Articles | Volume 14, issue 5
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2245–2266, 2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Desert dust and its impact on air quality and climate
Research article 04 Mar 2014
Research article | 04 Mar 2014
Mass deposition fluxes of Saharan mineral dust to the tropical northeast Atlantic Ocean: an intercomparison of methods
N. Niedermeier et al.
No articles found.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, James Brean, Francis D. Pope, Manuel Dall'Osto, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Noemi Perez, Tuukka Petäjä, Andreas Massling, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3345–3370,Short summary
New particle formation events from 16 sites over Europe have been studied, and the influence of meteorological and atmospheric composition variables has been investigated. Some variables, like solar radiation intensity and temperature, have a positive effect on the occurrence of these events, while others have a negative effect, affecting different aspects such as the rate at which particles are formed or grow. This effect varies depending on the site type and magnitude of these variables.
Sebastian Düsing, Albert Ansmann, Holger Baars, Joel C. Corbin, Cyrielle Denjean, Martin Gysel-Beer, Thomas Müller, Laurent Poulain, Holger Siebert, Gerald Spindler, Thomas Tuch, Birgit Wehner, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The work deals with optical properties of aerosol particles in dried and atmospheric state. Based on two measurement campaigns in the rural background of Central Europe different measurement approaches were compared with each other, such as modeling based on Mie theory and direct in-situ or remote sensing measurements. Among others, it was shown that the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio is relative humidity dependent, and refinement with respect to the model input parameters is needed.
Nikolaos Evangeliou, Stephen M. Platt, Sabine Eckhardt, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Paolo Laj, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Angela Marinoni, Marco Pandolfi, Jesus Yus-Dìez, Natalia Prats, Jean P. Putaud, Karine Sellegri, Mar Sorribas, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Stergios Vratolis, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Andreas Stohl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2675–2692,Short summary
Following the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to Europe, social distancing rules were introduced to prevent further spread. We investigate the impacts of the European lockdowns on black carbon (BC) emissions by means of in situ observations and inverse modelling. BC emissions declined by 23 kt in Europe during the lockdowns as compared with previous years and by 11 % as compared to the period prior to lockdowns. Residential combustion prevailed in Eastern Europe, as confirmed by remote sensing data.
Gareth J. Stewart, Beth S. Nelson, W. Joe F. Acton, Adam R. Vaughan, Naomi J. Farren, James R. Hopkins, Martyn W. Ward, Stefan J. Swift, Rahul Arya, Arnab Mondal, Ritu Jangirh, Sakshi Ahlawat, Lokesh Yadav, Sudhir K. Sharma, Siti S. M. Yunus, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Eiko Nemitz, Neil Mullinger, Ranu Gadi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Nidhi Tripathi, Andrew R. Rickard, James D. Lee, Tuhin K. Mandal, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2407–2426,Short summary
Biomass burning releases many lower-molecular-weight organic species which are difficult to analyse but important for the formation of organic aerosol. This study examined a new high-resolution technique to better characterise these difficult-to-analyse organic components. Some burning sources analysed in this study, such as cow dung cake and municipal solid waste, released extremely complex mixtures containing many thousands of different lower-volatility organic compounds.
Gareth J. Stewart, W. Joe F. Acton, Beth S. Nelson, Adam R. Vaughan, James R. Hopkins, Rahul Arya, Arnab Mondal, Ritu Jangirh, Sakshi Ahlawat, Lokesh Yadav, Sudhir K. Sharma, Rachel E. Dunmore, Siti S. M. Yunus, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Eiko Nemitz, Neil Mullinger, Ranu Gadi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Nidhi Tripathi, Andrew R. Rickard, James D. Lee, Tuhin K. Mandal, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2383–2406,Short summary
Biomass burning is a major source of trace gases to the troposphere; however, the composition and quantity of emissions vary greatly between different fuel types. This work provided near-total quantitation of non-methane volatile organic compounds from combustion of biofuels from India. Emissions from cow dung cake combustion were significantly larger than conventional fuelwood combustion, potentially indicating that this source has a disproportionately large impact on regional air quality.
Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2125–2147,Short summary
To understand how emission controls will impact ozone, an understanding of the sources and sinks of OH and the chemical cycling between peroxy radicals is needed. This paper presents measurements of OH, HO2 and total RO2 taken in central Beijing. The radical observations are compared to a detailed chemistry model, which shows that under low NO conditions, there is a missing OH source. Under high NOx conditions, the model under-predicts RO2 and impacts our ability to model ozone.
Mike J. Newland, Daniel J. Bryant, Rachel E. Dunmore, Thomas J. Bannan, W. Joe F. Acton, Ben Langford, James R. Hopkins, Freya A. Squires, William Dixon, William S. Drysdale, Peter D. Ivatt, Mathew J. Evans, Peter M. Edwards, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James D. Lee, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Xinming Wang, Alastair C. Lewis, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1613–1625,Short summary
We report the formation of secondary pollutants in the urban megacity of Beijing that are typically associated with remote regions such as rainforests. This is caused by extremely low levels of nitric oxide (NO), typically expected to be high in urban areas, observed in the afternoon. This work has significant implications for how we understand atmospheric chemistry in the urban environment and thus for how to implement effective policies to improve urban air quality.
Rob L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Benjamin T. Brem, Martin Irwin, Michele Bertò, Rosaria E. Pileci, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Bas Henzing, Marcel M. Moerman, Fengshan Liu, Thomas Müller, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 819–851,Short summary
Extinction-minus-scattering is an important method for measuring aerosol light absorption, but its application in the field presents a number of challenges. A recently developed instrument based on this method – the CAPS PMssa – has the potential to overcome some of these challenges. We present a compilation of theory, lab measurements, and field examples to characterize this instrument and show the conditions under which it can deliver reliable absorption measurements for atmospheric aerosols.
Huihui Wu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Justin M. Langridge, Chenjie Yu, James D. Allan, Kate Szpek, Michael I. Cotterell, Paul I. Williams, Michael Flynn, Patrick Barker, Cathryn Fox, Grant Allen, James Lee, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Seasonal biomass burning over West Africa is a globally significant source of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere, which have important climate impacts but are poorly constrained. We conducted in-situ airborne measurements to investigate the evolution of smoke aerosol properties in this region. We observed absorption enhancement for both the black carbon and brown carbon after emission, which provide new field results and constraints on aerosol parameterisations for future climate models.
Andreas Tilgner, Thomas Schaefer, Becky Alexander, Mary Barth, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Athanasios Nenes, Havala O. T. Pye, Hartmut Herrmann, and V. Faye McNeill
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Feedbacks of acidity and atmospheric multiphase chemistry in deliquesced particles and clouds are crucial for the tropospheric composition, depositions, climate, and human health. This review synthesizes the current scientific knowledge on these feedbacks involving both inorganic and organic aqueous-phase chemistry. Finally, this review outlines atmospheric implications and highlight needs for future investigations with respect to reducing emissions of key acid precursors in a changing world.
Jinfeng Yuan, Robin Lewis Modini, Marco Zanatta, Andreas B. Herber, Thomas Müller, Birgit Wehner, Laurent Poulain, Thomas Tuch, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 635–655,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) aerosols contribute substantially to climate warming due to their unique light absorption capabilities. We performed field measurements at a central European background site in winter and found that variability in the absorption efficiency of BC particles is driven mainly by their internal mixing state. Our results suggest that, at this site, knowing the BC mixing state is sufficient to describe BC light absorption enhancements due to the lensing effect in good approximation.
Baseerat Romshoo, Thomas Müller, Sascha Pfeifer, Jorge Saturno, Andreas Nowak, Krzysztof Ciupek, Paul Quincey, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The modifications in radiative properties of black carbon (BC) due to aging are presented and quantified in this study using a state-of-the-art description scheme of BC fractal aggregates. It is shown that the relative change in BC radiative forcing can be larger than 50 % as a function of changing fractal dimension and organic content. A comprehensive parameterization scheme for coated BC radiative properties is developed with applications for modeling, ambient, and laboratory-based BC studies.
Jing Dou, Peter A. Alpert, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Beiping Luo, Frederic Schneider, Jacinta Xto, Thomas Huthwelker, Camelia N. Borca, Katja D. Henzler, Jörg Raabe, Benjamin Watts, Hartmut Herrmann, Thomas Peter, Markus Ammann, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 315–338,Short summary
Photochemistry of iron(III) complexes plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in the lower troposphere. Ensuing radical chemistry leads to decarboxylation, and the production of peroxides, and oxygenated volatile compounds, resulting in particle mass loss due to release of the volatile products to the gas phase. We investigated kinetic transport limitations due to high particle viscosity under low relative humidity conditions. For quantification a numerical model was developed.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Anja Engel, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 163–181,Short summary
To investigate the sources of free amino acids (FAAs) in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements (the simultaneous investigation of seawater, size-segregated aerosol particles and cloud water) were performed at the Cabo Verde islands. This study describes the transfer of FAAs as part of organic matter from the ocean into the atmosphere on a molecular level. In the investigated marine environment, a high enrichment of FAAs in submicron aerosol particles and in cloud droplets was observed.
Rutambhara Joshi, Dantong Liu, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Neil Mullinger, Freya Squires, James Lee, Yunfei Wu, Xiaole Pan, Pingqing Fu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Oliver Wild, Michael Flynn, Hugh Coe, and James Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 147–162,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is a component of particulate matter which has significant effects on climate and human health. Sources of BC include biomass burning, transport, industry and domestic cooking and heating. In this study, we measured BC emissions in Beijing, finding a dominance of traffic emissions over all other sources. The quantitative method presented here has benefits for revising widely used emissions inventories and for understanding BC sources with impacts on air quality and climate.
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system which effects are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
James L. France, Prudence Bateson, Pamela Dominutti, Grant Allen, Stephen Andrews, Stephane Bauguitte, Max Coleman, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Rebecca E. Fisher, Langwen Huang, Anna E. Jones, James Lee, David Lowry, Joseph Pitt, Ruth Purvis, John Pyle, Jacob Shaw, Nicola Warwick, Alexandra Weiss, Shona Wilde, Jonathan Witherstone, and Stuart Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 71–88,Short summary
Measuring emission rates of methane from installations is tricky, and it is even more so when those installations are located offshore. Here, we show the aircraft set-up and demonstrate an effective methodology for surveying emissions from UK and Dutch offshore oil and gas installations. We present example data collected from two campaigns to demonstrate the challenges and solutions encountered during these surveys.
Gloria Titos, María A. Burgos, Paul Zieger, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Urs Baltensperger, Anne Jefferson, James Sherman, Ernest Weingartner, Bas Henzing, Krista Luoma, Colin O'Dowd, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This manuscript investigates the impact of water uptake on the aerosol optical properties, in particular the aerosol light-scattering coefficient. Although in-situ measurements are performed at low relative humidity (typically at RH < 40 %), to address the climatic impact of aerosol particles it is necessary to take into account the effect that water uptake may have on the aerosol optical properties.
Jann Schrod, Erik S. Thomson, Daniel Weber, Jens Kossmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Paulo Artaxo, Valérie Clouard, Jean-Marie Saurel, Martin Ebert, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15983–16006,Short summary
Long-term ice-nucleating particle (INP) data are presented from four semi-pristine sites located in the Amazon, the Caribbean, Germany and the Arctic. Average INP concentrations did not differ by orders of magnitude between the sites. For all sites short-term variability dominated the time series, which lacked clear trends and seasonalities. Common drivers to explain the INP levels and their variations could not be identified, illustrating the complex nature of heterogeneous ice nucleation.
Huan Song, Xiaorui Chen, Keding Lu, Qi Zou, Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Alfred Wiedensohler, Daniel R. Moon, Dwayne E. Heard, María-Teresa Baeza-Romero, Mei Zheng, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15835–15850,Short summary
Accurate calculation of the HO2 uptake coefficient is one of the key parameters to quantify the co-reduction of both aerosol and ozone pollution. We modelled various lab measurements of γHO2 based on a gas-liquid phase kinetic model and developed a state-of-the-art parameterized equation. Based on a dataset from a comprehensive field campaign in the North China Plain, we proposed that the determination of the heterogeneous uptake process for HO2 should be included in future field campaigns.
David C. Loades, Mingxi Yang, Thomas G. Bell, Adam R. Vaughan, Ryan J. Pound, Stefan Metzger, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6915–6931,Short summary
The loss of ozone to the sea surface was measured from the south coast of the UK and was found to be more rapid than previous observations over the open ocean. This is likely a consequence of different chemistry and biology in coastal environments. Strong winds appeared to speed up the loss of ozone. A better understanding of what influences ozone loss over the sea will lead to better model estimates of total ozone in the troposphere.
James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Doug P. Finch, Shona E. Wilde, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15743–15759,Short summary
Efforts to prevent the COVID-19 virus spreading across the globe have included travel restrictions and the closure of workplaces, leading to a significant drop in emissions of primary air pollutants. This provides for a unique opportunity to examine how air pollutant concentrations respond to an abrupt and prolonged reduction. We examine how NO2 and O3 have been affected at several urban measurement sites in the UK. We look at the change in NO2 compared to previous years and the effect on O3.
Patrick A. Barker, Grant Allen, Martin Gallagher, Joseph R. Pitt, Rebecca E. Fisher, Thomas Bannan, Euan G. Nisbet, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Dominika Pasternak, Samuel Cliff, Marina B. Schimpf, Archit Mehra, Keith N. Bower, James D. Lee, Hugh Coe, and Carl J. Percival
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15443–15459,Short summary
Africa is estimated to account for approximately 52 % of global biomass burning (BB) carbon emissions. Despite this, there has been little previous in situ study of African BB emissions. This work presents BB emission factors for various atmospheric trace gases sampled from an aircraft in two distinct areas of Africa (Senegal and Uganda). Intracontinental variability in biomass burning methane emission is identified, which is attributed to difference in the specific fuel mixtures burnt.
Simone T. Andersen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Beth S. Nelson, Luis Neves, Katie A. Read, Chris Reed, Martyn Ward, Matthew J. Rowlinson, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMT
W. Joe F. Acton, Zhonghui Huang, Brian Davison, Will S. Drysdale, Pingqing Fu, Michael Hollaway, Ben Langford, James Lee, Yanhui Liu, Stefan Metzger, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Claire E. Reeves, Freya A. Squires, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Zhaoyi Wang, Oliver Wild, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, and C. Nicholas Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15101–15125,Short summary
Air quality in Beijing is of concern to both policy makers and the general public. In order to address concerns about air quality it is vital that the sources of atmospheric pollutants are understood. This work presents the first top-down measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in Beijing. These measurements are used to evaluate the emissions inventory and assess the impact of VOC emission from the city centre on atmospheric chemistry.
Sophie Vandenbussche, Sieglinde Callewaert, Kerstin Schepanski, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15127–15146,Short summary
Mineral dust aerosols blown mostly from desert areas are a key player in the climate system. We use a new desert dust aerosol low-altitude concentration data set as well as additional information on the surface state and low-altitude winds to infer desert dust emission and source maps over North Africa. With 9 years of data, we observe a full seasonal cycle of dust emissions, differentiating morning and afternoon/evening emissions and providing a first glance at long-term changes.
Eloise J. Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa Kramer, William Bloss, Tuan Vu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14847–14871,Short summary
The paper details atmospheric chemistry in a megacity (Beijing), focussing on radicals which mediate the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Highly polluted conditions were experienced, including the highest ever levels of nitric oxide (NO), with simultaneous radical measurements. Radical concentrations were large during "haze" events, demonstrating active photochemistry. Modelling showed that our understanding of the chemistry at high NOx levels is incomplete.
Markus Hartmann, Xianda Gong, Simonas Kecorius, Manuela van Pinxteren, Teresa Vogl, André Welti, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are not well characterized in the Arctic despite their importance for the Arctic energy budget. Little is known about their nature (mineral or biogenic) and sources (terrestrial or marine and long-range transport or local). We find indications that at the beginning of the melt season, a local, biogenic, probably marine source is likely, but significant enrichment of INPs has to take place from the ocean to the aerosol phase.
Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Defeng Zhao, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Hongyong Li, Pengfei Liu, Junfeng Liu, Chenglong Zhang, Yujing Mu, Wenjin Zhang, Luming Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Kai Li, Min Liu, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13735–13751,Short summary
Based on a field study at Mt. Tai, China, the simultaneous variations of cloud microphysics, aerosol microphysics and their potential interactions during cloud life cycles were discussed. Results demonstrated that clouds on clean days were more susceptible to the concentrations of particle number, while clouds formed on polluted days might be more sensitive to meteorological parameters. Particles larger than 150 nm played important roles in forming cloud droplets with sizes of 5–10 μm.
Stuart K. Grange, James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Alastair C. Lewis, Christoph Hueglin, Lukas Emmenegger, and David C. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The changes in mobility across Europe due to the COVID-19 lockdowns had consequences for air quality. We compare what was experienced, to estimates of
what would have beenwithout the lockdowns. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an important vehicle-sourced pollutant, decreased by a third. However, ozone (O3) increased in response to the lower NO2. Because NO2 is decreasing over time, increases in O3 can be expected in European urban areas and will require management to avoid future negative outcomes.
R. Anthony Cox, Markus Ammann, John N. Crowley, Hartmut Herrmann, Michael E. Jenkin, V. Faye McNeill, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Jürgen Troe, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13497–13519,Short summary
Criegee intermediates, formed from alkene–ozone reactions, play a potentially important role as tropospheric oxidants. Evaluated kinetic data are provided for reactions governing their formation and removal for use in atmospheric models. These include their formation from reactions of simple and complex alkenes and removal by decomposition and reaction with a number of atmospheric species (e.g. H2O, SO2). An overview of the tropospheric chemistry of Criegee intermediates is also provided.
Mohammed S. Alam, Leigh R. Crilley, James D. Lee, Louisa J. Kramer, Christian Pfrang, Mónica Vázquez-Moreno, Milagros Ródenas, Amalia Muñoz, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5977–5991,Short summary
We report on the interference arising in measurements of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the presence of a range of alkenes in sampled air when using the most widespread air quality monitoring technique for chemiluminescence detection. Interferences of up to 11 % are reported, depending upon the alkene present and conditions used. Such interferences may be of substantial importance for the interpretation of ambient NOx data, particularly for high volatile organic compound and low NOx environments.
Yangang Ren, Bastian Stieger, Gerald Spindler, Benoit Grosselin, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13069–13089,Short summary
We present HONO measurements from the TROPOS research site in Melpitz, Germany. Investigations of HONO sources and sinks revealed the nighttime formation by heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO followed by a significant surface deposition at night. The evaporation of dew was identified as the main HONO source in the morning. In the following, dew measurements with a self-made dew collector were performed to estimate the amount of evaporated HONO from dew in the atmospheric HONO distribution.
Matthias Faust, Ralf Wolke, Steffen Münch, Roger Funk, and Kerstin Schepanski
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for GMDShort summary
Trajectory dispersion models are powerful and intuitive tools for tracing air pollution through the atmosphere. But the turbulent nature of the atmospheric boundary layer makes it challenging to provide accurate predictions near the surface. To overcome this, we propose an approach using wind and turbulence information at high temporal resolution. Finally, we demonstrate the strength of our approach in a case study on dust emissions from agriculture.
Jann Schrod, Dominik Kleinhenz, Maria Hörhold, Tobias Erhardt, Sarah Richter, Frank Wilhelms, Hubertus Fischer, Martin Ebert, Birthe Twarloh, Damiano Della Lunga, Camilla M. Jensen, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12459–12482,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations of the last 6 centuries are presented from an ice core in Greenland. The data are accompanied by physical and chemical aerosol data. INPs are correlated to the dust signal from the ice core and seem to follow the annual input of mineral dust. We find no clear trend in the INP concentration. However, modern-day concentrations are higher and more variable than the concentrations of the past. This might have significant atmospheric implications.
Michael Weger, Oswald Knoth, and Bernd Heinold
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
A new numerical air-quality transport model for cities is presented, in which buildings are described diffusively. The used diffusive-obstacles approach, helps to reduce the computational costs for high-resolution simulations as the grid spacing can be more coarse than in traditional approaches. The research which led to this model development was primarily motivated by the need of a computationally feasible downscaling tool for urban wind and pollution fields from meteorological model output.
Eija Asmi, John Backman, Henri Servomaa, Aki Virkkula, Maria Gini, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Thomas Müller, Sho Ohata, Yutaka Kondo, and Antti Hyvärinen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Absorbing aerosols are warming the Arctic and accurate measurements of their concentrations are crucial. We organized a summer field campaign in Arctic Pallas station, measuring absorbing aerosols with eight methods. The concentrations during the campaign were very low. Filter-based techniques were the most sensitive to detect the minuscule amounts of absorbing aerosols, showing a 20 % agreement between the instruments. Our results help to reduce uncertainties in Arctic absorption measurements.
Shona E. Wilde, Pamela A. Dominutti, Stephen J. Andrews, Stephane J.-B. Bauguitte, Ralph R. Burton, Ioana Colfescu, James France, James R. Hopkins, Anna E. Jones, Tom Lachlan-Cope, James D. Lee, Alastair C. Lewis, Stephen D. Mobbs, Alexandra Weiss, Stuart Young, and Ruth M. Purvis
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We use airborne measurements to evaluate the speciation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from offshore oil and gas (O&G) installations in the North Sea. The composition of emissions varied across regions associated with either gas, condensate or oil extraction, demonstrating that VOC emissions are not uniform across the whole O&G sector. We compare our results to VOC source profiles in the UK emissions inventory, showing these emissions are not currently fully characterised.
Ting Lei, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Thomas Tuch, Xin Wang, Zhibin Wang, Mira Pöhlker, Maofa Ge, Weigang Wang, Eugene Mikhailov, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5551–5567,Short summary
We present the design of a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) apparatus that enables high accuracy and precision in hygroscopic growth measurements of aerosol nanoparticles with diameters less than 10 nm. We further introduce comprehensive methods for system calibration and validation of the performance of the system. We then study the size dependence of the deliquescence and the efflorescence of aerosol nanoparticles for sizes down to 6 nm.
Jost Heintzenberg, Wolfram Birmili, Bryan Hellack, Gerald Spindler, Thomas Tuch, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10967–10984,Short summary
A total of 10 years of hourly aerosol and gas data at four rural German stations have been combined with hourly back trajectories to the stations and inventories of the European Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), yielding emission maps and trends over Germany for PM10, particle number concentrations, and equivalent black carbon (eBC). The maps reflect aerosol emissions modified with atmospheric processes during transport between sources and receptor sites.
Pontus von Schoenberg, Peter Tunved, Håkan Grahn, Alfred Wiedensohler, Radovan Krejci, and Niklas Brännström
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In the radiological emergency preparedness system Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models, LPDMs, are often used to track the dispersion of the radioactive material. In this study we have shown the importance of simulating advanced aerosol dynamic processes that are commonly neglected or simplified in these simulations. In 5% of the 23000 simulated cases the decrease of airborne radioactivity concentration differed with more than 60 %-points compared to a simplified approach.
Laurent Poulain, Gerald Spindler, Achim Grüner, Thomas Tuch, Bastian Stieger, Dominik van Pinxteren, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4973–4994,Short summary
The stability and the comparability between ACSM and collocated filter sampling and MPSS measurements was investigated in order to examine the instruments robustness for year-long measurements. Specific attention was paid to the influence of the upper size cutoff diameter to better understand how it might affect the data validation. Recommendations are provided for better on-site quality assurance and quality control of the ACSM, which would be useful for either long-term or intensive campaigns.
Christof G. Beer, Johannes Hendricks, Mattia Righi, Bernd Heinold, Ina Tegen, Silke Groß, Daniel Sauer, Adrian Walser, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4287–4303,Short summary
Mineral dust aerosol plays an important role in the climate system. Previously, dust emissions have often been represented in global models by prescribed monthly-mean emission fields representative of a specific year. We now apply an online calculation of wind-driven dust emissions. This results in an improved agreement with observations, due to a better representation of the highly variable dust emissions. Increasing the model resolution led to an additional performance gain.
Abdelwahid Mellouki, Markus Ammann, R. Anthony Cox, John N. Crowley, Hartmut Herrmann, Michael E. Jenkin, V. Faye McNeill, Jürgen Troe, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Volatile organic compounds play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. This article, the eighth in the series, presents kinetic and photochemical datasheets evaluated by the IUPAC Task Group on Atmospheric Chemical Kinetic Data Evaluation. It covers the gas phase reactions of organic species with four, or more, carbon atoms (≥ C4) including thermal reactions of closed-shell organic species with HO and NO3 radicals, and their photolysis. These data are important for atmospheric models.
Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nabil Deabji, Sayf El Islam Barcha, Ibrahim Ouchen, El Mehdi Elbaramoussi, Rajaa Cherkaoui El Moursli, Mimoun Harnafi, Souad El Hajjaji, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4773–4790,Short summary
As air quality monitoring networks often sample aerosol particles on quartz filters, the development and applicability of analytical methods with quartz filters are becoming important. In this study different filter preparation methods (e.g., baking, acid digestion) were investigated for quantifying trace metals on quartz and polycarbonate filters, and cloud water using the total reflection X-Ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique, with low detection limits of about 0.3 ng cm−3 for some elements.
Ahmad Jhony Rusumdar, Andreas Tilgner, Ralf Wolke, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10351–10377,Short summary
In the present study, simulations with the SPACCIM-SpactMod multiphase chemistry model are performed. The investigations aim at assessing the impact of a detailed treatment of non-ideality in multiphase models dealing with aqueous aerosol chemistry. The model studies demonstrate that the inclusion of non-ideality considerably affects the multiphase chemical processing of transition metal ions, oxidants, and related chemical subsystems such as organic chemistry in aqueous aerosols.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Francis D. Pope, David C. Beddows, Manuel Dall’Osto, Andreas Massling, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nørdstrom, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Tuukka Petäjä, Noemi Perez, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Formation of new particles is a key process in the atmosphere. New Particle Formation events arising from nucleation of gaseous precursors have been analysed in extensive datasets from thirteen sites in five European countries in terms of frequency, nucleation rate and particle growth rate, with several common features and many differences identified. Although nucleation frequencies are lower at roadside sites, nucleation rates and particle growth rates are typically higher.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Upasana Panda, Eoghan Darbyshire, James M. Cash, Rutambhara Joshi, Ben Langford, Chiara F. Di Marco, Neil Mullinger, W. Joe F. Acton, Will Drysdale, Eiko Nemitz, Michael Flynn, Aristeidis Voliotis, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, James Lee, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Mathew R. Heal, Sachin S. Gunthe, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Siddhartha Singh, Vijay Soni, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The work presented in this manuscript shows the first multisite online measurements of PM1 in Delhi, India. It covers measurements over different seasons in Old and New Delhi during 2018. OA source apportionment was performed using PMF. Traffic showed to be the main primary aerosol source for both OA and BC, as seen with the PMF analysis and aethalometer model analysis. This indicates that in Delhi control of primary traffic exhaust emissions would make a significant reduction to air pollution.
Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Thomas Müller, Sascha Pfeifer, María Cruz Minguillón, Briel Björn, Paul Buckley, Vadimas Dudoitis, Javier Fernández-García, María Fernández-Amado, Joel Ferreira De Brito, Harald Flentje, Eimear Heffernan, Nikolaos Kalivitis, Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Hannes Keernik, Luminita Marmureanu, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Michael Pikridas, Gerhard Schauer, Norbert Serfozo, Henri Servomaa, Gloria Titos, Jesús Yus-Díez, Natalia Zioła, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Twenty-three aethalometers from European monitoring networks of black carbon mass concentrations, were characterized and intercompared. Measurements of black carbon must be conducted with instruments operating in a quality checked and assured conditions to generate reliable and comparable data. The influence of different aerosol sources, maintenance activities, and the filter material, in the instrumental variabilities were investigated. Good agreements and in general low deviations were seen.
Robert J. Allen, Steven Turnock, Pierre Nabat, David Neubauer, Ulrike Lohmann, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Martine Michou, Tongwen Wu, Jie Zhang, Toshihiko Takemura, Michael Schulz, Kostas Tsigaridis, Susanne E. Bauer, Louisa Emmons, Larry Horowitz, Vaishali Naik, Twan van Noije, Tommi Bergman, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Prodromos Zanis, Ina Tegen, Daniel M. Westervelt, Philippe Le Sager, Peter Good, Sungbo Shim, Fiona O'Connor, Dimitris Akritidis, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Makoto Deushi, Lori T. Sentman, Jasmin G. John, Shinichiro Fujimori, and William J. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9641–9663,
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Julian Hofer, Albert Ansmann, Dietrich Althausen, Ronny Engelmann, Holger Baars, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Ulla Wandinger, Sabur F. Abdullaev, and Abduvosit N. Makhmudov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9265–9280,Short summary
For the first time, a dense data set of particle extinction-to-backscatter ratios (lidar ratios), depolarization ratios, and backscatter- and extinction-related Ångström exponents for a Central Asian site are presented. The observations were performed with a continuously running multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at Dushanbe, Tajikistan, during an 18-month campaign. The found optical properties reflect the large range of occurring aerosol mixtures.
Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Andrés Alastuey, Todor Petkov Arsov, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Cédric Couret, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Harald Flentje, Markus Fiebig, Martin Gysel-Beer, Jenny L. Hand, András Hoffer, Rakesh Hooda, Christoph Hueglin, Warren Joubert, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Casper Labuschagne, Neng-Huei Lin, Yong Lin, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marco Pandolfi, Natalia Prats, Anthony J. Prenni, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Ludwig Ries, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Elvis Torres, Thomas Tuch, Rolf Weller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paul Zieger, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8867–8908,Short summary
Long-term trends of aerosol radiative properties (52 stations) prove that aerosol load has significantly decreased over the last 20 years. Scattering trends are negative in Europe (EU) and North America (NA), not ss in Asia, and show a mix of positive and negative trends at polar stations. Absorption has mainly negative trends. The single scattering albedo has positive trends in Asia and eastern EU and negative in western EU and NA, leading to a global positive median trend of 0.02 % per year.
Christa Genz, Roland Schrödner, Bernd Heinold, Silvia Henning, Holger Baars, Gerald Spindler, and Ina Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8787–8806,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols are the precondition for the formation of cloud droplets and thus have a large influence on cloud properties. Concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei of the period with highest aerosol concentrations over central Europe are uncertain. In this work, modeled estimates of CCN from today and the mid-1980s are compared to available in situ and remote sensing observations. A scaling factor between today and the 1980s for the CCN concentrations has been derived.
Freya A. Squires, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Oliver Wild, Will S. Drysdale, W. Joe F. Acton, Pingqing Fu, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Simone Kotthaus, James Lee, Stefan Metzger, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Marvin Shaw, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Ruili Wu, Qiang Zhang, and Yanli Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8737–8761,Short summary
Significant air quality problems exist in megacities like Beijing, China. To manage air pollution, legislators need a clear understanding of pollutant emissions. However, emissions inventories have large uncertainties, and reliable field measurements of pollutant emissions are required to constrain them. This work presents the first measurements of traffic-dominated emissions in Beijing which suggest that inventories overestimate these emissions in the region during both winter and summer.
Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Manuela van Pinxteren, Anja Engel, and Hartmut Herrmann
Ocean Sci., 16, 817–830,Short summary
An analytical method combining electro-dialysis with high-performance anionic exchange chromatography coupled to pulsed amperometric detection was developed and optimized for analyzing free and combined carbohydrates in seawater and other saline environmental samples.
Laurent Poulain, Benjamin Fahlbusch, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Zhijun Wu, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Wolfram Birmili, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We present results from source apportionment analysis on the carbonaceous aerosol particles including organic aerosol (OA) and equivalent black carbon (eBC) allowing us to distinguish local emissions from long-range transport for OA and eBC sources. By merging online chemical measurements and considering particle number size distribution, the different air masses reaching the sampling place were described and discussed based on their respective chemical composition and size distribution.
Tobias Donth, Evelyn Jäkel, André Ehrlich, Bernd Heinold, Jacob Schacht, Andreas Herber, Marco Zanatta, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8139–8156,Short summary
Solar radiative effects of Arctic black carbon (BC) particles (suspended in the atmosphere and in the surface snowpack) were quantified under cloudless and cloudy conditions. An atmospheric and a snow radiative transfer model were coupled to account for radiative interactions between both compartments. It was found that (i) the warming effect of BC in the snowpack overcompensates for the atmospheric BC cooling effect, and (ii) clouds tend to reduce the atmospheric BC cooling and snow BC warming.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Sanja Frka, Christian Stolle, Tobias Spranger, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Blaženka Gašparović, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
To investigate the source of lipids and their representatives in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements of seawater and submicron aerosol particles samples were carried out on the Cape Verde islands. This field study describes the biogenic sources of lipids, their selective transfer from the ocean into the atmosphere and their enrichment as part of organic matter. A strong enrichment of the studied representatives of the lipid classes on submicron aerosol particles was observed.
Daniel J. Bryant, William J. Dixon, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Kelly L. Pereira, Marvin Shaw, Freya A. Squires, Thomas J. Bannan, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Bin Ouyang, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Di Liu, Zongbo Shi, Roy Harrison, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Alastair C. Lewis, James D. Lee, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7531–7552,Short summary
Using the chemical composition of offline filter samples, we report that a large share of oxidized organic aerosol in Beijing during summer is due to isoprene secondary organic aerosol (iSOA). iSOA organosulfates showed a strong correlation with the product of ozone and particulate sulfate. This highlights the role of both photochemistry and the availability of particulate sulfate in heterogeneous reactions and further demonstrates that iSOA formation is controlled by anthropogenic emissions.
Kirsti Ashworth, Silvia Bucci, Peter J. Gallimore, Junghwa Lee, Beth S. Nelson, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquín, Marina B. Schimpf, Paul D. Smith, Will S. Drysdale, Jim R. Hopkins, James D. Lee, Joe R. Pitt, Piero Di Carlo, Radovan Krejci, and James B. McQuaid
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7193–7216,Short summary
In July 2017 we flew three research flights around London during European Facility for Airborne Research (EUFAR) training. We made continuous measurements of concentrations of key pollutants (ozone, NOx, aerosol particles, CO, CO2 and methane) and meteorology, and we collected periodic samples of air to analyse for volatile organic compounds. We saw evidence that plumes of pollution from the city, strong local emissions and pollution from distant sources all contribute to regional pollution.
Jia Sun, Wolfram Birmili, Markus Hermann, Thomas Tuch, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Fabian Rasch, Thomas Müller, Alexander Schladitz, Susanne Bastian, Gunter Löschau, Josef Cyrys, Jianwei Gu, Harald Flentje, Björn Briel, Christoph Asbach, Heinz Kaminski, Ludwig Ries, Ralf Sohmer, Holger Gerwig, Klaus Wirtz, Frank Meinhardt, Andreas Schwerin, Olaf Bath, Nan Ma, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7049–7068,Short summary
To evaluate the effectiveness of emission mitigation policies, we evaluated the trends of the size-resolved particle number concentrations and equivalent black carbon mass concentration at 16 observational sites for various environments in Germany (2009–2018). Overall, significant decrease trends are found for most of the parameters and sites. This study suggests that a combination of emission mitigation policies can effectively improve the air quality on large spatial scales such as in Germany.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Christian Stolle, Oliver Wurl, Enno Bahlmann, Xianda Gong, Jens Voigtländer, Heike Wex, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Stefan Barthel, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Marie Roveretto, Chunlin Li, Benoit Grosselin, Veronique Daële, Fabian Senf, Dominik van Pinxteren, Malena Manzi, Nicolás Zabalegui, Sanja Frka, Blaženka Gašparović, Ryan Pereira, Tao Li, Liang Wen, Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Jianmin Chen, Björn Fiedler, Wolf von Tümpling, Katie Alana Read, Shalini Punjabi, Alastair Charles Lewis, James Roland Hopkins, Lucy Jane Carpenter, Ilka Peeken, Tim Rixen, Detlef Schulz-Bull, María Eugenia Monge, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Christian George, Frank Stratmann, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6921–6951,Short summary
An introduction to a comprehensive field campaign performed at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory regarding ocean–atmosphere interactions is given. Chemical, physical, biological and meteorological techniques were applied, and measurements of bulk water, the sea surface microlayer, cloud water and ambient aerosol particles took place. Oceanic compounds were found to be transferred to atmospheric aerosol and to the cloud level; however, sea spray contributions to CCN and INPs were limited.
Yanhong Zhu, Andreas Tilgner, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Kimitaka Kawamura, Lingxiao Yang, Likun Xue, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6725–6747,Short summary
The formation and processing of secondary inorganic and organic compounds at Mt. Tai, the highest mountain on the North China Plain, are modeled using a multiphase chemical model. The concentrations of key radical and non-radical oxidations in the formation processes are investigated. Sensitivity tests assess the impacts of emission data and glyoxal partitioning constants on modeled results. The key precursors of secondary organic compounds are also identified.
Erik H. Hoffmann, Roland Schrödner, Andreas Tilgner, Ralf Wolke, and Hartmut Herrmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2587–2609,Short summary
A condensed multiphase halogen and DMS chemistry mechanism for application in chemical transport models has been developed and applied by 2D simulations to explore multiphase marine chemistry above the pristine open ocean. The model simulations have demonstrated the ability of the mechanism in studying aerosol cloud processing effects in the marine atmosphere. First 2D simulations have shown significant differences in the DMS processing under convective and stratiform cloud conditions.
Nicolás Zabalegui, Malena Manzi, Antoine Depoorter, Nathalie Hayeck, Marie Roveretto, Chunlin Li, Manuela van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian George, and María Eugenia Monge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6243–6257,Short summary
A new approach to bridging different fields of science by studying the air–sea interface is described. An untargeted ambient mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics method enables the study of enriched organic compounds found on the sea surface for air–water transfer processes. Results from the metabolomics experiments and a lab-to-field approach provide new opportunities for characterizing the seawater organic-matter content and discovering compounds involved in aerosol-formation processes.
Montserrat Costa-Surós, Odran Sourdeval, Claudia Acquistapace, Holger Baars, Cintia Carbajal Henken, Christa Genz, Jonas Hesemann, Cristofer Jimenez, Marcel König, Jan Kretzschmar, Nils Madenach, Catrin I. Meyer, Roland Schrödner, Patric Seifert, Fabian Senf, Matthias Brueck, Guido Cioni, Jan Frederik Engels, Kerstin Fieg, Ksenia Gorges, Rieke Heinze, Pavan Kumar Siligam, Ulrike Burkhardt, Susanne Crewell, Corinna Hoose, Axel Seifert, Ina Tegen, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5657–5678,Short summary
The impact of anthropogenic aerosols on clouds is a key uncertainty in climate change. This study analyses large-domain simulations with a new high-resolution model to investigate the differences in clouds between 1985 and 2013 comparing multiple observational datasets. The differences in aerosol and in cloud droplet concentrations are clearly detectable. For other quantities, the detection and attribution proved difficult, despite a substantial impact on the Earth's energy budget.
Sophia Brilke, Nikolaus Fölker, Thomas Müller, Konrad Kandler, Xianda Gong, Jeff Peischl, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5645–5656,Short summary
Atmospheric particle size distributions with the focus on freshly nucleated particles were measured during the A-LIFE field experiment in Cyprus. A DMA-train was set up for the first time in an atmospheric environment and captures the sub-10 nm particle dynamics. Several new particle formation (NPF) events are studied in detail, of which some did not show particle growth beyond 10 nm indicating that NPF may occur more frequently than estimated when the sub-10 nm size range is not covered.
William T. Morgan, James D. Allan, Stéphane Bauguitte, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael J. Flynn, James Lee, Dantong Liu, Ben Johnson, Jim Haywood, Karla M. Longo, Paulo E. Artaxo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5309–5326,Short summary
We flew a large atmospheric research aircraft across a number of different environments in the Amazon basin during the 2012 biomass burning season. Smoke from fires builds up and has a significant impact on weather, climate, health and natural ecosystems. Our goal was to quantify changes in the properties of the smoke emitted by fires as it is transported through the atmosphere. We found that the major control on the properties of the smoke was due to differences in the fires themselves.
Sascha Pfeifer, Thomas Müller, Andrew Freedman, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2161–2167,Short summary
The effect of the baseline drift on the resulting extinction values of three CAPS PMex monitors with different wavelengths was analysed for an urban background station. A significant baseline drift was observed, which leads to characteristic measurement artefacts for particle extinction. Two alternative methods for recalculating the baseline are shown. With these methods the extinction artefacts are diminished and the effective scattering of the resulting extinction values is reduced.
Havala O. T. Pye, Athanasios Nenes, Becky Alexander, Andrew P. Ault, Mary C. Barth, Simon L. Clegg, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Christopher J. Hennigan, Hartmut Herrmann, Maria Kanakidou, James T. Kelly, I-Ting Ku, V. Faye McNeill, Nicole Riemer, Thomas Schaefer, Guoliang Shi, Andreas Tilgner, John T. Walker, Tao Wang, Rodney Weber, Jia Xing, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4809–4888,Short summary
Acid rain is recognized for its impacts on human health and ecosystems, and programs to mitigate these effects have had implications for atmospheric acidity. Historical measurements indicate that cloud and fog droplet acidity has changed in recent decades in response to controls on emissions from human activity, while the limited trend data for suspended particles indicate acidity may be relatively constant. This review synthesizes knowledge on the acidity of atmospheric particles and clouds.
Alma Hodzic, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas A. Day, Karl D. Froyd, Bernd Heinold, Duseong S. Jo, Joseph M. Katich, John K. Kodros, Benjamin A. Nault, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Eric Ray, Jacob Schacht, Gregory P. Schill, Jason C. Schroder, Joshua P. Schwarz, Donna T. Sueper, Ina Tegen, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, Pengfei Yu, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4607–4635,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) is a key source of uncertainty in aerosol climate effects. We present the first pole-to-pole OA characterization during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography aircraft mission. OA has a strong seasonal and zonal variability, with the highest levels in summer and over fire-influenced regions and the lowest ones in the southern high latitudes. We show that global models predict the OA distribution well but not the relative contribution of OA emissions vs. chemical production.
Mattia Righi, Johannes Hendricks, Ulrike Lohmann, Christof Gerhard Beer, Valerian Hahn, Bernd Heinold, Romy Heller, Martina Krämer, Michael Ponater, Christian Rolf, Ina Tegen, and Christiane Voigt
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1635–1661,Short summary
A new cloud microphysical scheme is implemented in the global EMAC-MADE3 aerosol model and evaluated. The new scheme features a detailed parameterization for aerosol-driven ice formation in cirrus clouds, accounting for the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous ice formation processes. The comparison against satellite data and in situ measurements shows that the model performance is in line with similar global coupled models featuring ice cloud parameterizations.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, David Carruthers, Jie Li, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Freya A. Squires, James Lee, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2755–2780,Short summary
Ambient air pollution is a major cause of premature death in China. We examine the street-scale variation of pollutant levels in Beijing using air pollution dispersion and chemistry model ADMS-Urban. Campaign measurements are compared with simulated pollutant levels, providing a valuable means of evaluating the impact of key processes on urban air quality. Air quality modelling at such fine scales is essential for human exposure studies and for informing choices on future emission controls.
Diego Villanueva, Bernd Heinold, Patric Seifert, Hartwig Deneke, Martin Radenz, and Ina Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2177–2199,Short summary
Spaceborne retrievals of cloud phase were analysed together with an atmospheric composition model to assess the global frequency of ice and liquid clouds. This analysis showed that at equal temperature the average occurrence of ice clouds increases for higher dust mixing ratios on a day-to-day basis in the middle and high latitudes. This indicates that mineral dust may have a strong impact on the occurrence of ice clouds even in remote areas.
Yu Wang, Ying Chen, Zhijun Wu, Dongjie Shang, Yuxuan Bian, Zhuofei Du, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Rong Su, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Patrick Schlag, Thorsten Hohaus, Aristeidis Voliotis, Keding Lu, Limin Zeng, Chunsheng Zhao, M. Rami Alfarra, Gordon McFiggans, Alfred Wiedensohler, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Yuanhang Zhang, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2161–2175,Short summary
Severe haze events, with high particulate nitrate (pNO3−) burden, frequently prevail in Beijing. In this study, we demonstrate a mutual-promotion effect between aerosol water uptake and pNO3− formation backed up by theoretical calculations and field observations throughout a typical pNO3−-dominated haze event in Beijing wintertime. This self-amplified mutual-promotion effect between aerosol water content and particulate nitrate can rapidly deteriorate air quality and degrade visibility.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Jens Voigtländer, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Kay Weinhold, Manuela van Pinxteren, Silvia Henning, Thomas Müller, Hartmut Herrmann, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1431–1449,Short summary
We characterized the aerosol particles in Cabo Verde at sea and cloud levels. We found four well-separable types of PNSDs, with the strongest differences between air masses coming from the ocean compared to from the African continent. During the strongest observed dust periods, CCN concentrations were 2.5 higher than during clean marine periods. The hygroscopicity of the particles did not vary much between different periods. Aerosol at sea level and on the mountaintop was well in agreement.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Manuela van Pinxteren, Nadja Triesch, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Jasmin Lubitz, Christian Stolle, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Thomas Müller, Hartmut Herrmann, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1451–1468,Short summary
In this study, we examined number concentrations of ice nucleating particles (INPs) at Cabo Verde in the oceanic sea surface microlayer and underlying seawater, in the air close to both sea level and cloud level, and in cloud water. The results show that most INPs are supermicron in size, that INP number concentrations in air fit well to those in cloud water and that sea spray aerosols at maximum contributed a small fraction of all INPs in the air at Cabo Verde.
Marco Paglione, Stefania Gilardoni, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Nicola Zanca, Silvia Sandrini, Lara Giulianelli, Dimitri Bacco, Silvia Ferrari, Vanes Poluzzi, Fabiana Scotto, Arianna Trentini, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Paola Massoli, Claudio Carbone, Maria Cristina Facchini, and Sandro Fuzzi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1233–1254,Short summary
Our multi-year observational study regarding organic aerosol (OA) in the Po Valley indicates that more than half of OA is of secondary origin (SOA) through all the year and at both urban and rural sites. Within the SOA, the measurements show the importance of biomass burning (BB) aging products during cold seasons and indicate aqueous-phase processing of BB emissions as a fundamental driver of SOA formation in wintertime, with important consequences for air quality policy at the global level.
Anke Mutzel, Yanli Zhang, Olaf Böge, Maria Rodigast, Agata Kolodziejczyk, Xinming Wang, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study investigates SOA formation and particle growth from α-pinene, limonene and m-cresol oxidation through NO3 and OH radicals and the effect of relative humidity. The formed SOA is comprehensively characterized with respect to the content of OC/EC, WSOC, SOA-bound peroxides and SOA marker compounds. The findings present new insights and implications of night-time chemistry which can form SOA more efficiently than OH radical reaction during day-time.
Claire E. Reeves, Graham P. Mills, Lisa K. Whalley, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, Sue Grimmond, Dwayne E. Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James R. Hopkins, Simone Kotthaus, Louisa J. Kramer, Roderic L. Jones, James D. Lee, Yanhui Liu, Bin Ouyang, Eloise Slater, Freya Squires, Xinming Wang, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The impact of isoprene on atmospheric chemistry is dependent on how its oxidation products interact with other pollutants, specifically nitrogen oxides. Such interactions can lead to isoprene nitrates. We made measurements of the concentrations of individual isoprene nitrate isomers in Beijing and used a model to test current understanding of their chemistry. We highlight areas of uncertainty in understanding, in particular the chemistry following oxidation of isoprene by the nitrate radical.
Ying Chen, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Chao Wei, Liang Ran, Ralf Wolke, Johannes Größ, Qiaoqiao Wang, Andrea Pozzer, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Gerald Spindler, Jos Lelieveld, Ina Tegen, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 771–786,Short summary
Particulate nitrate is one of the most important climate cooling agents. Our results show that interaction with sea-salt aerosol can shift nitrate to larger sized particles (redistribution effect), weakening its direct cooling effect. The modelling results indicate strong redistribution over coastal and offshore regions worldwide as well as continental Europe. Improving the consideration of the redistribution effect in global models fosters a better understanding of climate change.
Tao Li, Zhe Wang, Yaru Wang, Chen Wu, Yiheng Liang, Men Xia, Chuan Yu, Hui Yun, Weihao Wang, Yan Wang, Jia Guo, Hartmut Herrmann, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 391–407,Short summary
This work presents a field study of cloud water chemistry and interactions of cloud, gas, and aerosols in the polluted coastal boundary layer in southern China. Substantial dissolved organic matter in the acidic cloud water was observed, and the gas- and aqueous-phase partitioning of carbonyl compounds was investigated. The results demonstrated the significant role of cloud processing in altering aerosol properties, especially in producing aqueous organics and droplet-mode aerosols.
Marco Pandolfi, Dennis Mooibroek, Philip Hopke, Dominik van Pinxteren, Xavier Querol, Hartmut Herrmann, Andrés Alastuey, Olivier Favez, Christoph Hüglin, Esperanza Perdrix, Véronique Riffault, Stéphane Sauvage, Eric van der Swaluw, Oksana Tarasova, and Augustin Colette
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 409–429,Short summary
In the last scientific assessment report from the LRTAP Convention, it is stated that because non-urban sources are often major contributors to urban pollution, many cities will be unable to meet WHO guideline levels for air pollutants through local action alone. Consequently, it is very important to estimate how much the local and non-local sources contribute to urban pollution in order to design global strategies to reduce the levels of pollutants in European cities.
Andebo Waza, Kilian Schneiders, Jan May, Sergio Rodríguez, Bernd Epple, and Konrad Kandler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6647–6665,Short summary
Deposition or other passive measurement techniques are used to sample mineral dust from the atmosphere. However, there exist a multitude of different collection instruments with different, usually not well-characterized sampling efficiencies, so the resulting data might be considerably biased with respect to their size representatively. In the paper, we report on collection properties of different deposition and other passive samplers based on single-particle measurements.
James Brean, Roy M. Harrison, Zongbo Shi, David C. S. Beddows, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Freya A. Squires, and James Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14933–14947,Short summary
Measurements of highly oxidized molecules measured during a summer campaign in Beijing are presented. These molecules represent an intermediary between gas-phase chemicals from which they are formed and airborne particles which form from them. Conclusions are drawn as to the factors affecting the formation of new particles within the Beijing atmosphere.
Aurélien Chauvigné, Diego Aliaga, Karine Sellegri, Nadège Montoux, Radovan Krejci, Griša Močnik, Isabel Moreno, Thomas Müller, Marco Pandolfi, Fernando Velarde, Kay Weinhold, Patrick Ginot, Alfred Wiedensohler, Marcos Andrade, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14805–14824,Short summary
The study presents for the first time the analysis of aerosol optical properties at the unique high-altitude station of Chacaltaya, Bolivia. Ideally located, the station allows us to better understand influences of urban areas and the Amazon Forest on tropospheric properties. An emerging method is applied to characterize aerosol origins and permits us to illustrate evidence of natural and anthropogenic influences.
Carlos Toledano, Benjamín Torres, Cristian Velasco-Merino, Dietrich Althausen, Silke Groß, Matthias Wiegner, Bernadett Weinzierl, Josef Gasteiger, Albert Ansmann, Ramiro González, David Mateos, David Farrel, Thomas Müller, Moritz Haarig, and Victoria E. Cachorro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14571–14583,Short summary
Ground-based sun photometers have been used to analyze the properties of long-range transported Saharan dust over Barbados. The measurements were carried out as part of the Saharan Aerosol Long-Range Transport and Aerosol–Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE), carried out in the Caribbean in 2013. A variety of instruments, ground-based and airborne, were used in this research. In this paper, the sun photometer data are presented and related to data collected from other co-located instruments.
Simonas Kecorius, Teresa Vogl, Pauli Paasonen, Janne Lampilahti, Daniel Rothenberg, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Manuela van Pinxteren, Markus Hartmann, Silvia Henning, Xianda Gong, Andre Welti, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14339–14364,Short summary
Arctic sea-ice retreat, atmospheric new particle formation (NPF), and aerosol–cloud interaction may all be linked via a positive feedback mechanism. Understanding the sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is an important piece in the Arctic amplification puzzle. We show that Arctic newly formed particles do not have to grow beyond the Aitken mode to act as CCN. This is important, because NPF occurrence in the Arctic is expected to increase, making it a significant contributor to CCN budget.
Sebastian Düsing, Birgit Wehner, Thomas Müller, Almond Stöcker, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5879–5895,Short summary
This study examines the effect of changes in relative humidity on measurements made by two different filter-based absorption photometers. Different filter loads, loading materials, and filter types are considered. It was found that both instruments react opposingly and with different magnitudes. One of the devices showed a variation in the dependence on the loading material. For each of the two devices, a correction approach is provided. Recommendations based on the findings are given.
Jacob Schacht, Bernd Heinold, Johannes Quaas, John Backman, Ribu Cherian, Andre Ehrlich, Andreas Herber, Wan Ting Katty Huang, Yutaka Kondo, Andreas Massling, P. R. Sinha, Bernadett Weinzierl, Marco Zanatta, and Ina Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11159–11183,Short summary
The Arctic is warming faster than the rest of Earth. Black carbon (BC) aerosol contributes to this Arctic amplification by direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects while distributed in air or deposited on snow and ice. The aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM is used to estimate direct aerosol radiative effect (DRE). Airborne and near-surface BC measurements are used to evaluate the model and give an uncertainty range for the burden and DRE of Arctic BC caused by different emission inventories.
Honey Dawn C. Alas, Kay Weinhold, Francesca Costabile, Antonio Di Ianni, Thomas Müller, Sascha Pfeifer, Luca Di Liberto, Jay R. Turner, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4697–4712,Short summary
Traffic-related air pollutants are highly variable in space. To determine their spatial distribution in relation to human exposure, portable black carbon and PM2.5 mass concentration sensors aboard mobile platforms can be used. High-spatial-resolution data can help improve exposure estimates. The quality of these data becomes increasingly important. This study provides a detailed methodology on how to achieve highly quality assured data from the abovementioned mobile measurements.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Thomas Müller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kristina Höhler, Konrad Kandler, Nan Ma, Barbara Dietel, Thea Schiebel, Ottmar Möhler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10883–10900,Short summary
For the diverse aerosol on Cyprus, we found the following: new particle formation can be a source of cloud condensation nuclei. Particle hygroscopicity showed that particles ~<100 nm contained mostly organic material, while larger ones were more hygroscopic. Two separate methods obtained similar concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INP), with mostly no evidence of a local origin. Different parameterizations overestimated INP concentration in this rather polluted region.
David Neubauer, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Colombe Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Philip Stier, Daniel G. Partridge, Ina Tegen, Isabelle Bey, Tanja Stanelle, Harri Kokkola, and Ulrike Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3609–3639,Short summary
The global aerosol–climate model ECHAM6.3–HAM2.3 as well as the previous model versions ECHAM5.5–HAM2.0 and ECHAM6.1–HAM2.2 are evaluated. The simulation of clouds has improved in ECHAM6.3–HAM2.3. This has an impact on effective radiative forcing due to aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions and equilibrium climate sensitivity, which are weaker in ECHAM6.3–HAM2.3 than in the previous model versions.
Peter Bräuer, Camille Mouchel-Vallon, Andreas Tilgner, Anke Mutzel, Olaf Böge, Maria Rodigast, Laurent Poulain, Dominik van Pinxteren, Ralf Wolke, Bernard Aumont, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9209–9239,Short summary
The article presents a new protocol for computer-assisted automated aqueous-phase chemistry mechanism generation, which has been validated against chamber experiments. Together with a large kinetics database and improved prediction methods for kinetic data, the novel protocol provides an unmatched tool for detailed studies of tropospheric aqueous-phase chemistry in complex model studies and for the design and analysis of chamber experiments.
Joseph R. Pitt, Grant Allen, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Martin W. Gallagher, James D. Lee, Will Drysdale, Beth Nelson, Alistair J. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8931–8945,Short summary
This paper presents a new method to assess inventory estimates of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions for large cities and their surrounding regions. A case study using data sampled by a research aircraft around London was used to test the method. We found that the UK national inventory agrees with our observations for CO but needed lower emissions for CH4 to agree with the measured data. Repeated studies could help determine how these emissions vary on different timescales.
Jonathan W. Taylor, Sophie L. Haslett, Keith Bower, Michael Flynn, Ian Crawford, James Dorsey, Tom Choularton, Paul J. Connolly, Valerian Hahn, Christiane Voigt, Daniel Sauer, Régis Dupuy, Joel Brito, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Thierry Bourriane, Cyrielle Denjean, Phil Rosenberg, Cyrille Flamant, James D. Lee, Adam R. Vaughan, Peter G. Hill, Barbara Brooks, Valéry Catoire, Peter Knippertz, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8503–8522,Short summary
Low-level clouds cover a wide area of southern West Africa (SWA) and play an important role in the region's climate, reflecting sunlight away from the surface. We performed aircraft measurements of aerosols and clouds over SWA during the 2016 summer monsoon and found pollution, and polluted clouds, across the whole region. Smoke from biomass burning in Central Africa is transported to West Africa, causing a polluted background which limits the effect of local pollution on cloud properties.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Jamie R. Banks, Anja Hünerbein, Bernd Heinold, Helen E. Brindley, Hartwig Deneke, and Kerstin Schepanski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6893–6911,Short summary
Saharan dust storms may be observed over the desert using false-colour infrared satellite imagery; in one widely used scheme dust displays characteristic pink colours. Simulating satellite imagery using a dust transport model, we confirm that water vapour is a major control on the apparent colour of dust in the false-colour imagery and that dust displays its deepest colours when it is at a high altitude and when the atmosphere is dry. Water vapour can obscure the presence of low-altitude dust.
Dantong Liu, Rutambhara Joshi, Junfeng Wang, Chenjie Yu, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Michael J. Flynn, Conghui Xie, James Lee, Freya Squires, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Xinlei Ge, Yele Sun, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6749–6769,Short summary
This study provides source attribution and characterization of BC in the Beijing urban environment in both winter and summer. For the first time, the physically and chemically based source apportionments are compared to evaluate the primary source contribution and secondary processing of BC-containing particles. A method is proposed to isolate the BC from the transportation sector and coal combustion sources.
Ina Tegen, David Neubauer, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Colombe Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Isabelle Bey, Nick Schutgens, Philip Stier, Duncan Watson-Parris, Tanja Stanelle, Hauke Schmidt, Sebastian Rast, Harri Kokkola, Martin Schultz, Sabine Schroeder, Nikos Daskalakis, Stefan Barthel, Bernd Heinold, and Ulrike Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1643–1677,Short summary
We describe a new version of the aerosol–climate model ECHAM–HAM and show tests of the model performance by comparing different aspects of the aerosol distribution with different datasets. The updated version of HAM contains improved descriptions of aerosol processes, including updated emission fields and cloud processes. While there are regional deviations between the model and observations, the model performs well overall.
Kate R. Smith, Peter M. Edwards, Peter D. Ivatt, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, Chengliang Dai, Richard E. Peltier, Mat J. Evans, Yele Sun, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1325–1336,Short summary
Clusters of low-cost, low-power atmospheric gas sensors were built into a sensor instrument to monitor NO2 and O3 in Beijing, alongside reference instruments, aiming to improve the reliability of sensor measurements. Clustering identical sensors and using the median sensor signal was used to minimize drift over short and medium timescales. Three different machine learning techniques were used for all the sensor data in an attempt to correct for cross-interferences, which worked to some degree.
Nicholas A. Marsden, Romy Ullrich, Ottmar Möhler, Stine Eriksen Hammer, Konrad Kandler, Zhiqiang Cui, Paul I. Williams, Michael J. Flynn, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2259–2281,Short summary
The composition of airborne dust influences climate and ecosystems but its measurements presents a huge analytical challenge. Using online single-particle mass spectrometry, we demonstrate differences in mineralogy and mixing state can be detected in real time in both laboratory studies and ambient measurements. The results provide insights into the temporal and spatial evolution of dust properties that will be useful for aerosol–cloud interaction studies and dust cycle modelling.
Bastian Stieger, Gerald Spindler, Dominik van Pinxteren, Achim Grüner, Markus Wallasch, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 281–298,Short summary
A MARGA was combined with an additional IC system specialized for the 2 h interval online quantification of 12 low-molecular-weight organic acids in the gas and particle phases. Low limits of detection and good precision were achieved. The suitability for field measurements was shown. This setup reduces laboratory work and filter sampling artifacts. Diurnal profiles, sources and phase distributions of these compounds will improve the knowledge of the tropospheric multiphase chemistry.
Shan Huang, Zhijun Wu, Laurent Poulain, Manuela van Pinxteren, Maik Merkel, Denise Assmann, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18043–18062,Short summary
The Atlantic aerosols are characterized based on high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) measurements during four open-ocean cruises. This unique data set provides the latitudinal distribution of source contributions of organic aerosols (OAs) over the Atlantic Ocean, showing that marine sources could control the OA formation over the South Atlantic, while strong continental influence was found near Africa and Europe.
Erlend M. Knudsen, Bernd Heinold, Sandro Dahlke, Heiko Bozem, Susanne Crewell, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Georg Heygster, Daniel Kunkel, Marion Maturilli, Mario Mech, Carolina Viceto, Annette Rinke, Holger Schmithüsen, André Ehrlich, Andreas Macke, Christof Lüpkes, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17995–18022,Short summary
The paper describes the synoptic development during the ACLOUD/PASCAL airborne and ship-based field campaign near Svalbard in spring 2017. This development is presented using near-surface and upperair meteorological observations, satellite, and model data. We first present time series of these data, from which we identify and characterize three key periods. Finally, we put our observations in historical and regional contexts and compare our findings to other Arctic field campaigns.
Michael Weger, Bernd Heinold, Christa Engler, Ulrich Schumann, Axel Seifert, Romy Fößig, Christiane Voigt, Holger Baars, Ulrich Blahak, Stephan Borrmann, Corinna Hoose, Stefan Kaufmann, Martina Krämer, Patric Seifert, Fabian Senf, Johannes Schneider, and Ina Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17545–17572,Short summary
The impact of desert dust on cloud formation is investigated for a major Saharan dust event over Europe by interactive regional dust modeling. Dust particles are very efficient ice-nucleating particles promoting the formation of ice crystals in clouds. The simulations show that the observed extensive cirrus development was likely related to the above-average dust load. The interactive dust–cloud feedback in the model significantly improves the agreement with aircraft and satellite observations.
Diego Villanueva, Bernd Heinold, Patric Seifert, Hartwig Deneke, Martin Radenz, and Ina Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Two different satellite products were analysed together with an atmospheric composition model to assess the global frequency of ice and liquid stratiform clouds. This analysis showed that at equal temperature the average occurrence of fully glaciated stratiform clouds was found to increase for higher dust mixing-ratios on a day-to-day basis in the mid- and high latitudes. This indicates that mineral dust may have a strong impact in the occurrence of ice clouds even in remote areas.
Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Urs Baltensperger, David C. S. Beddows, Johan Paul Beukes, Don Collins, Aijun Ding, Roy M. Harrison, Bas Henzing, Rakesh Hooda, Min Hu, Urmas Hõrrak, Niku Kivekäs, Kaupo Komsaare, Radovan Krejci, Adam Kristensson, Lauri Laakso, Ari Laaksonen, W. Richard Leaitch, Heikki Lihavainen, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Zoltán Németh, Wei Nie, Colin O'Dowd, Imre Salma, Karine Sellegri, Birgitta Svenningsson, Erik Swietlicki, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Ville Vakkari, Marko Vana, Alfred Wiedensohler, Zhijun Wu, Annele Virtanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14737–14756,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have diverse effects on air quality, human health, and global climate. One important source of aerosols is their formation via nucleation and growth in the atmosphere. We have analyzed long-term observations of regional new particle formation events around the globe and provide a comprehensive view on the characteristics of this phenomenon in diverse environments. The results are useful in developing more realistic representation of atmospheric aerosols in global models.
Stine Eriksen Hammer, Stephan Mertes, Johannes Schneider, Martin Ebert, Konrad Kandler, and Stephan Weinbruch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13987–14003,Short summary
It is important to study ice-nucleating particles in the environment to learn more about cloud formation. We studied the composition of ice particle residuals and total aerosol particles sampled in parallel during mixed-phase cloud events at Jungfraujoch and discovered that soot and complex secondary particles were not present. In contrast, silica, aluminosilicates, and other aluminosilicates were the most important ice particle residual groups at site temperatures between −11 and −18 °C.
Sarah Grawe, Stefanie Augustin-Bauditz, Hans-Christian Clemen, Martin Ebert, Stine Eriksen Hammer, Jasmin Lubitz, Naama Reicher, Yinon Rudich, Johannes Schneider, Robert Staacke, Frank Stratmann, André Welti, and Heike Wex
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13903–13923,Short summary
In this study, coal fly ash particles immersed in supercooled cloud droplets were analyzed concerning their freezing behavior. Additionally, physico-chemical particle properties (morphology, chemical composition, crystallography) were investigated. In combining both aspects, components that potentially contribute to the observed freezing behavior of the ash could be identified. Interactions at the particle-water interface, that depend on suspension time and influence freezing, are discussed.
Harri Kokkola, Thomas Kühn, Anton Laakso, Tommi Bergman, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Tero Mielonen, Antti Arola, Scarlet Stadtler, Hannele Korhonen, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Ulrike Lohmann, David Neubauer, Ina Tegen, Colombe Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Martin G. Schultz, Isabelle Bey, Philip Stier, Nikos Daskalakis, Colette L. Heald, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3833–3863,Short summary
In this paper we present a global aerosol–chemistry–climate model with the focus on its representation for atmospheric aerosol particles. In the model, aerosols are simulated using the aerosol module SALSA2.0, which in this paper is compared to satellite, ground, and aircraft-based observations of the properties of atmospheric aerosol. Based on this study, the model simulated aerosol properties compare well with the observations.
Konrad Kandler, Kilian Schneiders, Martin Ebert, Markus Hartmann, Stephan Weinbruch, Maria Prass, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13429–13455,Short summary
Aging of transported Saharan dust in the Caribbean was observed by electron microscopy, yielding size, chemical composition and mixing state for each individual particle. Models were developed for assessing mixing relevant for the atmosphere. Particles become internally mixed with sulfate during transport and sea salt in the Caribbean boundary layer. The mixing increases deposition velocity and dust cloud activation, and thus may impact on radiative and cloud nucleating properties.
Yee Jun Tham, Zhe Wang, Qinyi Li, Weihao Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Keding Lu, Nan Ma, Chao Yan, Simonas Kecorius, Alfred Wiedensohler, Yuanhang Zhang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13155–13171,Short summary
This study addresses the limited understanding of heterogeneous N2O5 uptake and ClNO2 production in the polluted environment of China. The results showed that N2O5 uptake and ClNO2 yield cannot be well explained by previous parameterizations and were largely influenced by factors like aerosol water content and biomass burning emission. Our findings illuminate the need to realistically parameterize these heterogeneous processes for better simulation of photochemical and haze pollution in China.
Fernando Santos, Karla Longo, Alex Guenther, Saewung Kim, Dasa Gu, Dave Oram, Grant Forster, James Lee, James Hopkins, Joel Brito, and Saulo Freitas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12715–12734,Short summary
We investigated the impact of biomass burning on the chemical composition of trace gases in the Amazon. The findings corroborate the influence of biomass burning activity not only on direct emissions of particulate matter but also on the oxidative capacity to produce secondary organic aerosol. The scientists plan to use this information to improve the numerical model simulation with a better representativeness of the chemical processes, which can impact on global climate prediction.
Robert Wagner, Michael Jähn, and Kerstin Schepanski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11863–11884,Short summary
Wildfires can disturb the lower tropospheric wind conditions and are able to mobilize and inject mineral dust particles into the atmosphere. This study presents a conceptual model of fire-driven dust emissions using large-eddy simulations and evaluates how efficiently wildfires are able to modify the near-surface winds. The results show that typical threshold velocities necessary for dust emission are frequently exceeded and wildfires should be considered a source of airborne mineral dust.
Wei Zhou, Jian Zhao, Bin Ouyang, Archit Mehra, Weiqi Xu, Yuying Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Qi Chen, Conghui Xie, Qingqing Wang, Junfeng Wang, Wei Du, Yingjie Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Penglin Ye, James D. Lee, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas Worsnop, Roderic Jones, Carl J. Percival, Hugh Coe, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11581–11597,Short summary
We present measurements of gas-phase N2O5 and ClNO2 by ToF-CIMS during summer in urban Beijing as part of the APHH campaign. High reactivity of N2O5 indicative of active nocturnal chemistry was observed. The lifetime of N2O5 as a function of aerosol surface area and relative humidity was characterized, and N2O5 uptake coefficients were estimated. We also found that the N2O5 loss in this study is mainly attributed to its indirect loss via reactions of NO3 with VOCs and NO.
Wan Ting Katty Huang, Luisa Ickes, Ina Tegen, Matteo Rinaldi, Darius Ceburnis, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11423–11445,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the potential impact on clouds and climate by organic particles emitted from the ocean surface, using a global climate model. These particles have previously been found to promote ice crystal formation, which may alter the properties of clouds. Our study, however, found a weak global impact by these particles, which brings into question their relative importance and points to the need for further verification with other models and at more regional scales.
Prasad Kasibhatla, Tomás Sherwen, Mathew J. Evans, Lucy J. Carpenter, Chris Reed, Becky Alexander, Qianjie Chen, Melissa P. Sulprizio, James D. Lee, Katie A. Read, William Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, William C. Keene, Alexander A. P. Pszenny, and Alma Hodzic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11185–11203,Short summary
Recent measurements of NOx and HONO suggest that photolysis of particulate nitrate in sea-salt aerosols is important in terms of marine boundary layer oxidant chemistry. We present the first global-scale assessment of the significance of this new chemical pathway for NOx, O3, and OH in the marine boundary layer. We also present a preliminary assessment of the potential impact of photolysis of particulate nitrate associated with other aerosol types on continental boundary layer chemistry.
Eleni Karnezi, Benjamin N. Murphy, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Florian Rubach, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Thomas F. Mentel, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10759–10772,Short summary
Different parameterizations of the organic aerosol (OA) formation and evolution are evaluated using ground and airborne measurements collected in the 2012 PEGASOS field campaign in the Po Valley (Italy). Total OA concentration and O : C ratios were reproduced within experimental error by a number of schemes. Anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA) contributed 15–25 % of the total OA, 20–35 % of SOA from intermediate volatility compounds oxidation, and 15–45 % of biogenic SOA depending on the scheme.
Yanhong Zhu, Lingxiao Yang, Jianmin Chen, Kimitaka Kawamura, Mamiko Sato, Andreas Tilgner, Dominik van Pinxteren, Ying Chen, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Isobel J. Simpson, Hartmut Herrmann, Donald R. Blake, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10741–10758,Short summary
Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the free troposphere are identified, and their concentration variations between 2014 and 2006 are presented. High nighttime concentrations were probably due to precursor emissions and aqueous-phase oxidation. Biomass burning was significant, but its tracer levoglucosan in 2014 was 5 times lower than 2006 concentrations. Finally, regional emission from anthropogenic activities was identified as a major source.
Angela Benedetti, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peter Knippertz, John H. Marsham, Francesca Di Giuseppe, Samuel Rémy, Sara Basart, Olivier Boucher, Ian M. Brooks, Laurent Menut, Lucia Mona, Paolo Laj, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Alexander Baklanov, Malcolm Brooks, Peter R. Colarco, Emilio Cuevas, Arlindo da Silva, Jeronimo Escribano, Johannes Flemming, Nicolas Huneeus, Oriol Jorba, Stelios Kazadzis, Stefan Kinne, Thomas Popp, Patricia K. Quinn, Thomas T. Sekiyama, Taichu Tanaka, and Enric Terradellas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10615–10643,Short summary
Numerical prediction of aerosol particle properties has become an important activity at many research and operational weather centers. This development is due to growing interest from a diverse set of stakeholders, such as air quality regulatory bodies, aviation authorities, solar energy plant managers, climate service providers, and health professionals. This paper describes the advances in the field and sets out requirements for observations for the sustainability of these activities.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Jorge Saturno, Thomas Klimach, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Alessandro C. Araùjo, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Reiner Ditz, Sachin S. Gunthe, Bruna A. Holanda, Konrad Kandler, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Tobias Könemann, Ovid O. Krüger, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Eugene Mikhailov, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Luciana V. Rizzo, Diana Rose, Hang Su, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, Jian Wang, Stefan Wolff, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10289–10331,Short summary
This paper presents the aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) variability for characteristic atmospheric states – such as biomass burning, long-range transport, and pristine rain forest conditions – in the vulnerable and climate-relevant Amazon Basin. It summarizes the key properties of aerosol and CCN and, thus, provides a basis for an in-depth analysis of aerosol–cloud interactions in the Amazon region.
Jamie R. Banks, Kerstin Schepanski, Bernd Heinold, Anja Hünerbein, and Helen E. Brindley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9681–9703,Short summary
Satellite observations are used to visualize dust storms over the Sahara, and specific infrared channel combinations can highlight dust with distinctive pink colours. Using output from a dust-atmosphere model to simulate satellite imagery, we explore the consequences of particle size, shape, and refractive index for the colour of dust in the imagery. Particles with a radius of ~ 1.5 microns perturb the colour the most and an assumption of spherical dust appears to be insufficient.
Barbara Altstädter, Andreas Platis, Michael Jähn, Holger Baars, Janine Lückerath, Andreas Held, Astrid Lampert, Jens Bange, Markus Hermann, and Birgit Wehner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8249–8264,Short summary
This article describes the appearance of ultrafine aerosol particles (size < 12 nm) within the atmospheric boundary layer under cloudy conditions. New particle formation (NPF) was observed with the ALADINA unmanned aerial system in relation to increased turbulence near the inversion layer. Fast mixing processes and rapid dilution of surrounding air led to an insufficient particle growth rate, seen in sporadic clusters at ground. These events might not have been classified as NPF by surface data.
Marco Pandolfi, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Christo Angelov, Begoña Artiñano, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Paolo Bonasoni, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martine Collaud Coen, Sébastien Conil, Esther Coz, Vincent Crenn, Vadimas Dudoitis, Marina Ealo, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Patrick Ginot, Martin Gysel, Bas Henzing, Andras Hoffer, Adela Holubova Smejkalova, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Chris Lunder, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marcel Moerman, José Nicolas, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean Marc Pichon, Nina Prokopciuk, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Sergio Rodríguez, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Erik Swietlicki, Gloria Titos, Thomas Tuch, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Aditya Vaishya, Milan Vana, Aki Virkkula, Stergios Vratolis, Ernest Weingartner, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877–7911,Short summary
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle light-scattering measurements obtained over the past decade at 28 measuring atmospheric observatories which are part of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure, and most of them belong to the GAW network. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol particles optical properties in Europe.
Amy K. Hodgson, William T. Morgan, Sebastian O'Shea, Stéphane Bauguitte, James D. Allan, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael J. Flynn, Dantong Liu, James Lee, Ben Johnson, Jim M. Haywood, Karla M. Longo, Paulo E. Artaxo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5619–5638,Short summary
We flew a large atmospheric research aircraft across a number of different biomass burning environments in the Amazon Basin in September and October 2012. In this paper, we focus on smoke sampled very close to fresh fires (only 600–900 m above the fires and smoke that was 4–6 min old) to examine the chemical components that make up the smoke and their abundance. We found substantial differences in the emitted smoke that are due to the fuel type and combustion processes driving the fires.
Silvia Bucci, Paolo Cristofanelli, Stefano Decesari, Angela Marinoni, Silvia Sandrini, Johannes Größ, Alfred Wiedensohler, Chiara F. Di Marco, Eiko Nemitz, Francesco Cairo, Luca Di Liberto, and Federico Fierli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5371–5389,Short summary
This paper analyses some of the processes affecting PM levels over the Po Valley, one of the most polluted regions of Europe, during the 2012 summer campaigns. Under conditions of air transport from the Sahara, data show that desert dust can rapidly penetrate into the lower atmosphere, directly affecting the PM concentration at the ground. Processes of particles growth in high relative humidity and uplift of local soil particles, potentially affecting PM level, are also analysed.
André Welti, Konrad Müller, Zoë L. Fleming, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5307–5320,Short summary
We report on ambient concentrations of ice nuclei, measured on the Cabo Verde islands. Concentrations are found to exponentially increase by 7 orders of magnitude from −5 to −38 °C. At each temperature, the frequency distribution of observed concentrations can be described by a lognormal distribution, typical for random dilution of substances during transport. Random dilution is found to account for larger fluctuations in IN concentration than seasonal changes and changes in air mass origin.
James D. Lee, Stephen D. Mobbs, Axel Wellpott, Grant Allen, Stephane J.-B. Bauguitte, Ralph R. Burton, Richard Camilli, Hugh Coe, Rebecca E. Fisher, James L. France, Martin Gallagher, James R. Hopkins, Mathias Lanoiselle, Alastair C. Lewis, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, Ruth M. Purvis, Sebastian O'Shea, John A. Pyle, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1725–1739,Short summary
This work describes measurements, made from an aircraft platform, of the emission of methane and other organic gases from an uncontrolled leak from an oil platform in the North Sea (Total Elgin). The measurements made helped the platform operators to devise a strategy for repairing the leak and serve as a methodology for assessing future similar incidents.
Daniel Stone, Tomás Sherwen, Mathew J. Evans, Stewart Vaughan, Trevor Ingham, Lisa K. Whalley, Peter M. Edwards, Katie A. Read, James D. Lee, Sarah J. Moller, Lucy J. Carpenter, Alastair C. Lewis, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3541–3561,Short summary
Halogen chemistry in the troposphere impacts oxidising capacity, but model studies assessing the nature of these impacts can vary according to the model framework used. In this work we present simulations of OH and HO2 radicals using both box and global model frameworks, and compare to observations made at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory. We highlight, and rationalise, differences between the model frameworks.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Rachel Dunmore, Jacqueline Hamilton, James R. Hopkins, James D. Lee, Alastair C. Lewis, Paul Williams, Jörg Kleffmann, Sebastian Laufs, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2547–2571,Short summary
This paper presents the first radical observations made in London and subsequent model comparisons. This work highlights that there are uncertainties in the degradation mechanism of complex biogenic and diesel-related VOC species under low-NOx conditions and under high-NOx conditions there is a missing source of RO2 radicals. The impact of these model uncertainties on in situ ozone production as a function of NOx is discussed.
Johannes Größ, Amar Hamed, André Sonntag, Gerald Spindler, Hanna Elina Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Markku Kulmala, Urmas Hõrrak, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Wolfram Birmili
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1835–1861,Short summary
This paper revisits the atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) process in the polluted troposphere. Novel aspects include a new NPF classification, which aims at more objectivity, and a long-term analysis of neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer data. Intense NPF events were associated with enhanced sulfur dioxide concentrations and solar radiation, while no significant relationships were observed with the condensation sink, surface-measured turbulence parameters, or ammonia.
Sebastian Düsing, Birgit Wehner, Patric Seifert, Albert Ansmann, Holger Baars, Florian Ditas, Silvia Henning, Nan Ma, Laurent Poulain, Holger Siebert, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Andreas Macke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1263–1290,
Ying Chen, Ralf Wolke, Liang Ran, Wolfram Birmili, Gerald Spindler, Wolfram Schröder, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Ina Tegen, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 673–689,Short summary
The heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on particle surfaces is crucial for the nitrogen cycle in the atmosphere. The reaction rate is determined by meteorological and particle properties, but its parameterization in previous 3-D modelling studies did not comprehensively consider these parameters. We propose a parameterization to take these into account and improve nitrate prediction; we report that the organic coating suppression on the N2O5 reaction is not as important as expected in the EU.
Julian Hofer, Dietrich Althausen, Sabur F. Abdullaev, Abduvosit N. Makhmudov, Bakhron I. Nazarov, Georg Schettler, Ronny Engelmann, Holger Baars, K. Wadinga Fomba, Konrad Müller, Bernd Heinold, Konrad Kandler, and Albert Ansmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14559–14577,Short summary
The Central Asian Dust Experiment provides unprecedented data on vertically resolved aerosol optical properties over Central Asia from continuous 18-month polarization Raman lidar observations in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Central Asia is affected by climate change (e.g. glacier retreat) but in a large part missing vertically resolved aerosol measurements, which would help to better understand transport of dust and pollution aerosol across Central Asia and their influence on climate and health.
Moritz Haarig, Albert Ansmann, Josef Gasteiger, Konrad Kandler, Dietrich Althausen, Holger Baars, Martin Radenz, and David A. Farrell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14199–14217,Short summary
The depolarization ratio and the backscatter coefficient of marine particles are correlated with the relative humidity. The measurements were performed under atmospheric conditions with a multi-wavelength lidar system in pure marine conditions over Barbados in February 2014. For RH < 50 % the sea salt particles have a cubic-like shape resulting in an enhanced depolarization ratio of up to 0.15. This agrees with model results of cubic sea salt. The extinction enhancement f(RH) factor was derived.
Katharina Schütze, James Charles Wilson, Stephan Weinbruch, Nathalie Benker, Martin Ebert, Gebhard Günther, Ralf Weigel, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12475–12493,Short summary
Stratospheric particles were collected in the polar stratosphere in winter 1999/2000. Besides the well-studied volatile particles from that region, the main findings of this study are stable carbonaceous particles in the sub-micrometer size range. In addition to carbon, many particles show the elements Si, Fe, Cr and Ni to a minor amount. Based on exclusion, carbonaceous material from IDPs and residues from meteoric ablation and fragmentation remain as the most probable sources.
Qing Mu, Gerhard Lammel, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Ying Chen, Petra Přibylová, Monique Teich, Yuxuan Zhang, Guangjie Zheng, Dominik van Pinxteren, Qiang Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Manabu Shiraiwa, Peter Spichtinger, Hang Su, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12253–12267,Short summary
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hazardous pollutants with the largest emissions in East Asia. The regional WRF-Chem-PAH model has been developed to reflect the state-of-the-art understanding of current PAHs studies with several new or updated features. It is able to reasonably well simulate the concentration levels and particulate mass fractions of PAHs near the sources and at a remote outflow region of East Asia, in high spatial and temporal resolutions.
Matthew J. Gunsch, Rachel M. Kirpes, Katheryn R. Kolesar, Tate E. Barrett, Swarup China, Rebecca J. Sheesley, Alexander Laskin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Thomas Tuch, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10879–10892,Short summary
Arctic sea ice loss is leading to increasing petroleum extraction and shipping. It is necessary to identify emissions from these activities for improved Arctic air quality and climate assessment. Atmospheric particles were measured from August to September 2015 in Utqiaġvik, AK. For periods influenced by Prudhoe Bay, significant influence associated with combustion emissions was observed, compared to fresh sea spray influence during Arctic Ocean periods.
Kerstin Schepanski, Bernd Heinold, and Ina Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10223–10243,Short summary
This study illustrates the complexity of the interaction among the three major circulation regimes stimulating the North African dust outflow: harmattan, Saharan heat low, and monsoon circulation. We analyse fields from model simulations and satellite observations in concert in order to link atmospheric circulation and dust source activation as well as to characterize their impact on the variability of the dust outflow towards the Atlantic.
Jiarong Li, Xinfeng Wang, Jianmin Chen, Chao Zhu, Weijun Li, Chengbao Li, Lu Liu, Caihong Xu, Liang Wen, Likun Xue, Wenxing Wang, Aijun Ding, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9885–9896,Short summary
Cloud events at Mt. Tai were investigated for the chemical composition and size distribution of cloud droplets. An obvious rise in pH was found for elevated NH+4 during the last decade. Higher PM2.5 levels resulted in higher concentrations of water-soluble ions, smaller sizes and higher numbers of cloud droplets. The mechanism of cloud-droplet formation and the mass transfer between aerosol–gas–cloud phases were summarized to enrich the knowledge of cloud chemical and microphysical properties.
Sudhakar Dipu, Johannes Quaas, Ralf Wolke, Jens Stoll, Andreas Mühlbauer, Odran Sourdeval, Marc Salzmann, Bernd Heinold, and Ina Tegen
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2231–2246,
Lorenzo Caponi, Paola Formenti, Dario Massabó, Claudia Di Biagio, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Servanne Chevaillier, Gautier Landrot, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Stuart Piketh, Thuraya Saeed, Dave Seibert, Earle Williams, Yves Balkanski, Paolo Prati, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7175–7191,Short summary
This paper presents new laboratory measurements of the shortwave mass absorption efficiency (MAE) used by climate models for mineral dust of different origin and at different sizes. We found that small particles are more efficient, by given mass, in absorbing radiation, particularly at shorter wavelength. Because dust has high concentrations in the atmosphere, light absorption by mineral dust can be competitive to other absorbing atmospheric aerosols such as black and brown carbon.
Kgaugelo Euphinia Chiloane, Johan Paul Beukes, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Petra Maritz, Ville Vakkari, Miroslav Josipovic, Andrew Derick Venter, Kerneels Jaars, Petri Tiitta, Markku Kulmala, Alfred Wiedensohler, Catherine Liousse, Gabisile Vuyisile Mkhatshwa, Avishkar Ramandh, and Lauri Laakso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6177–6196,Short summary
This paper presents atmospheric black carbon (BC) data collected in South Africa (SA). In general, BC level were higher than in the developed world. At one site, five sources were identified, with household combustion as well as savannah and grassland fires the most significant sources during winter and spring, while coal-fired power stations, pyrometallurgical smelters and traffic contributed year round.
Yuxuan Zhang, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Kebin He, Alfred Wiedensohler, Qiang Zhang, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The light absorption of black carbon (BC) strongly depends on their mixing state. By now, the BC mixing state in the atmosphere is still unclear. In this work, we have investigated the comprehensive characterization of BC mixing state at a polluted regional background site of the North China Plain (NCP) based on in site measurements. we found that BC aerosols of the NCP were fully aged, suggesting a strong optical and climate effect of BC on the regional scale in northern China.
Jann Schrod, Daniel Weber, Jaqueline Drücke, Christos Keleshis, Michael Pikridas, Martin Ebert, Bojan Cvetković, Slobodan Nickovic, Eleni Marinou, Holger Baars, Albert Ansmann, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Jean Sciare, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4817–4835,Short summary
In this paper we present data of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) from a 1-month campaign in the Eastern Mediterranean using unmanned aircraft systems (UASs, drones) and offline sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first time INPs were measured onboard a UAS. We find that INP concentrations were 1 magnitude higher aloft than at the ground, highlighting that surface-based measurement of INP may only be of limited significance for the situation at cloud level.
Chris Reed, Mathew J. Evans, Leigh R. Crilley, William J. Bloss, Tomás Sherwen, Katie A. Read, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4081–4092,Short summary
The source of ozone-depleting compounds in the remote troposphere has been thought to be long-range transport of secondary pollutants such as organic nitrates. Processing of organic nitrates to nitric acid and subsequent deposition on surfaces in the atmosphere was thought to remove these nitrates from the ozone–NOx–HOx cycle. We found through observation of NOx in the remote tropical troposphere at the Cape Verde Observatory that surface nitrates can be released back into the atmosphere.
Jamie R. Banks, Helen E. Brindley, Georgiy Stenchikov, and Kerstin Schepanski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3987–4003,Short summary
From an 11-year analysis of satellite measurements of atmospheric dust presence over the Red Sea, it is clear that there is a strong north–south gradient in dust activity and a pronounced interannual variability in this activity. Analysing two commonly used satellite retrieval methods to quantify dust presence, we find that under the most extreme dust storm conditions the measured dust optical thicknesses can diverge strongly between the two methods.
Maria Rodigast, Anke Mutzel, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3929–3943,Short summary
The study presents, for the first time, a quantification method for methylglyoxal oligomers and highlights their importance for SOA formation. The method was applied to determine the fraction of methylglyoxal oligomers of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene SOA dependent on relative humidity and seed particle acidity. An oligomer contribution of up to 8 % was calculated varying with experimental conditions and thus further hints for the dependency of the oligomer formation mechanism on conditions were found.
Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Herrmann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, and Rahul A. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2103–2162,Short summary
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3 is an important interaction between anthropogenic and natural emissions. This review results from a June 2015 workshop and includes the recent literature on kinetics, mechanisms, organic aerosol yields, and heterogeneous chemistry; advances in analytical instrumentation; the current state NO3-BVOC chemistry in atmospheric models; and critical needs for future research in modeling, field observations, and laboratory studies.
Monique Teich, Dominik van Pinxteren, Michael Wang, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Thomas Müller, Griša Močnik, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1653–1672,Short summary
This study provides a large data set on concentrations of individual brown carbon constituents, i.e., nitrated aromatic compounds, in diverse atmospheric environments and their relative contribution to water-soluble and particulate light absorption. It extends the existing knowledge on the abundance of brown carbon and its molecular composition and provides scientific motivation for further studies on ambient brown carbon constituents.
Martin Brüggemann, Laurent Poulain, Andreas Held, Torsten Stelzer, Christoph Zuth, Stefanie Richters, Anke Mutzel, Dominik van Pinxteren, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Sarmite Katkevica, René Rabe, Hartmut Herrmann, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1453–1469,Short summary
Using complementary mass spectrometric techniques during a field study in central Europe, characteristic contributors to the organic aerosol mass were identified. Besides common marker compounds for biogenic secondary organic aerosol, highly oxidized sulfur species were detected in the particle phase. High-time-resolution measurements revealed correlations between these organosulfates and particulate sulfate as well as gas-phase peroxyradicals, giving hints to underlying formation mechanisms.
Clémence Rose, Karine Sellegri, Isabel Moreno, Fernando Velarde, Michel Ramonet, Kay Weinhold, Radovan Krejci, Marcos Andrade, Alfred Wiedensohler, Patrick Ginot, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1529–1541,Short summary
Using an indirect method based on particle size distribution measurements, we show that new particle formation (NPF) is responsible for a large contribution to the cloud condensation nuclei concentration at the highest observatory in the world (Bolivia, 5240 m a.s.l.) as expected from some global model predictions. We also provide unique results related to the influence of the boundary layer on the NPF process, showing direct evidence for the important NPF frequency in the free troposphere.
Johannes Schneider, Stephan Mertes, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1571–1593,Short summary
We analyzed the composition of cloud droplet residuals and of aerosol particles sampled on a mountaintop site. The data show that about 85 % of the submicron aerosol mass partitions into the cloud phase, and that the uptake of soluble compounds (nitric acid, ammonia, and organic gases) from the gas phase into the cloud droplets is very effective. This will lead to a redistribution of these compounds among the aerosol particles and thereby to a more uniform aerosol after cloud evaporation.
Yee Jun Tham, Zhe Wang, Qinyi Li, Hui Yun, Weihao Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Likun Xue, Keding Lu, Nan Ma, Birger Bohn, Xin Li, Simonas Kecorius, Johannes Größ, Min Shao, Alfred Wiedensohler, Yuanhang Zhang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14959–14977,Short summary
This work addresses the unclear global significance of chlorine activation processes in the troposphere. The first high-quality measurement data set of ClNO2 in northern China revealed strong ClNO2 production in the residual layers, and demonstrated its significant effects on radical budget and ozone production. Our findings imply the widespread effects of ClNO2 over the polluted regions of northern China, which may increase photochemical and haze pollution.
Eleonora Aruffo, Fabio Biancofiore, Piero Di Carlo, Marcella Busilacchio, Marco Verdecchia, Barbara Tomassetti, Cesare Dari-Salisburgo, Franco Giammaria, Stephane Bauguitte, James Lee, Sarah Moller, James Hopkins, Shalini Punjabi, Stephen J. Andrews, Alistair C. Lewis, Paul I. Palmer, Edward Hyer, Michael Le Breton, and Carl Percival
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5591–5606,Short summary
During the BORTAS aircraft campaign, we measured NO2 and their oxidtation products (as peroxy nitrates) with a custom laser-induced fluorescence instrument. Because of the high correlation between known pyrogenic tracers (i.e., carbon monoxide) and peroxy nitrates, we provide two methods to use these species for the identification of biomass burning (BB) plumes. Using an artifical neural network, we improved the BB identification taking into account of a meteorological parameter (pressure).
Kerstin Schepanski, Marc Mallet, Bernd Heinold, and Max Ulrich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14147–14168,Short summary
EOF analysis is used to link the north African atmospheric dust cycle, particularly active dust source regions, dust emission fluxes, dust transport pathways towards the Mediterranean Sea and Europe as well as dust deposition rates with atmospheric circulation regimes, such as position and strength of the subtropical ridge and the Saharan heat low.
Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Zhibin Wang, Xiaoxiang Wang, Mira L. Pöhlker, Björn Nillius, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5183–5192,Short summary
In cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements, the supersaturation scan is often time-consuming and limits the temporal resolution of CCN measurements. Here we present a new concept, termed the broad supersaturation scanning (BS2) method, in which a range of supersaturation is simultaneously scanned, resulting in fast measurements of CCN activity.
Gi Young Jeong, Mi Yeon Park, Konrad Kandler, Timo Nousiainen, and Osku Kemppinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12397–12410,Short summary
Individual Saharan dust particles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy of cross-sectional slices. We classified internal structures, and determined the volume of iron oxide included in the dust particles, the iron content of clay minerals, and the shape of the dust particles. The mineralogical and structural properties of single dust particles provide a basis for the modeling of dust optical properties and the supply of iron as a micronutrient to remote ocean ecosystem.
Luke B. Hande, Christa Engler, Corinna Hoose, and Ina Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12059–12079,Short summary
An aerosol model was used to simulate the concentration of natural and anthropogenic aerosols over Germany. Using a detailed parameterization of CCN activation, which includes information of aerosol chemical and physical properties, CCN concentrations were calculated. Using these results, a series of best fit functions were used to define a new parameterization, which is a simple function of vertical velocity and pressure. The new parameterization is easy to implement in models.
Ying Chen, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Ralf Wolke, Stephan Nordmann, Stephanie Schüttauf, Liang Ran, Birgit Wehner, Wolfram Birmili, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Qing Mu, Stefan Barthel, Gerald Spindler, Bastian Stieger, Konrad Müller, Guang-Jie Zheng, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12081–12097,Short summary
Sea salt aerosol (SSA) is important for primary and secondary aerosols on a global scale. During 10–20 September 2013, the SSA mass concentration was overestimated by a factor of 8–20 over central Europe by WRF-Chem model, stem from the uncertainty of its emission scheme. This could facilitate the coarse-mode nitrate formation (~ 140 % but inhibit the fine-mode nitrate formation (~−20 %). A special long-range transport mechanism could broaden this influence of SSA to a larger downwind region.
Silke Groß, Josef Gasteiger, Volker Freudenthaler, Thomas Müller, Daniel Sauer, Carlos Toledano, and Albert Ansmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11535–11546,Short summary
Dual-wavelength depolarization sensitive Raman lidar measurements were used to characterize the optical properties of the dust loaded convective boundary layer over the Caribbean. Furthermore we derived the dust volume fraction and dust mass concentration within the convective boundary layer.
Andreas Peckhaus, Alexei Kiselev, Thibault Hiron, Martin Ebert, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11477–11496,Short summary
The precipitation in midlatitude clouds proceeds predominantly via nucleation of ice in the supercooled droplets containing foreign inclusions, like feldspar mineral dust, that have been recently identified as one of the most active ice nucleating agents in the atmosphere. We have built an apparatus to observe the freezing of feldspar immersed in up to 1500 identical droplets simultaneously. With this setup we investigated four feldspar samples and show that it can induce freezing at −5 °C.
Quynh T. Nguyen, Marianne Glasius, Lise L. Sørensen, Bjarne Jensen, Henrik Skov, Wolfram Birmili, Alfred Wiedensohler, Adam Kristensson, Jacob K. Nøjgaard, and Andreas Massling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11319–11336,Short summary
Aerosol particles strongly influence climate change as they can absorb or reflect solar radiation. This work investigates aerosol particles in the remote northern Arctic. "Newly born" particles are small, then they "age" and grow in size due to different mechanisms. The results showed that during the polar night and especially Arctic spring, particles were likely transported from longer distances and were aged. During summer, "younger" particles are observed, which might be linked to ozone.
Silvia Sandrini, Dominik van Pinxteren, Lara Giulianelli, Hartmut Herrmann, Laurent Poulain, Maria Cristina Facchini, Stefania Gilardoni, Matteo Rinaldi, Marco Paglione, Barbara J. Turpin, Francesca Pollini, Silvia Bucci, Nicola Zanca, and Stefano Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10879–10897,Short summary
This paper deals with impactor measurements performed in the summer 2012 during the EU project PEGASOS campaign in the Po Valley, at an urban and a rural site. The paper tries to disentangle the effects of weather anomalies (temporal and spatial) from those of diverse emissions (NH3) and chemical processes on the formation of secondary aerosols in the region, with special focus on nocturnal ammonium nitrate formation and its implications (aqueous formation of secondary organic aerosol).
Wolfram Birmili, Kay Weinhold, Fabian Rasch, André Sonntag, Jia Sun, Maik Merkel, Alfred Wiedensohler, Susanne Bastian, Alexander Schladitz, Gunter Löschau, Josef Cyrys, Mike Pitz, Jianwei Gu, Thomas Kusch, Harald Flentje, Ulrich Quass, Heinz Kaminski, Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch, Frank Meinhardt, Andreas Schwerin, Olaf Bath, Ludwig Ries, Holger Gerwig, Klaus Wirtz, and Markus Fiebig
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 355–382,Short summary
The German Ultraﬁne Aerosol Network (GUAN) provides new continuous data on tropospheric aerosol particles including number size distributions and black carbon. The data are equally relevant for atmospheric studies related to both climate-related and health-related issues. The published data underwent uniform measures of quality assurance and control. The data are available free of charge at the World Data Center for Aerosols EBAS data repository.
Stefanie Richters, Hartmut Herrmann, and Torsten Berndt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9831–9845,Short summary
New reaction pathways of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) from the ozonolysis of the sesquiterpene (C15H24) beta-caryophyllene were elucidated based on experiments using isotopically labelled ozone and H/D exchange experiments. These new insights in reaction pathways of unsaturated RO2 radicals are responsible for the production of about two-thirds of the detected HOMs from beta-caryophyllene and extend the knowledge of HOM formation mechanisms in the atmosphere.
Nan Ma, Chunsheng Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, Zhijun Wu, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Johannes Größ, Hongjian Liu, Yuxuan Bian, Ye Kuang, Monique Teich, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Min Hu, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8593–8607,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is one of main sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. Based on in situ measurements, we found that CCN activity of newly formed particles largely differs in different NPF events. It is therefore difficult to find a simple parameterization of CCN activity for NPF events. Using a fixed size-resolved activation ratio curve or critical diameter is very likely to result in large biases up to 50 % in the calculated NCCN during NPF events.
Martin Ebert, Ralf Weigel, Konrad Kandler, Gebhard Günther, Sergej Molleker, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Bärbel Vogel, Stephan Weinbruch, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8405–8421,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosol particles were collected within the arctic vortex in late winter. The chemical composition of refractory particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. More than 750 refractory particles with diameters above 500 nm were found consisting of silicates, Fe- and Ca-rich particles and metal mixtures. The detection of refractory particles in the late winter polar stratosphere has strong implications for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds and ozone depletion.
Amy P. Sullivan, Natasha Hodas, Barbara J. Turpin, Kate Skog, Frank N. Keutsch, Stefania Gilardoni, Marco Paglione, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Eiko Nemitz, Marsailidh M. Twigg, and Jeffrey L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8095–8108,Short summary
This paper presents the results from our measurements and approach for the investigation of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation in the ambient atmosphere. When local aqSOA formation was observed, a correlation of water-soluble organic carbon with organic aerosol, aerosol liquid water, relative humidity, and aerosol nitrate was found. Key factors of local aqSOA production include air mass stagnation, formation of local nitrate overnight, and significant amounts of ammonia.
Bernadette Rosati, Martin Gysel, Florian Rubach, Thomas F. Mentel, Brigitta Goger, Laurent Poulain, Patrick Schlag, Pasi Miettinen, Aki Pajunoja, Annele Virtanen, Henk Klein Baltink, J. S. Bas Henzing, Johannes Größ, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Alfred Wiedensohler, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Ernest Weingartner, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7295–7315,Short summary
This study presents PEGASOS project data from field campaigns in the Po Valley, Italy and the Netherlands. Vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition were investigated with airborne measurements on board a Zeppelin NT airship. A special focus was on the evolution of different mixing layers within the PBL as a function of daytime. A closure study showed that variations in aerosol hygroscopicity can well be explained by the variations in chemical composition.
María José Granados-Muñoz, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Ioannis Binietoglou, Sergio Nepomuceno Pereira, Sara Basart, José María Baldasano, Livio Belegante, Anatoli Chaikovsky, Adolfo Comerón, Giuseppe D'Amico, Oleg Dubovik, Luka Ilic, Panos Kokkalis, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, Slobodan Nickovic, Doina Nicolae, Francisco José Olmo, Alexander Papayannis, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Alejandro Rodríguez, Kerstin Schepanski, Michaël Sicard, Ana Vukovic, Ulla Wandinger, François Dulac, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7043–7066,Short summary
This study provides a detailed overview of the Mediterranean region regarding aerosol microphysical properties during the ChArMEx/EMEP campaign in July 2012. An in-depth analysis of the horizontal, vertical, and temporal dimensions is performed using LIRIC, proving the algorithm's ability in automated retrieval of microphysical property profiles within a network. A validation of four dust models is included, obtaining fair good agreement, especially for the vertical distribution of the aerosol.
Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Cyrille Flamant, Thibaut Dauhut, Cécile Kocha, Jean-Philippe Lafore, Chistophe Lavaysse, Fabien Marnas, Mohamed Mokhtari, Jacques Pelon, Irene Reinares Martínez, Kerstin Schepanski, and Pierre Tulet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6977–6995,Short summary
The Fennec field campaign conducted in June 2011 led to the first observational data set ever obtained that documents the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer under the influence of the heat low. In addition to the aircraft operation, four dust forecasts were run at low and high resolutions with convection-parameterizing and convection-permitting models, respectively. The unique airborne and ground-based data sets allowed the first ever intercomparison of dust forecasts over the western Sahara.
Chris Reed, Charlotte A. Brumby, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Paul W. Seakins, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2483–2495,Short summary
A new method of measuring nitrous acid (HONO), a potent mediator of air quality in the atmosphere as well as an important indoor pollutant, is presented. The new method relies on simple, proven techniques already widely applied to other atmospheric compounds. The technique can be retrofitted to existing analysers at minimal cost, or developed into instruments capable of very fast measurement which allow for more complex analysis of the behaviour of HONO.
James W. Grayson, Yue Zhang, Anke Mutzel, Lindsay Renbaum-Wolff, Olaf Böge, Saeid Kamal, Hartmut Herrmann, Scot T. Martin, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6027–6040,Short summary
The effect of several experimental parameters on the viscosity of secondary organic material (SOM) generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene has been studied. The results demonstrate that the viscosity of SOM depends on the particle mass concentration at which SOM is produced, and the relative humidity (RH) at which the SOM is studied. Hence, particle mass concentration and RH should be considered when comparing experimental results for SOM, or extrapolating laboratory results to the atmosphere.
Markus Hermann, Andreas Weigelt, Denise Assmann, Sascha Pfeifer, Thomas Müller, Thomas Conrath, Jens Voigtländer, Jost Heintzenberg, Alfred Wiedensohler, Bengt G. Martinsson, Terry Deshler, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2179–2194,Short summary
Aerosol particles are an important component of the Earth's atmosphere. Here we describe the composition and characterization of a new optical particle size spectrometer (OPSS) for aircraft-borne measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution (how many particles there are with a certain size) in the 140–1050 nm size range. The OPSS was characterized throughout concerning its measurement capabilities (response, pressure dependence, coincidence) and validated versus balloon measurement.
Stefanie Augustin-Bauditz, Heike Wex, Cyrielle Denjean, Susan Hartmann, Johannes Schneider, Susann Schmidt, Martin Ebert, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5531–5543,Short summary
In this study, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample with ice active biological material and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Furthermore, we used different methods to investigate the mixing state of our generated aerosol. We found that internally mixed particles, containing ice active biological material, follow the ice nucleation behavior observed for the pure biological particles.
Yuxuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Kebin He
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1833–1843,Short summary
We develop a novel method in this work for in situ measurements of the morphology and effective density of ambient In-BC cores using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer and a single-particle soot photometer. We find that In-BC cores hardly transform the morphology of BC into a void-free sphere. Taking the morphology and density of ambient In-BC cores into account, our work provides a new insight into the enhancement of light absorption for In-BC particles in the atmosphere.
Chris Reed, Mathew J. Evans, Piero Di Carlo, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4707–4724,Short summary
The self-cleaning capacity of the atmosphere in places like Antarctica can be measured by quantifying very low amounts of combustion products that exist in a well-known ratio. When this ratio deviates from 1 it points to the existence of unknown compounds. Several unknown compounds have been theorized to exist but never measured. We have found the method for measuring the ratio of combustion products suffers a bias in remote places, which when taken into account disproves any unknown compounds.
Bernadette Rosati, Erik Herrmann, Silvia Bucci, Federico Fierli, Francesco Cairo, Martin Gysel, Ralf Tillmann, Johannes Größ, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Luca Di Liberto, Guido Di Donfrancesco, Alfred Wiedensohler, Ernest Weingartner, Annele Virtanen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4539–4554,Short summary
We present vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties, which were explored within the planetary boundary layer in a case study in 2012 in the Po Valley region. A comparison of in situ measurements recorded aboard a Zeppelin NT and ground-based remote-sensing data was performed yielding good agreement. Additionally, the role of ambient relative humidity for the aerosol particles' optical properties was investigated.
Sascha Pfeifer, Thomas Müller, Kay Weinhold, Nadezda Zikova, Sebastiao Martins dos Santos, Angela Marinoni, Oliver F. Bischof, Carsten Kykal, Ludwig Ries, Frank Meinhardt, Pasi Aalto, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1545–1551,Short summary
15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS model 3321, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) were compared with a focus on flow rates accuracy, particle sizing, and unit-to-unit variability of the particle number size distribution. Flow rate deviations were relatively small, while the sizing accuracy was found to be within 10 % compared to polystyrene latex reference particles. The unit-to-unit variability in terms of the particle number size distribution during this study was between 10 % and 60 %.
Jann Schrod, Anja Danielczok, Daniel Weber, Martin Ebert, Erik S. Thomson, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1313–1324,Short summary
In this manuscript we describe technical and analytical advances that have been implemented for use with the Frankfurt ice nuclei measurement system known as FRIDGE. In particular we focus on a new collection apparatus and improved data analysis protocol. We also provide an outline of how FRIDGE data should be interpreted and reported. Results from an example case study are presented and help to contextualize FRIDGE data with respect to other measurement techniques and modeling efforts.
Marcella Busilacchio, Piero Di Carlo, Eleonora Aruffo, Fabio Biancofiore, Cesare Dari Salisburgo, Franco Giammaria, Stephane Bauguitte, James Lee, Sarah Moller, James Hopkins, Shalini Punjabi, Stephen Andrews, Alistair C. Lewis, Mark Parrington, Paul I. Palmer, Edward Hyer, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3485–3497,Short summary
Boreal fire emissions have little effect on ozone concentrations but evident impact on some NOx reservoirs as peroxy nitrates that we quantified. This should be taken into account since NOx reservoirs can be efficiently transported and may influence the ozone budget far away from the fire emission. The study is based on observations carried out on board the BAe 146 aircraft during BORTAS in Canada. We used a custom laser-induced fluorescence system to measure NO2 and NOx reservoirs.
Dominik van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Stephan Mertes, Konrad Müller, Gerald Spindler, Johannes Schneider, Taehyoung Lee, Jeffrey L. Collett, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3185–3205,
Yan Lv, Xiang Li, Ting Ting Xu, Tian Tao Cheng, Xin Yang, Jian Min Chen, Yoshiteru Iinuma, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2971–2983,Short summary
The study focused on size-resolved PAHs in urban aerosols at a megacity Shanghai site. The results provide us with a mechanistic understanding of the particle size distribution of PAHs and their transport in the human respiratory system; this can help develop better source control strategies.
J. D. Lee, L. K. Whalley, D. E. Heard, D. Stone, R. E. Dunmore, J. F. Hamilton, D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, S. Laufs, and J. Kleffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2747–2764,Short summary
This paper presents field measurements of HONO and a range of other gas phase and particulate species from an urban background site in London. The measured daytime HONO cannot be reproduced with a simple box model and thus a significant daytime missing source of HONO is present. We show that this missing source could be responsible for 40 % of the OH radical source and 57 % of the OH initiation; hence its potential importance for atmospheric oxidation and ozone production.
Thomas B. Kristensen, Thomas Müller, Konrad Kandler, Nathalie Benker, Markus Hartmann, Joseph M. Prospero, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2675–2688,Short summary
We have investigated the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties in the trade wind marine boundary layer of the western North Atlantic during the dust season. Little is known about the CCN influencing cloud optical properties in that region. High mass concentrations of mineral dust were observed, but the number concentrations of mineral dust and sea salt were not high enough to influence CCN properties, and the CCN were likely to be dominated by a mixture of sulfates and organic species.
Maria Rodigast, Anke Mutzel, Janine Schindelka, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2689–2702,Short summary
The study highlights methyl ethyl ketone as a new and unknown source for methylglyoxal in the aqueous phase that is important for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation. Besides 2,3-butanedione (29.5 %) and hydroxyacetone (3.0 %), methylglyoxal was formed with a molar yield of 9.5 %. According to the detected products a reaction mechanism was developed and evaluated. The comparison of the model and experimental data showed excellent agreements, in particular for methylglyoxal.
Bernd Heinold, Ina Tegen, Kerstin Schepanski, and Jamie R. Banks
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 765–777,Short summary
In the aerosol-climate model ECHAM6-HAM2, dust source activation (DSA) observations from MSG satellite are used to replace the current Saharan source map. The new setup provides more realistically distributed, up to 20 % higher annual Saharan emissions. Modeled dust AOT is partly improved in the Sahara-Sahel region, as is the spatial variability. As a comparison to sub-daily MSG DSAs and a regional model shows, the representation of meteorological drivers of dust uplift remains a critical issue.
Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Brian Bandy, Rachel Dunmore, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, James Hopkins, James D. Lee, Alastair C. Lewis, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2109–2122,
Shang Sun, Alexander Moravek, Lisa von der Heyden, Andreas Held, Matthias Sörgel, and Jürgen Kesselmeier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 599–617,Short summary
We present a dynamic twin-cuvette system for quantifying the trace gas exchange fluxes between plants and the atmosphere under controlled temperature, light, and humidity conditions. We found out that at a relative humidity of 40 %, the deposition velocity ratio of O3 and PAN was determined to be 0.45. At that humidity, the O3-deposition to the plant leaves was found to be only controlled by leaf stomata. For PAN, an additional resistance inhibited the uptake of PAN by the leaves.
A. Skupin, A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, P. Seifert, and T. Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1863–1876,
Ying Chen, Ya-Fang Cheng, Stephan Nordmann, Wolfram Birmili, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Nan Ma, Ralf Wolke, Birgit Wehner, Jia Sun, Gerald Spindler, Qing Mu, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1823–1835,Short summary
We evaluated the EC point sources in Germany with high-resolution simulation by WRF-Chem, and find out that point sources contribute too much EC in the coarse mode aerosol mass. The area emissions in Eastern Europe and Russia also allocate too much EC emission in coarse mode in the EUCAARI EC emission inventory. Because of the shorter life time of coarse mode EC, about 20–40 % less EC can be transported to Melpitz from Eastern Europe. Size segregation information is important for EC inventories.
Z. J. Wu, J. Zheng, D. J. Shang, Z. F. Du, Y. S. Wu, L. M. Zeng, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1123–1138,Short summary
Most pre-existing measurements lack a linkage between particle hygroscopicity and chemical composition with a high time resolution in China. Our work provided a general overview of particle hygroscopicity and its closure with chemical composition on the basis of HTDMA and AMS measurements. An increase in particle hygroscopicity with increasing air pollution level was found, as well as a quick transformation from external mixtures to internal mixtures for pre-existing particles during NPF events.
A. J. Rusumdar, R. Wolke, A. Tilgner, and H. Herrmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 247–281,Short summary
The present paper was aimed at the further development of SPACCIM to treat both complex multiphase chemistry and phase transfer processes considering new non-ideality properties of concentrated solutions. Model studies showed the applicability of the new kinetic model approach for complex aerosol mixtures and detailed chemical mechanisms. Simulations have implied that the treatment of non-ideality should be mandatory for modeling multiphase chemical processes in deliquesced particles.
M. Mallet, F. Dulac, P. Formenti, P. Nabat, J. Sciare, G. Roberts, J. Pelon, G. Ancellet, D. Tanré, F. Parol, C. Denjean, G. Brogniez, A. di Sarra, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. Arndt, F. Auriol, L. Blarel, T. Bourrianne, P. Chazette, S. Chevaillier, M. Claeys, B. D'Anna, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, T. Di Iorio, J.-F. Doussin, P. Durand, A. Féron, E. Freney, C. Gaimoz, P. Goloub, J. L. Gómez-Amo, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, N. Grand, E. Hamonou, I. Jankowiak, M. Jeannot, J.-F. Léon, M. Maillé, S. Mailler, D. Meloni, L. Menut, G. Momboisse, J. Nicolas, T. Podvin, V. Pont, G. Rea, J.-B. Renard, L. Roblou, K. Schepanski, A. Schwarzenboeck, K. Sellegri, M. Sicard, F. Solmon, S. Somot, B Torres, J. Totems, S. Triquet, N. Verdier, C. Verwaerde, F. Waquet, J. Wenger, and P. Zapf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 455–504,Short summary
The aim of this article is to present an experimental campaign over the Mediterranean focused on aerosol-radiation measurements and modeling. Results indicate an important atmospheric loading associated with a moderate absorbing ability of mineral dust. Observations suggest a complex vertical structure and size distributions characterized by large aerosols within dust plumes. The radiative effect is highly variable, with negative forcing over the Mediterranean and positive over northern Africa.
A. Roth, J. Schneider, T. Klimach, S. Mertes, D. van Pinxteren, H. Herrmann, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 505–524,Short summary
This paper reports on single-particle measurements of ambient aerosol particles and cloud residues sampled from orographic clouds on a mountain site in central Germany. The results show that soot particles can get efficiently activated in cloud droplets when they are mixed with or coated by sulfate and nitrate. Cloud processing leads to addition of nitrate and sulfate to the particles, thereby increasing the hygroscopicity of these particles when they remain in the air after cloud evaporation.
V. N. Dos Santos, E. Herrmann, H. E. Manninen, T. Hussein, J. Hakala, T. Nieminen, P. P. Aalto, M. Merkel, A. Wiedensohler, M. Kulmala, T. Petäjä, and K. Hämeri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13717–13737,Short summary
Atmospheric charged particles, i.e. air ions, contribute to secondary aerosol formation and have an effect on global climate as potential cloud condensation nuclei. We aimed to evaluate air ion concentrations and characteristics during new particle formation (NPF) events in the megacity Paris, France. We analyzed frequency and seasonal variations of NPF events, diurnal and seasonal cycles of ions, and aerosol particles.
Z. J. Wu, L. Poulain, W. Birmili, J. Größ, N. Niedermeier, Z. B. Wang, H. Herrmann, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13071–13083,
M. Paramonov, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Gysel, P. P. Aalto, M. O. Andreae, E. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, A. Bougiatioti, D. Brus, G. P. Frank, N. Good, S. S. Gunthe, L. Hao, M. Irwin, A. Jaatinen, Z. Jurányi, S. M. King, A. Kortelainen, A. Kristensson, H. Lihavainen, M. Kulmala, U. Lohmann, S. T. Martin, G. McFiggans, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Nenes, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, T. Petäjä, U. Pöschl, G. C. Roberts, D. Rose, B. Svenningsson, E. Swietlicki, E. Weingartner, J. Whitehead, A. Wiedensohler, C. Wittbom, and B. Sierau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12211–12229,Short summary
The research paper presents the first comprehensive overview of field measurements with the CCN Counter performed at a large number of locations around the world within the EUCAARI framework. The paper sheds light on the CCN number concentrations and activated fractions around the world and their dependence on the water vapour supersaturation ratio, the dependence of aerosol hygroscopicity on particle size, and seasonal and diurnal variation of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties.
Y. Zhang, N. Mahowald, R. A. Scanza, E. Journet, K. Desboeufs, S. Albani, J. F. Kok, G. Zhuang, Y. Chen, D. D. Cohen, A. Paytan, M. D. Patey, E. P. Achterberg, J. P. Engelbrecht, and K. W. Fomba
Biogeosciences, 12, 5771–5792,Short summary
A new technique to determine a size-fractionated global soil elemental emission inventory based on a global soil and mineralogical data set is introduced. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions (8 elements, e.g., Ca, Fe, Al) is identified on a global scale, particularly for Ca. The Ca/Al ratio ranged between 0.1 and 5.0 and is confirmed as an indicator of dust source regions by a global dust model. Total and soluble dust element fluxes into different ocean basins are estimated.
S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, K. Schepanski, C. Toledano, A. Schäfler, A. Ansmann, and B. Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11067–11080,Short summary
In June and July 2013 dual-wavelength lidar measurements were performed in Barbados to study long-range transported Saharan dust across the Atlantic Ocean and investigate transport-induced changes. The focus of our measurements is the intensive optical properties, the lidar ratio and the particle linear depolarization ratio. While the lidar ratio shows no differences compared to the values of fresh Saharan dust, the particle linear depolarization ratio shows slight differences.
M. Simmel, J. Bühl, A. Ansmann, and I. Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10453–10470,Short summary
The paper combines remote sensing observations and detailed cloud modeling. It was shown that the main features of the observations could be captured which allows one to perform sensitivity studies. Those show that the liquid phase is mainly determined by the dynamical parameters of the model, whereas the ice phase is dominated by microphysical parameters such as ice nuclei number and ice particle shape.
R. E. Dunmore, J. R. Hopkins, R. T. Lidster, J. D. Lee, M. J. Evans, A. R. Rickard, A. C. Lewis, and J. F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9983–9996,Short summary
Technological shifts between fuel sources have had unexpected impacts on atmospheric composition and these significant changes can go undetected if source-specific monitoring infrastructure is not in place. We present chemically comprehensive, continuous measurements of organic compounds in a developed megacity (London), that show diesel-related hydrocarbons can dominate reactive carbon and ozone formation potential, highlighting a serious underestimation of this source in emission inventories.
J. G. Levine, A. R. MacKenzie, O. J. Squire, A. T. Archibald, P. T. Griffiths, N. L. Abraham, J. A. Pyle, D. E. Oram, G. Forster, J. F. Brito, J. D. Lee, J. R. Hopkins, A. C. Lewis, S. J. B. Bauguitte, C. F. Demarco, P. Artaxo, P. Messina, J. Lathière, D. A. Hauglustaine, E. House, C. N. Hewitt, and E. Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
This study explores our ability to simulate atmospheric chemistry stemming from isoprene emissions—a reactive gas emitted from vegetation—in pristine and polluted regions of the Amazon basin. We explore how two contrasting models fare in reproducing recent airborne measurements in the region. Their differing treatments of transport and mixing are found to: profoundly affect their performance; and yield very different pictures of the exposure of the rainforest to harmful ozone concentrations.
M. Beekmann, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Drewnick, J. Sciare, S. N. Pandis, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Crippa, F. Freutel, L. Poulain, V. Ghersi, E. Rodriguez, S. Beirle, P. Zotter, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Bressi, C. Fountoukis, H. Petetin, S. Szidat, J. Schneider, A. Rosso, I. El Haddad, A. Megaritis, Q. J. Zhang, V. Michoud, J. G. Slowik, S. Moukhtar, P. Kolmonen, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, A. Borbon, V. Gros, N. Marchand, J. L. Jaffrezo, A. Schwarzenboeck, A. Colomb, A. Wiedensohler, S. Borrmann, M. Lawrence, A. Baklanov, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9577–9591,Short summary
A detailed characterization of air quality in the Paris (France) agglomeration, a megacity, during two summer and winter intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations, revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported into the megacity from upwind regions. Unexpectedly, a major part of organic PM is of modern origin (woodburning and cooking activities, secondary formation from biogenic VOC).
M. Sörgel, I. Trebs, D. Wu, and A. Held
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9237–9251,Short summary
We measured near-surface (< 2m) profiles of HONO in a clearing and on a forest floor. Both HONO deposition and emissions were observed. By comparing three postulated sources to observed daytime emissions, we made several important findings: ● conversion of NO2 is mostly independent of light due to light saturation ● HONO emissions from a very acidic soil were low ● photolysis of adsorbed HNO3 could serve as HONO source based on empirical parameters but unlikely via the proposed reaction pathway.
K. W. Fomba, D. van Pinxteren, K. Müller, Y. Iinuma, T. Lee, J. L. Collett Jr., and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8751–8765,
H. M. Walker, D. Stone, T. Ingham, S. Vaughan, M. Cain, R. L. Jones, O. J. Kennedy, M. McLeod, B. Ouyang, J. Pyle, S. Bauguitte, B. Bandy, G. Forster, M. J. Evans, J. F. Hamilton, J. R. Hopkins, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, R. T. Lidster, S. Punjabi, W. T. Morgan, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8179–8200,
M. Rodigast, A. Mutzel, Y. Iinuma, S. Haferkorn, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2409–2416,Short summary
An optimised method for derivatisation of carbonyl compounds with o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) in aqueous samples is described. The comprehensive optimisation of the method leads to an improvement of the detection limit up to a factor of 10 highlighting the good sensitivity of the optimised method for atmospherically relevant carbonyl compounds. The optimised method was successfully applied to detect carbonyl compounds from the aqueous phase oxidation of 3-methylbutanone.
Z. Wang, H. Su, X. Wang, N. Ma, A. Wiedensohler, U. Pöschl, and Y. Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2161–2172,
L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, C. Ruckstuhl, E. Coz, M. Rupakheti, J. Sciare, T. Müller, A. Wiedensohler, and A. D. A. Hansen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1965–1979,Short summary
We present a new real-time algorithm for compensation of the filter-loading effect in filter photometers, based on a two parallel spot measurement of optical absorption. This algorithm has been incorporated into the new Aethalometer AE33. Intercomparison studies show excellent reproducibility of the AE33 measurements and very good agreement with post-processed data obtained using earlier aethalometer models and other filter-based absorption photometers.
M. D. Shaw, J. D. Lee, B. Davison, A. Vaughan, R. M. Purvis, A. Harvey, A. C. Lewis, and C. N. Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5083–5097,Short summary
This paper presents the first highly spatially resolved simultaneous mixing ratios of VOCs, NOx and O3 in the atmospheric boundary layer above Greater London (UK) using an research aircraft. Average mixing ratios measured at 360±10 m agl over outer London were always lower than over inner London, indicative of strong local vehicular sources. The comparison of airborne mixing ratio with LAQN air quality ground monitoring stations suggests that the mixing ratios were characteristic of the surface.
A.-M. Sundström, A. Nikandrova, K. Atlaskina, T. Nieminen, V. Vakkari, L. Laakso, J. P. Beukes, A. Arola, P. G. van Zyl, M. Josipovic, A. D. Venter, K. Jaars, J. J. Pienaar, S. Piketh, A. Wiedensohler, E. K. Chiloane, G. de Leeuw, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4983–4996,
L. B. Hande, C. Engler, C. Hoose, and I. Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4389–4397,Short summary
Dust is a significant aerosol on seasonal timescales. There are large differences in dust and INP concentrations between seasons. The INP concentrations have a different vertical distribution than other common parameterisations suggest. We provide a new formulation to estimate the INP particles formed on dust aerosols, for use in process studies and regional simulations over Europe. The new formulation captures a much more realistic seasonal variability and vertical profile.
A. Worringen, K. Kandler, N. Benker, T. Dirsch, S. Mertes, L. Schenk, U. Kästner, F. Frank, B. Nillius, U. Bundke, D. Rose, J. Curtius, P. Kupiszewski, E. Weingartner, P. Vochezer, J. Schneider, S. Schmidt, S. Weinbruch, and M. Ebert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4161–4178,
L. K. Whalley, D. Stone, I. J. George, S. Mertes, D. van Pinxteren, A. Tilgner, H. Herrmann, M. J. Evans, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3289–3301,
L. R. Crilley, W. J. Bloss, J. Yin, D. C. S. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, M. Flynn, P. Williams, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prevot, M. R. Heal, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, J. D. Lee, S. Szidat, and C. Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3149–3171,Short summary
Wood is a renewable fuel but its combustion for residential heating releases a number of locally acting air pollutants, most notably particulate matter known to have adverse effects on human health. This paper used chemical tracers for wood smoke to estimate the contribution that burning wood makes to concentrations of airborne particles in the atmosphere of southern England and most particularly in London.
N. Hiranuma, S. Augustin-Bauditz, H. Bingemer, C. Budke, J. Curtius, A. Danielczok, K. Diehl, K. Dreischmeier, M. Ebert, F. Frank, N. Hoffmann, K. Kandler, A. Kiselev, T. Koop, T. Leisner, O. Möhler, B. Nillius, A. Peckhaus, D. Rose, S. Weinbruch, H. Wex, Y. Boose, P. J. DeMott, J. D. Hader, T. C. J. Hill, Z. A. Kanji, G. Kulkarni, E. J. T. Levin, C. S. McCluskey, M. Murakami, B. J. Murray, D. Niedermeier, M. D. Petters, D. O'Sullivan, A. Saito, G. P. Schill, T. Tajiri, M. A. Tolbert, A. Welti, T. F. Whale, T. P. Wright, and K. Yamashita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2489–2518,Short summary
Seventeen ice nucleation measurement techniques contributed to investigate the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX. All data showed a similar temperature trend, but the measured ice nucleation activity was on average smaller for the wet suspended samples and higher for the dry-dispersed aerosol samples at high temperatures. A continued investigation and collaboration is necessary to obtain further insights into consistency or diversity of ice nucleation measurements.
S. Schmidt, J. Schneider, T. Klimach, S. Mertes, L. P. Schenk, J. Curtius, P. Kupiszewski, E. Hammer, P. Vochezer, G. Lloyd, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, S. Weinbruch, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
D. Plake, M. Sörgel, P. Stella, A. Held, and I. Trebs
Biogeosciences, 12, 945–959,Short summary
Grasslands cover vast terrestrial areas and the main biomass is concentrated in the lowest part of the canopy. We found that measured transport times in the lowermost canopy layer are fastest during nighttime. During daytime, the reaction of NO with O3, as well as NO2 uptake by plants, was faster than transport. This suggests that grassland canopies of similar structure may exhibit a strong potential to retain soil emitted NO due to oxidation and subsequent uptake of NO2 by plants.
J. W. Taylor, J. D. Allan, G. Allen, H. Coe, P. I. Williams, M. J. Flynn, M. Le Breton, J. B. A. Muller, C. J. Percival, D. Oram, G. Forster, J. D. Lee, A. R. Rickard, M. Parrington, and P. I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13755–13771,Short summary
We present a case study of BC wet removal by examining aerosol properties in three biomass burning plumes, one of which passed through a precipitating cloud. Nucleation scavenging preferentially removed the largest and most coated BC-containing particles. Calculated single-scattering albedo (SSA) showed little variation, as a large number of non-BC particles were also present in the precipitation-affected plume.
G. Allen, S. M. Illingworth, S. J. O'Shea, S. Newman, A. Vance, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, F. Marenco, J. Kent, K. Bower, M. W. Gallagher, J. Muller, C. J. Percival, C. Harlow, J. Lee, and J. P. Taylor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4401–4416,Short summary
This paper presents a validated method and data set for new retrievals of trace gas concentrations and temperature from the ARIES infrared spectrometer instrument on the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft (www.faam.ac.uk). This new capability for the aircraft will allow new science to be done because of the way it can sense information about the atmosphere without having to physically pass through it (remote sensing). This will allow us to better understand the make-up of the lower atmosphere.
S. Nordmann, Y. F. Cheng, G. R. Carmichael, M. Yu, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, Q. Zhang, P. E. Saide, U. Pöschl, H. Su, W. Birmili, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12683–12699,
T. Müller, A. Virkkula, and J. A. Ogren
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4049–4070,
R. Weigel, C. M. Volk, K. Kandler, E. Hösen, G. Günther, B. Vogel, J.-U. Grooß, S. Khaykin, G. V. Belyaev, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12319–12342,
J. D. Allan, W. T. Morgan, E. Darbyshire, M. J. Flynn, P. I. Williams, D. E. Oram, P. Artaxo, J. Brito, J. D. Lee, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11393–11407,
L. P. Schenk, S. Mertes, U. Kästner, F. Frank, B. Nillius, U. Bundke, D. Rose, S. Schmidt, J. Schneider, A. Worringen, K. Kandler, N. Bukowiecki, M. Ebert, J. Curtius, and F. Stratmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
A pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI) was set up to separate ice nucleating particle (INP) counter produced ice particles that had been activated to ice from non-activated aerosol particles. The released INP were characterized with regard to their physico-chemical properties. A successful separation (PCVI) of INP for water-subsaturated conditions is proven. First results of INP properties are presented which were gained during a campaign at the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch.
S. Molleker, S. Borrmann, H. Schlager, B. Luo, W. Frey, M. Klingebiel, R. Weigel, M. Ebert, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, W. Woiwode, H. Oelhaf, A. Dörnbrack, G. Stratmann, J.-U. Grooß, G. Günther, B. Vogel, R. Müller, M. Krämer, J. Meyer, and F. Cairo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10785–10801,
S. G. Gonser, F. Klein, W. Birmili, J. Größ, M. Kulmala, H. E. Manninen, A. Wiedensohler, and A. Held
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10547–10563,
L. Poulain, W. Birmili, F. Canonaco, M. Crippa, Z. J. Wu, S. Nordmann, G. Spindler, A. S. H. Prévôt, A. Wiedensohler, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10145–10162,
D. Liu, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, H. Coe, D. Beddows, Z. L. Fleming, M. J. Flynn, M. W. Gallagher, R. M. Harrison, J. Lee, A. S. H. Prevot, J. W. Taylor, J. Yin, P. I. Williams, and P. Zotter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10061–10084,
A. Tilgner, L. Schöne, P. Bräuer, D. van Pinxteren, E. Hoffmann, G. Spindler, S. A. Styler, S. Mertes, W. Birmili, R. Otto, M. Merkel, K. Weinhold, A. Wiedensohler, H. Deneke, R. Schrödner, R. Wolke, J. Schneider, W. Haunold, A. Engel, A. Wéber, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9105–9128,
K. W. Fomba, K. Müller, D. van Pinxteren, L. Poulain, M. van Pinxteren, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8883–8904,
S. Fiedler, K. Schepanski, P. Knippertz, B. Heinold, and I. Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8983–9000,
J. E. Franklin, J. R. Drummond, D. Griffin, J. R. Pierce, D. L. Waugh, P. I. Palmer, M. Parrington, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, J. W. Taylor, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. A. Walker, L. Chisholm, T. J. Duck, J. T. Hopper, Y. Blanchard, M. D. Gibson, K. R. Curry, K. M. Sakamoto, G. Lesins, L. Dan, J. Kliever, and A. Saha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8449–8460,
S. Henning, K. Dieckmann, K. Ignatius, M. Schäfer, P. Zedler, E. Harris, B. Sinha, D. van Pinxteren, S. Mertes, W. Birmili, M. Merkel, Z. Wu, A. Wiedensohler, H. Wex, H. Herrmann, and F. Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7859–7868,
R. T. Lidster, J. F. Hamilton, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, J. R. Hopkins, S. Punjabi, A. R. Rickard, and J. C. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6677–6693,
A. Setyan, C. Song, M. Merkel, W. B. Knighton, T. B. Onasch, M. R. Canagaratna, D. R. Worsnop, A. Wiedensohler, J. E. Shilling, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6477–6494,
R. M. Healy, N. Riemer, J. C. Wenger, M. Murphy, M. West, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, I. P. O'Connor, E. McGillicuddy, J. R. Sodeau, and G. J. Evans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6289–6299,
N. Ma, W. Birmili, T. Müller, T. Tuch, Y. F. Cheng, W. Y. Xu, C. S. Zhao, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6241–6259,
L. Schöne and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4503–4514,
S. Scheinhardt, D. van Pinxteren, K. Müller, G. Spindler, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4531–4538,
D. C. S. Beddows, M. Dall'Osto, R. M. Harrison, M. Kulmala, A. Asmi, A. Wiedensohler, P. Laj, A.M. Fjaeraa, K. Sellegri, W. Birmili, N. Bukowiecki, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, V. Zdimal, N. Zikova, J.-P. Putaud, A. Marinoni, P. Tunved, H.-C. Hansson, M. Fiebig, N. Kivekäs, E. Swietlicki, H. Lihavainen, E. Asmi, V. Ulevicius, P. P. Aalto, N. Mihalopoulos, N. Kalivitis, I. Kalapov, G. Kiss, G. de Leeuw, B. Henzing, C. O'Dowd, S. G. Jennings, H. Flentje, F. Meinhardt, L. Ries, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, and A. J. H. Visschedijk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4327–4348,
E. Harris, B. Sinha, D. van Pinxteren, J. Schneider, L. Poulain, J. Collett, B. D'Anna, B. Fahlbusch, S. Foley, K. W. Fomba, C. George, T. Gnauk, S. Henning, T. Lee, S. Mertes, A. Roth, F. Stratmann, S. Borrmann, P. Hoppe, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4219–4235,
D. van Pinxteren, C. Neusüß, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3913–3928,
M. Tjernström, C. Leck, C. E. Birch, J. W. Bottenheim, B. J. Brooks, I. M. Brooks, L. Bäcklin, R. Y.-W. Chang, G. de Leeuw, L. Di Liberto, S. de la Rosa, E. Granath, M. Graus, A. Hansel, J. Heintzenberg, A. Held, A. Hind, P. Johnston, J. Knulst, M. Martin, P. A. Matrai, T. Mauritsen, M. Müller, S. J. Norris, M. V. Orellana, D. A. Orsini, J. Paatero, P. O. G. Persson, Q. Gao, C. Rauschenberg, Z. Ristovski, J. Sedlar, M. D. Shupe, B. Sierau, A. Sirevaag, S. Sjogren, O. Stetzer, E. Swietlicki, M. Szczodrak, P. Vaattovaara, N. Wahlberg, M. Westberg, and C. R. Wheeler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2823–2869,
D. Stone, M. J. Evans, H. Walker, T. Ingham, S. Vaughan, B. Ouyang, O. J. Kennedy, M. W. McLeod, R. L. Jones, J. Hopkins, S. Punjabi, R. Lidster, J. F. Hamilton, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, L. J. Carpenter, G. Forster, D. E. Oram, C. E. Reeves, S. Bauguitte, W. Morgan, H. Coe, E. Aruffo, C. Dari-Salisburgo, F. Giammaria, P. Di Carlo, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1299–1321,
A. Kahnt, Y. Iinuma, A. Mutzel, O. Böge, M. Claeys, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 719–736,
K. A. Kamilli, L. Poulain, A. Held, A. Nowak, W. Birmili, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 737–749,
H. Lindqvist, O. Jokinen, K. Kandler, D. Scheuvens, and T. Nousiainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 143–157,
Z. B. Wang, M. Hu, J. Y. Sun, Z. J. Wu, D. L. Yue, X. J. Shen, Y. M. Zhang, X. Y. Pei, Y. F. Cheng, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12495–12506,
M. van Pinxteren and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11791–11802,
Z. B. Wang, M. Hu, D. Mogensen, D. L. Yue, J. Zheng, R. Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, B. Yuan, X. Li, M. Shao, L. Zhou, Z. J. Wu, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11157–11167,
Z. B. Wang, M. Hu, Z. J. Wu, D. L. Yue, L. Y. He, X. F. Huang, X. G. Liu, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10159–10170,
R. M. Healy, J. Sciare, L. Poulain, M. Crippa, A. Wiedensohler, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, R. Sarda-Estève, M. L. McGuire, C.-H. Jeong, E. McGillicuddy, I. P. O'Connor, J. R. Sodeau, G. J. Evans, and J. C. Wenger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9479–9496,
P. M. Edwards, M. J. Evans, K. L. Furneaux, J. Hopkins, T. Ingham, C. Jones, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, S. J. Moller, D. Stone, L. K. Whalley, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9497–9514,
N. J. Warwick, A. T. Archibald, K. Ashworth, J. Dorsey, P. M. Edwards, D. E. Heard, B. Langford, J. Lee, P. K. Misztal, L. K. Whalley, and J. A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9183–9194,
M. von Hobe, S. Bekki, S. Borrmann, F. Cairo, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ebersoldt, M. Ebert, C. Emde, I. Engel, M. Ern, W. Frey, S. Genco, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, G. Günther, E. Hösen, L. Hoffmann, V. Homonnai, C. R. Hoyle, I. S. A. Isaksen, D. R. Jackson, I. M. Jánosi, R. L. Jones, K. Kandler, C. Kalicinsky, A. Keil, S. M. Khaykin, F. Khosrawi, R. Kivi, J. Kuttippurath, J. C. Laube, F. Lefèvre, R. Lehmann, S. Ludmann, B. P. Luo, M. Marchand, J. Meyer, V. Mitev, S. Molleker, R. Müller, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, Y. Orsolini, T. Peter, K. Pfeilsticker, C. Piesch, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, F. D. Pope, F. Ravegnani, M. Rex, M. Riese, T. Röckmann, B. Rognerud, A. Roiger, C. Rolf, M. L. Santee, M. Scheibe, C. Schiller, H. Schlager, M. Siciliani de Cumis, N. Sitnikov, O. A. Søvde, R. Spang, N. Spelten, F. Stordal, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, A. Ulanovski, J. Ungermann, S. Viciani, C. M. Volk, M. vom Scheidt, P. von der Gathen, K. Walker, T. Wegner, R. Weigel, S. Weinbruch, G. Wetzel, F. G. Wienhold, I. Wohltmann, W. Woiwode, I. A. K. Young, V. Yushkov, B. Zobrist, and F. Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9233–9268,
S. G. Gonser and A. Held
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2339–2348,
J. Genberg, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, D. Simpson, E. Swietlicki, H. Areskoug, D. Beddows, D. Ceburnis, M. Fiebig, H. C. Hansson, R. M. Harrison, S. G. Jennings, S. Saarikoski, G. Spindler, A. J. H. Visschedijk, A. Wiedensohler, K. E. Yttri, and R. Bergström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8719–8738,
A. Petzold, J. A. Ogren, M. Fiebig, P. Laj, S.-M. Li, U. Baltensperger, T. Holzer-Popp, S. Kinne, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, C. Wehrli, A. Wiedensohler, and X.-Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8365–8379,
Z. J. Wu, L. Poulain, S. Henning, K. Dieckmann, W. Birmili, M. Merkel, D. van Pinxteren, G. Spindler, K. Müller, F. Stratmann, H. Herrmann, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7983–7996,
M. Parrington, P. I. Palmer, A. C. Lewis, J. D. Lee, A. R. Rickard, P. Di Carlo, J. W. Taylor, J. R. Hopkins, S. Punjabi, D. E. Oram, G. Forster, E. Aruffo, S. J. Moller, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, and R. J. Leigh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7321–7341,
Z. Wu, W. Birmili, L. Poulain, Z. Wang, M. Merkel, B. Fahlbusch, D. van Pinxteren, H. Herrmann, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6637–6646,
P. I. Palmer, M. Parrington, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, P. F. Bernath, T. J. Duck, D. L. Waugh, D. W. Tarasick, S. Andrews, E. Aruffo, L. J. Bailey, E. Barrett, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, K. R. Curry, P. Di Carlo, L. Chisholm, L. Dan, G. Forster, J. E. Franklin, M. D. Gibson, D. Griffin, D. Helmig, J. R. Hopkins, J. T. Hopper, M. E. Jenkin, D. Kindred, J. Kliever, M. Le Breton, S. Matthiesen, M. Maurice, S. Moller, D. P. Moore, D. E. Oram, S. J. O'Shea, R. C. Owen, C. M. L. S. Pagniello, S. Pawson, C. J. Percival, J. R. Pierce, S. Punjabi, R. M. Purvis, J. J. Remedios, K. M. Rotermund, K. M. Sakamoto, A. M. da Silva, K. B. Strawbridge, K. Strong, J. Taylor, R. Trigwell, K. A. Tereszchuk, K. A. Walker, D. Weaver, C. Whaley, and J. C. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6239–6261,
Q. J. Zhang, M. Beekmann, F. Drewnick, F. Freutel, J. Schneider, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prevot, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, V. Gros, A. Borbon, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J.-F. Doussin, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Haeffelin, J.-C. Dupont, G. Siour, H. Petetin, B. Bessagnet, S. N. Pandis, A. Hodzic, O. Sanchez, C. Honoré, and O. Perrussel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5767–5790,
K. W. Fomba, K. Müller, D. van Pinxteren, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4801–4814,
P. Di Carlo, E. Aruffo, M. Busilacchio, F. Giammaria, C. Dari-Salisburgo, F. Biancofiore, G. Visconti, J. Lee, S. Moller, C. E. Reeves, S. Bauguitte, G. Forster, R. L. Jones, and B. Ouyang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 971–980,
I. Tegen, K. Schepanski, and B. Heinold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2381–2390,
L. V. Rizzo, P. Artaxo, T. Müller, A. Wiedensohler, M. Paixão, G. G. Cirino, A. Arana, E. Swietlicki, P. Roldin, E. O. Fors, K. T. Wiedemann, L. S. M. Leal, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2391–2413,
Z. B. Wang, M. Hu, Z. J. Wu, D. L. Yue, J. Zheng, R. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Pei, P. Paasonen, M. Dal Maso, M. Boy, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
C. Mouchel-Vallon, P. Bräuer, M. Camredon, R. Valorso, S. Madronich, H. Herrmann, and B. Aumont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1023–1037,
F. Freutel, J. Schneider, F. Drewnick, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, R. Sarda-Estève, J. F. Burkhart, S. Eckhardt, A. Stohl, V. Gros, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J. F. Doussin, A. Borbon, M. Haeffelin, Y. Morille, M. Beekmann, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 933–959,
A. C. Lewis, M. J. Evans, J. R. Hopkins, S. Punjabi, K. A. Read, R. M. Purvis, S. J. Andrews, S. J. Moller, L. J. Carpenter, J. D. Lee, A. R. Rickard, P. I. Palmer, and M. Parrington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 851–867,
A. Asmi, M. Collaud Coen, J. A. Ogren, E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, A. Jefferson, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, N. Bukowiecki, H. Lihavainen, N. Kivekäs, E. Asmi, P. P. Aalto, M. Kulmala, A. Wiedensohler, W. Birmili, A. Hamed, C. O'Dowd, S. G Jennings, R. Weller, H. Flentje, A. M. Fjaeraa, M. Fiebig, C. L. Myhre, A. G. Hallar, E. Swietlicki, A. Kristensson, and P. Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 895–916,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Aqueous-phase behavior of glyoxal and methylglyoxal observed with carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopyBrown carbon's emission factors and optical characteristics in household biomass burning: developing a novel algorithm for estimating the contribution of brown carbonEffect of mixing structure on the water uptake of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and phthalic acid particlesToward closure between predicted and observed particle viscosity over a wide range of temperatures and relative humidityThe effects of morphology, mobility size, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material coating on the ice nucleation activity of black carbon in the cirrus regimeThe ice-nucleating activity of Arctic sea surface microlayer samples and marine algal culturesSize-Resolved Atmospheric Ice Nucleating Particles during East Asian Dust EventsComparing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) volatility distributions derived from isothermal SOA particle evaporation data and FIGAERO–CIMS measurements
Georgia Michailoudi, Jack J. Lin, Hayato Yuzawa, Masanari Nagasaka, Marko Huttula, Nobuhiro Kosugi, Theo Kurtén, Minna Patanen, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2881–2894,Short summary
This study provides insight into hydration of two significant atmospheric compounds, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Using synchrotron radiation excited X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we confirm that glyoxal is fully hydrated in water, and for the first time, we experimentally detect enol structures in aqueous methylglyoxal. Our results support the contribution of these compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation, known to have a large uncertainty in atmospheric models and climate predictions.
Jianzhong Sun, Yuzhe Zhang, Guorui Zhi, Regina Hitzenberger, Wenjing Jin, Yingjun Chen, Lei Wang, Chongguo Tian, Zhengying Li, Rong Chen, Wen Xiao, Yuan Cheng, Wei Yang, Liying Yao, Yang Cao, Duo Huang, Yueyuan Qiu, Jiali Xu, Xiaofei Xia, Xin Yang, Xi Zhang, Zheng Zong, Yuchun Song, and Changdong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2329–2341,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) emission factors from household biomass fuels were measured with an integrating sphere optics approach supported by iterative calculations. A novel algorithm to directly estimate the absorption contribution of BrC relative to that of BrC + black carbon (FBrC) was proposed based purely on the absorption exponent (AAE) (FBrC = 0.5519 lnAAE + 0.0067). The FBrC for household biomass fuels was as high as 50.8 % across the strongest solar spectral range of 350−850 nm.
Weigang Wang, Ting Lei, Andreas Zuend, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Yajun Shi, Maofa Ge, and Mingyuan Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2179–2190,Short summary
Aerosol mixing state regulates the interactions between water molecules and particles and thus controls aerosol activation and hygroscopic growth, which thereby influences visibility degradation, cloud formation, and its radiative forcing. However, there are few studies attempting to investigate their interactions with water molecules. Here, we investigated the effect of organic coatings on the hygroscopic behavior of the inorganic core.
Sabin Kasparoglu, Ying Li, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Markus D. Petters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1127–1141,Short summary
Viscosity is important because it determines the lifetime, impact, and fate of particulate matter. We collected new data to rigorously test a framework that is used to constrain the phase state in global simulations. We find that the framework is accurate as long as appropriate compound specific inputs are available.
Cuiqi Zhang, Yue Zhang, Martin J. Wolf, Leonid Nichman, Chuanyang Shen, Timothy B. Onasch, Longfei Chen, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13957–13984,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is considered the second most important global warming agent. However, the role of BC aerosol–cloud–climate interactions in the cirrus formation remains uncertain. Our study of selected BC types and sizes suggests that increases in diameter, compactness, and/or surface oxidation of BC particles lead to more efficient ice nucleation (IN) via pore condensation freezing (PCF) pathways，and that coatings of common secondary organic aerosol (SOA) materials can inhibit ice formation.
Luisa Ickes, Grace C. E. Porter, Robert Wagner, Michael P. Adams, Sascha Bierbauer, Allan K. Bertram, Merete Bilde, Sigurd Christiansen, Annica M. L. Ekman, Elena Gorokhova, Kristina Höhler, Alexei A. Kiselev, Caroline Leck, Ottmar Möhler, Benjamin J. Murray, Thea Schiebel, Romy Ullrich, and Matthew E. Salter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11089–11117,Short summary
The Arctic is a region where aerosols are scarce. Sea spray might be a potential source of aerosols acting as ice-nucleating particles. We investigate two common phytoplankton species (Melosira arctica and Skeletonema marinoi) and present their ice nucleation activity in comparison with Arctic seawater microlayer samples from different field campaigns. We also aim to understand the aerosolization process of marine biological samples and the potential effect on the ice nucleation activity.
Jingchuan Chen, Zhijun Wu, Jie Chen, Naama Reicher, Xin Fang, Yinon Rudich, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Asian mineral dust is a crucial contributor to global ice nucleating particles (INPs), while its size-resolved information on freezing activity is extremely rare. Here we conducted the first known INP measurements of size-resolved airborne East Asian dust particles. An explicit size dependence of both INP concentration and surface ice active density was observed. The new parameterizations can be widely applied in models to better characterize and predict ice nucleation activities of Asian dust.
Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Angela Buchholz, Arttu Ylisirniö, Siegfried Schobesberger, Annele Virtanen, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10441–10458,Short summary
We compared the volatility distributions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constituents estimated from isothermal evaporation experiments from either particle size change data, by process modelling and global optimization, or from mass spectrometer data with positive matrix factorization analysis. Our results show that, despite the two very different estimation methods, the volatility distributions are comparable if uncertainties are taken into account.