Trace metal characterization of aerosol particles and cloud water during HCCT 2010
- 1Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
- 2Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, USA
- anow at: Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Department of Environmental Sciences, Yongin, South Korea
Abstract. Trace metal characterization of bulk and size-resolved aerosol and cloud water samples were performed during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia (HCCT) campaign. Cloud water was collected at the top of Mt. Schmücke while aerosol samples were collected at two stations upwind and downwind of Mt. Schmücke. Fourteen trace metals including Ti, V, Fe, Mn, Co, Zn, Ni, Cu, As, Sr, Rb, Pb, Cr, and Se were investigated during four full cloud events (FCEs) that fulfilled the conditions of a continuous air mass flow through the three stations. Aerosol particle trace metal concentrations were found to be lower than those observed in the same region during previous field experiments but were within a similar range to those observed in other rural regions in Europe. Fe and Zn were the most abundant elements with concentration ranges of 0.2–111.6 and 1.1–32.1 ng m−3, respectively. Fe, Mn, and Ti were mainly found in coarse mode aerosols while Zn, Pb, and As were mostly found in the fine mode. Correlation and enrichment factor analysis of trace metals revealed that trace metals such as Ti and Rb were mostly of crustal origin while trace metals such as Zn, Pb, As, Cr, Ni, V, and Cu were of anthropogenic origin. Trace metals such as Fe and Mn were of mixed origins including crustal and combustion sources. Trace metal cloud water concentration decreased from Ti, Mn, Cr, to Co with average concentrations of 9.18, 5.59, 5.54, and 0.46 μg L−1, respectively. A non-uniform distribution of soluble Fe, Cu, and Mn was observed across the cloud drop sizes. Soluble Fe and Cu were found mainly in cloud droplets with diameters between 16 and 22 μm, while Mn was found mostly in larger drops greater than 22 μm. Fe(III) was the main form of soluble Fe especially in the small and larger drops with concentrations ranging from 2.2 to 37.1 μg L−1. In contrast to other studies, Fe(II) was observed mainly in the evening hours, implying its presence was not directly related to photochemical processes. Aerosol–cloud interaction did not lead to a marked increase in soluble trace metal concentrations; rather it led to differences in the chemical composition of the aerosol due to preferential loss of aerosol particles through physical processes including cloud drop deposition to vegetative surfaces.