Articles | Volume 15, issue 18
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10723–10776, 2015

Special issue: Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) Special Issue

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10723–10776, 2015

Research article 28 Sep 2015

Research article | 28 Sep 2015

The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO): overview of pilot measurements on ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gases, and aerosols

M. O. Andreae2,1, O. C. Acevedo3, A. Araùjo4, P. Artaxo5, C. G. G. Barbosa6, H. M. J. Barbosa5, J. Brito5, S. Carbone5, X. Chi1, B. B. L. Cintra7, N. F. da Silva7, N. L. Dias6, C. Q. Dias-Júnior8,11, F. Ditas1, R. Ditz1, A. F. L. Godoi6, R. H. M. Godoi6, M. Heimann9, T. Hoffmann10, J. Kesselmeier11, T. Könemann1, M. L. Krüger1, J. V. Lavric9, A. O. Manzi11, A. P. Lopes15, D. L. Martins15, E. F. Mikhailov20,1, D. Moran-Zuloaga1, B. W. Nelson15, A. C. Nölscher1, D. Santos Nogueira12,b, M. T. F. Piedade7, C. Pöhlker1, U. Pöschl1, C. A. Quesada15, L. V. Rizzo5, C.-U. Ro13, N. Ruckteschler1, L. D. A. Sá14, M. de Oliveira Sá15, C. B. Sales11,16, R. M. N. dos Santos17, J. Saturno1, J. Schöngart7,1, M. Sörgel1, C. M. de Souza11,18, R. A. F. de Souza17, H. Su1, N. Targhetta7, J. Tóta17,19, I. Trebsa,1, S. Trumbore9, A. van Eijck10, D. Walter1, Z. Wang1, B. Weber1, J. Williams1, J. Winderlich9,1, F. Wittmann1, S. Wolff11,1, and A. M. Yáñez-Serrano11,1 M. O. Andreae et al.
  • 1Biogeochemistry, Multiphase Chemistry, and Air Chemistry Departments, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, 55020, Mainz, Germany
  • 2Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
  • 3Universidade Federal Santa Maria, Dept. Fisica, 97119900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
  • 4Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), Trav. Dr. Enéas Pinheiro, Belém-PA, CEP 66095-100, Brasil
  • 5Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Rua do Matão, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
  • 6Department of Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paraná UFPR, Curitiba, PR, Brazil
  • 7Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), MAUA group, Av. André Araújo 2936, Manaus-AM CEP 69067-375, Brasil
  • 8Instituto Nacional de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Pará (IFPA/Bragança), Pará, Brazil
  • 9Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans-Knöll-Straße 10, 07745 Jena, Germany
  • 10Department of Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
  • 11Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Clima e Ambiente (CLIAMB), Av. André Araújo 2936, Manaus-AM, CEP 69083-000, Brazil
  • 12Centro Gestor e Operacional do Sistema de Proteção da Amazônia (CENSIPAM), Belém, Pará
  • 13Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 402-751, Korea
  • 14Centro Regional da Amazônia, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Belém, Pará, Brazil
  • 15Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), LBA, Av. André Araújo 2936, Manaus-AM, CEP 69067-375, Brazil
  • 16Centro de Estudos Superiores de Parintins (CESP/UEA), Parintins, Amazonas, Brazil
  • 17Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil
  • 18Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM/ICSEZ-Parintins), Parintins, Amazonas, Brazil
  • 19Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará – UFOPA, Santarém, Pará, Brazil
  • 20Atmospheric Physics Department, Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
  • anow at: Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, Environmental Research and Innovation (ERIN) Department, 4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg
  • bon leave from: Amazon Regional Center, National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Belém, Pará

Abstract. The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It has already been changed significantly by human activities, and more pervasive change is expected to occur in the coming decades. It is therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming decades to monitor change in the Amazon region, as human perturbations increase in the future.

The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been set up in a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Measurements of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at five to eight different heights, complemented by a variety of additional species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO2, and OH reactivity). Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical measurements are being made above the canopy as well as in the canopy space. They include aerosol light scattering and absorption, fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, chemical composition, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, and hygroscopicity. In this paper, we discuss the scientific context of the ATTO observatory and present an overview of results from ecological, meteorological, and chemical pilot studies at the ATTO site.

Short summary
This paper describes the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a new atmosphere-biosphere observatory located in the remote Amazon Basin. It presents results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected at the ATTO site during the first 3 years of operation.
Final-revised paper