Alma Hozdic, Christopher Holmes, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Richard Kranenburg, Aurelia Lupascu, Juan Luis Perez-Camanyo, Jonathan Pleim, Young-Hee Ryu, Roberto San Jose, Donna Schwede, Sam Silva, Marta Garcia Vivanco, and Ralf Wolke
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This technical note presents the research protocols for Phase 4 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII4). This initiative has three goals: (i) to define the state of wet and dry deposition in regional models, (ii) to evalute how dry-deposition influences on air concentration and flux predictions, and (iii) to identify the causes for prediction differences. The evaluation compares LULC-specific dry-deposition, as well as effective conductances and fluxes.
Anna L. Hodshire, Emily Ramnarine, Ali Akherati, Matthew L. Alvarado, Delphine K. Farmer, Shantanu H. Jathar, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Chantelle R. Lonsdale, Timothy B. Onasch, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Yang Wang, Lawrence I. Kleinman, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6839–6855,Short summary
Biomass burning emits particles and vapors that can impact both health and climate. Here, we investigate the role of dilution in the evolution of aerosol size and composition in observed US wildfire smoke plumes. Centers of plumes dilute more slowly than edges. We see differences in concentrations and composition between the centers and edges both in the first measurement and in subsequent measurements. Our findings support the hypothesis that plume dilution influences smoke aging.
Shunyao Wang, Tengyu Liu, Jinmyung Jang, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6647–6661,Short summary
Discrepancies between atmospheric modeling and field observations, especially in highly polluted cities, have highlighted the lack of understanding of sulfate formation mechanisms and kinetics. Here, we directly quantify the reactive uptake coefficient of SO2 onto organic peroxides and study the important governing factors. The SO2 uptake rate was observed to depend on RH, peroxide amount and reactivity, pH, and ionic strength, which provides a framework to better predict sulfate formation.
Lukas Fischer, Martin Breitenlechner, Eva Canaval, Wiebke Scholz, Marcus Striednig, Martin Graus, Thomas G. Karl, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Ecosystems emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), which are then oxidized in the atmosphere contributing to ozone and secondary aerosol formation. While flux measurements of BVOC are state of the art, flux measurements of the less volatile oxidation products are difficult to achieve due to inlet losses. Here we present first flux measurements utilizing a novel PTR3 instrument in combination with a specially designed “wall-less” inlet we put on top of the Hyytiälä tower in Finland.
Daniel C. Anderson, Bryan N. Duncan, Arlene M. Fiore, Colleen B. Baublitz, Melanie B. Follette-Cook, Julie M. Nicely, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6481–6508,Short summary
We demonstrate that large-scale climate features are the primary driver of year-to-year variability in simulated values of the hydroxyl radical, the primary atmospheric oxidant, over 1980–2018. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation is the dominant mode of hydroxyl variability, resulting in large-scale global decreases in OH during El Niño events. Other climate modes, such as the Australian monsoon and the North Atlantic Oscillation, have impacts of similar magnitude but on on more localized scales.
Liji M. David, Mary Barth, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Pallav Purohit, Guus J. M. Velders, Sam Glaser, and Akkihebbal R. Ravishankara
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We calculated the expected concentrations of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) from the atmospheric breakdown of HFO-1234 yf (CF3CF=CH2), a substitute for global warming hydrofluorocarbons, emitted now and in the future by India, China, and the Middle East. We used two chemical transport models. We conclude that the projected emissions through 2040 would not be detrimental given the current knowledge of the effects of TFA on humans and ecosystems.
Dianne Sanchez, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Alex Guenther, John Mak, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, Don Blake, Scott Herndon, Daun Jeong, John T. Sullivan, Thomas Mcgee, Rokjin Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6331–6345,Short summary
We present observations of total reactive gases in a suburban forest observatory in the Seoul metropolitan area. The quantitative comparison with speciated trace gas observations illustrated significant underestimation in atmospheric reactivity from the speciated trace gas observational dataset. We present scientific discussion about potential causes.
Dandan Wei, Hariprasad D. Alwe, Dylan B. Millet, Brandon Bottorff, Michelle Lew, Philip S. Stevens, Joshua D. Shutter, Joshua L. Cox, Frank N. Keutsch, Qianwen Shi, Sarah C. Kavassalis, Jennifer G. Murphy, Krystal T. Vasquez, Hannah M. Allen, Eric Praske, John D. Crounse, Paul O. Wennberg, Paul B. Shepson, Alexander A. T. Bui, Henry W. Wallace, Robert J. Griffin, Nathaniel W. May, Megan Connor, Jonathan H. Slade, Kerri A. Pratt, Ezra C. Wood, Mathew Rollings, Benjamin L. Deming, Daniel C. Anderson, and Allison L. Steiner
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Over the past decade, understanding of isoprene oxidation has improved and proper representation of isoprene oxidation and isoprene-derived SOA (iSOA) formation in canopy-chemistry models is now recognized to be important for an accurate understanding of forest-atmosphere exchange. The updated FORCAsT version 2.0 improves the estimation of some isoprene oxidation products, and is one of the few canopy models currently capable of simulating SOA formation from monoterpenes and isoprene.
Yutong Liang, Coty N. Jen, Robert J. Weber, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5719–5737,Short summary
This article reports the molecular composition of smoke particles people in SF Bay Area were exposed to during northern California wildfires in Oct. 2017. Major components are sugars, acids, aromatics, and terpenoids. These observations can be used to better understand health impacts of smoke exposure. Tracer compounds indicate which fuels burned, including diterpenoids for softwood and syringyls for hardwood. A statistical analysis reveals a group of secondary compounds formed in daytime aging.
Zachary C. J. Decker, Michael A. Robinson, Kelley C. Barsanti, Ilann Bourgeois, Matthew M. Coggon, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Frank M. Flocke, Alessandro Franchin, Carley D. Fredrickson, Samuel R. Hall, Hannah Halliday, Christopher D. Holmes, L. Gregory Huey, Young Ro Lee, Jakob Lindaas, Ann M. Middlebrook, Denise D. Montzka, Richard H. Moore, J. Andrew Neuman, John B. Nowak, Brett B. Palm, Jeff Peischl, Pamela S. Rickly, Andrew W. Rollins, Thomas B. Ryerson, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Lee Thornhill, Joel A. Thornton, Geoff S. Tyndall, Kirk Ullmann, Paul Van Rooy, Patrick R. Veres, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Elizabeth Wiggins, Edward Winstead, Caroline Womack, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
To understand air quality impacts from wildfire smoke we need an accurate picture of how wildfire smoke changes chemically both day and night as sunlight changes the chemistry of smoke. We present a chemical analysis of wildfire smoke as it changes from midday through the night. We use aircraft observations from the FIREX-AQ field campaign with a chemical box model. We find that even under sunlight typical “nighttime” chemistry thrives and controls the fate of key smoke plume chemical processes.
Dalrin Ampritta Amaladhasan, Claudia Heyn, Christopher R. Hoyle, Imad El Haddad, Miriam Elser, Simone M. Pieber, Jay G. Slowik, Antonio Amorim, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Vladimir Makhmutov, Ugo Molteni, Matti Rissanen, Yuri Stozhkov, Robert Wagner, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Rainer Volkamer, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We employ a combination of models for gas-phase chemical reactions and equilibrium gas-particle partitioning of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) informed by dark ozonolysis experiments conducted in the CLOUD chamber. Our predictions cover high to low relative humidities (RH) and quantify how SOA mass yields are enhanced at high RH as well as the impact of inorganic seeds of distinct hygroscopicities and acidities on the coupled partitioning of water and semivolatile organics.
Manpreet Takhar, Yunchun Li, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5137–5149,Short summary
Our study highlights the importance of molecular composition in constraining the chemical properties of cooking SOA as well as understanding the contribution of aldehydes in formation of SOA from cooking emissions. We show that fragmentation reactions are key in atmospheric processing of cooking SOA, and aldehydes emitted from cooking emissions contribute substantially to SOA formation. Our study provides a framework to better predict SOA formation in and downwind of urban atmospheres.
Alexander Zaytsev, Martin Breitenlechner, Anna Novelli, Hendrik Fuchs, Daniel A. Knopf, Jesse H. Kroll, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2501–2513,Short summary
We have developed an online method for speciated measurements of organic peroxy radicals and stabilized Criegee intermediates using chemical derivatization combined with chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Chemical derivatization prevents secondary radical reactions and eliminates potential interferences. Comparison between our measurements and results from numeric modeling shows that the method can be used for the quantification of a wide range of atmospheric radicals and intermediates.
Hui Wang, Qizhong Wu, Alex B. Guenther, Xiaochun Yang, Lanning Wang, Tang Xiao, Jie Li, Jinming Feng, Qi Xu, and Huaqiong Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4825–4848,Short summary
We assessed the influence of the greening trend on BVOC emission in China. The comparison among different scenarios showed that vegetation changes resulting from land cover management are the main driver of BVOC emission change in China. Climate variability contributed significantly to interannual variations but not much to the long-term trend during the study period.
Melinda K. Schueneman, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Duseong S. Jo, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Brett B. Palm, Alma Hodzic, Jack E. Dibb, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2237–2260,Short summary
This work focuses on two important properties of the aerosol, acidity, and sulfate composition, which is important for our understanding of aerosol health and environmental impacts. We explore different methods to understand the composition of the aerosol with measurements from a specific instrument and apply those methods to a large dataset. These measurements are confounded by other factors, making it challenging to predict aerosol sulfate composition; pH estimations, however, show promise.
Ruud H. H. Janssen, Colette L. Heald, Allison L. Steiner, Anne E. Perring, J. Alex Huffman, Ellis S. Robinson, Cynthia H. Twohy, and Luke D. Ziemba
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4381–4401,Short summary
Bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have the potential to affect cloud formation, as well as human and ecosystem health. However, their emissions are not well quantified, which hinders the assessment of their role in atmospheric processes. Here, we develop two new emission schemes for fungal spores based on multi-annual datasets of spore counts. We find that our modeled global emissions and burden are an order of magnitude lower than previous estimates.
Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Ewan Crosbie, Michael Shook, Jeffrey S. Reid, Maria Obiminda L. Cambaliza, James Bernard B. Simpas, Luke Ziemba, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Phu Nguyen, F. Joseph Turk, Edward Winstead, Claire E. Robinson, Jian Wang, Jiaoshi Zhang, Yang Wang, Subin Yoon, James Flynn, Sergio L. Alvarez, Ali Behrangi, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3777–3802,Short summary
This study characterizes long-range transport from major Asian pollution sources into the tropical northwest Pacific and the impact of scavenging on these air masses. We combined aircraft observations, HYSPLIT trajectories, reanalysis, and satellite retrievals to reveal distinct composition and size distribution profiles associated with specific emission sources and wet scavenging. The results of this work have implications for international policymaking related to climate and health.
Nicole Jacobs, William R. Simpson, Kelly A. Graham, Christopher Holmes, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Qiansi Tu, Matthias Frey, Manvendra K. Dubey, Harrison A. Parker, Debra Wunch, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Justus Nothold, Christof Petri, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Spatial patterns of carbon dioxide seasonal cycle amplitude and summer drawdown timing derived from the OCO-2 satellite over northern high latitudes agree well with corresponding estimates from two models. The Asian Boreal Forest is anomalous with the largest amplitude and earliest seasonal drawdown. Modeled land contact tracers suggest that accumulated CO2 exchanges during atmospheric transport play a major role in shaping carbon dioxide seasonality in northern high latitude regions.
Yuting Wang, Yong-Feng Ma, Domingo Muñoz-Esparza, Cathy W. Y. Li, Mary Barth, Tao Wang, and Guy P. Brasseur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3531–3553,Short summary
Large-eddy simulations (LESs) were performed in the mountainous region of the island of Hong Kong to investigate the degree to which the rates of chemical reactions between two reactive species are reduced due to the segregation of species within the convective boundary layer. We show that the inhomogeneity in emissions plays an important role in the segregation effect. Topography also has a significant influence on the segregation locally.
Duseong S. Jo, Alma Hodzic, Louisa K. Emmons, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Michael J. Mills, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Rahul A. Zaveri, Richard C. Easter, Balwinder Singh, Zheng Lu, Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, John E. Shilling, Armin Wisthaler, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3395–3425,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a major component of submicron particulate matter, but there are a lot of uncertainties in the future prediction of SOA. We used CESM 2.1 to investigate future IEPOX SOA concentration changes. The explicit chemistry predicted substantial changes in IEPOX SOA depending on the future scenario, but the parameterization predicted weak changes due to simplified chemistry, which shows the importance of correct physicochemical dependencies in future SOA prediction.
Charles A. Brock, Karl D. Froyd, Maximilian Dollner, Christina J. Williamson, Gregory Schill, Daniel M. Murphy, Nicholas J. Wagner, Agnieszka Kupc, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Douglas A. Day, Derek J. Price, Bernadett Weinzierl, Joshua P. Schwarz, Joseph M. Katich, Linghan Zeng, Rodney Weber, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, ThaoPaul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Bruce C. Daube, Róisín Commane, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The Atmospheric Tomography Mission was an airborne study that mapped the chemical composition of the remote atmosphere. From this, we developed a comprehensive description of aerosol properties that provides unique, global-scale dataset against which models can be compared. The data show the polluted nature of the remote atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere, and quantify the contributions of sea salt, dust, soot, biomass burning particles, and pollution particles to the haziness of the sky.
Christian Lamprecht, Martin Graus, Marcus Striednig, Michael Stichaner, and Thomas Karl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3091–3102,Short summary
The first European SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) wave and associated lockdown provided a unique sensitivity experiment to study air pollution. We find significantly different emission trajectories between classical air pollution and climate gases (e.g., carbon dioxide). The analysis suggests that European policies, shifting residential, public, and commercial energy demand towards cleaner combustion, have helped to improve air quality more than expected.
Demetrios Pagonis, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Hongyu Guo, Douglas A. Day, Melinda K. Schueneman, Wyatt L. Brown, Benjamin A. Nault, Harald Stark, Kyla Siemens, Alex Laskin, Felix Piel, Laura Tomsche, Armin Wisthaler, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Hannah S. Halliday, Jordan E. Krechmer, Richard H. Moore, David S. Thomson, Carsten Warneke, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1545–1559,Short summary
We describe the airborne deployment of an extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-MS). The instrument provides a quantitative 1 Hz measurement of the chemical composition of organic aerosol up to altitudes of 7 km, with single-compound detection limits as low as 50 ng per standard cubic meter.
Zhe Peng, Julia Lee-Taylor, Harald Stark, John J. Orlando, Bernard Aumont, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We use the fully explicit GECKO-A model to study the OH reactivity (OHR) evolution in the low-NO photooxidation of several volatile organic compounds. Oxidation progressively produces more saturated and functionalized species, then breaks them into small species. OHR per C atom evolution is similar for different precursors once saturated multifunctional species are formed. We also find that partitioning of these species to chamber walls leads to large deviations in chambers from the atmosphere.
Johannes Schneider, Ralf Weigel, Thomas Klimach, Antonis Dragoneas, Oliver Appel, Andreas Hünig, Sergej Molleker, Franziska Köllner, Hans-Christian Clemen, Oliver Eppers, Peter Hoppe, Peter Hoor, Christoph Mahnke, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Andreas Zahn, Florian Obersteiner, Fabrizio Ravegnani, Alexey Ulanovsky, Hans Schlager, Monika Scheibe, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Martin Zöger, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 989–1013,Short summary
During five aircraft missions, we detected aerosol particles containing meteoric material in the lower stratosphere. The stratospheric measurements span a latitude range from 15 to 68° N, and we find that at potential temperature levels of more than 40 K above the tropopause; particles containing meteoric material occur at similar abundance fractions across latitudes and seasons. We conclude that meteoric material is efficiently distributed between high and low latitudes by isentropic mixing.
Arianna Peron, Lisa Kaser, Anne Charlott Fitzky, Martin Graus, Heidi Halbwirth, Jürgen Greiner, Georg Wohlfahrt, Boris Rewald, Hans Sandén, and Thomas Karl
Biogeosciences, 18, 535–556,Short summary
Drought events are expected to become more frequent with climate change. Along with these events atmospheric ozone is also expected to increase. Both can stress plants. Here we investigate to what extent these factors modulate the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oak plants. We find an antagonistic effect between drought stress and ozone, impacting the emission of different BVOCs, which is indirectly controlled by stomatal opening, allowing plants to control their water budget.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wanger, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid-base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span the four orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in the ambient. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Megan S. Claflin, Demetrios Pagonis, Zachary Finewax, Anne V. Handschy, Douglas A. Day, Wyatt L. Brown, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jose L. Jimenez, Paul J. Ziemann, Joost de Gouw, and Brian M. Lerner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 133–152,Short summary
We have developed a field-deployable gas chromatograph with thermal desorption preconcentration and detector switching between two high-resolution mass spectrometers for in situ measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This system combines chromatography with both proton transfer and electron ionization to offer fast time response and continuous molecular speciation. This technique was applied during the 2018 ATHLETIC campaign to characterize VOC emissions in an indoor environment.
Gourihar Kulkarni, Naruki Hiranuma, Ottmar Möhler, Kristina Höhler, Swarup China, Daniel J. Cziczo, and Paul J. DeMott
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6631–6643,Short summary
This study presents a new continuous-flow-diffusion-chamber-style operated ice chamber (Modified Compact Ice Chamber, MCIC) to measure the immersion-freezing efficiency of atmospheric particles. MCIC allowed us to obtain maximum droplet-freezing efficiency at higher time resolution without droplet breakthrough ambiguity. Its evaluation was performed by reproducing published data from the recent ice nucleation workshop and past laboratory data for standard and airborne ice-nucleating particles.
André Welti, E. Keith Bigg, Paul J. DeMott, Xianda Gong, Markus Hartmann, Mike Harvey, Silvia Henning, Paul Herenz, Thomas C. J. Hill, Blake Hornblow, Caroline Leck, Mareike Löffler, Christina S. McCluskey, Anne Marie Rauker, Julia Schmale, Christian Tatzelt, Manuela van Pinxteren, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15191–15206,Short summary
Ship-based measurements of maritime ice nuclei concentrations encompassing all oceans are compiled. From this overview it is found that maritime ice nuclei concentrations are typically 10–100 times lower than over continents, while concentrations are surprisingly similar in different oceanic regions. The analysis of the influence of ship emissions shows no effect on the data, making ship-based measurements an efficient strategy for the large-scale exploration of ice nuclei concentrations.
Charlotte M. Beall, Dolan Lucero, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, M. Dale Stokes, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6473–6486,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties. Previous studies report INP observations from precipitation samples that were stored prior to analysis, yet storage protocols vary widely, and little is known about how storage impacts INPs. This study finds that storing samples at −20 °C best preserves INP concentrations and that significant losses of small INPs occur across all storage protocols.
Natalie I. Keehan, Bellamy Brownwood, Andrey Marsavin, Douglas A. Day, and Juliane L. Fry
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6255–6269,Short summary
This paper describes a new instrument (a thermal-dissociation–cavity ring-down spectrometer, TD-CRDS) for the measurement of key atmospheric gaseous and particle-phase molecules containing the nitrate functional group. Several operational considerations affecting the measurements are described, as well as several characterization experiments comparing the TD-CRDS measurements to analogous measurements from other instruments. Examples are given using a TD-CRDS for ambient and laboratory studies.
Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Hongyu Guo, Duseong S. Jo, Anne V. Handschy, Demetrios Pagonis, Jason C. Schroder, Melinda K. Schueneman, Michael J. Cubison, Jack E. Dibb, Alma Hodzic, Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6193–6213,Short summary
Collecting particulate matter, or aerosols, onto filters to be analyzed offline is a widely used method to investigate the mass concentration and chemical composition of the aerosol, especially the inorganic portion. Here, we show that acidic aerosol (sulfuric acid) collected onto filters and then exposed to high ammonia mixing ratios (from human emissions) will lead to biases in the ammonium collected onto filters, and the uptake of ammonia is rapid (< 10 s), which impacts the filter data.
Petter Weibring, Dirk Richter, James G. Walega, Alan Fried, Joshua DiGangi, Hannah Halliday, Yonghoon Choi, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, Ben Miller, Kenneth J. Davis, Zachary Barkley, and Michael D. Obland
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6095–6112,Short summary
The present study describes an autonomously operated instrument for high-precision (20–40 parts per trillion in 1 s) measurements of ethane during actual airborne operations on a small aircraft platform (NASA's King Air B200). This paper discusses the dynamic nature of airborne performance due to various aircraft-induced perturbations, methods devised to identify such events, and solutions we have enacted to circumvent these perturbations.
Lawrence I. Kleinman, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Kouji Adachi, Peter R. Buseck, Sonya Collier, Manvendra K. Dubey, Anna L. Hodshire, Ernie Lewis, Timothy B. Onasch, Jeffery R. Pierce, John Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Qi Zhang, Shan Zhou, and Robert J. Yokelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13319–13341,Short summary
Aerosols from wildfires affect the Earth's temperature by absorbing light or reflecting it back into space. This study investigates time-dependent chemical, microphysical, and optical properties of aerosols generated by wildfires in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Wildfire smoke plumes were traversed by an instrumented aircraft at locations near the fire and up to 3.5 h travel time downwind. Although there was no net aerosol production, aerosol particles grew and became more efficient scatters.
Yiqi Zheng, Joel A. Thornton, Nga Lee Ng, Hansen Cao, Daven K. Henze, Erin E. McDuffie, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Eloise A. Marais, Eric Edgerton, and Jingqiu Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13091–13107,Short summary
This study aims to address a challenge in biosphere–atmosphere interactions: to what extent can biogenic organic aerosol (OA) be modified through human activities? From three surface network observations, we show OA is weakly dependent on sulfate and aerosol acidity in the summer southeast US, on both long-term trends and monthly variability. The results are in strong contrast to a global model, GEOS-Chem, suggesting the need to revisit the representation of aqueous-phase secondary OA formation.
Chen Dayan, Erick Fredj, Pawel K. Misztal, Maor Gabay, Alex B. Guenther, and Eran Tas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12741–12759,Short summary
We studied the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds from both marine and terrestrial ecosystems in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, a global warming hot spot. We focused on isoprene and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which are well recognized for their effect on climate and strong impact on photochemical pollution by the former. We found high emissions of isoprene and a strong decadal decrease in the emission of DMS which can both be attributed to the strong increase in seawater temperature.
Lei Zhu, Gonzalo González Abad, Caroline R. Nowlan, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Eric C. Apel, Joshua P. DiGangi, Alan Fried, Thomas F. Hanisco, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Lu Hu, Jennifer Kaiser, Frank N. Keutsch, Wade Permar, Jason M. St. Clair, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12329–12345,Short summary
We develop a validation platform for satellite HCHO retrievals using in situ observations from 12 aircraft campaigns. The platform offers an alternative way to quickly assess systematic biases in HCHO satellite products over large domains and long periods, facilitating optimization of retrieval settings and the minimization of retrieval biases. Application to the NASA operational HCHO product indicates that relative biases range from −44.5 % to +112.1 % depending on locations and seasons.
Martin Heinritzi, Lubna Dada, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andrea C. Wagner, Lukas Fischer, Lauri R. Ahonen, Stavros Amanatidis, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Bernhard Baumgartner, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, Antonio Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Imad El Haddad, Xucheng He, Johanna Helm, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Juha Kangasluoma, Timo Keber, Changhyuk Kim, Andreas Kürten, Houssni Lamkaddam, Tiia M. Laurila, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna Elina Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy Lee Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Tuomo Nieminen, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Monica Passananti, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Clémence Rose, Siegfried Schobesberger, Wiebke Scholz, Kay Scholze, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Annele Virtanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Rainer Volkamer, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11809–11821,Short summary
With experiments performed at CLOUD, we show how isoprene interferes in monoterpene oxidation via RO2 termination at atmospherically relevant concentrations. This interference shifts the distribution of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) away from C20 class dimers towards C15 class dimers, which subsequently reduces both biogenic nucleation and early growth rates. Our results may help to understand the absence of new-particle formation in isoprene-rich environments.
Hirofumi Ohyama, Isamu Morino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Theresa Klausner, Gerry Bagtasa, Matthäus Kiel, Matthias Frey, Akihiro Hori, Osamu Uchino, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Alina Fiehn, Anke Roiger, Michael Lichtenstern, Hans Schlager, Pao K. Wang, Charles C.-K. Chou, Maria Dolores Andrés-Hernández, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5149–5163,Short summary
Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 measured by a solar viewing portable Fourier transform spectrometer (EM27/SUN) were validated with in situ profile data obtained during the transfer flights of two aircraft campaigns. Atmospheric dynamical properties based on ERA5 and WRF-Chem were used as criteria for selecting the best aircraft profiles for the validation. The resulting air-mass-independent correction factors for the EM27/SUN data were 0.9878 for CO2 and 0.9829 for CH4.
Nicole Jacobs, William R. Simpson, Debra Wunch, Christopher W. O'Dell, Gregory B. Osterman, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Qiansi Tu, Matthias Frey, Manvendra K. Dubey, Harrison A. Parker, Rigel Kivi, and Pauli Heikkinen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5033–5063,Short summary
The boreal forest is the largest seasonally varying biospheric CO2-exchange region on Earth. This region is also undergoing amplified climate warming, leading to concerns about the potential for altered regional carbon exchange. Satellite missions, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) project, can measure CO2 abundance over the boreal forest but need validation for the assurance of accuracy. Therefore, we carried out a ground-based validation of OCO-2 CO2 data at three locations.
Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Chinmoy Sarkar, Leah Williams, Farzaneh Khalaj, Alex Guenther, John Jayne, Hugh Coe, Douglas Worsnop, Celia Faiola, and Manjula Canagaratna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10953–10965,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Real plant emissions are much more diverse than the few proxies widely used for studies of plant SOA. Here we present the first study of SOA from Californian sage plants and the oxygenated monoterpenes representing their major emissions. We identify SOA products and show the importance of the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules and oligomers.
Wenfu Tang, Benjamin Gaubert, Louisa Emmons, Yonghoon Choi, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Xiaomei Xu, Cenlin He, Helen Worden, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca Buchholz, Hannah S. Halliday, and Avelino F. Arellano
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A specific demonstration of the potential use of correlative information from carbon monoxide to refine estimates of regional carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion.
Mario Simon, Lubna Dada, Martin Heinritzi, Wiebke Scholz, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lukas Fischer, Andrea C. Wagner, Andreas Kürten, Birte Rörup, Xu-Cheng He, João Almeida, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, Anton Bergen, Federico Bianchi, Steffen Bräkling, Sophia Brilke, Lucia Caudillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, António Dias, Danielle C. Draper, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El-Haddad, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Loic Gonzalez-Carracedo, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Jani Hakala, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Changhyuk Kim, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Matti P. Rissanen, Simon Schallhart, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee J. Tham, António R. Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Alexander L. Vogel, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Yusheng Wu, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Xueqin Zhou, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9183–9207,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic compounds (HOMs) have been identified as key vapors involved in atmospheric new-particle formation (NPF). The molecular distribution, HOM yield, and NPF from α-pinene oxidation experiments were measured at the CLOUD chamber over a wide tropospheric-temperature range. This study shows on a molecular scale that despite the sharp reduction in HOM yield at lower temperatures, the reduced volatility counteracts this effect and leads to an overall increase in the NPF rate.
Ifayoyinsola Ibikunle, Andreas Beyersdorf, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Chelsea Corr, John D. Crounse, Jack Dibb, Glenn Diskin, Greg Huey, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Michelle J. Kim, Benjamin A. Nault, Eric Scheuer, Alex Teng, Paul O. Wennberg, Bruce Anderson, James Crawford, Rodney Weber, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Analysis of observations over South Korea during the NASA/NIER KORUS-AQ field campaign show that aerosol is fairly acidic (mean pH 2.43 ± 0.68). Aerosol formation is always sensitive to HNO3 levels, especially in highly polluted regions, while it is only exclusively sensitive to NH3 in some rural/remote regions. Nitrate levels accumulate because dry deposition velocity is low. HNO3 reductions achieved by NOx controls can be the most effective PM reduction strategy for all conditions observed.
Ryan Schmedding, Quazi Z. Rasool, Yue Zhang, Havala O. T. Pye, Haofei Zhang, Yuzhi Chen, Jason D. Surratt, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Allen H. Goldstein, and William Vizuete
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8201–8225,Short summary
Accurate model prediction of aerosol concentrations is a known challenge. It is assumed in many modeling systems that aerosols are in a homogeneously mixed phase state. It has been observed that aerosols do phase separate and can form a highly viscous organic shell with an aqueous core impacting the formation processes of aerosols. This work is a model implementation to determine an aerosol's phase state using glass transition temperature and aerosol composition.
Ying Li, Douglas A. Day, Harald Stark, Jose L. Jimenez, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8103–8122,Short summary
Viscosity is an important property of organic aerosols, but viscosity measurements of ambient organic aerosols are scarce. We developed a method to predict glass transition temperatures using volatility and the atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. The method was applied to field observations of volatility distributions to predict viscosity of ambient organic aerosols, yielding consistent results with ambient particle phase-state measurements and global simulations.
Katherine R. Travis, Colette L. Heald, Hannah M. Allen, Eric C. Apel, Stephen R. Arnold, Donald R. Blake, William H. Brune, Xin Chen, Róisín Commane, John D. Crounse, Bruce C. Daube, Glenn S. Diskin, James W. Elkins, Mathew J. Evans, Samuel R. Hall, Eric J. Hintsa, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Prasad S. Kasibhatla, Michelle J. Kim, Gan Luo, Kathryn McKain, Dylan B. Millet, Fred L. Moore, Jeffrey Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Tomás Sherwen, Alexander B. Thames, Kirk Ullmann, Xuan Wang, Paul O. Wennberg, Glenn M. Wolfe, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7753–7781,Short summary
Atmospheric models overestimate the rate of removal of trace gases by the hydroxyl radical (OH). This is a concern for studies of the climate and air quality impacts of human activities. Here, we evaluate the performance of a commonly used model of atmospheric chemistry against data from the NASA Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom) over the remote oceans where models have received little validation. The model is generally successful, suggesting that biases in OH may be a concern over land.
Laura D. Fowler, Mary C. Barth, and Kiran Alapaty
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2851–2877,Short summary
The cloud liquid and ice water path and precipitation simulated with the Model for Prediction Across Scales are compared against satellite data over the tropical Pacific Ocean. Uniform and variable-resolution experiments using scale-aware convection schemes produce strong biases between simulated and observed diagnostics. Results underscore the importance of evaluating clouds, their optical properties, and radiation budget in addition to precipitation in mesh refinement global simulations.
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Alex B. Guenther, Jeong-Hoo Park, Roger Seco, Eliane Alves, Sarah Batalha, Raoni Santana, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Julio Tóta, and Oscar Vega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7179–7191,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are important components of the atmosphere due to their contribution to atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we report major BVOCs, e.g. isoprene and total monoterpene flux measurements with a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) using the eddy covariance (EC) method at a primary rainforest in eastern Amazonia. We used the measured data to evaluate the MEGAN2.1 model for the emission site.
Steven Albers, Stephen M. Saleeby, Sonia Kreidenweis, Qijing Bian, Peng Xian, Zoltan Toth, Ravan Ahmadov, Eric James, and Steven D. Miller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3235–3261,Short summary
A fast 3D visible-light forward operator is used to realistically visualize, validate, and potentially assimilate ground- and space-based camera and satellite imagery with NWP models. Three-dimensional fields of hydrometeors, aerosols, and 2D land surface variables are considered in the generation of radiance fields and RGB imagery from a variety of vantage points.
Pablo E. Saide, Meng Gao, Zifeng Lu, Daniel L. Goldberg, David G. Streets, Jung-Hun Woo, Andreas Beyersdorf, Chelsea A. Corr, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Bruce Anderson, Johnathan W. Hair, Amin R. Nehrir, Glenn S. Diskin, Jose L. Jimenez, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack Dibb, Eric Heim, Kara D. Lamb, Joshua P. Schwarz, Anne E. Perring, Jhoon Kim, Myungje Choi, Brent Holben, Gabriele Pfister, Alma Hodzic, Gregory R. Carmichael, Louisa Emmons, and James H. Crawford
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6455–6478,Short summary
Air quality forecasts over the Korean Peninsula captured aerosol optical depth but largely overpredicted surface PM during a Chinese haze transport event. Model deficiency was related to the calculation of optical properties. In order to improve it, aerosol size representation needs to be refined in the calculations, and the representation of aerosol properties, such as size distribution, chemical composition, refractive index, hygroscopicity parameter, and density, needs to be improved.
Sam J. Silva, Colette L. Heald, and Alex B. Guenther
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2569–2585,Short summary
Simulating the influence of the biosphere on atmospheric chemistry has traditionally been computationally intensive. We describe a surrogate canopy physics model parameterized using a statistical learning technique and specifically designed for use in large-scale chemical transport models. Our surrogate model reproduces a more detailed model to within 10 % without a large computational demand, improving the process representation of biosphere–atmosphere exchange.
Camille Mouchel-Vallon, Julia Lee-Taylor, Alma Hodzic, Paulo Artaxo, Bernard Aumont, Marie Camredon, David Gurarie, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Donald H. Lenschow, Scot T. Martin, Janaina Nascimento, John J. Orlando, Brett B. Palm, John E. Shilling, Manish Shrivastava, and Sasha Madronich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5995–6014,Short summary
The GoAmazon 2014/5 field campaign took place near the city of Manaus, Brazil, isolated in the Amazon rainforest, to study the impacts of urban pollution on natural air masses. We simulated this campaign with an extremely detailed organic chemistry model to understand how the city would affect the growth and composition of natural aerosol particles. Discrepancies between the model and the measurements indicate that the chemistry of naturally emitted organic compounds is still poorly understood.
Andrew T. Lambe, Ezra C. Wood, Jordan E. Krechmer, Francesca Majluf, Leah R. Williams, Philip L. Croteau, Manuela Cirtog, Anaïs Féron, Jean-Eudes Petit, Alexandre Albinet, Jose L. Jimenez, and Zhe Peng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2397–2411,Short summary
We present a new method to continuously generate N2O5 in the gas phase that is injected into a reactor where it decomposes to generate nitrate radicals (NO3). To assess the applicability of the method towards different chemical systems, we present experimental and model characterization of the integrated NO3 exposure and other metrics as a function of operating conditions. We demonstrate the method by characterizing secondary organic aerosol particles generated from the β-pinene + NO3 reaction.
Havala O. T. Pye, Athanasios Nenes, Becky Alexander, Andrew P. Ault, Mary C. Barth, Simon L. Clegg, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Christopher J. Hennigan, Hartmut Herrmann, Maria Kanakidou, James T. Kelly, I-Ting Ku, V. Faye McNeill, Nicole Riemer, Thomas Schaefer, Guoliang Shi, Andreas Tilgner, John T. Walker, Tao Wang, Rodney Weber, Jia Xing, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4809–4888,Short summary
Acid rain is recognized for its impacts on human health and ecosystems, and programs to mitigate these effects have had implications for atmospheric acidity. Historical measurements indicate that cloud and fog droplet acidity has changed in recent decades in response to controls on emissions from human activity, while the limited trend data for suspended particles indicate acidity may be relatively constant. This review synthesizes knowledge on the acidity of atmospheric particles and clouds.
Alma Hodzic, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas A. Day, Karl D. Froyd, Bernd Heinold, Duseong S. Jo, Joseph M. Katich, John K. Kodros, Benjamin A. Nault, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Eric Ray, Jacob Schacht, Gregory P. Schill, Jason C. Schroder, Joshua P. Schwarz, Donna T. Sueper, Ina Tegen, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, Pengfei Yu, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4607–4635,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) is a key source of uncertainty in aerosol climate effects. We present the first pole-to-pole OA characterization during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography aircraft mission. OA has a strong seasonal and zonal variability, with the highest levels in summer and over fire-influenced regions and the lowest ones in the southern high latitudes. We show that global models predict the OA distribution well but not the relative contribution of OA emissions vs. chemical production.
Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, David O. Miller, Hannah M. Allen, Eric C. Apel, Donald R. Blake, T. Paul Bui, Roisin Commane, John D. Crounse, Bruce C. Daube, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, James W. Elkins, Samuel R. Hall, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem A. Hannun, Eric Hintsa, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Michelle J. Kim, Kathryn McKain, Fred L. Moore, Julie M. Nicely, Jeffrey Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jason M. St. Clair, Colm Sweeney, Alex Teng, Chelsea R. Thompson, Kirk Ullmann, Paul O. Wennberg, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4013–4029,Short summary
Oceans and the atmosphere exchange volatile gases that react with the hydroxyl radical (OH). During a NASA airborne study, measurements of the total frequency of OH reactions, called the OH reactivity, were made in the marine boundary layer of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The measured OH reactivity often exceeded the OH reactivity calculated from measured chemical species. This missing OH reactivity appears to be from unmeasured volatile organic compounds coming out of the ocean.
Marcus Striednig, Martin Graus, Tilmann D. Märk, and Thomas G. Karl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1447–1465,Short summary
The current work summarizes a long-term effort to provide an open-source code for the analysis of turbulent fluctuations of trace gases in the atmosphere by eddy covariance and disjunct eddy covariance, with a special focus on reactive gases that participate in atmospheric chemistry. The performance of the code is successfully evaluated based on measurements of minute fluxes of non-methane volatile organic compounds into the urban atmosphere.
Rebecca H. Schwantes, Louisa K. Emmons, John J. Orlando, Mary C. Barth, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Jason M. St. Clair, Donald R. Blake, Armin Wisthaler, and Thao Paul V. Bui
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3739–3776,Short summary
Ozone is a greenhouse gas and air pollutant that is harmful to human health and plants. During the summer in the southeastern US, many regional and global models are biased high for surface ozone compared to observations. Here adding more complex and updated chemistry for isoprene and terpenes, which are biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from trees and vegetation, into an earth system model greatly reduces the simulated surface ozone bias compared to aircraft and monitoring station data.
Frederick Letson, Rebecca J. Barthelmie, and Sara C. Pryor
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 331–347,Short summary
Wind turbine blade leading edge erosion (LEE) is potentially a significant source of energy loss and expense for wind farm operators. This study presents a novel approach to characterizing LEE potential from precipitation across the contiguous USA based on publicly available National Weather Service dual-polarization RADAR data. The approach is described in detail and illustrated using six locations distributed across parts of the USA that have substantial wind turbine deployments.
Sidhant J. Pai, Colette L. Heald, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Salvatore C. Farina, Eloise A. Marais, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Ann M. Middlebrook, Hugh Coe, John E. Shilling, Roya Bahreini, Justin H. Dingle, and Kennedy Vu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2637–2665,Short summary
Aerosols in the atmosphere have significant health and climate impacts. Organic aerosol (OA) accounts for a large fraction of the total aerosol burden, but models have historically struggled to accurately simulate it. This study compares two very different OA model schemes and evaluates them against a suite of globally distributed airborne measurements with the goal of providing insight into the strengths and weaknesses of each approach across different environments.
Therese S. Carter, Colette L. Heald, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Yutaka Kondo, Nobuhiro Moteki, Joshua P. Schwarz, Christine Wiedinmyer, Anton S. Darmenov, Arlindo M. da Silva, and Johannes W. Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2073–2097,Short summary
Fires and the smoke they emit impact air quality, health, and climate, but the abundance and properties of smoke remain uncertain and poorly constrained. To explore this, we compare model simulations driven by four commonly-used fire emission inventories with surface, aloft, and satellite observations. We show that across inventories smoke emissions differ by factors of 4 to 7 over North America, challenging our ability to accurately characterize the impact of smoke on air quality and climate.
Joseph R. Salazar, Benton T. Cartledge, John P. Haynes, Rachel York-Marini, Allen L. Robinson, Greg T. Drozd, Allen H. Goldstein, Sirine C. Fakra, and Brian J. Majestic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1849–1860,Short summary
The solubility of atmospheric iron is important in human health and environmental chemistry. To understand the origin of water-soluble iron in urban areas, tailpipe emissions were collected from 32 low-emitting vehicles, from which iron solubility averaged 30 % (0–82 %), more than 10 times the average in the Earth's crust. Water-soluble iron was independent of almost all exhaust components and of the iron phase in the particles but was correlated with specific exhaust-derived organic compounds.
Jonas Simon Wilzewski, Anke Roiger, Johan Strandgren, Jochen Landgraf, Dietrich G. Feist, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Isamu Morino, Hirofumi Ohyama, Yao Té, Rigel Kivi, Thorsten Warneke, Justus Notholt, Manvendra Dubey, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Frank Hase, Kei Shiomi, and André Butz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 731–745,Short summary
Through spectral degradation of GOSAT measurements in the 1.6 and 2.0 μm spectral bands, we mimic a single-band, passive satellite sensor for monitoring of CO2 emissions at fine spatial scales. We compare retrievals of XCO2 from these bands to TCCON and native GOSAT retrievals. At spectral resolutions near 1.3 nm, XCO2 retrievals from both bands show promising performance, but the 2.0 μm band is favorable due to better noise performance and the potential to retrieve some aerosol information.
Julie M. Nicely, Bryan N. Duncan, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Ross J. Salawitch, Makoto Deushi, Amund S. Haslerud, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas E. Kinnison, Andrew Klekociuk, Michael E. Manyin, Virginie Marécal, Olaf Morgenstern, Lee T. Murray, Gunnar Myhre, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, Andrea Pozzer, Ilaria Quaglia, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Susan Strahan, Simone Tilmes, Holger Tost, Daniel M. Westervelt, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1341–1361,Short summary
Differences in methane lifetime among global models are large and poorly understood. We use a neural network method and simulations from the Chemistry Climate Model Initiative to quantify the factors influencing methane lifetime spread among models and variations over time. UV photolysis, tropospheric ozone, and nitrogen oxides drive large model differences, while the same factors plus specific humidity contribute to a decreasing trend in methane lifetime between 1980 and 2015.
Abigail R. Koss, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Alexander Zaytsev, Jordan E. Krechmer, Martin Breitenlechner, Kevin J. Nihill, Christopher Y. Lim, James C. Rowe, Joseph R. Roscioli, Frank N. Keutsch, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1021–1041,Short summary
Oxidation chemistry of organic compounds in the atmosphere produces a diverse spectrum of products. This diversity is difficult to represent in air quality and climate models, and in laboratory experiments it results in large and complex datasets. This work evaluates several methods to simplify the chemistry of oxidation systems in environmental chambers, including positive matrix factorization, hierarchical clustering analysis, and gamma kinetics parameterization.
Alexander Zaytsev, Abigail R. Koss, Martin Breitenlechner, Jordan E. Krechmer, Kevin J. Nihill, Christopher Y. Lim, James C. Rowe, Joshua L. Cox, Joshua Moss, Joseph R. Roscioli, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jesse H. Kroll, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15117–15129,Short summary
Aromatic hydrocarbons contribute significantly to the production of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Here later-generation low-volatility oxygenated products from toluene and 1,2,4-TMB oxidation by OH are detected in the gas and particle phases. We show that these products, previously identified as highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs), are formed in more than one pathway with differing numbers of reaction steps with OH. They also make up a significant fraction of SOA.
Matthew M. Coggon, Christopher Y. Lim, Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Bin Yuan, Jessica B. Gilman, David H. Hagan, Vanessa Selimovic, Kyle J. Zarzana, Steven S. Brown, James M. Roberts, Markus Müller, Robert Yokelson, Armin Wisthaler, Jordan E. Krechmer, Jose L. Jimenez, Christopher Cappa, Jesse H. Kroll, Joost de Gouw, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14875–14899,Short summary
Wildfire emissions significantly contribute to adverse air quality; however, the chemical processes that lead to hazardous pollutants, such as ozone, are not fully understood. In this study, we describe laboratory experiments where we simulate the atmospheric chemistry of smoke emitted from a range of biomass fuels. We show that certain understudied compounds, such as furans and phenolic compounds, are significant contributors to pollutants formed as a result of typical atmospheric oxidation.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Karl D. Froyd, Daniel M. Murphy, Charles A. Brock, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack E. Dibb, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Agnieszka Kupc, Ann M. Middlebrook, Gregory P. Schill, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Christina J. Williamson, James C. Wilson, and Luke D. Ziemba
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6209–6239,Short summary
Single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) instruments characterize the composition of individual aerosol particles in real time. We present a new method that combines SPMS composition with independently measured particle size distributions to determine absolute number, surface area, volume, and mass concentrations of mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, and other climate-relevant atmospheric particle types, with a fast time response applicable to aircraft sampling.
Adam W. Birdsall, Jack C. Hensley, Paige S. Kotowitz, Andrew J. Huisman, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14195–14209,Short summary
We have measured the evaporation rates of butenedial, a four-carbon dialdehyde produced in the atmosphere, from individual levitated particles. Effective vapor pressures and Henry's law constants, which characterize the compound's gas-particle partitioning behavior, were determined. The important role of hydration reactions was observed under both dry and humid conditions, as well as a salting-out effect in the presence of sodium chloride or sodium sulfate.
Joshua D. Shutter, Norton T. Allen, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6079–6089,Short summary
A new mid-infrared and ultra-portable formaldehyde (HCHO) sensor from Aeris Technologies is characterized and evaluated against well-established laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrumentation. The Aeris sensor displays linear behavior (R squared > 0.94) and shows good agreement with LIF instruments. While the compact sensor is not currently a replacement for the most sensitive research-grade instrumentation available, its sub-ppbv precision is sufficient for indoor and outdoor HCHO monitoring.
Elizabeth Asher, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Britton B. Stephens, Doug Kinnison, Eric J. Morgan, Ralph F. Keeling, Elliot L. Atlas, Sue M. Schauffler, Simone Tilmes, Eric A. Kort, Martin S. Hoecker-Martínez, Matt C. Long, Jean-François Lamarque, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Alan J. Hills, and Eric C. Apel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14071–14090,Short summary
Halogenated organic trace gases, which are a source of reactive halogens to the atmosphere, exert a disproportionately large influence on atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reports novel aircraft observations of halogenated compounds over the Southern Ocean in summer and evaluates hypothesized regional sources and emissions of these trace gases through their relationships to additional aircraft observations.
Arslan Salim Dar, Jacob Berg, Niels Troldborg, and Edward G. Patton
Wind Energ. Sci., 4, 633–644,Short summary
We have performed computer simulations of turbulent air over hills with wind turbines located on the hill tops. Behind the wind turbines the wind speed is reduced and the air is even more turbulent. Together we call these features for the wind turbine wake. We find that the wake has a self-similar shape. This means that its shape is only a function of the reduced wind speed found in the wake and the width of the wake and hence not of the complexity and shape of the hills.
Brett B. Palm, Xiaoxi Liu, Jose L. Jimenez, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5829–5844,Short summary
We introduce a coaxial, low-pressure ion–molecule reaction (IMR) region for iodide-adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry, designed to decrease the effects of IMR wall interactions with organic/inorganic gases. This IMR has 3–10 times shorter delay times than previous IMRs. We introduce a conceptual framework for understanding and subtracting the background signal due to analyte molecules interacting with IMR walls. This framework can be applied to other tubing and instrument systems.
Susan S. Kulawik, Sean Crowell, David Baker, Junjie Liu, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Sebastien C. Biraud, Steve Wofsy, Christopher W. O'Dell, Paul O. Wennberg, Debra Wunch, Coleen M. Roehl, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Matthäus Kiel, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, Justus Notholt, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Martine De Mazière, Mahesh K. Sha, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Dave F. Pollard, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Frank Hase, Dietrich G. Feist, Sébastien Roche, Kimberly Strong, Rigel Kivi, Laura Iraci, Kei Shiomi, Manvendra K. Dubey, Eliezer Sepulveda, Omaira Elena Garcia Rodriguez, Yao Té, Pascal Jeseck, Pauli Heikkinen, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Michael R. Gunson, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, Brendan Fisher, and Gregory B. Osterman
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
This paper provides a benchmark of OCO-2 v8 and ACOS-GOSAT v7.3 XCO2 and lowermost tropospheric (LMT) errors. The paper focuses on the systematic errors and subtracts out validation, co-location, and random errors, looks at the correlation scale-length (spatially and temporally) of systematic errors, finding that the scale lengths are similar to bias correction scale-lengths. The assimilates of the bias correction term is used to place an error on fluxes estimates.
Hayley S. Glicker, Michael J. Lawler, John Ortega, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Rodrigo de Souza, Julio Tota, Annmarie Carlton, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13053–13066,Short summary
An understanding of the chemical composition of the smallest particles in the air over the Amazon Basin provides insights into the natural and human-caused influences on particle production in this sensitive region. We present measurements of the composition of sub-100 nm diameter particles performed during the wet season and identify unique constituents that point to both natural and human-caused sources and processes.
Jay Herman, Nader Abuhassan, Jhoon Kim, Jae Kim, Manvendra Dubey, Marcelo Raponi, and Maria Tzortziou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5593–5612,Short summary
Total column NO2 (TCNO2) from the Ozone Measuring Instrument (OMI) is compared for 14 sites with ground-based PANDORA spectrometer instruments making direct-sun measurements. These sites have high TCNO2, causing significant air quality problems that can affect human health. OMI almost always underestimates the amount of TCNO2 by 50 to 100 %. OMI's large field of view (FOV) is the most likely factor when comparing OMI TCNO2 to retrievals with PANDORA. OMI misses higher afternoon values of TCNO2.
Jacob K. Hedelius, Tai-Long He, Dylan B. A. Jones, Bianca C. Baier, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra K. Dubey, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Pascal Jeseck, Matthäus Kiel, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Sébastien Roche, Coleen M. Roehl, Matthias Schneider, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Colm Sweeney, Yao Té, Osamu Uchino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Wei Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, Helen M. Worden, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5547–5572,Short summary
We seek ways to improve the accuracy of column measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) – an important tracer of pollution – made from the MOPITT satellite instrument. We devise a filtering scheme which reduces the scatter and also eliminates bias among the MOPITT detectors. Compared to ground-based observations, MOPITT measurements are about 6 %–8 % higher. When MOPITT data are implemented in a global assimilation model, they tend to reduce the model mismatch with aircraft measurements.
Daun Jeong, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Youngro Lee, Benjamin A. Nault, Christoph J. Knote, Tom Mcgee, John T. Sullivan, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Donald R. Blake, Dianne Sanchez, Alex B. Guenther, David Tanner, L. Gregory Huey, Russell Long, Bruce E. Anderson, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Hye-jung Shin, Scott C. Herndon, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12779–12795,
Eleni Dovrou, Christopher Y. Lim, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Jesse H. Kroll, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5303–5315,Short summary
Measurement techniques commonly used to analyze particulate matter composition can result in the possible misidentification of sulfur-containing species, especially for the case of sulfate and hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS). The efficiency and limitations of these techniques, along with a method that enables further studies of the contribution of sulfur-containing species, S(IV) versus S(VI), to particulate matter under low-light atmospheric conditions, are described in this work.
Markus Leiminger, Stefan Feil, Paul Mutschlechner, Arttu Ylisirniö, Daniel Gunsch, Lukas Fischer, Alfons Jordan, Siegfried Schobesberger, Armin Hansel, and Gerhard Steiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5231–5246,Short summary
We introduce an alternative type of atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF) with the main difference of using hexapole instead of quadrupole ion guides. The transfer of cluster ions through the hexapoles was characterised with focus on transmission efficiency, mass range and fragmentation of cluster ions. At the CERN CLOUD experiment we compared the performance of the ioniAPi-TOF with a standard quadrupole APi-TOF under controlled conditions.
Peter J. Marinescu, Ezra J. T. Levin, Don Collins, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, and Susan C. van den Heever
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11985–12006,Short summary
We characterized and provided fits for the seasonal aerosol size distributions (7 nm–14 µm diameter) at a North American, long–term surface site (SGP), which can be applied to models. Key cycles on timescales of several hours to weeks were also assessed using power spectra for various aerosol size ranges. One key finding is the consistent presence of diurnal cycles in the smallest particles in each season, providing insights into the formation and roles of new particle formation at SGP.
Steven D. Miller, Louie D. Grasso, Qijing Bian, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Jack F. Dostalek, Jeremy E. Solbrig, Jennifer Bukowski, Susan C. van den Heever, Yi Wang, Xiaoguang Xu, Jun Wang, Annette L. Walker, Ting-Chi Wu, Milija Zupanski, Christine Chiu, and Jeffrey S. Reid
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5101–5118,Short summary
Satellite–based detection of lofted mineral via infrared–window channels, well established in the literature, faces significant challenges in the presence of atmospheric moisture. Here, we consider a case featuring the juxtaposition of two dust plumes embedded within dry and moist air masses. The case is considered from the vantage points of numerical modeling, multi–sensor observations, and radiative transfer theory arriving at a new method for mitigating the water vapor masking effect.
Emma L. D'Ambro, Siegfried Schobesberger, Cassandra J. Gaston, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Ben H. Lee, Jiumeng Liu, Alla Zelenyuk, David Bell, Christopher D. Cappa, Taylor Helgestad, Ziyue Li, Alex Guenther, Jian Wang, Matthew Wise, Ryan Caylor, Jason D. Surratt, Theran Riedel, Noora Hyttinen, Vili-Taneli Salo, Galib Hasan, Theo Kurtén, John E. Shilling, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11253–11265,Short summary
Isoprene is the most abundantly emitted reactive organic gas globally, and thus it is important to understand its fate and role in aerosol formation and growth. A major product of its oxidation is an epoxydiol, IEPOX, which can be efficiently taken up by acidic aerosol to generate substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We present chamber experiments exploring the properties of IEPOX SOA and reconcile discrepancies between field, laboratory, and model studies of this process.
Valentin Duflot, Pierre Tulet, Olivier Flores, Christelle Barthe, Aurélie Colomb, Laurent Deguillaume, Mickael Vaïtilingom, Anne Perring, Alex Huffman, Mark T. Hernandez, Karine Sellegri, Ellis Robinson, David J. O'Connor, Odessa M. Gomez, Frédéric Burnet, Thierry Bourrianne, Dominique Strasberg, Manon Rocco, Allan K. Bertram, Patrick Chazette, Julien Totems, Jacques Fournel, Pierre Stamenoff, Jean-Marc Metzger, Mathilde Chabasset, Clothilde Rousseau, Eric Bourrianne, Martine Sancelme, Anne-Marie Delort, Rachel E. Wegener, Cedric Chou, and Pablo Elizondo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10591–10618,Short summary
The Forests gAses aeRosols Clouds Exploratory (FARCE) campaign was conducted in March–April 2015 on the tropical island of La Réunion. For the first time, several scientific teams from different disciplines collaborated to provide reference measurements and characterization of La Réunion vegetation, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), biogenic VOCs (BVOCs), (bio)aerosols and composition of clouds, with a strong focus on the Maïdo mount slope area.
Stephen M. Saleeby, Susan C. van den Heever, Jennie Bukowski, Annette L. Walker, Jeremy E. Solbrig, Samuel A. Atwood, Qijing Bian, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Yi Wang, Jun Wang, and Steven D. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10279–10301,Short summary
This study seeks to understand how intense dust storms impact the heating and cooling of the land surface and atmosphere. Dust storms that are intense enough to substantially impact visibility can also alter how much sunlight reaches the surface during the day and how much heat is trapped in the atmosphere at night. These radiation changes can impact the temperature of the atmosphere and impact the weather in the vicinity.
Nanna Myllys, Jakub Kubečka, Vitus Besel, Dina Alfaouri, Tinja Olenius, James Norman Smith, and Monica Passananti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9753–9768,Short summary
In atmospheric sulfuric-acid-driven particle formation, bases are able to stabilize the initial molecular clusters and thus enhance particle formation. We have investigated the enhancing potential of different bases in atmospheric particle formation. We show that strong bases with low abundance are likely to dominate electrically neutral particle formation, whereas weak bases with high abundance have a larger role in ion-mediated particle formation.
Xin Chen, Dylan B. Millet, Hanwant B. Singh, Armin Wisthaler, Eric C. Apel, Elliot L. Atlas, Donald R. Blake, Ilann Bourgeois, Steven S. Brown, John D. Crounse, Joost A. de Gouw, Frank M. Flocke, Alan Fried, Brian G. Heikes, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Tomas Mikoviny, Kyung-Eun Min, Markus Müller, J. Andrew Neuman, Daniel W. O'Sullivan, Jeff Peischl, Gabriele G. Pfister, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Stephen R. Shertz, Chelsea R. Thompson, Victoria Treadaway, Patrick R. Veres, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Petter Weibring, and Bin Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9097–9123,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affect air quality and modify the lifetimes of other pollutants. We combine a high-resolution 3-D atmospheric model with an ensemble of aircraft observations to perform an integrated analysis of the VOC budget over North America. We find that biogenic emissions provide the main source of VOC reactivity even in most major cities. Our findings point to key gaps in current models related to oxygenated VOCs and to the distribution of VOCs in the free troposphere.
Duseong S. Jo, Alma Hodzic, Louisa K. Emmons, Eloise A. Marais, Zhe Peng, Benjamin A. Nault, Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, and Jose L. Jimenez
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2983–3000,Short summary
We developed a parameterization method for IEPOX-SOA based on the detailed chemical mechanism. Our parameterizations were tested using a box model and 3-D chemical transport model, which accurately captured the spatiotemporal distribution and response to changes in emissions compared to the explicit full chemistry, while being more computationally efficient. The method developed in this study can be applied to global climate models for long-term studies with a lower computational cost.
Rebecca J. Barthelmie and Sara C. Pryor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3463–3484,Short summary
Wakes are volumes of air with low wind speed that form downwind of wind turbines. Their properties and behaviour determine optimal turbine spacing in wind farms. We use scanning Doppler lidar to accurately and precisely measure wake characteristics at a complex terrain site in Portugal. We develop and apply an automatic processing algorithm to detect wakes and quantify their characteristics. In higher wind speeds, the wake centres are lower. Wake centres are also lower in convective conditions.
Benjamin L. Deming, Demetrios Pagonis, Xiaoxi Liu, Douglas A. Day, Ranajit Talukdar, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joost A. de Gouw, Jose L. Jimenez, and Paul J. Ziemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3453–3461,Short summary
Losses or measurement delays of gas-phase compounds sampled through tubing are important to atmospheric science. Here we characterize 14 tubing materials by measuring the effects on step changes in organic compound concentration. We find that polymeric tubings exhibit absorptive partitioning behaviour while glass and metal tubings show adsorptive partitioning. Adsorptive materials impart complex humidity, concentration, and VOC–VOC interaction dependencies that absorptive tubings do not.
Suzane S. de Sá, Luciana V. Rizzo, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yingjun J. Liu, Arthur Sedlacek, Stephen Springston, Allen H. Goldstein, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7973–8001,Short summary
This study investigates the impacts of urban and fire emissions on the concentration, composition, and optical properties of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in central Amazonia during the dry season. Biomass-burning and urban emissions appeared to contribute at least 80 % of brown carbon absorption while accounting for 30 % to 40 % of the organic PM1 mass concentration. Only a fraction of the 9-fold increase in mass concentration relative to the wet season was due to biomass burning.
Karena A. McKinney, Daniel Wang, Jianhuai Ye, Jean-Baptiste de Fouchier, Patricia C. Guimarães, Carla E. Batista, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Eliane G. Alves, Dasa Gu, Alex B. Guenther, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3123–3135,Short summary
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions influence air quality and particulate distributions, particularly in major source regions such as the Amazon. A sampler for collecting VOCs from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is described. Field tests of its performance and an initial example data set collected in the Amazon are also presented. The low cost, ease of use, and maneuverability of UAVs give this method the potential to significantly advance knowledge of the spatial distribution of VOCs.
Xiaoxi Liu, Benjamin Deming, Demetrios Pagonis, Douglas A. Day, Brett B. Palm, Ranajit Talukdar, James M. Roberts, Patrick R. Veres, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joel A. Thornton, Joost A. de Gouw, Paul J. Ziemann, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3137–3149,Short summary
Delays or losses of gases in sampling tubing and instrumental surfaces due to surface interactions can lead to inaccurate quantification. By sampling with several chemical ionization mass spectrometers and six tubing materials, we quantify delays of semivolatile organic compounds and small polar gases. Delay times generally increase with decreasing volatility or increasing polarity and also depend on materials. The method and results will inform inlet material selection and instrumental design.
Moshe Shechner, Alex Guenther, Robert Rhew, Asher Wishkerman, Qian Li, Donald Blake, Gil Lerner, and Eran Tas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7667–7690,Short summary
Along with other recent studies, our findings point to strong emission of a suite of volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs) from saline soils and salt lakes. Some emitted VHOCs were not known to be emitted from terrestrial sources, and our observations point to apparent new common controls for the emission of several VHOCs. These findings are an important milestone toward a more complete understanding of the effect of VHOCs on atmospheric ozone concentrations and oxidation capacity.
Charles A. Brock, Christina Williamson, Agnieszka Kupc, Karl D. Froyd, Frank Erdesz, Nicholas Wagner, Matthews Richardson, Joshua P. Schwarz, Ru-Shan Gao, Joseph M. Katich, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Jose L. Jimenez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Maximilian Dollner, ThaoPaul Bui, and Daniel M. Murphy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3081–3099,Short summary
From 2016 to 2018 a NASA aircraft profiled the atmosphere from 180 m to ~12 km from the Arctic to the Antarctic over both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. This program, ATom, sought to sample atmospheric chemical composition to compare with global climate models. We describe the how measurements of particulate matter were made during ATom, and show that the instrument performance was excellent. Data from this project can be used with confidence to evaluate models and compare with satellites.
Samuel A. Atwood, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Paul J. DeMott, Markus D. Petters, Gavin C. Cornwell, Andrew C. Martin, and Kathryn A. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6931–6947,Short summary
This paper presents measurements of aerosol particles at a coastal location. The particles were classified into distinct aerosol types using both microphysical measurements and meteorological information, allowing rapid changes between the aerosol types to be reliably identified. These particles can alter cloud and precipitation processes, and inclusion of the differences between types can improve atmospheric models and remote sensing retrievals in littoral zones.
Meryem Tanarhte, Sara Bacer, Susannah M. Burrows, J. Alex Huffman, Kyle M. Pierce, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicole J. Savage, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
Bioaerosols have been an important topic in atmospheric science in the last two decades. This paper compares different emission parametrizations used in fungal spores modeling and compare their results to two sets of new observational datasets. It emphasises their uncertainties in order to improve their modeling in the future. This comparison is addressed primarily to the scientific community (publishing in ACP) interested in this type of modeling and the related experimental work in this field.
Zamin A. Kanji, Ryan C. Sullivan, Monika Niemand, Paul J. DeMott, Anthony J. Prenni, Cédric Chou, Harald Saathoff, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5091–5110,Short summary
The ice nucleation ability of two natural desert dusts coated with a proxy of secondary organic aerosol is presented for temperatures and relative humidity conditions relevant for mixed-phase clouds. We find that at the tested conditions, there is no effect on the ice nucleation ability of the particles due to the organic coating. Furthermore, the two dust samples do not show variability within measurement uncertainty. Particle size and surface area may play a role in any difference observed.
John T. Sullivan, Thomas J. McGee, Ryan M. Stauffer, Anne M. Thompson, Andrew Weinheimer, Christoph Knote, Scott Janz, Armin Wisthaler, Russell Long, James Szykman, Jinsoo Park, Youngjae Lee, Saewung Kim, Daun Jeong, Dianne Sanchez, Laurence Twigg, Grant Sumnicht, Travis Knepp, and Jason R. Schroeder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5051–5067,Short summary
During the May–June 2016 International Cooperative Air Quality Field Study in Korea (KORUS-AQ), pollution reached the remote Taehwa Research Forest (TRF) site. Two case studies are examined and observations clearly identify TRF and the surrounding rural areas as long-term receptor sites for severe urban pollution events. In summary, domestic emissions may be causing more pollution than by transboundary pathways, which have been historically believed to be the major source of air pollution.
Naruki Hiranuma, Kouji Adachi, David M. Bell, Franco Belosi, Hassan Beydoun, Bhaskar Bhaduri, Heinz Bingemer, Carsten Budke, Hans-Christian Clemen, Franz Conen, Kimberly M. Cory, Joachim Curtius, Paul J. DeMott, Oliver Eppers, Sarah Grawe, Susan Hartmann, Nadine Hoffmann, Kristina Höhler, Evelyn Jantsch, Alexei Kiselev, Thomas Koop, Gourihar Kulkarni, Amelie Mayer, Masataka Murakami, Benjamin J. Murray, Alessia Nicosia, Markus D. Petters, Matteo Piazza, Michael Polen, Naama Reicher, Yinon Rudich, Atsushi Saito, Gianni Santachiara, Thea Schiebel, Gregg P. Schill, Johannes Schneider, Lior Segev, Emiliano Stopelli, Ryan C. Sullivan, Kaitlyn Suski, Miklós Szakáll, Takuya Tajiri, Hans Taylor, Yutaka Tobo, Romy Ullrich, Daniel Weber, Heike Wex, Thomas F. Whale, Craig L. Whiteside, Katsuya Yamashita, Alla Zelenyuk, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4823–4849,Short summary
A total of 20 ice nucleation measurement techniques contributed to investigate the immersion freezing behavior of cellulose particles – natural polymers. Our data showed several types of cellulose are able to nucleate ice as efficiently as some mineral dust samples and cellulose has the potential to be an important atmospheric ice-nucleating particle. Continued investigation/collaboration is necessary to obtain further insight into consistency or diversity of ice nucleation measurements.
Ali Akherati, Christopher D. Cappa, Michael J. Kleeman, Kenneth S. Docherty, Jose L. Jimenez, Stephen M. Griffith, Sebastien Dusanter, Philip S. Stevens, and Shantanu H. Jathar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4561–4594,Short summary
Unburned and partially burned organic compounds emitted from fossil fuel and biomass combustion can react in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight to form particles. In this work, we use an air pollution model to examine the influence of these organic compounds released by motor vehicles and fires on fine particle pollution in southern California.
Daniel M. Murphy, Karl D. Froyd, Huisheng Bian, Charles A. Brock, Jack E. Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn Diskin, Maximillian Dollner, Agnieszka Kupc, Eric M. Scheuer, Gregory P. Schill, Bernadett Weinzierl, Christina J. Williamson, and Pengfei Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4093–4104,Short summary
We present the first data on the concentration of sea-salt aerosol throughout most of the depth of the troposphere and a wide range of latitudes. Sea-salt concentrations in the upper troposphere are very small. This puts stringent limits on how sea-salt aerosol affects halogen and nitric acid chemistry there. With a widely distributed source, sea-salt aerosol provides an excellent test of wet scavenging and vertical transport of aerosols in chemical transport models.
Frederick Letson, Rebecca J. Barthelmie, Weifei Hu, and Sara C. Pryor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3797–3819,Short summary
Wind gusts are a key driver of aerodynamic loading, and common approximations used to describe wind gust behavior may not be appropriate in complex terrain at heights relevant to wind turbines and other structures. High-resolution observations from sonic anemometers and vertically pointing Doppler lidars collected in the Perdigão experiment are analyzed to provide a foundation for improved wind gust characterization in complex terrain.
Alexander Zaytsev, Martin Breitenlechner, Abigail R. Koss, Christopher Y. Lim, James C. Rowe, Jesse H. Kroll, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1861–1870,Short summary
We present the development of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer which can be operated with either ammonium (NH4+) or hydronium (H3O+) as the reagent ion. We describe a mass spectrometric voltage scanning procedure based on collision-induced dissociation that allows us to determine the stability of detected ammonium–organic ions and hence constrain the sensitivity of the instrument to a wide range of organic compounds that cannot be calibrated directly.
Julian Kostinek, Anke Roiger, Kenneth J. Davis, Colm Sweeney, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Bianca Baier, Frank Hase, Jochen Groß, Maximilian Eckl, Theresa Klausner, and André Butz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1767–1783,Short summary
We demonstrate the successful adaption of a laser-based spectrometer for airborne in situ trace gas measurements. The modified instrument allows for precise and simultaneous airborne observation of five climatologically relevant gases. We further report on instrument performance during a first field deployment over the eastern and central USA.
Alba Badia, Claire E. Reeves, Alex R. Baker, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore K. Koenig, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Lucy J. Carpenter, Stephen J. Andrews, Tomás Sherwen, and Roland von Glasow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3161–3189,Short summary
The oceans have an impact on the composition and reactivity of the troposphere through the emission of gases and particles. Thus, a quantitative understanding of the marine atmosphere is crucial to examine the oxidative capacity and climate forcing. This study investigates the impact of halogens in the tropical troposphere and explores the sensitivity of this to uncertainties in the fluxes and their chemical processing. Our modelled tropospheric Ox loss due to halogens ranges from 20 % to 60 %.
Anna L. Hodshire, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, John K. Kodros, Betty Croft, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Jose L. Jimenez, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3137–3160,Short summary
A global chemical-transport model is used to determine the impact of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) on the aerosol size distribution and associated radiative effects, testing varying assumptions of MSA’s effective volatility and nucleating ability. We find that MSA mass best matches the ATom airborne measurements when volatility varies as a function of temperature, relative humidity, and available gas-phase bases, and the MSA radiative forcing is on the order of -50 mW m-2 over the Southern Ocean.
Jin Liao, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason St. Clair, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Alan Fried, Eloise A. Marais, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, Kelly Chance, Hiren T. Jethva, Thomas B. Ryerson, Carsten Warneke, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2765–2785,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) intimately links natural and anthropogenic emissions with air quality and climate. Direct OA measurements from space are currently not possible. This paper describes a new method to estimate OA by combining satellite HCHO and in situ OA and HCHO. The OA estimate is validated with the ground network. This new method has a potential for mapping observation-based global OA estimate.
Tobias Könemann, Nicole Savage, Thomas Klimach, David Walter, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Hang Su, Ulrich Pöschl, J. Alex Huffman, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1337–1363,Short summary
This study presents a comprehensive assessment of the SIBS, an instrument for spectrally resolved fluorescence detection of single particles. Exemplary ambient data and fluorescence spectra obtained for 16 reference compounds (biofluorophores and PSLs) show that the SIBS has the ability to expand the scope of fluorescent bioaerosol quantification and classification. Detailed technical insights will be broadly beneficial for users of various WIBS generations and other LIF instruments.
Shino Toma, Steve Bertman, Christopher Groff, Fulizi Xiong, Paul B. Shepson, Paul Romer, Kaitlin Duffey, Paul Wooldridge, Ronald Cohen, Karsten Baumann, Eric Edgerton, Abigail R. Koss, Joost de Gouw, Allen Goldstein, Weiwei Hu, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1867–1880,Short summary
Acyl peroxy nitrates (APN) were measured near the ground in Alabama using GC in summer 2013 to study biosphere–atmosphere interactions. APN were lower than measured in the SE USA over the past 2 decades. Historical data showed APN in 2013 was limited by NOx and production was dominated by biogenic precursors more than in the past. Isoprene-derived MPAN correlated with isoprene hydroxynitrates as NOx-dependent products. MPAN varied with aerosol growth, but not with N-containing particles.
Xiaoxiao Li, Sabrina Chee, Jiming Hao, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Jingkun Jiang, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1555–1570,Short summary
We performed lab experiments to explore the role of relative humidity, RH, in atmospheric monoterpene oxidation and new particle formation. These studies will provide insights into the most important steps in the process, while also more accurately representing the real atmosphere. We found that the detected compounds did not change with RH, and in fact could mostly be fully explained by the autoxidation of organic peroxy radicals followed by bimolecular reactions with other peroxy radicals.
Dagny A. Ullmann, Mallory L. Hinks, Adrian M. Maclean, Christopher L. Butenhoff, James W. Grayson, Kelley Barsanti, Jose L. Jimenez, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Saeid Kamal, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1491–1503,Short summary
We measured the viscosity and diffusion of organic molecules in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from the ozonolysis of limonene. The results suggest that the mixing times of large organics in the SOA studied are short (< 1 h) for conditions found in the planetary boundary layer. The results also show that the Stokes–Einstein equation gives accurate predictions of diffusion coefficients of large organics within the studied SOA up to a viscosity of 102 to 104 Pa s.
Coty N. Jen, Lindsay E. Hatch, Vanessa Selimovic, Robert J. Yokelson, Robert Weber, Arantza E. Fernandez, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Kelley C. Barsanti, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1013–1026,Short summary
Wildfires in the western US are occurring more frequently and burning larger land areas. Smoke from these fires will play a greater role in regional air quality and atmospheric chemistry than in the past. To help fire and climate modelers and atmospheric experimentalists better understand how smoke impacts the environment, we have separated, identified, classified, and quantified the thousands of organic compounds found in smoke and related their amounts emitted to fire conditions.
Zhe Peng, Julia Lee-Taylor, John J. Orlando, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 813–834,Short summary
The use of oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) has been rapidly increasing. We investigate organic peroxy radical (RO2) chemistry in OFRs by kinetic modeling. It is found that, at low NO, UV intensity should be limited to avoid high radical levels leading to significant reaction of RO2 with OH and negligible RO2 isomerization, both of which are atmospherically irrelevant. We also develop two RO2 fate estimators (for general use and for OFRs) to aid experiment design and interpretation.
Juhi Nagori, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Juliane L. Fry, Maarten Krol, Jose L. Jimenez, Weiwei Hu, and Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 701–729,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is produced through a complex interaction of sunlight, volatile organic compounds emitted from trees, anthropogenic emissions, and atmospheric chemistry. We are able to successfully model the formation and diurnal evolution of SOA using a model that takes into consideration the surface and boundary layer dynamics (1–2 km from the surface) and photochemistry above the southeastern US with data collected during the SOAS campaign to constrain the model.
Andrew T. Lambe, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Jason R. Casar, Anthony J. Carrasquillo, Jonathan D. Raff, Jose L. Jimenez, and Douglas R. Worsnop
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 299–311,Short summary
This paper is an evaluation of methods used to generate OH radicals under conditions with high concentrations of NO and NO2 to simulate oxidation chemistry in polluted urban atmospheres over equivalent atmospheric timescales of ~ 1 day.
Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Bruce Anderson, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Donald R. Blake, William H. Brune, Yonghoon Choi, Chelsea A. Corr, Joost A. de Gouw, Jack Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Alan Fried, L. Gregory Huey, Michelle J. Kim, Christoph J. Knote, Kara D. Lamb, Taehyoung Lee, Taehyun Park, Sally E. Pusede, Eric Scheuer, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jung-Hun Woo, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17769–17800,Short summary
Aerosol impacts visibility and human health in large cities. Sources of aerosols are still highly uncertain, especially for cities surrounded by numerous other cities. We use observations collected during the Korea–United States Air Quality study to determine sources of organic aerosol (OA). We find that secondary OA (SOA) is rapidly produced over Seoul, South Korea, and that the sources of the SOA originate from short-lived hydrocarbons, which originate from local emissions.
Lindsay E. Hatch, Albert Rivas-Ubach, Coty N. Jen, Mary Lipton, Allen H. Goldstein, and Kelley C. Barsanti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17801–17817,Short summary
We demonstrate the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) disks for the untargeted analysis of gas-phase intermediate volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from biomass burning. SPE and Teflon filter samples collected from laboratory fires were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography, with distinct differences in the observed chromatographic profiles as a function of fuel type. Fuel-dependent emissions and volatility differences among benzenediol isomers were captured.
Christopher W. O'Dell, Annmarie Eldering, Paul O. Wennberg, David Crisp, Michael R. Gunson, Brendan Fisher, Christian Frankenberg, Matthäus Kiel, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Lukas Mandrake, Aronne Merrelli, Vijay Natraj, Robert R. Nelson, Gregory B. Osterman, Vivienne H. Payne, Thomas E. Taylor, Debra Wunch, Brian J. Drouin, Fabiano Oyafuso, Albert Chang, James McDuffie, Michael Smyth, David F. Baker, Sourish Basu, Frédéric Chevallier, Sean M. R. Crowell, Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Mavendra Dubey, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, Coleen M. Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Te, Osamu Uchino, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6539–6576,
Paul J. DeMott, Ottmar Möhler, Daniel J. Cziczo, Naruki Hiranuma, Markus D. Petters, Sarah S. Petters, Franco Belosi, Heinz G. Bingemer, Sarah D. Brooks, Carsten Budke, Monika Burkert-Kohn, Kristen N. Collier, Anja Danielczok, Oliver Eppers, Laura Felgitsch, Sarvesh Garimella, Hinrich Grothe, Paul Herenz, Thomas C. J. Hill, Kristina Höhler, Zamin A. Kanji, Alexei Kiselev, Thomas Koop, Thomas B. Kristensen, Konstantin Krüger, Gourihar Kulkarni, Ezra J. T. Levin, Benjamin J. Murray, Alessia Nicosia, Daniel O'Sullivan, Andreas Peckhaus, Michael J. Polen, Hannah C. Price, Naama Reicher, Daniel A. Rothenberg, Yinon Rudich, Gianni Santachiara, Thea Schiebel, Jann Schrod, Teresa M. Seifried, Frank Stratmann, Ryan C. Sullivan, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Miklós Szakáll, Hans P. Taylor, Romy Ullrich, Jesus Vergara-Temprado, Robert Wagner, Thomas F. Whale, Daniel Weber, André Welti, Theodore W. Wilson, Martin J. Wolf, and Jake Zenker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6231–6257,Short summary
The ability to measure ice nucleating particles is vital to quantifying their role in affecting clouds and precipitation. Methods for measuring droplet freezing were compared while co-sampling relevant particle types. Measurement correspondence was very good for ice nucleating particles of bacterial and natural soil origin, and somewhat more disparate for those of mineral origin. Results reflect recently improved capabilities and provide direction toward addressing remaining measurement issues.
Barbara Ervens, Armin Sorooshian, Abdulmonam M. Aldhaif, Taylor Shingler, Ewan Crosbie, Luke Ziemba, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16099–16119,Short summary
The paper presents a new framework that can be used to identify emission scenarios in which aerosol populations are most likely modified by chemical processes in clouds. We show that in neither very polluted nor in very clean air masses is this the case. Only if the ratio of possible aerosol mass precursors (sulfur dioxide, some organics) and preexisting aerosol mass is sufficiently high will aerosol particles show substantially modified physicochemical properties upon cloud processing.
Azimeh Zare, Paul S. Romer, Tran Nguyen, Frank N. Keutsch, Kate Skog, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15419–15436,Short summary
Organic nitrates play an important role in concentrations and distribution of NOx, ozone and aerosol as the most important air pollutants. We develop a state-of-the-science detailed chemical mechanism representing individual organic nitrates, which is appropriate to use in air quality models and results in a more accurate simulation of atmospheric chemistry. Using this mechanism we explore production and removal processes of organic nitrates in a rural environment that are poorly constrained.
Kaitlyn J. Suski, Tom C. J. Hill, Ezra J. T. Levin, Anna Miller, Paul J. DeMott, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13755–13771,Short summary
The harvesting of crops emits large amounts of particles into the air. These particles can form and interact with clouds to alter cloud properties and precipitation, but the magnitude of these effects is unknown. This study looked at the ability of harvest particles to form ice in clouds by sampling with an ice nucleation chamber downwind of fields being harvested. Some crops emitted large amounts of ice-nucleating particles, and harvest emissions are mixtures of organics, soil, and minerals.
Sara C. Pryor, Tristan J. Shepherd, and Rebecca J. Barthelmie
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 651–665,Short summary
The interannual variability (IAV) of annual energy production (AEP) from wind turbines due to IAV in wind speeds from proposed wind farms plays a key role in dictating project financing but is only poorly constrained. This study provides improved quantification of IAV over eastern N. America using purpose-performed long-term numerical simulations. It may be appropriate to reduce the IAV applied to preconstruction AEP estimates, which would decrease the cost of capital for wind farm developments.
Victor Lannuque, Marie Camredon, Florian Couvidat, Alma Hodzic, Richard Valorso, Sasha Madronich, Bertrand Bessagnet, and Bernard Aumont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13411–13428,Short summary
Large uncertainties remain in understanding the influence of atmospheric environmental conditions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, evolution and properties. In this article, the GECKO-A modelling tool has been used in a box model under various environmental conditions to (i) explore the sensitivity of SOA formation and properties to changes on physical and chemical conditions and (ii) develop a volatility-basis-set-type parameterization for air quality models.
Jason A. Ducker, Christopher D. Holmes, Trevor F. Keenan, Silvano Fares, Allen H. Goldstein, Ivan Mammarella, J. William Munger, and Jordan Schnell
Biogeosciences, 15, 5395–5413,Short summary
We have developed an accurate method (SynFlux) to estimate ozone deposition and stomatal uptake across 103 flux tower sites (43 US, 60 Europe), where ozone concentrations and fluxes have not been measured. In all, the SynFlux public dataset provides monthly values of ozone dry deposition for 926 site years across a wide array of ecosystems. The SynFlux dataset will promote further applications to ecosystem, air quality, or climate modeling across the geoscience community.
Fernando Santos, Karla Longo, Alex Guenther, Saewung Kim, Dasa Gu, Dave Oram, Grant Forster, James Lee, James Hopkins, Joel Brito, and Saulo Freitas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12715–12734,Short summary
We investigated the impact of biomass burning on the chemical composition of trace gases in the Amazon. The findings corroborate the influence of biomass burning activity not only on direct emissions of particulate matter but also on the oxidative capacity to produce secondary organic aerosol. The scientists plan to use this information to improve the numerical model simulation with a better representativeness of the chemical processes, which can impact on global climate prediction.
Nicole J. Savage and J. Alex Huffman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4929–4942,Short summary
We show the systematic application of hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC) to comprehensive bioaerosol and non-bioaerosol laboratory data collected with the wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS-4A). This study investigated various input conditions and used individual matchups and computational mixtures of particles; it will help improve clustering results applied to data from the ultraviolet laser and light-induced fluorescence instruments commonly used for bioaerosol research.
Anna L. Hodshire, Brett B. Palm, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Qijing Bian, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Eben S. Cross, Douglas A. Day, Suzane S. de Sá, Alex B. Guenther, Armin Hansel, James F. Hunter, Werner Jud, Thomas Karl, Saewung Kim, Jesse H. Kroll, Jeong-Hoo Park, Zhe Peng, Roger Seco, James N. Smith, Jose L. Jimenez, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12433–12460,Short summary
We investigate the nucleation and growth processes that shape the aerosol size distribution inside oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) that sampled ambient air from Colorado and the Amazon rainforest. Results indicate that organics are important for both nucleation and growth, vapor uptake was limited to accumulation-mode particles, fragmentation reactions were important to limit particle growth at higher OH exposures, and an H2SO4-organics nucleation mechanism captured new particle formation well.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Igor O. Ribeiro, Glauber G. Cirino, Yingjun Liu, Ryan Thalman, Arthur Sedlacek, Aaron Funk, Courtney Schumacher, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Karena A. McKinney, Henrique Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12185–12206,Short summary
This study aimed at understanding and quantifying the changes in mass concentration and composition of submicron airborne particulate matter (PM) in Amazonia due to urban pollution. Downwind of Manaus, PM concentrations increased by up to 200 % under polluted compared with background conditions. The observed changes included contributions from both primary and secondary processes. The differences in organic PM composition suggested a shift in the pathways of secondary production with pollution.
Sara D. Forestieri, Taylor M. Helgestad, Andrew T. Lambe, Lindsay Renbaum-Wolff, Daniel A. Lack, Paola Massoli, Eben S. Cross, Manvendra K. Dubey, Claudio Mazzoleni, Jason S. Olfert, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Andrew Freedman, Paul Davidovits, Timothy B. Onasch, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12141–12159,Short summary
We characterized optical properties of flame-derived black carbon particles and interpret our observations through the use of Mie theory and Rayleigh–Debye–Gans theory. We determined that the mass absorption coefficient is independent of particle collapse and use this to derive theory- and wavelength-specific refractive indices for black carbon (BC). We demonstrate the inadequacy of Mie theory and suggest an alternative approach for atmospheric models to better represent light absorption by BC.
Juliane L. Fry, Steven S. Brown, Ann M. Middlebrook, Peter M. Edwards, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, José L. Jimenez, Hannah M. Allen, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilana Pollack, Martin Graus, Carsten Warneke, Joost A. de Gouw, Charles A. Brock, Jessica Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, William P. Dubé, Jin Liao, and André Welti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11663–11682,Short summary
This paper uses measurements made during research aircraft flights through power plant smokestack emissions plumes as a natural laboratory in the field experiment. We investigated a specific source of airborne particulate matter from the combination of human-produced NOx pollutant emissions (the smokestack plumes) with isoprene emitted by naturally by trees in the southeastern United States. These field-based yields appear to be higher than those typically measured in chamber studies.
Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Lukas Fischer, Bernhard Mentler, Martin Heinritzi, Mario Simon, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4763–4773,Short summary
During new particle formation (NPF) studies from pure isoprene oxidation in the CLOUD chamber at CERN we observed unexpected ion signals. We identified two origins of these signals: first secondary association reactions of protonated isoprene with isoprene within the PTR3 reaction chamber and, second, polymerization of isoprene inside the gas bottle. In order to study NPF from pure isoprene oxidation we had to install a cryogenic trap in the isoprene inlet line to remove polymerized isoprene.
Wenfu Tang, Avelino F. Arellano, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Glenn S. Diskin, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Mark Parrington, Sebastien Massart, Benjamin Gaubert, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Jinsang Jung, Jinkyu Hong, Je-Woo Hong, Yugo Kanaya, Mindo Lee, Ryan M. Stauffer, Anne M. Thompson, James H. Flynn, and Jung-Hun Woo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11007–11030,
Lindsay D. Yee, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Rebecca A. Wernis, Meng Meng, Ventura Rivera, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Susanne V. Hering, Mads S. Bering, Marianne Glasius, Mary Alice Upshur, Ariana Gray Bé, Regan J. Thomson, Franz M. Geiger, John H. Offenberg, Michael Lewandowski, Ivan Kourtchev, Markus Kalberer, Suzane de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jose L. Jimenez, Yingjun Liu, Karena A. McKinney, Paulo Artaxo, Juarez Viegas, Antonio Manzi, Maria B. Oliveira, Rodrigo de Souza, Luiz A. T. Machado, Karla Longo, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10433–10457,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds react in the atmosphere to form secondary organic aerosol, yet the chemical pathways remain unclear. We collected filter samples and deployed a semi-volatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph in the central Amazon. We measured 30 sesquiterpenes and 4 diterpenes and find them to be important for reactive ozone loss. We estimate that sesquiterpene oxidation contributes at least 0.4–5 % (median 1 %) of observed submicron organic aerosol mass.
Tobias Könemann, Nicole J. Savage, J. Alex Huffman, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3987–4003,Short summary
This study presents an overview of fluorescence properties of polystyrene latex spheres (PSLs), which are widely used in numerous scientific disciplines. By using different spectroscopic techniques, we show that the
fluorescence landscapeof PSLs is more complex than the information provided by manufacturers may imply. By understanding general fluorescence properties of PSLs, individual researchers may probe specific spectral features important to the operation of their own instruments.
Eliane G. Alves, Julio Tóta, Andrew Turnipseed, Alex B. Guenther, José Oscar W. Vega Bustillos, Raoni A. Santana, Glauber G. Cirino, Julia V. Tavares, Aline P. Lopes, Bruce W. Nelson, Rodrigo A. de Souza, Dasa Gu, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, David K. Adams, Jin Wu, Scott Saleska, and Antonio O. Manzi
Biogeosciences, 15, 4019–4032,Short summary
This study shows that leaf quantity and leaf age have an important effect on seasonal changes in isoprene emissions and that these could play an even more important role in regulating ecosystem isoprene fluxes than light and temperature at seasonal timescales in tropical forests. These results bring novelty and new insight for future research because in the past leaf phenology was not considered as an important factor that controls biological processes in the tropics.
Chunxiang Ye, Xianliang Zhou, Dennis Pu, Jochen Stutz, James Festa, Max Spolaor, Catalina Tsai, Christopher Cantrell, Roy L. Mauldin III, Andrew Weinheimer, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Eric C. Apel, Alex Guenther, Lisa Kaser, Bin Yuan, Thomas Karl, Julie Haggerty, Samuel Hall, Kirk Ullmann, James Smith, and John Ortega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9107–9120,Short summary
Substantial levels of HONO existed during the day throughout the troposphere over the southeastern US during NOMADSS 2013. Particulate nitrate photolysis appeared to be the major volume HONO source, while NOx was an important HONO precursor only in industrial and urban plumes. HONO was not a significant OH radical precursor in the rural troposphere away from the ground surface; however, its production from particulate nitrate photolysis was an important renoxification pathway.
Maite Bauwens, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Bert Van Schaeybroeck, Lesley De Cruz, Rozemien De Troch, Olivier Giot, Rafiq Hamdi, Piet Termonia, Quentin Laffineur, Crist Amelynck, Niels Schoon, Bernard Heinesch, Thomas Holst, Almut Arneth, Reinhart Ceulemans, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, and Alex Guenther
Biogeosciences, 15, 3673–3690,Short summary
Biogenic isoprene fluxes are simulated over Europe with the MEGAN–MOHYCAN model for the recent past and end-of-century climate at high spatiotemporal resolution (0.1°, 3 min). Due to climate change, fluxes increased by 40 % over 1979–2014. Climate scenarios for 2070–2099 suggest an increase by 83 % due to climate, and an even stronger increase when the potential impact of CO2 fertilization is considered (up to 141 %). Accounting for CO2 inhibition cancels out a large part of these increases.
Roya Bahreini, Ravan Ahmadov, Stu A. McKeen, Kennedy T. Vu, Justin H. Dingle, Eric C. Apel, Donald R. Blake, Nicola Blake, Teresa L. Campos, Chris Cantrell, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Alan J. Hills, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Greg Huey, Lisa Kaser, Brian M. Lerner, Roy L. Mauldin, Simone Meinardi, Denise D. Montzka, Dirk Richter, Jason R. Schroeder, Meghan Stell, David Tanner, James Walega, Peter Weibring, and Andrew Weinheimer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8293–8312,Short summary
We measured organic aerosol (OA) and relevant trace gases during FRAPPÉ in the Colorado Front Range, with the goal of characterizing summertime OA formation. Our results indicate a significant production of secondary OA (SOA) in this region. About 2 μg m−3 of OA was present at background CO levels, suggesting contribution of non-combustion sources to SOA. Contribution of oil- and gas-related activities to anthropogenic SOA was modeled to be ~38 %. Biogenic SOA contributed to >40 % of OA.
Hendrik Fuchs, Sascha Albrecht, Ismail–Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Martin Breitenlechner, Hans-Peter Dorn, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Martin Kaminski, Frank N. Keutsch, Anna Novelli, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Luc Vereecken, Robert Wegener, Alexander Zaytsev, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8001–8016,Short summary
The photooxidation of methyl vinyl ketone MVK, one of the most important products of isoprene that is emitted by plants, was investigated in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR for conditions found in forested areas. The comparison of measured trace gas time series with model calculations shows a gap in the understanding of radical chemistry in the MVK oxidation scheme. The possibility of unimolecular isomerization reactions were investigated by means of quantum-chemical calculations.
Amelie Bertrand, Giulia Stefenelli, Coty N. Jen, Simone M. Pieber, Emily A. Bruns, Haiyan Ni, Brice Temime-Roussel, Jay G. Slowik, Allen H. Goldstein, Imad El Haddad, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, Henri Wortham, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7607–7624,Short summary
A thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph coupled to an aerosol mass spectrometer (TAG–AMS) is connected to an atmospheric chamber. The setup serves the quantitative study of the impact of combustion conditions and atmospheric aging on the chemical fingerprint at the molecular level of biomass burning organic aerosol.
Young-Hee Ryu, Alma Hodzic, Jerome Barre, Gael Descombes, and Patrick Minnis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7509–7525,Short summary
We investigate whether errors in cloud predictions can significantly impact the ability of air quality models to predict surface ozone over the US during summer 2013. The comparison with satellite data shows that the model predicts ~ 55 % of clouds in the right locations and underpredicts cloud thickness. The error in daytime ozone is estimated to be 1–5 ppb and represents ~ 40 % of the ozone bias. The accurate predictions of clouds particularly benefits ozone predictions in urban areas.
Nan Li, Qingyang He, Jim Greenberg, Alex Guenther, Jingyi Li, Junji Cao, Jun Wang, Hong Liao, Qiyuan Wang, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7489–7507,Short summary
O3 pollution has been increasing in most Chinese cities in recent years. Our study reveals that the synergistic impact of individual source contributions to O3 formation should be considered in the formation of air pollution control strategies, especially for big cities in the vicinity of forests.
Shouming Zhou, Jean C. Rivera-Rios, Frank N. Keutsch, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3081–3089,
Gregory P. Schill, Paul J. DeMott, Ezra J. T. Levin, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3007–3020,Short summary
Few techniques can measure the contribution of refractory black carbon (rBC) to ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations. One technique uses the single particle soot photometer (SP2) as a pre-filter to an online INP counter to selectively remove rBC particles from an aerosol stream. In this work, we expand upon this technique by determining the effect of the SP2 laser on INP proxies mixed with rBC. We also bounded the SP2 conditions under which rBC is fully vaporized in the SP2 exhaust.
Meryem Tanarhte, Sara Bacer, Susannah M. Burrows, J. Alex Huffman, Kyle M. Pierce, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicole J. Savage, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Young-Suk Oh, S. Takele Kenea, Tae-Young Goo, Kyu-Sun Chung, Jae-Sang Rhee, Mi-Lim Ou, Young-Hwa Byun, Paul O. Wennberg, Matthäus Kiel, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Voltaire A. Velazco, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2361–2374,Short summary
We focused on the measurements taken during the period of February 2014 to November 2017. The FTS instrument was stable during the whole measurement period. The g-b FTS retrieval of XCO2 and XCH4 were compared with aircraft measurements that were conducted over Anmyeondo station on 22 May 2016, 29 October, and 12 November 2017. The preliminary comparison results of XCO2 between FTS and OCO-2 were also presented over the Anmyeondo station.
Jianhuai Ye, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5549–5565,Short summary
Synergistic effects between SOA formation and SO2 oxidation through Criegee chemistry and reactive uptake by organic peroxides were observed. The relative importance of these two pathways (Criegee vs. peroxide) varies with relative humidity. The latter SO2 loss mechanism to organic peroxides in SOA has not previously been identified. Our results suggest a new pathway of atmospheric SO2 oxidation, which may contribute to the missing mechanisms of high-sulfate production in the polluted areas.
Gordon B. Bonan, Edward G. Patton, Ian N. Harman, Keith W. Oleson, John J. Finnigan, Yaqiong Lu, and Elizabeth A. Burakowski
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1467–1496,Short summary
Land surface models neglect the roughness sublayer and parameterize within-canopy turbulence in an ad hoc manner. We implemented a roughness sublayer parameterization in a multilayer canopy model to test if this theory provides a tractable parameterization extending from the ground through the canopy and the roughness sublayer. The multilayer canopy improves simulations compared with the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) while also advancing the theoretical basis for surface flux parameterizations.
James B. Abshire, Anand K. Ramanathan, Haris Riris, Graham R. Allan, Xiaoli Sun, William E. Hasselbrack, Jianping Mao, Stewart Wu, Jeffrey Chen, Kenji Numata, Stephan R. Kawa, Mei Ying Melissa Yang, and Joshua DiGangi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2001–2025,Short summary
Here we report on measurements made with an improved CO2 Sounder lidar during the ASCENDS 2014 and 2016 airborne campaigns. The results from the 2016 airborne lidar retrievals show precisions of ~ 0.8 parts per million (ppm) with 1 s averaging over desert surfaces. The results from both campaigns showed the mean values of XCO2 retrieved from the lidar consistently agreed with those based on the in situ sensor to within 1 ppm.
Glenn M. Wolfe, S. Randy Kawa, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem A. Hannun, Paul A. Newman, Andrew Swanson, Steve Bailey, John Barrick, K. Lee Thornhill, Glenn Diskin, Josh DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Carl Sorenson, Geoffrey Bland, James K. Yungel, and Craig A. Swenson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1757–1776,Short summary
We describe a new NASA airborne system for directly observing the surface–atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases and energy over regional scales. Such measurements are needed benchmark model and satellite products and can improve process-level understanding of greenhouse gas sources and sinks over forest, croplands, wetlands, urban areas, and other ecosystems.
Shunyao Wang, Jianhuai Ye, Ronald Soong, Bing Wu, Legeng Yu, André J. Simpson, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3987–4003,Short summary
Linkages between the chemical composition of PAH-derived SOA and oxidative potential (OP) were investigated under various atmospheric aging processes. Peroxides were found to be an insignificant OP contributor. Oligomerization and heterogeneous ozonolysis may enhance the OP of SOA. Mixing with Cu reduces the OP of PAH-derived SOA. Binding between redox-active Cu(II) and quinone was proved by NMR. Results highlighted the essential role of aerosol chemical composition in its health impact.
Qijing Bian, Badr Alharbi, Mohammed M. Shareef, Tahir Husain, Mohammad J. Pasha, Samuel A. Atwood, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3969–3985,Short summary
We report long-term and spatially resolved hourly measurements of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations in ambient particulate matter in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Our analysis suggests both local vehicular emissions and regional sources (e.g., oil extraction and refining) were strong influences. Our work informs the development of pollution control strategies for Riyadh.
Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Jessica B. Gilman, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew M. Coggon, Kyle J. Zarzana, Bin Yuan, Brian M. Lerner, Steven S. Brown, Jose L. Jimenez, Jordan Krechmer, James M. Roberts, Carsten Warneke, Robert J. Yokelson, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3299–3319,Short summary
Non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) were detected by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF) during an extensive laboratory characterization of wildfire emissions. Identifications for PTR-ToF ion masses are proposed and supported by a combination of techniques. Overall excellent agreement with other instrumentation is shown. Scalable emission factors and ratios are reported for many newly reported reactive species. An analysis of chemical characteristics is presented.
Jingqiu Mao, Annmarie Carlton, Ronald C. Cohen, William H. Brune, Steven S. Brown, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jose L. Jimenez, Havala O. T. Pye, Nga Lee Ng, Lu Xu, V. Faye McNeill, Kostas Tsigaridis, Brian C. McDonald, Carsten Warneke, Alex Guenther, Matthew J. Alvarado, Joost de Gouw, Loretta J. Mickley, Eric M. Leibensperger, Rohit Mathur, Christopher G. Nolte, Robert W. Portmann, Nadine Unger, Mika Tosca, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2615–2651,Short summary
This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing, and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models.
Paul S. Romer, Kaitlin C. Duffey, Paul J. Wooldridge, Eric Edgerton, Karsten Baumann, Philip A. Feiner, David O. Miller, William H. Brune, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Pawel K. Misztal, Allen H. Goldstein, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2601–2614,Short summary
Observations of increased ozone on hotter days are widely reported, but the mechanisms driving this relationship remain uncertain. We use measurements from the rural southeastern United States to study how temperature affects ozone production. We find that changing NOx emissions, most likely from soil microbes, can be a major driver of increased ozone with temperature in the continental background. These findings suggest that ozone will increase with temperature under a wide range of conditions.
Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Jonathan Duplissy, Chao Yan, Tuomo Nieminen, Mikael Ehn, Siegfried Schobesberger, Martin Heinritzi, Sebastian Ehrhart, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jasmin Tröstl, Mario Simon, Andreas Kürten, Markus Leiminger, Michael J. Lawler, Matti P. Rissanen, Federico Bianchi, Arnaud P. Praplan, Jani Hakala, Antonio Amorim, Marc Gonin, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Josef Dommen, Joachim Curtius, James N. Smith, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Neil M. Donahue, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2363–2380,Short summary
Atmospheric trace gases can form small molecular clusters, which can grow to larger sizes through the condensation of vapours. This process is called new particle formation. In this paper we studied the formation of sulfuric acid and highly oxygenated molecules, the key compounds in atmospheric new particle formation, in chamber experiments and introduced a way to simulate these ozonolysis products of α-pinene in a simple manner.
Lukas Pichelstorfer, Dominik Stolzenburg, John Ortega, Thomas Karl, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, James N. Smith, Peter H. McMurry, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1307–1323,Short summary
Quantification of new particle formation as a source of atmospheric aerosol is clearly of importance for climate and health aspects. In our new study we developed two analysis methods that allow retrieval of nanoparticle growth dynamics at much higher precision than it was possible so far. Our results clearly demonstrate that growth rates show much more variation than is currently known and suggest that the Kelvin effect governs growth in the sub-10 nm size range.
Xuan Wang, Colette L. Heald, Jiumeng Liu, Rodney J. Weber, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Joshua P. Schwarz, and Anne E. Perring
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 635–653,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) contributes significantly to uncertainty in estimating the global direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols. We develop a global model simulation of BrC and test it against BrC absorption measurements from two aircraft campaigns in the continental United States. We suggest that BrC DRE has been overestimated previously due to the lack of observational constraints from direct measurements and omission of the effects of photochemical whitening.
Brett B. Palm, Suzane S. de Sá, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Joel Brito, Florian Wurm, Paulo Artaxo, Ryan Thalman, Jian Wang, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Allen H. Goldstein, Yingjun Liu, Stephen R. Springston, Rodrigo Souza, Matt K. Newburn, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 467–493,Short summary
Ambient air was oxidized by OH or O3 in an oxidation flow reactor during both wet and dry seasons in the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated how much biogenic, urban, and biomass burning sources contributed to the ambient concentrations of SOA precursor gases and how their contributions changed diurnally and seasonally. SOA yields and hygroscopicity of organic aerosol in the oxidation flow reactor were also studied.
Paula Doubrawa, Alex Montornès, Rebecca J. Barthelmie, Sara C. Pryor, and Pau Casso
Wind Energ. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We perform time-resolved, high-resolution simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer with a numerical weather prediction model. The downscaling is done within the model by defining nested domains, and we investigate different ways of treating turbulence modeling at intermediate spatial scales in which traditional turbulence parameterizations are inadequate. We focus on quantities of interest to wind energy and compare the simulations with measurements collected at a complex-terrain site.
Havala O. T. Pye, Andreas Zuend, Juliane L. Fry, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Shannon L. Capps, K. Wyat Appel, Hosein Foroutan, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 357–370,Short summary
Thermodynamic modeling revealed that some but not all measurements of ammonium-to-sulfate ratios are consistent with theory. The measurement diversity likely explains the previously reported range of results regarding the suitability of thermodynamic modeling. Despite particles being predominantly phase separated, organic–inorganic interactions resulted in increased aerosol pH and partitioning towards the particle phase for highly oxygenated organic compounds compared to traditional methods.
Haihan Chen, Anna L. Hodshire, John Ortega, James Greenberg, Peter H. McMurry, Annmarie G. Carlton, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Dave R. Hanson, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 311–326,Short summary
Much of what we know about atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is based on ground-level measurements. We used tethered balloon measurements and remote sensing to study the location in the boundary layer in which NPF events are initiated, the degree to which the boundary layer is well-mixed during NPF, and the potential role that water may play in aerosol particle chemical evolution. This information will improve the representativeness of process level models and laboratory experiments.
Adam W. Birdsall, Ulrich K. Krieger, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 33–47,Short summary
We have developed a laboratory system that provides mass spectra of individual particles, roughly 20 microns in diameter, after they have been levitated in an electric field. Measured evaporation of polyethylene glycol particles was found to agree with a kinetic model. The system can be used to study fundamental chemical and physical processes involving particles that are difficult to isolate and study with other techniques, and hence improve our understanding of atmospheric particles.
Carla Frege, Ismael K. Ortega, Matti P. Rissanen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Gerhard Steiner, Martin Heinritzi, Lauri Ahonen, António Amorim, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Martin Breitenlechner, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El-Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Marc Gonin, Armin Hansel, Christopher R. Hoyle, Tuija Jokinen, Heikki Junninen, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Roy Lee Mauldin, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Tuukka Petäjä, Nina Sarnela, Siegfried Schobesberger, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Dominik Stolzenburg, António Tomé, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Paul M. Winkler, Josef Dommen, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 65–79,Short summary
It was recently shown that biogenic highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) form particles in the absence of sulfuric acid and ions enhance the nucleation rate. Here we compare the molecular composition of positive and negative HOM clusters at 25, 5 and −25 °C. At lower temperatures the HOM average oxygen-to-carbon ratio decreases indicating a reduction in the rate of autoxidation due to rather high activation energy. The experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations.
Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, Sunil Baidar, Barbara Dix, Siyuan Wang, Daniel C. Anderson, Ross J. Salawitch, Pamela A. Wales, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Mathew J. Evans, Tomás Sherwen, Daniel J. Jacob, Johan Schmidt, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-François Lamarque, Eric C. Apel, James C. Bresch, Teresa Campos, Frank M. Flocke, Samuel R. Hall, Shawn B. Honomichl, Rebecca Hornbrook, Jørgen B. Jensen, Richard Lueb, Denise D. Montzka, Laura L. Pan, J. Michael Reeves, Sue M. Schauffler, Kirk Ullmann, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Elliot L. Atlas, Valeria Donets, Maria A. Navarro, Daniel Riemer, Nicola J. Blake, Dexian Chen, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Thomas F. Hanisco, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15245–15270,Short summary
Tropospheric inorganic bromine (BrO and Bry) shows a C-shaped profile over the tropical western Pacific Ocean, and supports previous speculation that marine convection is a source for inorganic bromine from sea salt to the upper troposphere. The Bry profile in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is complex, suggesting that the total Bry budget in the TTL is not closed without considering aerosol bromide. The implications for atmospheric composition and bromine sources are discussed.
Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jonathan Duplissy, Tuomo Nieminen, Juha Kangasluoma, Lauri R. Ahonen, Lubna Dada, Jenni Kontkanen, Hanna E. Manninen, Antonio Dias, Antonio Amorim, Paulus S. Bauer, Anton Bergen, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Xuemeng Chen, Danielle C. Draper, Lukas Fischer, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Jani Hakala, Liine Heikkinen, Martin Heinritzi, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Alexander N. Kvashnin, Tiia Laurila, Michael J. Lawler, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Roy L. Mauldin III, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Felix Piel, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Nina Sarnela, Simon Schallhart, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Yrjö Viisanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Mao Xiao, Penglin Ye, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, James N. Smith, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas Worsnop, Mikael Ehn, Mikko Sipilä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15181–15197,
Jason M. St. Clair, Andrew K. Swanson, Steven A. Bailey, Glenn M. Wolfe, Josette E. Marrero, Laura T. Iraci, John G. Hagopian, and Thomas F. Hanisco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4833–4844,Short summary
Formaldehyde is an abundant, photochemically influential trace species in the Earth’s atmosphere. We present a new instrument for measuring atmospheric formaldehyde using a laser-based measurement technique that is more compact and lower cost than previous laser-based formaldehyde instruments. The instrument is part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload at the NASA Ames Research Center and has collected data on 27 flights between December 2015 and March 2017.
Sara C. Pryor, Ryan C. Sullivan, and Justin T. Schoof
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14457–14471,Short summary
The air temperature and water vapor content are increasing globally due to the increased concentration of "heat-trapping" (greenhouse) gases. But not all regions are warming at the same rate. This analysis is designed to improve understanding of the causes of recent trends and year-to-year variability in summertime heat indices over the eastern US and to present a new model that can be used to make projections of future events that may cause loss of life and/or decreased human well-being.
Demetrios Pagonis, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joost de Gouw, Jose L. Jimenez, and Paul J. Ziemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4687–4696,Short summary
Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate gas-wall partitioning of atmospheric organic compounds in Teflon tubing and inside an instrument used to monitor concentrations. Rapid partitioning caused time delays in instrument response that vary with tubing length and diameter, flow rate, and compound volatility. Tubing delay times of seconds to hours were described using a model that also included effects of instrument surfaces. The results can enable better design of air sampling systems.
Jake Zenker, Kristen N. Collier, Guanglang Xu, Ping Yang, Ezra J. T. Levin, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Paul J. DeMott, and Sarah D. Brooks
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4639–4657,Short summary
We have developed a new method which employs single particle depolarization to determine ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations and to differentiate between ice crystals, water droplets, and aerosols. The method is used to interpret measurements collected using the Texas A&M Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (TAMU CFDC) coupled to a Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarization (CASPOL). This new method extends the range of operating conditions for the CFDC to higher supersaturations.
Robert C. Rhew, Malte Julian Deventer, Andrew A. Turnipseed, Carsten Warneke, John Ortega, Steve Shen, Luis Martinez, Abigail Koss, Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, James N. Smith, Alex B. Guenther, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13417–13438,Short summary
Alkenes emanate from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can contribute to atmospheric ozone production. This study measured
lightalkene (ethene, propene and butene) fluxes from a ponderosa pine forest using a novel relaxed eddy accumulation method, revealing much larger emissions than previously estimated and accounting for a significant fraction of OH reactivity. Emissions have a diurnal cycle related to sunlight and temperature, and the forest canopy appears to be the source.
Nicole J. Savage, Christine E. Krentz, Tobias Könemann, Taewon T. Han, Gediminas Mainelis, Christopher Pöhlker, and J. Alex Huffman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4279–4302,Short summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of a commonly used commercial instrument (WIBS) for the real-time detection of fluorescent bioaerosols and suggest improved analysis and threshold strategies. Summaries of both biological and potential interfering, non-biological particles (70 aerosol types in total) are discussed in detail. The strategies we suggest will minimize interference from non-biological particles and will aid instrument users’ interpretation of ambient particle data.
Adrian M. Maclean, Christopher L. Butenhoff, James W. Grayson, Kelley Barsanti, Jose L. Jimenez, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13037–13048,Short summary
Using laboratory data, meteorological fields and a chemical transport model, we investigated how often mixing times are < 1 h within SOA in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Based on viscosity data for alpha-pinene SOA generated using mass concentrations of ~1000 µg m −3, mixing times in biogenic SOA are < 1h most of the time.
Zhe Peng and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11991–12010,Short summary
Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) have been increasingly used to study atmospheric chemistry at high NO. We show that it is very difficult to obtain high-NO chemistry (in terms of RO2 fate) in OFRs by initial NO injection. Past OFR studies with combustion sources generally had too-high precursor and NOx concentrations that caused several types of experimental artifacts. A strong dilution (× 100 or larger) may be needed for such experiments to avoid undesired chemistry.
Giorgia Verri, Nadia Pinardi, David Gochis, Joseph Tribbia, Antonio Navarra, Giovanni Coppini, and Tomislava Vukicevic
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1741–1761,
Ryan Thalman, Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Mira L. Pöhlker, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Castillo, Douglas A. Day, Chongai Kuang, Antonio Manzi, Nga Lee Ng, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Rodrigo Souza, Stephen Springston, Thomas Watson, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, Scot T. Martin, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11779–11801,Short summary
Particle hygroscopicity, mixing state, and the hygroscopicity of organic components were characterized in central Amazonia for 1 year; their seasonal and diel variations were driven by a combination of primary emissions, photochemical oxidation, and boundary layer development. The relationship between the hygroscopicity of organic components and their oxidation level was examined, and the results help to reconcile the differences among the relationships observed in previous studies.
Bianca C. Baier, William H. Brune, David O. Miller, Donald Blake, Russell Long, Armin Wisthaler, Christopher Cantrell, Alan Fried, Brian Heikes, Steven Brown, Erin McDuffie, Frank Flocke, Eric Apel, Lisa Kaser, and Andrew Weinheimer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11273–11292,Short summary
Ozone production rates were measured using the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS). Measurements are compared to modeled ozone production rates using two different chemical mechanisms. At high nitric oxide levels, observed rates are higher than those modeled, prompting the need to revisit current model photochemistry. These direct measurements can add to our understanding of the ozone chemistry within air quality models and can be used to guide government regulatory strategies.
Paul J. DeMott, Thomas C. J. Hill, Markus D. Petters, Allan K. Bertram, Yutaka Tobo, Ryan H. Mason, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Christina S. McCluskey, Ezra J. T. Levin, Gregory P. Schill, Yvonne Boose, Anne Marie Rauker, Anna J. Miller, Jake Zaragoza, Katherine Rocci, Nicholas E. Rothfuss, Hans P. Taylor, John D. Hader, Cedric Chou, J. Alex Huffman, Ulrich Pöschl, Anthony J. Prenni, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11227–11245,Short summary
The consistency and complementarity of different methods for measuring the numbers of particles capable of forming ice in clouds are examined in the atmosphere. Four methods for collecting particles for later (offline) freezing studies are compared to a common instantaneous method. Results support very good agreement in many cases but also biases that require further research. Present capabilities and uncertainties for obtaining global data on these climate-relevant aerosols are thus defined.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Matthew C. Woody, Jose L. Jimenez, Ann Marie G. Carlton, Patrick L. Hayes, Shang Liu, Nga L. Ng, Lynn M. Russell, Ari Setyan, Lu Xu, Jeff Young, Rahul A. Zaveri, Qi Zhang, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11107–11133,Short summary
We incorporate recent findings about the behavior of organic pollutants in urban airsheds into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to refine predictions of organic particulate pollution in the United States. The new techniques, which account for the volatility and ongoing chemistry of airborne organic compounds, substantially reduce biases, particularly in the winter time and near emission sources.
Carlena J. Ebben, Tamara L. Sparks, Paul J. Wooldridge, Teresa L. Campos, Christopher A. Cantrell, Roy L. Mauldin, Andrew J. Weinheimer, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
We use observations from the FRAPPÉ campaign to examine the evolution of reactive nitrogen as it is transported from Denver. We provide estimates for dilution rates, chemical lifetimes, and deposition rates. While dilution is the primary loss process in the immediate outflow from Denver, chemically, a majority of NOx is converted to HNO3 and is subsequently deposited. Understanding the evolution of reactive nitrogen informs how urban emissions affect air quality in the surrounding regions.
Min Huang, Gregory R. Carmichael, James H. Crawford, Armin Wisthaler, Xiwu Zhan, Christopher R. Hain, Pius Lee, and Alex B. Guenther
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3085–3104,Short summary
Various sensitivity simulations during two airborne campaigns were performed to assess the impact of different initialization methods and model resolutions on NUWRF-modeled weather states, heat fluxes, and the follow-on MEGAN isoprene emission calculations. Proper land initialization is shown to be important to the coupled weather modeling and the follow-on emission modeling, which is also critical to accurately representing other processes in air quality modeling and data assimilation.
Abigail Koss, Bin Yuan, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Patrick R. Veres, Jeff Peischl, Scott Eilerman, Rob Wild, Steven S. Brown, Chelsea R. Thompson, Thomas Ryerson, Thomas Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Mitchell Thayer, Frank N. Keutsch, Shane Murphy, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2941–2968,Short summary
Oil and gas extraction activity can cause air quality issues through emission of reactive chemicals. VOCs related to extraction operations in the United States were measured by PTR-ToF-MS from aircraft during the SONGNEX campaign in March–April 2015. The detailed analysis in this work provides a guide to interpreting PTR-ToF measurements in oil- and gas-producing regions, and it includes fundamental observations of VOC speciation and mixing ratios.
Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Philip Croteau, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2897–2921,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) from ARI are used widely to measure the non-refractory species in PM1. Recently, a new capture vapourizer (CV) has been designed to reduce the need for a bounce-related CE correction in the commonly used standard vapourizer (SV) installed in AMS. To test the CV, the fragments, CE and size distributions of four pure inorganic species in the CV-AMS are investigated in various laboratory experiments. Results from the co-located SV-AMS are also shown as a comparison.
Prettiny K. Ma, Yunliang Zhao, Allen L. Robinson, David R. Worton, Allen H. Goldstein, Amber M. Ortega, Jose L. Jimenez, Peter Zotter, André S. H. Prévôt, Sönke Szidat, and Patrick L. Hayes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9237–9259,Short summary
Airborne particulate matter (PM) negatively impacts air quality in cities throughout the world. An important fraction of PM is organic aerosol. We have evaluated and developed several new models for secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which is formed from the chemical processing of gaseous precursors. Using our model results, we have quantified important SOA sources and precursors and also identified possible model parameterizations that could be used for air quality predictions.
Charlotte M. Beall, M. Dale Stokes, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Jesse T. DeWald, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2613–2626,Short summary
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) influence cloud properties and can affect the overall precipitation efficiency. An existing technique for measuring INP concentrations is modified and automated, and heat transfer properties of the INP measurement technique are characterized for the first time using a finite-element-analysis-based heat transfer simulation to improve accuracy of INP freezing temperature measurement.
Christopher Chan Miller, Daniel J. Jacob, Eloise A. Marais, Karen Yu, Katherine R. Travis, Patrick S. Kim, Jenny A. Fisher, Lei Zhu, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas F. Hanisco, Frank N. Keutsch, Jennifer Kaiser, Kyung-Eun Min, Steven S. Brown, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Gonzalo González Abad, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8725–8738,Short summary
The use of satellite glyoxal observations for estimating isoprene emissions has been limited by knowledge of the glyoxal yield from isoprene. We use SENEX aircraft observations over the southeast US to evaluate glyoxal yields from isoprene in a 3-D atmospheric model. The SENEX observations support a pathway for glyoxal formation in pristine regions that we propose here, which may have implications for improving isoprene emissions estimates from upcoming high-resolution geostationary satellites.
Guanyu Huang, Xiong Liu, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, Pawan K. Bhartia, Zhaonan Cai, Marc Allaart, Gérard Ancellet, Bertrand Calpini, Gerrie J. R. Coetzee, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, Manuel Cupeiro, Hugo De Backer, Manvendra K. Dubey, Henry E. Fuelberg, Masatomo Fujiwara, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Tristan J. Hall, Bryan Johnson, Everette Joseph, Rigel Kivi, Bogumil Kois, Ninong Komala, Gert König-Langlo, Giovanni Laneve, Thierry Leblanc, Marion Marchand, Kenneth R. Minschwaner, Gary Morris, Michael J. Newchurch, Shin-Ya Ogino, Nozomu Ohkawara, Ankie J. M. Piters, Françoise Posny, Richard Querel, Rinus Scheele, Frank J. Schmidlin, Russell C. Schnell, Otto Schrems, Henry Selkirk, Masato Shiotani, Pavla Skrivánková, René Stübi, Ghassan Taha, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Valérie Thouret, Matthew B. Tully, Roeland Van Malderen, Holger Vömel, Peter von der Gathen, Jacquelyn C. Witte, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2455–2475,Short summary
It is essential to understand the data quality of +10-year OMI ozone product and impacts of the “row anomaly” (RA). We validate the OMI Ozone Profile (PROFOZ) product from Oct 2004 to Dec 2014 against ozonesonde observations globally. Generally, OMI has good agreement with ozonesondes. The spatiotemporal variation of retrieval performance suggests the need to improve OMI’s radiometric calibration especially during the post-RA period to maintain the long-term stability.
Camille Viatte, Thomas Lauvaux, Jacob K. Hedelius, Harrison Parker, Jia Chen, Taylor Jones, Jonathan E. Franklin, Aijun J. Deng, Brian Gaudet, Kristal Verhulst, Riley Duren, Debra Wunch, Coleen Roehl, Manvendra K. Dubey, Steve Wofsy, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7509–7528,Short summary
This study estimates methane emissions at local scale in dairy farms using four new mobile ground-based remote sensing spectrometers (EM27/SUN) and isotopic in situ measurements. Our top-down estimates are in the low end of previous studies. Inverse modeling from a comprehensive high-resolution model simulations (WRF-LES) is used to assess the geographical distribution of the emissions. Both the model and the measurements indicate a mixture of an