Articles | Volume 16, issue 5
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3345–3368, 2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 15 Mar 2016
Research article | 15 Mar 2016
Global HCFC-22 measurements with MIPAS: retrieval, validation, global distribution and its evolution over 2005–2012
M. Chirkov et al.
No articles found.
Haklim Choi, Mi-Kyung Park, Paul J. Fraser, Hyeri Park, Sohyeon Geum, Jens Mühle, Jooil Kim, Ian Porter, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Bronwyn L. Dunse, Paul B. Krummel, Ray F. Weiss, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, and Sunyoung Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We observed 12-years continuous CH3Br pollution signals at Gosan and estimated anthropogenic CH3Br emissions in eastern China. The analysis revealed a significant discrepancy between top-down estimates and the bottom-up emissions from the fumigation usage reported to the United Nations Environment Programme, and likely from unreported or inaccurately reported fumigation usage. This result provides information to monitor international compliance with the Montreal Protocol.
Peter Sperlich, Gordon W. Brailsford, Rowena C. Moss, John McGregor, Ross J. Martin, Sylvia Nichol, Sara Mikaloff-Fletcher, Beata Bukosa, Magda Mandic, Ian Schipper, and Paul Krummel
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We tested an in situ analyser for carbon and oxygen isotopes in atmospheric CO2 at Baring Head, New Zealand’s observatory for Southern Ocean baseline air. The analyser was capable to resolve regional signals of the terrestrial carbon cycle, although the analysis of small events was limited by analytical uncertainty. Further improvement of the instrument performance would be desirable for the robust analysis of distant signals, and to resolve the small variability in Southern Ocean baseline air.
Helmut Ziereis, Peter Hoor, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Andreas Zahn, Greta Stratmann, Paul Stock, Michael Lichtenstern, Jens Krause, Armin Afchine, Christian Rolf, Wolfgang Woiwode, Marleen Braun, Jörn Ungermann, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Engel, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Hermann Oelhaf
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Aircraft borne observations were conducted in the lowermost Arctic stratosphere during the winter of 2015/2016. The observed distribution of reactive nitrogen shows clear indications of nitrification in mid-winter and de-nitrification in late winter. This was caused by the formation of polar stratospheric cloud particles, which were observed during several flights. The sedimentation and evaporation of these particles and the descent of air masses cause a redistribution of reactive nitrogen.
Hao Guo, Clare M. Flynn, Michael J. Prather, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Louisa Emmons, Forrest Lacey, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Arlene M. Fiore, Gus Correa, Lee T. Murray, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Michelle Kim, John Crounse, Glenn Diskin, Joshua DiGangi, Bruce C. Daube, Roisin Commane, Kathryn McKain, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Chelsea Thompson, Thomas F. Hanisco, Donald Blake, Nicola J. Blake, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13729–13746,Short summary
The NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission built a climatology of the chemical composition of tropospheric air parcels throughout the middle of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The level of detail allows us to reconstruct the photochemical budgets of O3 and CH4 over these vast, remote regions. We find that most of the chemical heterogeneity is captured at the resolution used in current global chemistry models and that the majority of reactivity occurs in the
hottest20 % of parcels.
Bianca Maria Dinelli, Piera Raspollini, Marco Gai, Luca Sgheri, Marco Ridolfi, Simone Ceccherini, Flavio Barbara, Nicola Zoppetti, Elisa Castelli, Enzo Papandrea, Paolo Pettinari, Angelika Dehn, Anu Dudhia, Michael Kiefer, Alessandro Piro, Jean-Marie Flaud, Manuel Lopez-Puertas, David Moore, John Remedios, and Massimo Bianchini
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument, on board the European Space Agency ENVISAT satellite, level 2 version 8 database, containing atmospheric fields of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio of 21 trace gases, is described in this paper. The database covers all the measurements acquired by MIPAS (from July 2002 to April 2012). The number of species included makes it of particular importance for the studies of stratospheric chemistry.
Alice E. Ramsden, Anita L. Ganesan, Luke M. Western, Matthew Rigby, Alistair J. Manning, Amy Foulds, James L. France, Patrick Barker, Peter Levy, Daniel Say, Adam Wisher, Tim Arnold, Chris Rennick, Kieran M. Stanley, Dickon Young, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Quantifying methane emissions from different sources is a key focus of current research. We present a method for estimating sectoral methane emissions that uses ethane as a tracer for fossil fuel methane. By incorporating variable ethane:methane emission ratios into this model, we produce emissions estimates with improved uncertainty characterisation. This method will be particularly useful for studying methane emissions in areas with complex distributions of sources.
Piera Raspollini, Enrico Arnone, Flavio Barbara, Massimo Bianchini, Bruno Carli, Simone Ceccherini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Angelika Dehn, Stefano Della Fera, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Anu Dudhia, Jean-Marie Flaud, Marco Gai, Michael Kiefer, Manuel López-Puertas, David P. Moore, Alessandro Piro, John J. Remedios, Marco Ridolfi, Harjinder Sembhi, Luca Sgheri, and Nicola Zoppetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
The instrument MIPAS on board of ENVISAT satellite provided for 10 years measurements of the atmospheric emission al limb that allow the retrieval of latitude- and altitude-resolved atmospheric composition. We describe the improvements implemented in the retrieval algorithm used for the full mission reanalysis which allow to generate the global distributions of 21 atmospheric constituents plus temperature with increased accuracy with respect to previously generated data.
Masanori Takeda, Hideaki Nakajima, Isao Murata, Tomoo Nagahama, Isamu Morino, Geoffrey C. Toon, Ray F. Weiss, Jens Mühle, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, and Hsiang-Jui Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5955–5976,Short summary
This paper presents the first observations of atmospheric HFC-23 abundances with a ground-based remote sensing technique. The increasing trend of the HFC-23 abundances analyzed by this study agrees with that derived from other existing in situ measurements. This study indicates that ground-based FTIR observation has the capability to monitor the trend of atmospheric HFC-23 and could allow for monitoring the distribution of global atmospheric HFC-23 abundances in more detail.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Adam E. Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, James M. Russell III, and Jiansheng Zou
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
This study analyzes the quality of two versions (v3.6 and v4.1) of ozone concentration measurements from the ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer), by comparing with data from five satellite instruments between 2004 and 2020. It was found that although the v3.6 data exhibit a better agreement than v4.1 with respect to the other instruments, v4.1 exhibits much better stability over time than v3.6. The stability of v4.1 makes it suitable for ozone trend studies.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Bengt Rydberg, Michael Kiefer, Maya Garcia-Comas, Alyn Lambert, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5823–5857,Short summary
We present improved Odin/SMR mesospheric H2O concentration and temperature data sets, reprocessed assuming a bigger sideband leakage of the instrument. The validation study shows how the improved SMR data sets agree better with other instruments' observations than the old SMR version did. Given their unique time extension and geographical coverage, and H2O being a good tracer of mesospheric circulation, the new data sets are valuable for the study of dynamical processes and multi-year trends.
Alistair J. Manning, Alison L. Redington, Daniel Say, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Peter G. Simmonds, Martin K. Vollmer, Jens Mühle, Jgor Arduini, Gerard Spain, Adam Wisher, Michela Maione, Tanja J. Schuck, Kieran Stanley, Stefan Reimann, Andreas Engel, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Ray F. Weiss, Ray Gluckman, Peter N. Brown, John D. Watterson, and Tim Arnold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12739–12755,Short summary
This paper estimates UK emissions of important greenhouse gases (hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)) using high-quality atmospheric observations and atmospheric modelling. We compare these estimates with those submitted by the UK to the United Nations. We conclude that global concentrations of these gases are still increasing. Our estimates for the UK are 73 % of those reported and that the UK emissions are now falling, demonstrating an impact of UK government policy.
Rebecca D. Kutzner, Juan Cuesta, Pascale Chelin, Jean-Eudes Petit, Mokhtar Ray, Xavier Landsheere, Benoît Tournadre, Jean-Charles Dupont, Amandine Rosso, Frank Hase, Johannes Orphal, and Matthias Beekmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12091–12111,Short summary
Our work investigates the diurnal evolution of atmospheric ammonia concentrations during a major pollution event. It analyses it in regard of both chemical (gas–particle conversion) and physical (vertical mixing, meteorology) processes in the atmosphere. These mechanisms are key for understanding the evolution of the physicochemical state of the atmosphere; therefore, it clearly fits into the scope of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.
Michael Höpfner, Oliver Kirner, Gerald Wetzel, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Florian Haenel, Sören Johansson, Johannes Orphal, Roland Ruhnke, Gabriele Stiller, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
BrONO2 is an important reservoir gas for inorganic stratospheric bromine linked to the chemical cycles of stratospheric ozone depletion. Presently infrared limb-sounding is the only way to measure BrONO2 in the atmosphere. We provide global distributions of BrONO2 derived from MIPAS observations 2002–2012. Comparisons with EMAC atmospheric modelling show an overall agreement and enable us to derive an independent estimate of stratospheric bromine of 21.2 ± 1.4 pptv based on the BrONO2 measurements.
Ruth E. Hill-Pearce, Aimee Hillier, Eric Mussell Webber, Kanokrat Charoenpornpukdee, Simon O'Doherty, Joachim Mohn, Christoph Zellweger, David R. Worton, and Paul J. Brewer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5447–5458,Short summary
There is currently a need for gas reference materials with well-characterised delta values for monitoring N2O amount fractions. We present work towards the preparation of gas reference materials for calibration of in-field monitoring equipment, which target the WMO-GAW data quality objectives for comparability of amount fraction and demonstrate the stability of δ15Nα, δ15Nβ and δ18O values with pressure and effects of cylinder passivation.
Dominique Rust, Ioannis Katharopoulos, Martin K. Vollmer, Stephan Henne, Simon O'Doherty, Daniel Say, Lukas Emmenegger, Renato Zenobi, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Man-made halocarbons contribute to ozone-layer depletion and to global warming. We measured the atmospheric concentrations of halocarbons at the Beromünster-tower, modeled the Swiss emissions, and compared the results to the internationally reported Swiss emissions inventory. For most of the halocarbons we found good agreement, whereas one refrigerant might be overestimated in the inventory. In addition, we present first emission estimates of the newest type of halocarbons.
Florian Haenel, Wolfgang Woiwode, Jennifer Buchmüller, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Michael Höpfner, Sören Johansson, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Anne Kleinert, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Roland Ruhnke, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Jörn Ungermann, Michael Weimer, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We compare remote sensing observations of H2O, O3, HNO3 and clouds in the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere during an Arctic winter long range research flight with simulations by two different state-of-the-art model systems. We find good agreement for dynamical structures, trace gas distributions, and clouds. We investigate model biases and sensitivities, with the goal to aid model development and improving our understanding of processes in the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere.
Yenny Gonzalez, Róisín Commane, Ethan Manninen, Bruce C. Daube, Luke D. Schiferl, J. Barry McManus, Kathryn McKain, Eric J. Hintsa, James W. Elkins, Stephen A. Montzka, Colm Sweeney, Fred Moore, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano Jost, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea R. Thompson, Eric Ray, Paul O. Wennberg, John Crounse, Michelle Kim, Hannah M. Allen, Paul A. Newman, Britton B. Stephens, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Benjamin A. Nault, Eric Morgan, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11113–11132,Short summary
Vertical profiles of N2O and a variety of chemical species and aerosols were collected nearly from pole to pole over the oceans during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography mission. We observed that tropospheric N2O variability is strongly driven by the influence of stratospheric air depleted in N2O, especially at middle and high latitudes. We also traced the origins of biomass burning and industrial emissions and investigated their impact on the variability of tropospheric N2O.
Geoffrey C. Toon, Jean-Francois L. Blavier, Keeyoon Sung, and Katelyn Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10727–10743,Short summary
We report measurements of atmospheric propane (C3H8) from analysis of ground-based infra-red solar absorption spectra measured from various sites by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) MkIV interferometer. These measurements suggest that exploitation of natural gas fields is a major and growing source of propane in the USA. Also, there seem to be propane sources in large cities such as Los Angeles, possibly related to use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
Tyler Wizenberg, Kimberly Strong, Kaley Walker, Erik Lutsch, Tobias Borsdorff, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
CO is an important atmospheric gas that influences both air quality and the climate. Here, we compare CO measurements from the TROPOMI instrument with those from ACE-FTS and an Arctic ground-based FTS at Eureka, Nunavut to further characterize the accuracy of TROPOMI measurements. CO columns from the instruments agree well, but show larger differences at high latitudes. Despite this, the results fall within the TROPOMI accuracy target, indicating good data quality at high-latitudes.
Mark Lunt, Alistair Manning, Grant Allen, Tim Arnold, Stéphane Bauguitte, Hartmut Boesch, Anita Ganesan, Aoife Grant, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, Simon O'Doherty, Paul Palmer, Joseph Pitt, Chris Rennick, Daniel Say, Kieran Stanley, Ann Stavert, Dickon Young, and Matt Rigby
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We present an evaluation of the UK's methane emissions between 2013 and 2020 using a network of tall tower measurement sites. We find emissions that are consistent in both magnitude and trend with the UK's reported emissions with a declining trend driven by a decrease in emissions from England. The impact of various components of the modelling setup on these findings are explored through a number of sensitivity studies.
Nathaniel J. Livesey, William G. Read, Lucien Froidevaux, Alyn Lambert, Michelle L. Santee, Michael J. Schwartz, Luis F. Millán, Robert F. Jarnot, Paul A. Wagner, Dale F. Hurst, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick E. Sheese, and Gerald E. Nedoluha
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), an instrument on NASA's Aura mission launched in 2004, measures vertical profiles of the temperature and composition of Earth's
middle atmosphere(the region from ~12 to ~100 km altitude). We describe how, among the 16 trace gases measured by MLS, the measurements of water vapor (N2O) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have started to drift since ~2010. The paper also discusses the origins of this drift and work to ameliorate it in a new version of the MLS dataset.
Thomas von Clarmann, Steven Compernolle, and Frank Hase
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Contrary to the claims put forward in “Evaluation of measurement data – Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement”, issued by the JCGM, the error concept and the uncertainty concept are the same. Arguments in favour of the contrary were found not compelling. Neither was any evidence presented that “errors” and “uncertainties” define a different relation between the measured and the true value, nor is a Bayesian concept beyond the mere subjective probability referred to.
Ilya Stanevich, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Martin Keller, Daven K. Henze, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Debra Wunch, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Kaley A. Walker, and Feng Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9545–9572,Short summary
We explore the utility of a weak-constraint (WC) four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation scheme for mitigating systematic errors in methane simulation in the GEOS-Chem model. We use data from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and show that, compared to the traditional 4D-Var approach, the WC scheme improves the agreement between the model and independent observations. We find that the WC corrections to the model provide insight into the source of the errors.
Fides Lefrancois, Markus Jesswein, Markus Thoma, Andreas Engel, Kieran Stanley, and Tanja Schuck
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4669–4687,Short summary
Synthetic halocarbons can contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion or to climate change. In many applications they have been replaced over the last years. The presented non-target analysis shows an application approach to quantify those replacements retrospectively, using recorded data of air measurements with gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We focus on the retrospective analysis of the fourth-generation halocarbons, detected at Taunus Observatory in Germany.
Thomas von Clarmann, Udo Grabowski, Gabriele P. Stiller, Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Norbert Glatthor, and Sylvia Kellmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8823–8843,Short summary
Measurements of long-lived trace gases (SF6, CFC-11, CFC-12, HCFC-12, CCl4, N2O, CH4, H2O, and CO) performed with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) have been used to infer the stratospheric and mesospheric meridional circulation. The MIPAS data set covers the time period from July 2002 to April 2012. The method used for this purpose was the direct inversion of the two-dimensional continuity equation. Multiannual monthly mean circulation fields are presented.
Michael Kiefer, Thomas von Clarmann, Bernd Funke, Maya García-Comas, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Sylvia Kellmann, Anne Kleinert, Alexandra Laeng, Andrea Linden, Manuel López-Puertas, Daniel R. Marsh, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4111–4138,Short summary
An improved dataset of vertical temperature profiles of the Earth's atmosphere in the altitude range 5–70 km is presented. These profiles are derived from measurements of the MIPAS instrument onboard ESA's Envisat satellite. The overall improvements are based on upgrades in the input data and several improvements in the data processing approach. Both of these are discussed, and an extensive error discussion is included. Enhancements of the new dataset are demonstrated by means of examples.
Felix Ploeger, Mohamadou Diallo, Edward Charlesworth, Paul Konopka, Bernard Legras, Johannes C. Laube, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Gebhard Günther, Andreas Engel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8393–8412,Short summary
We investigate the global stratospheric circulation (Brewer–Dobson circulation) in the new ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis based on age of air simulations, and we compare it to results from the preceding ERA-Interim reanalysis. Our results show a slower stratospheric circulation and higher age for ERA5. The age of air trend in ERA5 over the 1989–2018 period is negative throughout the stratosphere, related to multi-annual variability and a potential contribution from changes in the reanalysis system.
Markus Jesswein, Heiko Bozem, Hans-Christoph Lachnitt, Peter Hoor, Thomas Wagenhäuser, Timo Keber, Tanja Schuck, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
This study presents and compares inorganic chlorine (Cly) derived from observations with the HALO research aircraft in the Antarctic late winter/early fall 2019 and the Arctic winter 2015–2016. Trend-corrected correlations from the Northern Hemisphere show excellent agreement with those from the Southern Hemisphere. After observation allocation inside and outside the vortex based on N2O measurements, results of the two campaigns reveal significant differences of Cly within the respective vortex.
Gerald Wetzel, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Norbert Glatthor, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Thomas Gulde, Michael Höpfner, Sören Johansson, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Anne Kleinert, Erik Kretschmer, Guido Maucher, Hans Nordmeyer, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Christof Piesch, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Jörn Ungermann, and Bärbel Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8213–8232,Short summary
Measurements of the pollutants C2H6, C2H2, HCOOH, and PAN were performed in the North Atlantic UTLS region with the airborne limb imager GLORIA in 2017. Enhanced amounts of these species were detected in the upper troposphere and even in the lowermost stratosphere (PAN). Main sources of these gases are forest fires in North America and anthropogenic pollution in South Asia. Simulations of EMAC and CAMS are qualitatively able to reproduce the measured data but underestimate the absolute amounts.
Thomas Wagenhäuser, Andreas Engel, and Robert Sitals
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3923–3934,Short summary
AirCore samplers are increasingly deployed to weather balloons to collect continuous atmospheric samples. We introduce a technique that can be used in situ to evaluate different data processing methods that are required to derive vertical trace gas profiles from AirCore measurements after sample recovery. Results from two test flights with a specific AirCore configuration provide evidence for systematic deviations in altitude attribution for the upper levels, which can be empirically corrected.
Fabienne Maignan, Camille Abadie, Marine Remaud, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Róisín Commane, Richard Wehr, J. Elliott Campbell, Sauveur Belviso, Stephen A. Montzka, Nina Raoult, Ulli Seibt, Yoichi P. Shiga, Nicolas Vuichard, Mary E. Whelan, and Philippe Peylin
Biogeosciences, 18, 2917–2955,Short summary
The assimilation of carbonyl sulfide (COS) by continental vegetation has been proposed as a proxy for gross primary production (GPP). Using a land surface and a transport model, we compare a mechanistic representation of the plant COS uptake (Berry et al., 2013) to the classical leaf relative uptake (LRU) approach linking GPP and vegetation COS fluxes. We show that at high temporal resolutions a mechanistic approach is mandatory, but at large scales the LRU approach compares similarly.
Michaela I. Hegglin, Susann Tegtmeier, John Anderson, Adam E. Bourassa, Samuel Brohede, Doug Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, Bernd Funke, John Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Erkki T. Kyrölä, Jerry Lumpe, Donal Murtagh, Jessica L. Neu, Kristell Pérot, Ellis E. Remsberg, Alexei Rozanov, Matthew Toohey, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, Hsiang-Jui Wang, Carlo Arosio, Robert Damadeo, Ryan A. Fuller, Gretchen Lingenfelser, Christopher McLinden, Diane Pendlebury, Chris Roth, Niall J. Ryan, Christopher Sioris, Lesley Smith, and Katja Weigel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1855–1903,Short summary
An overview of the SPARC Data Initiative is presented, to date the most comprehensive assessment of stratospheric composition measurements spanning 1979–2018. Measurements of 26 chemical constituents obtained from an international suite of space-based limb sounders were compiled into vertically resolved, zonal monthly mean time series. The quality and consistency of these gridded datasets are then evaluated using a climatological validation approach and a range of diagnostics.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Monika Szeląg, Johanna Tamminen, Erkki Kyrölä, Doug Degenstein, Chris Roth, Daniel Zawada, Alexei Rozanov, Carlo Arosio, John P. Burrows, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Lucien Froidevaux, Nathaniel Livesey, Michel van Roozendael, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6707–6720,Short summary
The MErged GRIdded Dataset of Ozone Profiles is a long-term (2001–2018) stratospheric ozone profile climate data record with resolved longitudinal structure that combines the data from six limb satellite instruments. The dataset can be used for various analyses, some of which are discussed in the paper. In particular, regionally and vertically resolved ozone trends are evaluated, including trends in the polar regions.
Sébastien Roche, Kimberly Strong, Debra Wunch, Joseph Mendonca, Colm Sweeney, Bianca Baier, Sébastien C. Biraud, Joshua L. Laughner, Geoffrey C. Toon, and Brian J. Connor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3087–3118,Short summary
We evaluate CO2 profile retrievals from ground-based near-infrared solar absorption spectra after implementing several improvements to the GFIT2 retrieval algorithm. Realistic errors in the a priori temperature profile (~ 2 °C in the lower troposphere) are found to be the leading source of differences between the retrieved and true CO2 profiles, differences that are larger than typical CO2 variability. A temperature retrieval or correction is critical to improve CO2 profile retrieval results.
Sheena Loeffel, Roland Eichinger, Hella Garny, Thomas Reddmann, Frauke Fritsch, Stefan Versick, Gabriele Stiller, and Florian Haenel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
SF6-derived trends of stratospheric AoA from observations and from model simulations disagree in sign. SF6 experiences chemical degradation, which we here explicitly integrate in a global climate model. In our simulations, the AoA trend changes sign when SF6 sinks are considered, and thus the process has the potential to reconcile simulated with observed AoA trends. Further analyses reveal that the positive AoA trend is due to the SF6 sinks themselves.
Hélène Angot, Connor Davel, Christine Wiedinmyer, Gabrielle Pétron, Jashan Chopra, Jacques Hueber, Brendan Blanchard, Ilann Bourgeois, Isaac Vimont, Stephen A. Montzka, Ben R. Miller, James W. Elkins, and Detlev Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
After a multi-decade global decline in atmospheric concentrations of ethane and propane (precursors to tropospheric ozone and aerosols), previous work showed a reversal of this trend in 2009–2015 in the Northern Hemisphere due to the growth in oil and natural gas production in North America. Here we show a temporary pause in the growth of atmospheric ethane and propane in 2015–2018 and highlight the critical need for additional top-down studies to further constrain ethane and propane emissions.
Meike K. Rotermund, Vera Bense, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Andreas Engel, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Peter Hoor, Tilman Hüneke, Timo Keber, Flora Kluge, Benjamin Schreiner, Tanja Schuck, Bärbel Vogel, Andreas Zahn, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Airborne total bromine (Brtot) and tracer measurements suggest that Brtot-rich air masses persistently protruded into the lower stratosphere (LS) creating a high Brtot region over the North Atlantic in fall 2017. The main sources are former tropical upper tropospheric air transported by the Asian monsoon and hurricanes from Central America, and to a lesser extent transport across the extratropical tropopause as quantified by a Lagrange model. Consequences of Brtot on LS ozone are also assessed.
Stijn Naus, Stephen A. Montzka, Prabir K. Patra, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4809–4824,Short summary
Following up on previous box model studies, we employ a 3D transport model to estimate variations in the hydroxyl radical (OH) from observations of methyl chloroform (MCF). We derive small interannual OH variations that are consistent with variations in the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. We also find evidence for the release of MCF from oceans in atmospheric gradients of MCF. Both findings highlight the added value of a 3D transport model since box model studies did not identify these effects.
Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Vijay Natraj, Feng Xu, Sihe Chen, Fang-Ying Gong, Thomas J. Pongetti, Keeyoon Sung, Geoffrey Toon, Stanley P. Sander, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Large carbon source regions such as megacities are also typically associated with heavy aerosol loading, which introduces uncertainties in the retrieval of greenhouse gases from reflected and scattered sunlight measurements. In this study, we developed a full physics algorithm to retrieve greenhouse gases in the presence of aerosols and demonstrated its performance by retrieving CO2 and CH4 columns from remote sensing measurements in the Los Angeles megacity.
Jin Ma, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Ara Cho, Stephen A. Montzka, Norbert Glatthor, John R. Worden, Le Kuai, Elliot L. Atlas, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3507–3529,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide is an important trace gas in the atmosphere and useful to estimating gross primary productivity in ecosystems, but its sources and sinks remain highly uncertain. Therefore, we applied inverse model system TM5-4DVAR to better constrain the global budget. Our finding is in line with earlier studies, pointing to missing sources in the tropics and more uptake in high latitudes. We also stress the necessity of more ground-based observations and satellite data assimilation in future.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Doug A. Degenstein, Felicia Kolonjari, David Plummer, Douglas E. Kinnison, Patrick Jöckel, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1425–1438,Short summary
Output from climate chemistry models (CMAM, EMAC, and WACCM) is used to estimate the expected geophysical variability of ozone concentrations between coincident satellite instrument measurement times and geolocations. We use the Canadian ACE-FTS and OSIRIS instruments as a case study. Ensemble mean estimates are used to optimize coincidence criteria between the two instruments, allowing for the use of more coincident profiles while providing an estimate of the geophysical variation.
Emily M. Gordon, Annika Seppälä, Bernd Funke, Johanna Tamminen, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2819–2836,Short summary
Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) is the rain of solar energetic particles into the Earth's atmosphere. EPP is known to deplete O3 in the polar mesosphere–upper stratosphere via the formation of NOx. NOx also causes chlorine deactivation in the lower stratosphere and has, thus, been proposed to potentially result in reduced ozone depletion in the spring. We provide the first evidence to show that NOx formed by EPP is able to remove active chlorine, resulting in enhanced total ozone column.
Thomas von Clarmann and Udo Grabowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2509–2526,Short summary
The direct inversion of the 2D continuity equation allows us to infer the effective meridional transport velocity of trace gases in the middle stratosphere. This method exploits the information both given by the displacement of patterns in measured trace gas distributions and by the approximate balance between sinks and horizontal as well as vertical advection. The robustness of this method has been tested and characterized using model recovery tests and sensitivity studies.
Daniel Say, Alistair J. Manning, Luke M. Western, Dickon Young, Adam Wisher, Matthew Rigby, Stefan Reimann, Martin K. Vollmer, Michela Maione, Jgor Arduini, Paul B. Krummel, Jens Mühle, Christina M. Harth, Brendan Evans, Ray F. Weiss, Ronald G. Prinn, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2149–2164,Short summary
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are potent greenhouse gases with exceedingly long lifetimes. We used atmospheric measurements from a global monitoring network to track the accumulation of these gases in the atmosphere. In the case of the two most abundant PFCs, recent measurements indicate that global emissions are increasing. In Europe, we used a model to estimate regional PFC emissions. Our results show that there was no significant decline in northwest European PFC emissions between 2010 and 2019.
Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, Dale F. Hurst, Geoff S. Dutton, Bradley D. Hall, J. David Nance, Ben R. Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Laura P. Wolton, Audra McClure-Begley, James W. Elkins, Emrys G. Hall, Allen F. Jordan, Andrew W. Rollins, Troy D. Thornberry, Laurel A. Watts, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Thomas B. Ryerson, Bruce C. Daube, Jasna V. Pittman, Steven C. Wofsy, Eric Kort, Glenn S. Diskin, and T. Paul Bui
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We built UCATS to study atmospheric chemistry and transport. It has measured chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen with gas chromatography, as well as ozone and water vapor. UCATS has been part of missions to study the tropical tropopause, transport of air into the stratosphere, greenhouse gases, transport, and chemistry in the troposphere, and ozone chemistry. Its design, capabilities, and some results are shown and described here.
Seidai Nara, Tomohiro O. Sato, Takayoshi Yamada, Tamaki Fujinawa, Kota Kuribayashi, Takeshi Manabe, Lucien Froidevaux, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Kaley A. Walker, Jian Xu, Franz Schreier, Yvan J. Orsolini, Varavut Limpasuvan, Nario Kuno, and Yasuko Kasai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6837–6852,Short summary
In the atmosphere, more than 80 % of chlorine compounds are anthropogenic. Hydrogen chloride (HCl), the main stratospheric chlorine reservoir, is useful to estimate the total budget of the atmospheric chlorine compounds. We report, for the first time, the HCl vertical distribution from the middle troposphere to the lower thermosphere using a high-sensitivity SMILES measurement; the data quality is quantified by comparisons with other measurements and via theoretical error analysis.
Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Oliver Kirner, Ingo Wohltmann, Silvia Bucci, Bernard Legras, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Norbert Glatthor, Erik Kretschmer, Jörn Ungermann, and Gerald Wetzel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14695–14715,Short summary
We present high-resolution measurements of pollutant trace gases (PAN, C2H2, and HCOOH) in the Asian monsoon UTLS from the airborne limb imager GLORIA during StratoClim 2017. Enhancements are observed up to 16 km altitude, and PAN and C2H2 even up to 18 km. Two atmospheric models, CAMS and EMAC, reproduce the pollutant's large-scale structures but not finer structures. Convection is investigated using backward trajectories of the models ATLAS and TRACZILLA with advanced detection of convection.
Rachel L. Tunnicliffe, Anita L. Ganesan, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Nicola Gedney, Benjamin Poulter, Zhen Zhang, Jošt V. Lavrič, David Walter, Matthew Rigby, Stephan Henne, Dickon Young, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13041–13067,Short summary
This study quantifies Brazil’s emissions of a potent atmospheric greenhouse gas, methane. This is in the field of atmospheric modelling and uses remotely sensed data and surface measurements of methane concentrations as well as an atmospheric transport model to interpret the data. Because of Brazil’s large emissions from wetlands, agriculture and biomass burning, these emissions affect global methane concentrations and thus are of global significance.
Leonie Bernet, Elmar Brockmann, Thomas von Clarmann, Niklaus Kämpfer, Emmanuel Mahieu, Christian Mätzler, Gunter Stober, and Klemens Hocke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11223–11244,Short summary
With global warming, water vapour increases in the atmosphere. Water vapour is an important gas because it is a natural greenhouse gas and affects the formation of clouds, rain and snow. How much water vapour increases can vary in different regions of the world. To verify if it increases as expected on a regional scale, we analysed water vapour measurements in Switzerland. We found that water vapour generally increases as expected from temperature changes, except in winter.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Peter Forkman, Bengt Rydberg, Bernd Funke, Kaley A. Walker, and Hugh C. Pumphrey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5013–5031,Short summary
We present a unique – by time extension and geographical coverage – dataset of satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the mesosphere which will allow us to study dynamical processes, since CO is a very good tracer of circulation in the mesosphere. Previously, the dataset was unusable due to instrumental artefacts that affected the measurements. We identify the cause of the artefacts, eliminate them and prove the quality of the results by comparing with other instrument measurements.
Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea R. Thompson, Kenneth C. Aikin, Teresa Campos, Hannah Clark, Róisín Commane, Bruce Daube, Glenn W. Diskin, James W. Elkins, Ru-Shan Gao, Audrey Gaudel, Eric J. Hintsa, Bryan J. Johnson, Rigel Kivi, Kathryn McKain, Fred L. Moore, David D. Parrish, Richard Querel, Eric Ray, Ricardo Sánchez, Colm Sweeney, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Valérie Thouret, Jacquelyn C. Witte, Steve C. Wofsy, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10611–10635,
W. Richard Leaitch, John K. Kodros, Megan D. Willis, Sarah Hanna, Hannes Schulz, Elisabeth Andrews, Heiko Bozem, Julia Burkart, Peter Hoor, Felicia Kolonjari, John A. Ogren, Sangeeta Sharma, Meng Si, Knut von Salzen, Allan K. Bertram, Andreas Herber, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10545–10563,Short summary
Black carbon is a factor in the warming of the Arctic atmosphere due to its ability to absorb light, but the uncertainty is high and few observations have been made in the high Arctic above 80° N. We combine airborne and ground-based observations in the springtime Arctic, at and above 80° N, with simulations from a global model to show that light absorption by black carbon may be much larger than modelled. However, the uncertainty remains high.
Paul D. Hamer, Virginie Marécal, Ryan Hossaini, Michel Pirre, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Franziska Ziska, Andreas Engel, Stephan Sala, Timo Keber, Harald Bönisch, Elliot Atlas, Kirstin Krüger, Martyn Chipperfield, Valery Catoire, Azizan A. Samah, Marcel Dorf, Phang Siew Moi, Hans Schlager, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Bromoform is a stratospheric ozone depleting gas released by seaweed and plankton that is transported to the stratosphere via convection in the tropics. We study the chemical interactions of bromoform and its derivatives within convective clouds using a cloud scale model and observations. Our findings are that soluble bromine gases are efficiently washed out and removed within the convective clouds and that most bromine is transported vertically to the upper troposphere in the form of bromoform.
Ilya Stanevich, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Debra Wunch, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Kaley A. Walker, and Feng Deng
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3839–3862,Short summary
Systematic errors in atmospheric models pose a challenge for inverse modeling studies of methane (CH4) emissions. We evaluated the CH4 simulation in the GEOS-Chem model at the horizontal resolutions of 4° × 5° and 2° × 2.5°. Our analysis identified resolution-dependent biases in the model, which we attributed to discrepancies between the two model resolutions in vertical transport in the troposphere and in stratosphere–troposphere exchange.
Johannes C. Laube, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, Karina E. Adcock, Bianca Baier, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Huilin Chen, Elise S. Droste, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Pauli Heikkinen, Andrew J. Hind, Rigel Kivi, Alexander Lojko, Stephen A. Montzka, David E. Oram, Steve Randall, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, Colm Sweeney, Max Thomas, Elinor Tuffnell, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9771–9782,Short summary
We demonstrate that AirCore technology, which is based on small low-cost balloons, can provide access to trace gas measurements such as CFCs at ultra-low abundances. This is a new way to quantify ozone-depleting, and related, substances in the stratosphere, which is largely inaccessible to aircraft. We show two potential uses: (a) tracking the stratospheric circulation, which is predicted to change, and (b) assessing three common meteorological reanalyses driving a global stratospheric model.
Thomas von Clarmann, Douglas A. Degenstein, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Stefan Bender, Amy Braverman, André Butz, Steven Compernolle, Robert Damadeo, Seth Dueck, Patrick Eriksson, Bernd Funke, Margaret C. Johnson, Yasuko Kasai, Arno Keppens, Anne Kleinert, Natalya A. Kramarova, Alexandra Laeng, Bavo Langerock, Vivienne H. Payne, Alexei Rozanov, Tomohiro O. Sato, Matthias Schneider, Patrick Sheese, Viktoria Sofieva, Gabriele P. Stiller, Christian von Savigny, and Daniel Zawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4393–4436,Short summary
Remote sensing of atmospheric state variables typically relies on the inverse solution of the radiative transfer equation. An adequately characterized retrieval provides information on the uncertainties of the estimated state variables as well as on how any constraint or a priori assumption affects the estimate. This paper summarizes related techniques and provides recommendations for unified error reporting.
Malte Meinshausen, Zebedee R. J. Nicholls, Jared Lewis, Matthew J. Gidden, Elisabeth Vogel, Mandy Freund, Urs Beyerle, Claudia Gessner, Alexander Nauels, Nico Bauer, Josep G. Canadell, John S. Daniel, Andrew John, Paul B. Krummel, Gunnar Luderer, Nicolai Meinshausen, Stephen A. Montzka, Peter J. Rayner, Stefan Reimann, Steven J. Smith, Marten van den Berg, Guus J. M. Velders, Martin K. Vollmer, and Ray H. J. Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3571–3605,Short summary
This study provides the future greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations under the new set of so-called SSP scenarios (the successors of the IPCC SRES and previous representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios). The projected CO2 concentrations range from 350 ppm for low-emission scenarios by 2150 to more than 2000 ppm under the high-emission scenarios. We also provide concentrations, latitudinal gradients, and seasonality for most of the other 42 considered GHGs.
Temesgen Yirdaw Berhe, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4079–4096,Short summary
The retrieved CH4 and N2O VMR and column amounts from Addis Ababa, tropical site, are found to exhibit very good agreement with all coincident satellite observations (MIPAS, MLS, and AIRS). Furthermore, the bias obtained from the comparison is comparable to the precision of FTIR measurement, which allows the use of data in further scientific studies as it represents a unique environment of tropical Africa, a region poorly investigated in the past.
Marius Hauck, Harald Bönisch, Peter Hoor, Timo Keber, Felix Ploeger, Tanja J. Schuck, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8763–8785,Short summary
This study features an extended inversion method that includes transport across the extratropical tropopause to derive age spectra in the lowermost stratosphere from in situ trace gas measurements. The refined method is validated in a model setup and applied to data gained with the HALO research aircraft. Results are congruent with the findings of previous studies so that the method provides a promising toolset for the analysis of stratospheric dynamics based on observations in the future.
Frauke Fritsch, Hella Garny, Andreas Engel, Harald Bönisch, and Roland Eichinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8709–8725,Short summary
We test two methods to derive age of air as a diagnostic of the Brewer–Dobson circulation from non-linear increasing trace gases such as SF6 using a chemistry-climate model and observations. Both the model and the observations show systematic variation of the age of air trend dependent on the chosen assumptions that are required when deriving age of air from measurements. This provides insight into the differences in age of air trends of observations and models.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Moya L. Macdonald, Jemma L. Wadham, Dickon Young, Chris R. Lunder, Ove Hermansen, Guillaume Lamarche-Gagnon, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7243–7258,Short summary
Climate change has caused glaciers in the Arctic to shrink, uncovering new soils. We used field measurements to study the exchange of a group of gases involved in ozone destruction, called halocarbons, between these new soils and the atmosphere. We found that mats of cyanobacteria, early colonisers of soils, are linked to a larger-than-expected exchange of halocarbons with the atmosphere. We also found that gases which are commonly thought to be marine in origin were released from these soils.
Peter G. Simmonds, Matthew Rigby, Alistair J. Manning, Sunyoung Park, Kieran M. Stanley, Archie McCulloch, Stephan Henne, Francesco Graziosi, Michela Maione, Jgor Arduini, Stefan Reimann, Martin K. Vollmer, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Ray F. Weiss, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Mi-Kyung Park, Hyeri Park, Tim Arnold, Chris Rennick, L. Paul Steele, Blagoj Mitrevski, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7271–7290,Short summary
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a potent greenhouse gas which is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. From a 40-year record of measurements, collected at five global monitoring sites and archived air samples, we show that its concentration in the atmosphere has steadily increased. Using modelling techniques, we estimate that global emissions have increased by about 24 % over the past decade. We find that this increase is driven by the demand for SF6-insulated switchgear in developing countries.
Rostislav Kouznetsov, Mikhail Sofiev, Julius Vira, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5837–5859,Short summary
Estimates of the age of stratospheric air (AoA), its distribution, and trends, obtained by different experimental methods, differ among each other. AoA derived form MIPAS satellite observations, the richest observational dataset on sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the stratosphere, are a clear outlier. With multi-decade simulations of AoA and SF6 in the stratosphere, we show that the origin of the discrepancy is in a methodology of deriving AoA from observations rather than in observational data.
Luke M. Western, Zhe Sha, Matthew Rigby, Anita L. Ganesan, Alistair J. Manning, Kieran M. Stanley, Simon J. O'Doherty, Dickon Young, and Jonathan Rougier
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2095–2107,Short summary
Assessments of greenhouse gas emissions using atmospheric measurements and meteorological models, or
top-downmethods, are important to verify national inventories or produce a stand-alone estimate where no inventory exists. We present a novel top-down method to estimate emissions. This approach uses a fast method called an integrated nested Laplacian approximation to estimate how these emissions are correlated with other emissions in different locations and at different times.
Elise S. Droste, Karina E. Adcock, Matthew J. Ashfold, Charles Chou, Zoë Fleming, Paul J. Fraser, Lauren J. Gooch, Andrew J. Hind, Ray L. Langenfelds, Emma Leedham Elvidge, Norfazrin Mohd Hanif, Simon O'Doherty, David E. Oram, Chang-Feng Ou-Yang, Marios Panagi, Claire E. Reeves, William T. Sturges, and Johannes C. Laube
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4787–4807,Short summary
We update the tropospheric trends and emissions of six perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases, including separate isomers. Trends for these strong greenhouse gases are still increasing, but at slower rates than previously. The lack of natural sinks results in the global accumulation of 833 million metric tonnes of CO2 equivalent for these six PFCs by 2017. Modelling results indicate potential source regions and types in East Asia, but we find that many emissions are unaccounted for in emission reports.
August Andersson, Elena N. Kirillova, Stefano Decesari, Langley DeWitt, Jimmy Gasore, Katherine E. Potter, Ronald G. Prinn, Maheswar Rupakheti, Jean de Dieu Ndikubwimana, Julius Nkusi, and Bonfils Safari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4561–4573,Short summary
Large-scale biomass burning events seasonally cover sub-Saharan Africa with air particles. In this study, we find that the concentrations of these particles at a remote mountain site in Rwanda may increase by a factor of 10 during such dry biomass burning periods, with strong implications for the regional climate and human health. These results provide quantitative constraints that could contribute to reducing the large uncertainties regarding the environmental impact of these fires.
Timo Keber, Harald Bönisch, Carl Hartick, Marius Hauck, Fides Lefrancois, Florian Obersteiner, Akima Ringsdorf, Nils Schohl, Tanja Schuck, Ryan Hossaini, Phoebe Graf, Patrick Jöckel, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4105–4132,Short summary
In this paper we summarize observations of short-lived halocarbons in the tropopause region. We show that, especially during winter, the levels of short-lived bromine gases at the extratropical tropopause are higher than at the tropical tropopause. We discuss the impact of the distributions on stratospheric bromine levels and compare our observations to two models with four different emission scenarios.
Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, David O. Miller, Hannah M. Allen, Eric C. Apel, Donald R. Blake, T. Paul Bui, Roisin Commane, John D. Crounse, Bruce C. Daube, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, James W. Elkins, Samuel R. Hall, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem A. Hannun, Eric Hintsa, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Michelle J. Kim, Kathryn McKain, Fred L. Moore, Julie M. Nicely, Jeffrey Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jason M. St. Clair, Colm Sweeney, Alex Teng, Chelsea R. Thompson, Kirk Ullmann, Paul O. Wennberg, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4013–4029,Short summary
Oceans and the atmosphere exchange volatile gases that react with the hydroxyl radical (OH). During a NASA airborne study, measurements of the total frequency of OH reactions, called the OH reactivity, were made in the marine boundary layer of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The measured OH reactivity often exceeded the OH reactivity calculated from measured chemical species. This missing OH reactivity appears to be from unmeasured volatile organic compounds coming out of the ocean.
Zhipeng Qu, Yi Huang, Paul A. Vaillancourt, Jason N. S. Cole, Jason A. Milbrandt, Man-Kong Yau, Kaley Walker, and Jean de Grandpré
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2143–2159,Short summary
This study aims to better understand the mechanism of transport of water vapour through the mid-latitude tropopause. The results affirm the strong influence of overshooting convection on lower-stratospheric water vapour and highlight the importance of both dynamics and cloud microphysics in simulating water vapour distribution in the region of the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere.
Stefan Lossow, Charlotta Högberg, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gabriele P. Stiller, Ralf Bauer, Kaley A. Walker, Sylvia Kellmann, Andrea Linden, Michael Kiefer, Norbert Glatthor, Thomas von Clarmann, Donal P. Murtagh, Jörg Steinwagner, Thomas Röckmann, and Roland Eichinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 287–308,
Tanja J. Schuck, Ann-Katrin Blank, Elisa Rittmeier, Jonathan Williams, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andreas Engel, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 73–84,Short summary
Air sample collection aboard aircraft is a tool to measure atmospheric trace gas mixing ratios at altitude. We present results on the stability of 28 halocarbons during storage of air samples collected in stainless-steel flasks inside an automated air sampling unit which is part of the CARIBIC instrument package. Selected fluorinated compounds grew during the experiments while short-lived compounds were depleted. Individual substances were additionally influenced by high mixing ratios of ozone.
Angelina Wenger, Katherine Pugsley, Simon O'Doherty, Matt Rigby, Alistair J. Manning, Mark F. Lunt, and Emily D. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14057–14070,Short summary
We present 14CO2 observations at a background site in Ireland and a tall tower site in the UK. These data have been used to calculate the contribution of fossil fuel sources to atmospheric CO2 mole fractions from the UK and Ireland. 14CO2 emissions from nuclear industry sites in the UK cause a higher uncertainty in the results compared to observations in other locations. The observed ffCO2 at the site was not significantly different from simulated values based on the bottom-up inventory.
Quentin Errera, Simon Chabrillat, Yves Christophe, Jonas Debosscher, Daan Hubert, William Lahoz, Michelle L. Santee, Masato Shiotani, Sergey Skachko, Thomas von Clarmann, and Kaley Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13647–13679,Short summary
BRAM2 is a 13-year reanalysis of the chemical composition from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere based on the assimilation of the Microwave Limb Sounder observations where eight species are assimilated: O3, H2O, N2O, HNO3, HCl, ClO, CH3Cl and CO. BRAM2 agrees generally well with independent observations in the middle stratosphere, the polar vortex and the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere but also shows several issues in the model and in the observations.
Maxime Prignon, Simon Chabrillat, Daniele Minganti, Simon O'Doherty, Christian Servais, Gabriele Stiller, Geoffrey C. Toon, Martin K. Vollmer, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12309–12324,Short summary
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are the first, but temporary, substitution products for the strong ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). In this work, we present and validate an improved method to retrieve the most abundant HCFC in the atmosphere, allowing its evolution to be monitored independently in the troposphere and stratosphere. These kinds of contributions are fundamental for scrutinizing the fulfilment of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
Thomas von Clarmann and Norbert Glatthor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5155–5160,Short summary
To avoid unnecessary data traffic it is sometimes desirable to apply mean averaging kernels to mean profiles of atmospheric state variables. Unfortunately, the application of individual averaging kernels to individual profiles and subsequent averaging will, in general, lead to different results than averaging of the original profiles prior to the application of the mean averaging kernels. This effect is investigated and a correction scheme is proposed.
Andreas Marsing, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Stefan Kaufmann, Romy Heller, Andreas Engel, Peter Hoor, Jens Krause, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10757–10772,Short summary
We study the partitioning of inorganic chlorine into active (ozone-depleting) and reservoir species in the lowermost stratosphere of the Arctic polar vortex, using novel in situ aircraft measurements in winter 2015/2016. We observe a change in recovery pathways of the reservoirs HCl and ClONO2 with increasing potential temperature. A comparison with the CLaMS model relates the observations to the vortex-wide evolution and confirms unresolved discrepancies in the mid-winter HCl distribution.
Ann R. Stavert, Simon O'Doherty, Kieran Stanley, Dickon Young, Alistair J. Manning, Mark F. Lunt, Christopher Rennick, and Tim Arnold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4495–4518,Short summary
Under the UK GAUGE project, two new greenhouse gas observation sites were established in the 2013/2014 winter at two telecommunications towers. A combination of spectroscopic and chromatographic instrumentation was used to measure CO2, CH4, CO, N2O and SF6. The advantages and disadvantages of two CRDS sample drying strategies, Nafion(R) and empirical water correction, were also examined.
Jens Mühle, Cathy M. Trudinger, Luke M. Western, Matthew Rigby, Martin K. Vollmer, Sunyoung Park, Alistair J. Manning, Daniel Say, Anita Ganesan, L. Paul Steele, Diane J. Ivy, Tim Arnold, Shanlan Li, Andreas Stohl, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Archie McCulloch, Simon O'Doherty, Mi-Kyung Park, Chun Ok Jo, Dickon Young, Kieran M. Stanley, Paul B. Krummel, Blagoj Mitrevski, Ove Hermansen, Chris Lunder, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Bo Yao, Jooil Kim, Benjamin Hmiel, Christo Buizert, Vasilii V. Petrenko, Jgor Arduini, Michela Maione, David M. Etheridge, Eleni Michalopoulou, Mike Czerniak, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Stefan Reimann, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul J. Fraser, Ronald G. Prinn, and Ray F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10335–10359,Short summary
We discuss atmospheric concentrations and emissions of the strong greenhouse gas perfluorocyclobutane. A large fraction of recent emissions stem from China, India, and Russia, probably as a by-product from the production of fluoropolymers and fluorochemicals. Most historic emissions likely stem from developed countries. Total emissions are higher than what is being reported. Clearly, more measurements and better reporting are needed to understand emissions of this and other greenhouse gases.
Daniel Say, Anita L. Ganesan, Mark F. Lunt, Matthew Rigby, Simon O'Doherty, Christina Harth, Alistair J. Manning, Paul B. Krummel, and Stephane Bauguitte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9865–9885,Short summary
Despite its emergence as a global economic power, very little information exists regarding India's halocarbon (CFC, HCFC, HFC and chlorocarbon) emissions. We report atmospheric measurements of these gases from above India, and use them to estimate India's emissions. Our results are consistent with the emissions profile of a developing country, with large emissions of HCFCs, HFCs and chlorocarbons not regulated under the Montreal Protocol, but little evidence for ongoing CFC consumption.
Nils König, Peter Braesicke, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4113–4129,Short summary
Inference of the tropopause from temperature profiles of finite vertical resolution entails an uncertainty of the tropopause altitude. We assess this effect by degrading the resolution of the sonde data. The tropopause altitude inferred from coarse grid profiles was found to be lower than that inferred from the original profiles for tropical and midlatitudinal radiosonde profiles. The mean displacement of the lapse rate tropopause inferred from a 3 km resolution profile is −400 m for Hilo.
Dan Weaver, Kimberly Strong, Kaley A. Walker, Chris Sioris, Matthias Schneider, C. Thomas McElroy, Holger Vömel, Michael Sommer, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, John P. Burrows, William G. Read, Evan Fishbein, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4039–4063,Short summary
This work assesses water vapour profiles acquired by Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) using comparisons to radiosondes and ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer measurements acquired at a Canadian high Arctic measurement site in Eureka, Nunavut. Additional comparisons are made between these Eureka measurements and other water vapour satellite datasets for context, including AIRS, MLS, and others.
Ali Jalali, Shannon Hicks-Jalali, Robert J. Sica, Alexander Haefele, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3943–3961,Short summary
This paper builds upon the work in von Clarmann and Grabowski (2007) concerning the a priori profile influence in the optimal estimation method applied to active remote sensing measurements, with examples given for lidar retrievals of temperature and water vapor mixing ratio. The optimal estimation method is a new technique for many active remote sensing researchers. This study gives insight into understanding the effect on retrievals of the a priori information.
Sören Johansson, Michelle L. Santee, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Michael Höpfner, Marleen Braun, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Erik Kretschmer, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Ines Tritscher, Jörn Ungermann, Kaley A. Walker, and Wolfgang Woiwode
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8311–8338,Short summary
We present a study based on GLORIA aircraft and MLS/ACE-FTS/CALIOP satellite measurements during the Arctic winter 2015/16, which demonstrate (for the Arctic) unusual chlorine deactivation into HCl instead of ClONO2 due to low ozone abundances in the lowermost stratosphere, with a focus at 380 K potential temperature. The atmospheric models CLaMS and EMAC are evaluated, and measured ClONO2 is linked with transport and in situ deactivation in the lowermost stratosphere.
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Simon O'Doherty, and Peter G. Simmonds
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3383–3394,Short summary
We present a flexible method that employs a power series expansion and Fourier series analysis to characterize the average long-term change and seasonal cycle, respectively, from a time series of observations of a trace atmospheric species. This approach maximizes the statistically significant information derived, including non-linear aspects of the long-term trends, without over fitting the data. Generally, a small set of parameter values (e.g., 7 or 8) provides this characterization.
Mark E. Hervig, Benjamin T. Marshall, Scott M. Bailey, David E. Siskind, James M. Russell III, Charles G. Bardeen, Kaley A. Walker, and Bernd Funke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3111–3121,Short summary
The Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE) has measured nitric oxide (NO) from satellite since 2007. The observations are validated through error analysis and comparisons with other satellite observations. Calculated SOFIE NO uncertainties are less than 50 % for altitudes from 40 to 140 km. SOFIE agrees with other measurements to within 50 % for altitudes from roughly 50 to 105 km for spacecraft sunrise and 50 to 140 km for sunsets.
Temesgen Yirdaw Berhe, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, Thomas von Clarmann, Justus Notholt, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
This study aims to assess the latitudinal variation of MIPAS version V5R_CH4_220 and V5R_CH4_224 uncertainty. Furthermore, we analyze the relationship between these uncertainties and the variability of water vapor. Mainly, the high uncertainty found in tropics for MIPAS CH4 220 is highly associated with variability of water vapour. However, this effect has been reduced in the new updated MIPAS CH4 224 datasets due to jointly fitted water profile with methane.
Ruhi S. Humphries, Ian M. McRobert, Will A. Ponsonby, Jason P. Ward, Melita D. Keywood, Zoe M. Loh, Paul B. Krummel, and James Harnwell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3019–3038,Short summary
Undertaking atmospheric observations from ships provides important data in regions where measurements are impossible by other means. However, making measurements so close to a diesel exhaust plume is difficult. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that utilises ongoing measurements of aerosol number concentrations, black carbon mass concentrations, and mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide to accurately distinguish between exhaust and background data periods.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Michael Kiefer, Kaley A. Walker, Jean-Loup Bertaux, Laurent Blanot, James M. Russell, Ellis E. Remsberg, John C. Gille, Takafumi Sugita, Christopher E. Sioris, Bianca M. Dinelli, Enzo Papandrea, Piera Raspollini, Maya García-Comas, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Anu Dudhia, William G. Read, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Robert P. Damadeo, Joseph M. Zawodny, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, Stefan Noël, John P. Burrows, Hideo Sagawa, Yasuko Kasai, Joachim Urban, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Mark E. Hervig, Charlotta Högberg, Dale F. Hurst, and Karen H. Rosenlof
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2693–2732,
Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Gebhard Günther, Reinhold Spang, Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Dan Li, Martin Riese, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6007–6034,Short summary
We identified the transport pathways of air masses from the region of the Asian monsoon (e.g. pollution and greenhouse gases caused by increasing population and growing industries in Asia) into the lower stratosphere. Even small changes of the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere have an impact on surface climate (e.g. surface temperatures). Therefore, it is important to identify transport pathways to the stratosphere to allow potential environmental risks to be assessed.
Felix Ploeger, Bernard Legras, Edward Charlesworth, Xiaolu Yan, Mohamadou Diallo, Paul Konopka, Thomas Birner, Mengchu Tao, Andreas Engel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6085–6105,Short summary
We analyse the change in the circulation of the middle atmosphere based on current generation meteorological reanalysis data sets. We find that long-term changes from 1989 to 2015 are similar for the chosen reanalyses, mainly resembling the forced response in climate model simulations to climate change. For shorter periods circulation changes are less robust, and the representation of decadal variability appears to be a major uncertainty for modelling the circulation of the middle atmosphere.
Samantha Tremblay, Jean-Christophe Picard, Jill O. Bachelder, Erik Lutsch, Kimberly Strong, Pierre Fogal, W. Richard Leaitch, Sangeeta Sharma, Felicia Kolonjari, Christopher J. Cox, Rachel Y.-W. Chang, and Patrick L. Hayes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5589–5604,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols, tiny airborne particles, have an important impact on climate. However, a lack of understanding of the chemistry of aerosols is one of the largest contributors to uncertainty in predictions of climate change. Measurements of aerosols were carried out in the Arctic at Eureka Station, Canada, to better understand what role aerosols play in this fragile environment. It is found that organic aerosols, possibly originating from marine emissions, are ubiquitous during summertime.
Marius Hauck, Frauke Fritsch, Hella Garny, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5269–5291,Short summary
The paper presents a modified method to invert mixing ratios of chemically active tracers into stratospheric age spectra. It features an imposed seasonal cycle to include transport seasonality into the spectra. An idealized set of tracers from a model is used as proof of concept and results are in good agreement with the model reference, except for the lowermost stratosphere. Applicability is studied with focus on number of tracers and error tolerance, providing a starting point for future work.
Corinna Kloss, Marc von Hobe, Michael Höpfner, Kaley A. Walker, Martin Riese, Jörn Ungermann, Birgit Hassler, Stefanie Kremser, and Greg E. Bodeker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2129–2138,Short summary
Are regional and seasonal averages from only a few satellite measurements, all aligned along a specific path, representative? Probably not. We present a method to adjust for the so-called
sampling biasand investigate its influence on derived long-term trends. The method is illustrated and validated for a long-lived trace gas (carbonyl sulfide), and it is shown that the influence of the sampling bias is too small to change scientific conclusions on long-term trends.
Emily D. White, Matthew Rigby, Mark F. Lunt, T. Luke Smallman, Edward Comyn-Platt, Alistair J. Manning, Anita L. Ganesan, Simon O'Doherty, Ann R. Stavert, Kieran Stanley, Mathew Williams, Peter Levy, Michel Ramonet, Grant L. Forster, Andrew C. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4345–4365,Short summary
Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from the terrestrial biosphere on a national scale is important for evaluating land use strategies to mitigate climate change. We estimate emissions of CO2 from the UK biosphere using atmospheric data in a top-down approach. Our findings show that bottom-up estimates from models of biospheric fluxes overestimate the amount of CO2 uptake in summer. This suggests these models wrongly estimate or omit key processes, e.g. land disturbance due to harvest.
Leonie Bernet, Thomas von Clarmann, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Gérard Ancellet, Eliane Maillard Barras, René Stübi, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Niklaus Kämpfer, and Klemens Hocke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4289–4309,Short summary
After severe ozone depletion, upper stratospheric ozone has started to recover in recent years. However, stratospheric ozone trends from various data sets still show differences. To partly explain such differences, we investigate how the trends are affected by different factors, for example, anomalies in the data. We show how trend estimates can be improved by considering such anomalies and present updated stratospheric ozone trends from ground data measured in central Europe.
Debra Wunch, Dylan B. A. Jones, Geoffrey C. Toon, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Frank Hase, Justus Notholt, Ralf Sussmann, Thorsten Warneke, Jeroen Kuenen, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jenny A. Fisher, and Joannes D. Maasakkers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3963–3980,Short summary
We used five atmospheric observatories in Europe measuring total column dry-air mole fractions of methane and carbon monoxide to infer methane emissions in the area between the observatories. We find that the methane emissions are overestimated by the state-of-the-art inventories, and that this is likely due, at least in part, to the inventory disaggregation. We find that there is significant uncertainty in the carbon monoxide inventories that requires further investigation.
Martin K. Vollmer, François Bernard, Blagoj Mitrevski, L. Paul Steele, Cathy M. Trudinger, Stefan Reimann, Ray L. Langenfelds, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, David M. Etheridge, Mark A. J. Curran, and James B. Burkholder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3481–3492,Short summary
We have discovered a new compound in the atmosphere, octafluorooxolane (c-C4F8O), from measurements in archived air samples. From our laboratory studies, we find that c-C4F8O is a very powerful greenhouse gas thereby contributing to global warming, and that it has a very long atmospheric lifetime of more than 3500 years. Based on our measurements we could reconstruct its atmospheric evolution over more than 4 decades. Based on this, we could estimate the global emissions of c-C4F8O.
Felix R. Vogel, Matthias Frey, Johannes Staufer, Frank Hase, Grégoire Broquet, Irène Xueref-Remy, Frédéric Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Pascale Chelin, Pascal Jeseck, Christof Janssen, Yao Té, Jochen Groß, Thomas Blumenstock, Qiansi Tu, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3271–3285,Short summary
Providing timely information on greenhouse gas emissions to stakeholders at sub-national scale is an emerging challenge and understanding urban CO2 levels is one key aspect. This study uses atmospheric observations of total column CO2 and compares them to numerical simulations to investigate CO2 levels in the Paris metropolitan area due to natural fluxes and anthropogenic emissions. Our measurements reveal the influence of locally added CO2, which our model is also able to predict.
Matthias Frey, Mahesh K. Sha, Frank Hase, Matthäus Kiel, Thomas Blumenstock, Roland Harig, Gregor Surawicz, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Kei Shiomi, Jonathan E. Franklin, Hartmut Bösch, Jia Chen, Michel Grutter, Hirofumi Ohyama, Youwen Sun, André Butz, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Dragos Ene, Debra Wunch, Zhensong Cao, Omaira Garcia, Michel Ramonet, Felix Vogel, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1513–1530,Short summary
In a 3.5-year long study, the long-term performance of a mobile EM27/SUN spectrometer, used for greenhouse gas observations, is checked with respect to a co-located reference spectrometer. We find that the EM27/SUN is stable on timescales of several years, qualifying it for permanent carbon cycle studies. The performance of an ensemble of 30 EM27/SUN spectrometers was also tested in the framework of the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) and found to be very uniform.
Carole Helfter, Neil Mullinger, Massimo Vieno, Simon O'Doherty, Michel Ramonet, Paul I. Palmer, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3043–3063,Short summary
We present a novel approach to estimate the annual budgets of carbon dioxide (881.0 ± 128.5 Tg) and methane (2.55 ± 0.48 Tg) of the British Isles from shipborne measurements taken over a 3-year period (2015–2017). This study brings independent verification of the emission budgets estimated using alternative products and investigates the seasonality of these emissions, which is usually not possible.
Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Allan K. Bertram, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Aude Boivin-Rioux, Heiko Bozem, Julia Burkart, Rachel Y. W. Chang, Joannie Charette, Jai P. Chaubey, Robert J. Christensen, Ana Cirisan, Douglas B. Collins, Betty Croft, Joelle Dionne, Greg J. Evans, Christopher G. Fletcher, Martí Galí, Roghayeh Ghahremaninezhad, Eric Girard, Wanmin Gong, Michel Gosselin, Margaux Gourdal, Sarah J. Hanna, Hakase Hayashida, Andreas B. Herber, Sareh Hesaraki, Peter Hoor, Lin Huang, Rachel Hussherr, Victoria E. Irish, Setigui A. Keita, John K. Kodros, Franziska Köllner, Felicia Kolonjari, Daniel Kunkel, Luis A. Ladino, Kathy Law, Maurice Levasseur, Quentin Libois, John Liggio, Martine Lizotte, Katrina M. Macdonald, Rashed Mahmood, Randall V. Martin, Ryan H. Mason, Lisa A. Miller, Alexander Moravek, Eric Mortenson, Emma L. Mungall, Jennifer G. Murphy, Maryam Namazi, Ann-Lise Norman, Norman T. O'Neill, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Lynn M. Russell, Johannes Schneider, Hannes Schulz, Sangeeta Sharma, Meng Si, Ralf M. Staebler, Nadja S. Steiner, Jennie L. Thomas, Knut von Salzen, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Megan D. Willis, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jun-Wei Xu, and Jacqueline D. Yakobi-Hancock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2527–2560,Short summary
The Arctic is experiencing considerable environmental change with climate warming, illustrated by the dramatic decrease in sea-ice extent. It is important to understand both the natural and perturbed Arctic systems to gain a better understanding of how they will change in the future. This paper summarizes new insights into the relationships between Arctic aerosol particles and climate, as learned over the past five or so years by a large Canadian research consortium, NETCARE.
Charlotta Högberg, Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Ralf Bauer, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Gabriele P. Stiller, Jörg Steinwagner, and Qiong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2497–2526,Short summary
Five δD (H2O) data sets obtained from satellite observations have been evaluated using profile-to-profile and climatological comparisons. The focus is on stratospheric altitudes, but results from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere are also provided. There are clear quantitative differences in the δD ratio in key areas of scientific interest, resulting in difficulties drawing robust conclusions on atmospheric processes affecting the water vapour budget and distribution.
Daniel Say, Anita L. Ganesan, Mark F. Lunt, Matthew Rigby, Simon O'Doherty, Chris Harth, Alistair J. Manning, Paul B. Krummel, and Stephane Bauguitte
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
India is a potentially significant source of chlorocarbons, gases typically used as solvents and feedstocks. Given the potential for these species to deplete stratospheric ozone, understanding their sources is important. We use flask measurements collected from an aircraft to infer India's chlorocarbon emissions. We link emissions of carbon tetrachloride to the industrial production of other chloromethanes, and provide evidence for rapid growth in India's emissions of dichloromethane.
Ann R. Stavert, Rachel M. Law, Marcel van der Schoot, Ray L. Langenfelds, Darren A. Spencer, Paul B. Krummel, Scott D. Chambers, Alistair G. Williams, Sylvester Werczynski, Roger J. Francey, and Russell T. Howden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1103–1121,Short summary
The Southern Ocean is a key sink of carbon dioxide (CO2), but efforts to study trends in and the variability of the sink have been hindered by the limited number of CO2 measurements in this region. Here we describe a set of new in situ continuous (minutely) atmospheric CO2 observations. We show that this new record better captures long-term changes and seasonality than traditional 2-weekly flask records. As such, this data set will provide key insights into the changing Southern Ocean sink.
H. Langley DeWitt, Jimmy Gasore, Maheswar Rupakheti, Katherine E. Potter, Ronald G. Prinn, Jean de Dieu Ndikubwimana, Julius Nkusi, and Bonfils Safari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2063–2078,Short summary
Air quality in rapidly developing East Africa is a growing but understudied concern. We analyzed long-term black carbon, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements from the remote Rwanda Climate Observatory and found that seasonal regional biomass burning raised black carbon levels to above-urban concentrations 6 months out of the year. Additional local pollution could exacerbate this issue. More regional monitoring needs to be done to understand and reduce air pollution in this region.
Bradley D. Hall, Andrew M. Crotwell, Benjamin R. Miller, Michael Schibig, and James W. Elkins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 517–524,Short summary
We have used a one-step method for gravimetric preparation of CO2-in-air standards in aluminum cylinders. We consider both adsorption to stainless steel surfaces used in the transfer of highly pure CO2 and adsorption of CO2 to cylinder walls. This work compliments ongoing efforts to support atmospheric monitoring of CO2.
Debora Griffin, Kaley A. Walker, Ingo Wohltmann, Sandip S. Dhomse, Markus Rex, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Gloria L. Manney, Jane Liu, and David Tarasick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 577–601,Short summary
Ozone in the stratosphere is important to protect the Earth from UV radiation. Using measurements taken by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment satellite between 2005 and 2013, we examine different methods to calculate the ozone loss in the high Arctic and establish the altitude at which most of the ozone is destroyed. Our results show that the different methods agree within the uncertainties. Recommendations are made on which methods are most appropriate to use.
Pingyang Li, Jens Mühle, Stephen A. Montzka, David E. Oram, Benjamin R. Miller, Ray F. Weiss, Paul J. Fraser, and Toste Tanhua
Ocean Sci., 15, 33–60,Short summary
Use of CFCs as oceanic transient tracers is difficult for recently ventilated water masses as their atmospheric mole fractions have been decreasing. To explore novel tracers, we synthesized consistent annual mean atmospheric histories of HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HFC-125, HFC-23, PFC-14 (CF4) and PFC-116 in both hemispheres and reconstructed their solubility functions in water and seawater. This work is also potentially useful for tracer studies in a range of natural waters.
Mohamadou Diallo, Paul Konopka, Michelle L. Santee, Rolf Müller, Mengchu Tao, Kaley A. Walker, Bernard Legras, Martin Riese, Manfred Ern, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 425–446,Short summary
This paper assesses the structural changes in the shallow and transition branches of the BDC induced by El Nino using the Lagrangian model simulations driven by ERAi and JRA-55 combined with MLS observations. We found a clear evidence of a weakening of the transition branch due to an upward shift in the dissipation height of the planetary and gravity waves and a strengthening of the shallow branch due to enhanced GW breaking in the tropics–subtropics and PW breaking at high latitudes.
Stijn Naus, Stephen A. Montzka, Sudhanshu Pandey, Sourish Basu, Ed J. Dlugokencky, and Maarten Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 407–424,Short summary
We investigate how the use of a two-box model to describe the troposphere can impact derived results, relative to more complex models. For this, we use a 3-D transport model to tune a two-box model of OH, CH4, and MCF. By comparing the tuned two-box model with a standard model run, we can diagnose and quantify biases inherent to a two-box model. We find strong biases, but these have only a small impact on our final conclusions. However, it is not obvious that this should hold for future studies.
Joseph Mendonca, Kimberly Strong, Debra Wunch, Geoffrey C. Toon, David A. Long, Joseph T. Hodges, Vincent T. Sironneau, and Jonathan E. Franklin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 35–50,Short summary
In order to study the carbon cycle, accurate remote sensing measurements of XCO2 are required. This means that accurate absorption coefficients of CO2 and O2 in the retrieval algorithm are required. We use high-resolution laboratory spectra of O2 to derive accurate absorption coefficients. By applying the O2 absorption coefficients to the retrieval of XCO2 from ground-based solar absorption spectra we show that the error on retrieved XCO2 is decreased.
Sarah Connors, Alistair J. Manning, Andrew D. Robinson, Stuart N. Riddick, Grant L. Forster, Anita Ganesan, Aoife Grant, Stephen Humphrey, Simon O'Doherty, Dave E. Oram, Paul I. Palmer, Robert L. Skelton, Kieran Stanley, Ann Stavert, Dickon Young, and Neil R. P. Harris
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas & reducing its emissions is a vital part of climate change mitigation to limit global temperature increase to 1.5 °C or 2.0 °C. This paper explains a way to estimate emitted methane over a sub-national area by combining measurements & computer dispersion modelling in a so-called
inversiontechnique. Compared with the current national inventory, our results show lower emissions for Cambridgeshire, possibly due to waste sector emission differences.
Tanja J. Schuck, Fides Lefrancois, Franziska Gallmann, Danrong Wang, Markus Jesswein, Jesica Hoker, Harald Bönisch, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16553–16569,Short summary
We present the first results of regular halocarbon measurements at Taunus Observatory, Germany. Halogenated gases contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion and to radiative forcing. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry allows one to assess a large number of compounds; the measurements are expected to provide better constraints for European emission estimates. CFC-11 and CFC-12 show small unexpected differences regarding outlier occurrence and seasonality, indicating ongoing emissions of CFC-11.
Wolfgang Woiwode, Andreas Dörnbrack, Martina Bramberger, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Florian Haenel, Michael Höpfner, Sören Johansson, Erik Kretschmer, Isabell Krisch, Thomas Latzko, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Peter Preusse, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Jörn Ungermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15643–15667,Short summary
GLORIA observations during two crossings of the polar front jet stream resolve the fine mesoscale structure of a tropopause fold in high detail. Tracer–tracer correlations of H2O and O3 are presented as a function of potential temperature and reveal an active mixing region. Our study confirms conceptual models of tropopause folds, validates the high quality of ECMWF IFS forecasts, and suggests that mountain waves are capable of modulating exchange processes in the vicinity of tropopause folds.
Thomas von Clarmann and Sören Johansson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15363–15386,Short summary
This review article compiles the characteristics of the gas chlorine nitrate and discusses its role in atmospheric chemistry. Chlorine nitrate is a reservoir of both stratospheric chlorine and nitrogen. Formation and sink processes are discussed, as well as spectral features and spectroscopic studies. Remote sensing, fluorescence, and mass spectroscopic measurement techniques are introduced, and global distributions and the annual cycle are discussed in the context of chlorine de-/activation.
Michael Höpfner, Terry Deshler, Michael Pitts, Lamont Poole, Reinhold Spang, Gabriele Stiller, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5901–5923,Short summary
Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) have major relevance to the processes leading to polar ozone depletion. A good understanding of these particles is a prerequisite to predict their role in a changing climate. We present the first global set of PSC volume density profiles derived from the MIPAS satellite measurements covering the entire mission period between 2002 and 2012. A comparison to CALIOP lidar measurements is provided. The dataset can serve as a basis for evaluation of atmospheric models.
Benjamin Brown-Steiner, Noelle E. Selin, Ronald Prinn, Simone Tilmes, Louisa Emmons, Jean-François Lamarque, and Philip Cameron-Smith
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4155–4174,Short summary
We conduct three simulations of atmospheric chemistry using chemical mechanisms of different levels of complexity and compare their results to observations. We explore situations in which the simplified mechanisms match the output of the most complex mechanism, as well as when they diverge. We investigate how concurrent utilization of chemical mechanisms of different complexities can further our atmospheric-chemistry understanding at various scales and give some strategies for future research.
Simon Chabrillat, Corinne Vigouroux, Yves Christophe, Andreas Engel, Quentin Errera, Daniele Minganti, Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Arjo Segers, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14715–14735,Short summary
Mean age of stratospheric air is computed for the period 1989–2015 with a kinematic transport model which uses surface pressure and wind fields from five reanalyses: ERA-I, MERRA-2, MERRA, CFSR, JRA-55. The spread between the resulting datasets is as large as in climate model intercomparisons; the age trends have large disagreement and depend strongly on the considered period. We highlight the need for similar studies using diabatic transport models which also use temperature and heating rates.
Tim Arnold, Alistair J. Manning, Jooil Kim, Shanlan Li, Helen Webster, David Thomson, Jens Mühle, Ray F. Weiss, Sunyoung Park, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13305–13320,Short summary
Emissions of carbon tetrafluoride CF4, NF3 and CHF3 in east Asia have been calculated using atmospheric measurements and an atmospheric transport model. We calculate emissions of CF4 to be quite constant between the years 2008 and 2015 for both China and South Korea, with 2015 emissions calculated at 4.33 ± 2.65 Gg yr-1 and 0.36 ± 0.11 Gg yr-1, respectively. Emission estimates of NF3 from South Korea could be made with relatively small uncertainty at 0.6 ± 0.07 Gg yr-1 in 2015.
Robyn Butler, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Stephen J. Andrews, Elliot L. Atlas, Lucy J. Carpenter, Valeria Donets, Neil R. P. Harris, Stephen A. Montzka, Laura L. Pan, Ross J. Salawitch, and Sue M. Schauffler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13135–13153,Short summary
Natural sources of short-lived bromoform and dibromomethane are important for determining the inorganic bromine budget in the stratosphere that drives ozone loss. Two new modelling techniques describe how different geographical source regions influence their atmospheric variability over the western Pacific. We find that it is driven primarily by open ocean sources, and we use atmospheric observations to help estimate their contributions to the upper tropospheric inorganic bromine budget.
Corinne Vigouroux, Carlos Augusto Bauer Aquino, Maite Bauwens, Cornelis Becker, Thomas Blumenstock, Martine De Mazière, Omaira García, Michel Grutter, César Guarin, James Hannigan, Frank Hase, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Dmitry Koshelev, Bavo Langerock, Erik Lutsch, Maria Makarova, Jean-Marc Metzger, Jean-François Müller, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Clare Paton-Walsh, Anatoly Poberovskii, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Dan Smale, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Wolfgang Stremme, Kim Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, and Geoffrey Toon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5049–5073,Short summary
A few ground-based stations have provided time series of HCHO columns until now, which was not optimal for providing good diagnostics for satellite or model validation. In this work, HCHO time series have been determined in a harmonized way at 21 stations ensuring, in addition to a better spatial and level of abundances coverage, that internal biases within the network have been minimized. This data set shows consistent good agreement with model data and is ready for future satellite validation.
Paul I. Palmer, Simon O'Doherty, Grant Allen, Keith Bower, Hartmut Bösch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sarah Connors, Sandip Dhomse, Liang Feng, Douglas P. Finch, Martin W. Gallagher, Emanuel Gloor, Siegfried Gonzi, Neil R. P. Harris, Carole Helfter, Neil Humpage, Brian Kerridge, Diane Knappett, Roderic L. Jones, Michael Le Breton, Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Matthiesen, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Sebastian O'Shea, Robert J. Parker, Carl J. Percival, Joseph Pitt, Stuart N. Riddick, Matthew Rigby, Harjinder Sembhi, Richard Siddans, Robert L. Skelton, Paul Smith, Hannah Sonderfeld, Kieran Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Angelina Wenger, Emily White, Christopher Wilson, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11753–11777,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) experiment. GAUGE was designed to quantify nationwide GHG emissions of the UK, bringing together measurements and atmospheric transport models. This novel experiment is the first of its kind. We anticipate it will inform the blueprint for countries that are building a measurement infrastructure in preparation for global stocktakes, which are a key part of the Paris Agreement.
Sunyoung Park, Shanlan Li, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Ray F. Weiss, Xuekun Fang, Stefan Reimann, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11729–11738,Short summary
Multi-year, real-time atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) record obtained at Gosan station (33° N, 126° E) presents evidence of significant unreported emissions of this first-generation ozone-depleting substance. The missing emissions (~ 19 Gg yr−1) for China contribute to approximately 54 % of global emissions and are most likely related to CCl4 escape occurring during the production of chlorinated compounds and their usage as feedstocks and process agents in chemical manufacturing industries.
Sören Johansson, Wolfgang Woiwode, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Anne Kleinert, Erik Kretschmer, Thomas Latzko, Johannes Orphal, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Michelle L. Santee, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Giez, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Andreas Zahn, Andreas Engel, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Hermann Oelhaf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4737–4756,Short summary
We present two-dimensional cross sections of temperature, HNO3, O3, ClONO2, H2O and CFC-12 from measurements of the GLORIA infrared limb imager during the POLSTRACC/GW-LCYCLE/SALSA aircraft campaigns in the Arctic winter 2015/2016. GLORIA sounded the atmosphere between 5 and 14 km with vertical resolutions of 0.4–1 km. Estimated errors are in the range of 1–2 K (temperature) and 10 %–20 % (trace gases). Comparisons to in situ instruments onboard the aircraft and to Aura/MLS are shown.
Norbert Glatthor, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele P. Stiller, Michael Kiefer, Alexandra Laeng, Bianca M. Dinelli, Gerald Wetzel, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4707–4723,Short summary
We report differences in ozone retrievals in channels A and AB of the space-borne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), which amount to up to 8 %. We provide strong evidence that the bias is caused by inconsistencies in different spectroscopic databases (MIPAS, HITRAN, GEISA). We show that a major part of the differences can be attributed to inconsistent air-broadening coefficients of the ozone lines contained in the databases.
Alexandra Laeng, Ellen Eckert, Thomas von Clarmann, Michael Kiefer, Daan Hubert, Gabriele Stiller, Norbert Glatthor, Manuel López-Puertas, Bernd Funke, Udo Grabowski, Johannes Plieninger, Sylvia Kellmann, Andrea Linden, Stefan Lossow, Arne Babenhauserheide, Lucien Froidevaux, and Kaley Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4693–4705,Short summary
MIPAS was an IR limb emission spectrometer on the Envisat platform. From 2002 to 2012, it performed pole-to-pole measurements of ozone during day and night. ESA recently released the new version 7 of Level 1 MIPAS spectra, which is expected to reduce the long-term drift of the MIPAS Level 2 data. We evaluate the long-term stability of ozone Level 2 data from the KIT IMK processor. Our results indicate that MIPAS data are now even more suited for trend studies, alone or as part of merged data.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Stefan Lossow, Gabriele P. Stiller, Karen H. Rosenlof, Joachim Urban, John P. Burrows, Robert P. Damadeo, Patrick Eriksson, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Michael Kiefer, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4435–4463,Short summary
Time series of stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour using 33 data sets from 15 satellite instruments were compared in the framework of the second SPARC water vapour assessment. We find that most data sets can be considered in observational and modelling studies addressing, e.g. stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour variability and trends if data-set-specific characteristics (e.g. a drift) and restrictions (e.g. temporal and spatial coverage) are taken into account.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Gabriele Stiller, Michael Höpfner, Michelle L. Santee, Sylvia Kellmann, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8873–8892,Short summary
An extensive assessment of the performance of the chemistry–climate model EMAC is given for Arctic winters 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The EMAC simulations are compared to satellite observations. The comparisons between EMAC simulations and satellite observations show that model and measurements compare well for these two Arctic winters. However, differences between model and observations are found that need improvements in the model in the future.
Mary E. Whelan, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Teresa E. Gimeno, Richard Wehr, Georg Wohlfahrt, Yuting Wang, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Timothy W. Hilton, Sauveur Belviso, Philippe Peylin, Róisín Commane, Wu Sun, Huilin Chen, Le Kuai, Ivan Mammarella, Kadmiel Maseyk, Max Berkelhammer, King-Fai Li, Dan Yakir, Andrew Zumkehr, Yoko Katayama, Jérôme Ogée, Felix M. Spielmann, Florian Kitz, Bharat Rastogi, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Julia Marshall, Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Lisa Wingate, Laura K. Meredith, Wei He, Rüdiger Bunk, Thomas Launois, Timo Vesala, Johan A. Schmidt, Cédric G. Fichot, Ulli Seibt, Scott Saleska, Eric S. Saltzman, Stephen A. Montzka, Joseph A. Berry, and J. Elliott Campbell
Biogeosciences, 15, 3625–3657,Short summary
Measurements of the trace gas carbonyl sulfide (OCS) are helpful in quantifying photosynthesis at previously unknowable temporal and spatial scales. While CO2 is both consumed and produced within ecosystems, OCS is mostly produced in the oceans or from specific industries, and destroyed in plant leaves in proportion to CO2. This review summarizes the advancements we have made in the understanding of OCS exchange and applications to vital ecosystem water and carbon cycle questions.
Benjamin Brown-Steiner, Noelle E. Selin, Ronald G. Prinn, Erwan Monier, Simone Tilmes, Louisa Emmons, and Fernando Garcia-Menendez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8373–8388,Short summary
Detecting signals in observations and simulations of atmospheric chemistry is difficult due to the underlying variability in the chemistry, meteorology, and climatology. Here we examine the scale dependence of ozone variability and explore strategies for reducing or averaging this variability and thereby enhancing ozone signal detection capabilities. We find that 10–15 years of temporal averaging, and some level of spatial averaging, reduces the risk of overconfidence in ozone signals.
Richard J. Pope, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Stephen R. Arnold, Norbert Glatthor, Wuhu Feng, Sandip S. Dhomse, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry G. Latter, and Richard Siddans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8389–8408,
Stefan Lossow, Dale F. Hurst, Karen H. Rosenlof, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Sabine Brinkop, Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, Doug E. Kinnison, Johannes Plieninger, David A. Plummer, Felix Ploeger, William G. Read, Ellis E. Remsberg, James M. Russell, and Mengchu Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8331–8351,Short summary
Trend estimates of lower stratospheric H2O derived from the FPH observations at Boulder and a merged zonal mean satellite data set clearly differ for the time period from the late 1980s to 2010. We investigate if a sampling bias between Boulder and the zonal mean around the Boulder latitude can explain these trend discrepancies. Typically they are small and not sufficient to explain the trend discrepancies in the observational database.
Thomas von Clarmann
Geosci. Commun. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The measurement of knowledge transfer is considered an important component of the overall performance assessment of research groups. It is, however, not a trivial task, because there is agreement on neither the definition nor on the logical structure of knowledge. In this paper related problems are summarized and approaches to the measurement of knowledge transfer are critically discussed.
Myriam Guillevic, Martin K. Vollmer, Simon A. Wyss, Daiana Leuenberger, Andreas Ackermann, Céline Pascale, Bernhard Niederhauser, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3351–3372,Short summary
We present new primary calibration scales for five halogenated greenhouse gases. The preparation method, newly applied to halocarbons, is dynamic and gravimetric and allows the generation of reference gas mixtures at near-ambient levels (pmol mol−1). Each prepared molar fraction is traceable to the realisation of SI units (International System of Units) and is assigned an uncertainty estimate following international guidelines.
Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Jgor Arduini, Tim Arnold, H. Langley DeWitt, Paul J. Fraser, Anita L. Ganesan, Jimmy Gasore, Christina M. Harth, Ove Hermansen, Jooil Kim, Paul B. Krummel, Shanlan Li, Zoë M. Loh, Chris R. Lunder, Michela Maione, Alistair J. Manning, Ben R. Miller, Blagoj Mitrevski, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Sunyoung Park, Stefan Reimann, Matt Rigby, Takuya Saito, Peter K. Salameh, Roland Schmidt, Peter G. Simmonds, L. Paul Steele, Martin K. Vollmer, Ray H. Wang, Bo Yao, Yoko Yokouchi, Dickon Young, and Lingxi Zhou
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 985–1018,Short summary
We present the data and accomplishments of the multinational global atmospheric measurement program AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment). At high frequency and at multiple sites, AGAGE measures all the important chemicals in the Montreal Protocol for the protection of the ozone layer and the non-carbon-dioxide gases assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. AGAGE uses these data to estimate sources and sinks of all these gases and has operated since 1978.
Felicia Kolonjari, David A. Plummer, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, James W. Elkins, Michaela I. Hegglin, Gloria L. Manney, Fred L. Moore, Diane Pendlebury, Eric A. Ray, Karen H. Rosenlof, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6801–6828,Short summary
We used satellite observations and model simulations of CFC-11, CFC-12, and N2O to investigate stratospheric transport, which is important for predicting the recovery of the ozone layer and future climate. We found that sampling can impact results and that the model consistently overestimates concentrations of these gases in the lower stratosphere, consistent with a too rapid Brewer–Dobson circulation. An issue with mixing in the tropical lower stratosphere in June–July–August was also found.
Natalya A. Kramarova, Pawan K. Bhartia, Glen Jaross, Leslie Moy, Philippe Xu, Zhong Chen, Matthew DeLand, Lucien Froidevaux, Nathaniel Livesey, Douglas Degenstein, Adam Bourassa, Kaley A. Walker, and Patrick Sheese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2837–2861,Short summary
The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Limb Profiler (LP) is a newly designed research sensor aiming to continue high vertical resolution ozone records from space-borne sensors. In summer 2017 all LP measurements were processed with the new version 2.5 algorithm. In this paper we provide a description of the key changes implemented in the new algorithm and evaluate the quality of ozone retrievals by comparing with independent satellite profile measurements (MLS, ACE-FTS and OSIRIS).
Jens Krause, Peter Hoor, Andreas Engel, Felix Plöger, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Harald Bönisch, Timo Keber, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Wolfgang Woiwode, and Hermann Oelhaf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6057–6073,Short summary
We present tracer measurements of CO and N2O measured during the POLSTRACC aircraft campaign in winter 2015–2016. We found enhanced CO values relative to N2O in the polar lower stratosphere in addition to the ageing of this region during winter. By using model simulations it was possible to link this enhancement to an increased mixing of the tropical tropopause. We thus conclude that the polar lower stratosphere in late winter is strongly influenced by quasi-isentropic mixing from the tropics.
Manuel López-Puertas, Maya García-Comas, Bernd Funke, Angela Gardini, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Norbert Glatthor, Alexandra Laeng, Martin Kaufmann, Viktoria F. Sofieva, Lucien Froidevaux, Kaley A. Walker, and Masato Shiotani
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2187–2212,Short summary
This paper describes the inversion of O3 data from MIPAS middle atmosphere spectra which requires non-LTE. The O3 dataset comprises from 20 to 100 km, has a pole-to-pole latitude coverage, day and nighttime, and span from 2005 until 2012. A validation of the data against other satellite measurements and an overall description of O3 is also presented. This is an important dataset for the community and describes the major characteristics of stratospheric and mesospheric O3.
Geoffrey C. Toon, Jean-Francois L. Blavier, and Keeyoon Sung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5075–5088,Short summary
Remote sensing measurements of ethene have been made from the ground and from balloons. Ethene can be measured at low altitudes in polluted regions, such as the Los Angeles basin. Here ethene amounts have decreased by a factor of 3 over the past 25 years due to increasingly strict emission control regulations (e.g., on vehicle exhaust).
Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Elizaveta Malinina, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Thomas von Clarmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2135–2149,Short summary
This paper describes the development of a retrieval algorithm at the University of Bremen which derives stratospheric ozone profiles from limb observations performed by the OMPS satellite instrument. Here we present the implementation of the algorithm and the validation of our results (1 year of data against independent satellite and ground-based measurements). Good agreement is generally found between 20 and 55 km, mostly within 10 % at all latitudes.
Luis F. Millán, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Michelle L. Santee, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4187–4199,Short summary
This study investigates orbital sampling biases and evaluates the additional impact caused by data quality screening for the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS).
Peter G. Simmonds, Matthew Rigby, Archie McCulloch, Martin K. Vollmer, Stephan Henne, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Alistair J. Manning, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Dickon Young, Ray F. Weiss, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Stefan Reimann, Cathy M. Trudinger, L. Paul Steele, Ray H. J. Wang, Diane J. Ivy, Ronald G. Prinn, Blagoj Mitrevski, and David M. Etheridge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4153–4169,Short summary
Recent measurements of the potent greenhouse gas HFC-23, a by-product of HCFC-22 production, show a 28 % increase in the atmospheric mole fraction from 2009 to 2016. A minimum in the atmospheric abundance of HFC-23 in 2009 was attributed to abatement of HFC-23 emissions by incineration under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Our results indicate that the recent increase in HFC-23 emissions is driven by failure of mitigation under the CDM to keep pace with increased HCFC-22 production.
Fabian Schoenenberger, Stephan Henne, Matthias Hill, Martin K. Vollmer, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Simon O'Doherty, Michela Maione, Lukas Emmenegger, Thomas Peter, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4069–4092,Short summary
Anthropogenic halocarbon emissions contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. We measured atmospheric halocarbons for 6 months on Crete to extend the coverage of the existing observation network to the Eastern Mediterranean. The derived emission estimates showed a contribution of 16.8 % (13.6–23.3 %) and 53.2 % (38.1–84.2 %) of this region to the total HFC and HCFC emissions of the analyzed European domain and a reduction of the underlying uncertainties by 40–80 %.
Kieran M. Stanley, Aoife Grant, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Alistair J. Manning, Ann R. Stavert, T. Gerard Spain, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Peter G. Simmonds, William T. Sturges, David E. Oram, and Richard G. Derwent
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1437–1458,
Emma Leedham Elvidge, Harald Bönisch, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andreas Engel, Paul J. Fraser, Eileen Gallacher, Ray Langenfelds, Jens Mühle, David E. Oram, Eric A. Ray, Anna R. Ridley, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, Ray F. Weiss, and Johannes C. Laube
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3369–3385,Short summary
Chemical species measured in stratospheric air can be used as proxies for stratospheric circulation changes which cannot be measured directly. A range of tracers is important to understand changing stratospheric dynamics. We demonstrate the suitability of PFCs and HFCs as tracers and support recent work that reduces the current stratospheric lifetime of SF6. Updates to policy-relevant parameters (e.g. stratospheric lifetime) linked to this change are provided for O3-depleting substances.
W. Richard Leaitch, Lynn M. Russell, Jun Liu, Felicia Kolonjari, Desiree Toom, Lin Huang, Sangeeta Sharma, Alina Chivulescu, Dan Veber, and Wendy Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3269–3287,Short summary
Over 2 years of atmospheric aerosol organic functional group and microphysics measurements at the world's northernmost land observatory offer a unique high-latitude dataset. Lower organic mass (OM) concentrations and higher OM fractions accompany smaller particles during summer, with opposite results during winter to spring. Seasonally, the OM oxidation level is highest in winter, associated with primary marine alcohol groups. In summer, secondary processes dominate the marine influence on OM.
Geoffrey C. Toon, Jean-Francois L. Blavier, and Keeyoon Sung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1923–1944,Short summary
OCS is the main form of atmospheric sulfur. It is produced near the earth's surface and destroyed primarily in the stratosphere, where it is converted to stratospheric sulfate aerosol (SSA). SSA plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and transport and so it is important to better understand the factors that regulate OCS and hence SSA. Ground-based and balloon-borne infrared spectra observed over the past 30 years are analyzed to provide an improved OCS dataset.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Pucai Wang, Christian Hermans, Gabriele Stiller, Kaley A. Walker, Geoff Dutton, Emmanuel Mahieu, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 651–662,Short summary
SF6 total columns are successfully retrieved from FTIR measurements (Saint Denis and Maïdo) at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) between 2004 and 2016 using the SFIT4 algorithm: the retrieval strategy and the error budget are discussed. The trend of SF6 is analysed based on the FTIR retrievals at Reunion Island, the in situ measurements at America Samoa (SMO) and the collocated satellite measurements (MIPAS and ACE-FTS) in the southern tropics. The results show good agreement.
Annika Günther, Michael Höpfner, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Sabine Griessbach, Terry Deshler, Thomas von Clarmann, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1217–1239,Short summary
Satellite-borne data of sulfur dioxide and a new data set of sulfate aerosol volume densities, as retrieved from MIPAS measurements, are studied in the upper-troposphere–lower-stratosphere region. General patterns of enhanced aerosol are in agreement with SO2. Via chemical transport model simulations for two volcanic eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes, we show that the volcanic enhancements in MIPAS SO2 and sulfate aerosol are consistent in terms of mass and transport patterns.
Miriam Sinnhuber, Uwe Berger, Bernd Funke, Holger Nieder, Thomas Reddmann, Gabriele Stiller, Stefan Versick, Thomas von Clarmann, and Jan Maik Wissing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1115–1147,Short summary
Results from global models are used to analyze the impact of energetic particle precipitation on the middle atmosphere (10–80 km). Model results agree well with observations, and show strong enhancements of NOy, long-lasting ozone loss, and a net heating in the uppermost stratosphere (~35–45 km) during polar winter which changes sign in spring. Energetic particle precipitation therefore has the potential to impact atmospheric dynamics, starting from a warmer winter-time upper stratosphere.
Peter Bergamaschi, Ute Karstens, Alistair J. Manning, Marielle Saunois, Aki Tsuruta, Antoine Berchet, Alexander T. Vermeulen, Tim Arnold, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Samuel Hammer, Ingeborg Levin, Martina Schmidt, Michel Ramonet, Morgan Lopez, Jost Lavric, Tuula Aalto, Huilin Chen, Dietrich G. Feist, Christoph Gerbig, László Haszpra, Ove Hermansen, Giovanni Manca, John Moncrieff, Frank Meinhardt, Jaroslaw Necki, Michal Galkowski, Simon O'Doherty, Nina Paramonova, Hubertus A. Scheeren, Martin Steinbacher, and Ed Dlugokencky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 901–920,Short summary
European methane (CH4) emissions are estimated for 2006–2012 using atmospheric in situ measurements from 18 European monitoring stations and 7 different inverse models. Our analysis highlights the potential significant contribution of natural emissions from wetlands (including peatlands and wet soils) to the total European emissions. The top-down estimates of total EU-28 CH4 emissions are broadly consistent with the sum of reported anthropogenic CH4 emissions and the estimated natural emissions.
Martin K. Vollmer, Dickon Young, Cathy M. Trudinger, Jens Mühle, Stephan Henne, Matthew Rigby, Sunyoung Park, Shanlan Li, Myriam Guillevic, Blagoj Mitrevski, Christina M. Harth, Benjamin R. Miller, Stefan Reimann, Bo Yao, L. Paul Steele, Simon A. Wyss, Chris R. Lunder, Jgor Arduini, Archie McCulloch, Songhao Wu, Tae Siek Rhee, Ray H. J. Wang, Peter K. Salameh, Ove Hermansen, Matthias Hill, Ray L. Langenfelds, Diane Ivy, Simon O'Doherty, Paul B. Krummel, Michela Maione, David M. Etheridge, Lingxi Zhou, Paul J. Fraser, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, and Peter G. Simmonds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 979–1002,Short summary
We measured the three chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFC-13, CFC-114, and CFC-115 in the atmosphere because they are important in stratospheric ozone depletion. These compounds should have decreased in the atmosphere because they are banned by the Montreal Protocol but we find the opposite. Emissions over the last decade have not declined on a global scale. We use inverse modeling and our observations to find that a large part of the emissions originate in the Asian region.
Amirmahdi Zarboo, Stefan Bender, John P. Burrows, Johannes Orphal, and Miriam Sinnhuber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 473–487,Short summary
We present the retrieved volume emission rates (VERs) from the airglow of both the daytime and twilight O2(1Σ) band and O2(1Δ) band emissions in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). We have investigated the daily mean latitudinal distributions and the time series of the retrieved VER in the altitude range from 53 to 149 km. These observations provide information about the chemistry and dynamics and can be used to infer ozone, solar heating rates, and temperature in the MLT.
Kelley C. Wells, Dylan B. Millet, Nicolas Bousserez, Daven K. Henze, Timothy J. Griffis, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Eri Saikawa, Gao Xiang, Ronald G. Prinn, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Ray F. Weiss, Geoff S. Dutton, James W. Elkins, Paul B. Krummel, Ray Langenfelds, and L. Paul Steele
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 735–756,Short summary
This paper uses three different frameworks to derive nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions based on global surface observations. One of these frameworks employs a new approach that allows for fast computation and explores a larger solution space than other methods. Our results point to a few conclusions about the global N2O budget, including a larger contribution from tropical sources, an overestimate of natural soil emissions, and an underestimate of agricultural sources particularly in springtime.
Andreas Engel, Harald Bönisch, Jennifer Ostermöller, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 601–619,Short summary
We present a new method to derive equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), which is based on an improved formulation of the propagation of trends of species with chemical loss from the troposphere to the stratosphere. EESC calculated with the new method shows much better agreement with model-derived ESC. Based on this new formulation, we expect the halogen impact on midlatitude stratospheric ozone to return to 1980 values about 10 years later, then using the current formulation.
Hugh C. Pumphrey, Norbert Glatthor, Peter F. Bernath, Christopher D. Boone, James W. Hannigan, Ivan Ortega, Nathaniel J. Livesey, and William G. Read
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 691–703,Short summary
The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a satellite instrument that has been measuring the amount of various gases in the atmosphere since 2004. In late 2015 and 2016 it observed unusual amounts of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), a gas produced when vegetation is burned. We compare the MLS observations to similar observations from other instruments. The excess HCN is shown to come from fires in Indonesia. There are more fires than usual in 2015–16 due to a drought caused by an El Niño event.
Robert P. Damadeo, Joseph M. Zawodny, Ellis E. Remsberg, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 535–554,Short summary
An ozone trend analysis that compensates for sampling biases is applied to sparsely sampled occultation data sets. International assessments have noted deficiencies in past trend analyses and this work addresses those sources of uncertainty. The nonuniform sampling patterns in data sets and drifts between data sets can affect derived recovery trends by up to 2 % decade−1. The limitations inherent to all techniques are also described and a potential path forward towards resolution is presented.
Sangeeta Sharma, W. Richard Leaitch, Lin Huang, Daniel Veber, Felicia Kolonjari, Wendy Zhang, Sarah J. Hanna, Allan K. Bertram, and John A. Ogren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15225–15243,Short summary
A new and unique data set on BC properties at the highest latitude observatory in the world, at Alert, Canada, evaluates three techniques for estimating black carbon (BC) and gives seasonal best estimates of the BC mass concentrations and BC mass absorption coefficients (MAC) for 2.5 years of data. As a short-lived climate forcer, better estimates of the properties of BC are necessary to ensure accurate modelling of aerosol climate forcing of the Arctic atmosphere for mitigation purposes.
Gerald Wetzel, Hermann Oelhaf, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Andreas Ebersoldt, Thomas Gulde, Sebastian Kazarski, Oliver Kirner, Anne Kleinert, Guido Maucher, Hans Nordmeyer, Johannes Orphal, Roland Ruhnke, and Björn-Martin Sinnhuber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14631–14643,Short summary
We report the first stratospheric measurements of the diurnal variation in the inorganic bromine (Bry) reservoir species BrONO2 around sunrise and sunset. The main goal of these observations was to check the current understanding of stratospheric bromine chemistry and to estimate the amount of lower-stratospheric Bry. The calculated temporal variation in BrONO2 largely reproduces the balloon-borne observations. The amount of Bry was estimated to be about 21–25 pptv in the lower stratosphere.
Gerald E. Nedoluha, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Lossow, R. Michael Gomez, Niklaus Kämpfer, Martin Lainer, Peter Forkman, Ole Martin Christensen, Jung Jin Oh, Paul Hartogh, John Anderson, Klaus Bramstedt, Bianca M. Dinelli, Maya Garcia-Comas, Mark Hervig, Donal Murtagh, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen Rosenlof, Gabriele P. Stiller, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14543–14558,Short summary
As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II), we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. In the lower mesosphere, we quantify instrumental differences in the observed trends and annual variations at six sites. We then present a range of observed trends in water vapor over the past 20 years.
Emily M. McCullough, Robert J. Sica, James R. Drummond, Graeme Nott, Christopher Perro, Colin P. Thackray, Jason Hopper, Jonathan Doyle, Thomas J. Duck, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4253–4277,Short summary
CRL lidar in the Canadian High Arctic uses lasers and a telescope to study polar clouds, essential for understanding the changing global climate. Hardware added to CRL allows it to measure the polarization of returned laser light, indicating whether cloud particles are liquid or frozen. Calibrations show that traditional analysis methods work well, although CRL was not originally set up to make this type of measurement. CRL can now measure cloud particle phase every 5 min, every 37.5 m, 24h/day.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Erkki Kyrölä, Marko Laine, Johanna Tamminen, Doug Degenstein, Adam Bourassa, Chris Roth, Daniel Zawada, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Nabiz Rahpoe, Gabriele Stiller, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Sheese, Daan Hubert, Michel van Roozendael, Claus Zehner, Robert Damadeo, Joseph Zawodny, Natalya Kramarova, and Pawan K. Bhartia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12533–12552,Short summary
We present a merged dataset of ozone profiles from several satellite instruments: SAGE II, GOMOS, SCIAMACHY, MIPAS, OSIRIS, ACE-FTS and OMPS. For merging, we used the latest versions of the original ozone datasets. The merged SAGE–CCI–OMPS dataset is used for evaluating ozone trends in the stratosphere through multiple linear regression. Negative ozone trends in the upper stratosphere are observed before 1997 and positive trends are found after 1997.
Kevin S. Olsen, Kimberly Strong, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Piera Raspollini, Johannes Plieninger, Whitney Bader, Stephanie Conway, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Frank Hase, Nicholas Jones, Martine de Mazière, Justus Notholt, Matthias Schneider, Dan Smale, Ralf Sussmann, and Naoko Saitoh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3697–3718,Short summary
The primary instrument on the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observations (TANSO) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). TANSO-FTS has a thermal infrared channel to retrieve vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 volume mixing ratios in the troposphere. We compare the retrieved vertical profiles of CH4 from TANSO-FTS with those from two other spaceborne FTSs and with ground-based FTS observatories to assess their quality.
Gabriele P. Stiller, Federico Fierli, Felix Ploeger, Chiara Cagnazzo, Bernd Funke, Florian J. Haenel, Thomas Reddmann, Martin Riese, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11177–11192,Short summary
The discrepancy between modelled and observed 25-year trends of the strength of the stratospheric Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) is still not resolved. With our paper we trace the observed hemispheric dipole structure of age of air trends back to natural variability in shorter-term (decadal) time frames. Beyond this we demonstrate that after correction for the decadal natural variability the remaining trend for the first decade of the 21st century is consistent with model simulations.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Ray Weiss, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11135–11161,Short summary
Following the Global Methane Budget 2000–2012 published in Saunois et al. (2016), we use the same dataset of bottom-up and top-down approaches to discuss the variations in methane emissions over the period 2000–2012. The changes in emissions are discussed both in terms of trends and quasi-decadal changes. The ensemble gathered here allows us to synthesise the robust changes in terms of regional and sectorial contributions to the increasing methane emissions.
Dominik Brunner, Tim Arnold, Stephan Henne, Alistair Manning, Rona L. Thompson, Michela Maione, Simon O'Doherty, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10651–10674,Short summary
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and SF6 are industrially produced gases with a large greenhouse-gas warming potential. In this study, we estimated the emissions of HFCs and SF6 over Europe by combining measurements at three background stations with four different model systems. We identified significant differences between our estimates and nationally reported numbers, but also found that the network of only three sites in Europe is insufficient to reliably attribute emissions to individual countries.
Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Lucien Froidevaux, Ryan Fuller, Ray Wang, John Anderson, Chris Roth, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, Joe Zawodny, Stacey Frith, Richard McPeters, Pawan Bhartia, Jeannette Wild, Craig Long, Sean Davis, Karen Rosenlof, Viktoria Sofieva, Kaley Walker, Nabiz Rahpoe, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele Stiller, Natalya Kramarova, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Thierry Leblanc, Richard Querel, Daan Swart, Ian Boyd, Klemens Hocke, Niklaus Kämpfer, Eliane Maillard Barras, Lorena Moreira, Gerald Nedoluha, Corinne Vigouroux, Thomas Blumenstock, Matthias Schneider, Omaira García, Nicholas Jones, Emmanuel Mahieu, Dan Smale, Michael Kotkamp, John Robinson, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Neil Harris, Birgit Hassler, Daan Hubert, and Fiona Tummon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10675–10690,Short summary
Thanks to the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments, ozone-depleting chlorine (and bromine) in the stratosphere has declined slowly since the late 1990s. Improved and extended long-term ozone profile observations from satellites and ground-based stations confirm that ozone is responding as expected and has increased by about 2 % per decade since 2000 in the upper stratosphere, around 40 km altitude. At lower altitudes, however, ozone has not changed significantly since 2000.
Debora Griffin, Kaley A. Walker, Stephanie Conway, Felicia Kolonjari, Kimberly Strong, Rebecca Batchelor, Chris D. Boone, Lin Dan, James R. Drummond, Pierre F. Fogal, Dejian Fu, Rodica Lindenmaier, Gloria L. Manney, and Dan Weaver
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3273–3294,Short summary
Measurements in the high Arctic from two ground-based and one space-borne infrared Fourier transform spectrometer agree well over an 8-year time period (2006–2013). These comparisons show no notable degradation, indicating the consistency of these data sets and suggesting that the space-borne measurements have been stable. Increasing ozone, as well as increases of some other atmospheric gases, has been found over this same time period.
Maria A. Navarro, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Elliot Atlas, Xavier Rodriguez-Lloveras, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, Troy Thornberry, Andrew Rollins, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, and Fred L. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9917–9930,Short summary
Inorganic bromine (Bry) plays an important role in ozone layer depletion. Based on aircraft observations of organic bromine species and chemistry simulations, we model the Bry abundances over the Pacific tropical tropopause. Our results show BrO and Br as the dominant species during daytime hours, and BrCl and BrONO2 as the nighttime dominant species over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The difference in the partitioning is due to changes in the abundance of O3, NO2, and Cly.
Dan Weaver, Kimberly Strong, Matthias Schneider, Penny M. Rowe, Chris Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, Zen Mariani, Taneil Uttal, C. Thomas McElroy, Holger Vömel, Alessio Spassiani, and James R. Drummond
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2851–2880,Short summary
We have compared techniques used by several PEARL instruments to measure atmospheric water vapour. No single instrument can comprehensively map the atmosphere. We documented how well these techniques perform and quantified the agreement and biases between them. This work showed that new FTIR datasets at PEARL capture accurate measurements of High Arctic water vapour.
Ellen Eckert, Thomas von Clarmann, Alexandra Laeng, Gabriele P. Stiller, Bernd Funke, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Sylvia Kellmann, Michael Kiefer, Andrea Linden, Arne Babenhauserheide, Gerald Wetzel, Christopher Boone, Andreas Engel, Jeremy J. Harrison, Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, and Peter F. Bernath
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2727–2743,Short summary
We retrieved vertical profiles of CCl4 from MIPAS Envisat IMK/IAA data. A detailed description of all characteristics is included in the paper as well as comparisons with historical measurements and comparisons with collocated measurements of instruments covering the same time span as MIPAS Envisat. A particular focus also lies on the usage of a new CCl4 spectroscopic dataset introduced recently, which leads to more realistic CCl4 volume mixing ratios.
Christopher J. Merchant, Frank Paul, Thomas Popp, Michael Ablain, Sophie Bontemps, Pierre Defourny, Rainer Hollmann, Thomas Lavergne, Alexandra Laeng, Gerrit de Leeuw, Jonathan Mittaz, Caroline Poulsen, Adam C. Povey, Max Reuter, Shubha Sathyendranath, Stein Sandven, Viktoria F. Sofieva, and Wolfgang Wagner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 511–527,Short summary
Climate data records (CDRs) contain data describing Earth's climate and should address uncertainty in the data to communicate what is known about climate variability or change and what range of doubt exists. This paper discusses good practice for including uncertainty information in CDRs for the essential climate variables (ECVs) derived from satellite data. Recommendations emerge from the shared experience of diverse ECV projects within the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative.
Enrico Dammers, Mark W. Shephard, Mathias Palm, Karen Cady-Pereira, Shannon Capps, Erik Lutsch, Kim Strong, James W. Hannigan, Ivan Ortega, Geoffrey C. Toon, Wolfgang Stremme, Michel Grutter, Nicholas Jones, Dan Smale, Jacob Siemons, Kevin Hrpcek, Denis Tremblay, Martijn Schaap, Justus Notholt, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2645–2667,Short summary
Presented here is the validation of the CrIS fast physical retrieval (CFPR) NH3 column and profile measurements using ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) observations. The overall FTIR and CrIS total columns have a positive correlation of r = 0.77 (N = 218) with very little bias (a slope of 1.02). Furthermore, we find that CrIS and FTIR profile comparison differences are mostly within the range of the estimated retrieval uncertainties, with differences in the range of ~ 20 to 40 %.
Kristal R. Verhulst, Anna Karion, Jooil Kim, Peter K. Salameh, Ralph F. Keeling, Sally Newman, John Miller, Christopher Sloop, Thomas Pongetti, Preeti Rao, Clare Wong, Francesca M. Hopkins, Vineet Yadav, Ray F. Weiss, Riley M. Duren, and Charles E. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8313–8341,Short summary
We present the first carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) measurements from an extensive surface network as part of the Los Angeles Megacity Carbon Project. We describe methods that are essential for understanding carbon fluxes from complex urban environments. CO2 and CH4 levels are spatially and temporally variable, with urban sites showing significant enhancements relative to background. In 2015, the median afternoon enhancement near downtown Los Angeles was ~15 ppm CO2 and ~80 ppb CH4.
Cristen Adams, Adam E. Bourassa, Chris A. McLinden, Chris E. Sioris, Thomas von Clarmann, Bernd Funke, Landon A. Rieger, and Douglas A. Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8063–8080,Short summary
We measured the relationship between volcanic aerosol and trace gases in the stratosphere using the OSIRIS and MIPAS satellite instruments between 2002 and 2014. We found that levels of stratospheric NO2 and N2O5 both decreased significantly in the presence of volcanic aerosol. These decreases were consistent with the modeling results.
Felix Ploeger, Paul Konopka, Kaley Walker, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7055–7066,Short summary
Pollution transport from the surface to the stratosphere within the Asian summer monsoon circulation may cause harmful effects on stratospheric chemistry and climate. We investigate air mass transport from the monsoon anticyclone into the stratosphere, combining model simulations with satellite trace gas measurements. We show evidence for two transport pathways from the monsoon: (i) into the tropical stratosphere and (ii) into the Northern Hemisphere extratropical lower stratosphere.
Olivier Membrive, Cyril Crevoisier, Colm Sweeney, François Danis, Albert Hertzog, Andreas Engel, Harald Bönisch, and Laurence Picon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2163–2181,Short summary
A new high-resolution AirCore system is presented. This system flown with stratospheric balloons allows us to sample atmospheric air during the descent. The analysis of trace gases (CO2 and CH4 in this case) in the collected air sample provides information on the vertical distribution along the atmospheric column. The continuous vertical profiles retrieved may contribute to several research topics concerning the observation of greenhouse gases and, more generally, carbon cycle studies.
Andreas Engel, Harald Bönisch, Markus Ullrich, Robert Sitals, Olivier Membrive, Francois Danis, and Cyril Crevoisier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6825–6838,Short summary
AirCore is new technique for sampling stratospheric air. We present new observations of CO2 and CH4 using AirCore and derive stratospheric transport time, called the mean age of air. The purpose of using AirCore is to provide a cost-effective tool for deriving mean age. Mean age may serve as a proxy to investigate changes in stratospheric circulation. We show that there is no statistically significant trend in our 40-year time series of mean age, which is now extended using AirCore.
Malte Meinshausen, Elisabeth Vogel, Alexander Nauels, Katja Lorbacher, Nicolai Meinshausen, David M. Etheridge, Paul J. Fraser, Stephen A. Montzka, Peter J. Rayner, Cathy M. Trudinger, Paul B. Krummel, Urs Beyerle, Josep G. Canadell, John S. Daniel, Ian G. Enting, Rachel M. Law, Chris R. Lunder, Simon O'Doherty, Ron G. Prinn, Stefan Reimann, Mauro Rubino, Guus J. M. Velders, Martin K. Vollmer, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ray Weiss
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2057–2116,Short summary
Climate change is primarily driven by human-induced increases of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. Based on ongoing community efforts (e.g. AGAGE and NOAA networks, ice cores), this study presents historical concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O and 40 other GHGs from year 0 to year 2014. The data is recommended as input for climate models for pre-industrial, historical runs under CMIP6. Global means, but also latitudinal by monthly surface concentration fields are provided.
Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele Stiller, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Anu Dudhia, Piera Raspollini, Norbert Glatthor, Udo Grabowski, Viktoria Sofieva, Lucien Froidevaux, Kaley A. Walker, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1511–1518,Short summary
A MIPAS instrument was flown in 2002–2012 on the Envisat satellite and measured atmospheric composition. There exist four processors retrieving atmospheric profiles from MIPAS spectra. We performed a mathematically clean merging of 2007–2008 datasets of ozone from these four processors. The merged product was compared with ozone datasets from ACE-FTS and MLS instruments. The advantages and the shortcomings of this merged product are discussed.
Jacob K. Hedelius, Harrison Parker, Debra Wunch, Coleen M. Roehl, Camille Viatte, Sally Newman, Geoffrey C. Toon, James R. Podolske, Patrick W. Hillyard, Laura T. Iraci, Manvendra K. Dubey, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1481–1493,Short summary
Two portable spectrometers, assumed to be internally precise, were taken to four different sites with (stationary) TCCON spectrometers. Biases of column averaged CO2 and CH4 measured among the TCCON sites were estimated experimentally. Results suggest that maximum (95 % confidence interval) bias among sites is less than what was estimated from a previous analytical error analysis.
Peter G. Simmonds, Matthew Rigby, Archie McCulloch, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Jens Mühle, Paul B. Krummel, Paul Steele, Paul J. Fraser, Alistair J. Manning, Ray F. Weiss, Peter K. Salameh, Chris M. Harth, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4641–4655,Short summary
This paper reports how long-term atmospheric measurements demonstrate that the Montreal Protocol has been effective in controlling production and consumption of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons, a group of industrial chemicals that have detrimental effects on the ozone layer and also contribute to global warming as greenhouse gases and their hydrofluorocarbon substitutes which are also potent greenhouse gases but do not materially affect the ozone layer.
Mohamadou Diallo, Bernard Legras, Eric Ray, Andreas Engel, and Juan A. Añel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3861–3878,Short summary
We construct a new monthly zonal mean CO2 distribution from the upper troposphere to the stratosphere over the 2000–2010 period. The main features of the CO2 distribution are consistent with expected variability due to the transport of long-lived trace gases by the Brewer–Dobson circulation. The method used to construct this CO2 product is unique and should be useful for model and satellite validation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere.
Jennifer Ostermöller, Harald Bönisch, Patrick Jöckel, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3785–3797,Short summary
We analysed the temporal evolution of fractional release factors (FRFs) from EMAC model simulations for several halocarbons and nitrous oxide. The current formulation of FRFs yields values that depend on the tropospheric trend of the species. This is a problematic issue for the application of FRF in the calculation of steady-state quantities (e.g. ODP). Including a loss term in the calculation, we develop a new formulation of FRF and find that the time dependence can almost be compensated.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, John. P. Burrows, Bianca M. Dinelli, Patrick Eriksson, Patrick J. Espy, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen H. Rosenlof, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Gabriele P. Stiller, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1111–1137,
Jochen Stutz, Bodo Werner, Max Spolaor, Lisa Scalone, James Festa, Catalina Tsai, Ross Cheung, Santo F. Colosimo, Ugo Tricoli, Rasmus Raecke, Ryan Hossaini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Ru-Shan Gao, Eric J. Hintsa, James W. Elkins, Fred L. Moore, Bruce Daube, Jasna Pittman, Steven Wofsy, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1017–1042,Short summary
A new limb-scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument was developed for NASA’s Global Hawk unmanned aerial system during the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment to study trace gases in the tropical tropopause layer. A new technique that uses in situ and DOAS O3 observations together with radiative transfer calculations allows the retrieval of mixing ratios from the slant column densities of BrO and NO2 at high accuracies of 0.5 ppt and 15 ppt, respectively.
Bernd Funke, William Ball, Stefan Bender, Angela Gardini, V. Lynn Harvey, Alyn Lambert, Manuel López-Puertas, Daniel R. Marsh, Katharina Meraner, Holger Nieder, Sanna-Mari Päivärinta, Kristell Pérot, Cora E. Randall, Thomas Reddmann, Eugene Rozanov, Hauke Schmidt, Annika Seppälä, Miriam Sinnhuber, Timofei Sukhodolov, Gabriele P. Stiller, Natalia D. Tsvetkova, Pekka T. Verronen, Stefan Versick, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, and Vladimir Yushkov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3573–3604,Short summary
Simulations from eight atmospheric models have been compared to tracer and temperature observations from seven satellite instruments in order to evaluate the energetic particle indirect effect (EPP IE) during the perturbed northern hemispheric (NH) winter 2008/2009. Models are capable to reproduce the EPP IE in dynamically and geomagnetically quiescent NH winter conditions. The results emphasize the need for model improvements in the dynamical representation of elevated stratopause events.
Norbert Glatthor, Michael Höpfner, Adrian Leyser, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Udo Grabowski, Sylvia Kellmann, Andrea Linden, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Gisèle Krysztofiak, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2631–2652,Short summary
To date, information on the global distribution of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is still rather sparse. However, detailed knowledge of the OCS distribution is of scientific interest, because this trace gas is on one of the major sources of atmospheric sulfur, which is a prerequisite of the stratospheric aerosol layer. Under this aspect we present a comprehensive space-borne data set of global OCS concentrations covering the period from June 2002 to April 2012.
Whitney Bader, Benoît Bovy, Stephanie Conway, Kimberly Strong, Dan Smale, Alexander J. Turner, Thomas Blumenstock, Chris Boone, Martine Collaud Coen, Ancelin Coulon, Omaira Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Petra Hausmann, Nicholas Jones, Paul Krummel, Isao Murata, Isamu Morino, Hideaki Nakajima, Simon O'Doherty, Clare Paton-Walsh, John Robinson, Rodrigue Sandrin, Matthias Schneider, Christian Servais, Ralf Sussmann, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2255–2277,Short summary
An increase of 0.31 ± 0.03 % year−1 of atmospheric methane is reported using 10 years of solar observations performed at 10 ground-based stations since 2005. These trend agree with a GEOS-Chem-tagged simulation that accounts for the contribution of each emission source and one sink in the total methane. The GEOS-Chem simulation shows that anthropogenic emissions from coal mining and gas and oil transport and exploration have played a major role in the increase methane since 2005.
Bodo Werner, Jochen Stutz, Max Spolaor, Lisa Scalone, Rasmus Raecke, James Festa, Santo Fedele Colosimo, Ross Cheung, Catalina Tsai, Ryan Hossaini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Giorgio S. Taverna, Wuhu Feng, James W. Elkins, David W. Fahey, Ru-Shan Gao, Erik J. Hintsa, Troy D. Thornberry, Free Lee Moore, Maria A. Navarro, Elliot Atlas, Bruce C. Daube, Jasna Pittman, Steve Wofsy, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1161–1186,Short summary
The paper reports on inorganic and organic bromine measured in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the eastern Pacific in early 2013. Bryinorg is found to increase from a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ppt for θ in the range of 350–360 K to 5.11 ± 1.57 ppt for θ=390 ± 400 K, whereas in the subtropical lower stratosphere, it reaches 7.66 ± 2.95 ppt for θ in the range of 390–400 K. Within the TTL, total bromine is found to range from 20.3 ppt to 22.3 ppt.
Tamás Kovács, Wuhu Feng, Anna Totterdill, John M. C. Plane, Sandip Dhomse, Juan Carlos Gómez-Martín, Gabriele P. Stiller, Florian J. Haenel, Christopher Smith, Piers M. Forster, Rolando R. García, Daniel R. Marsh, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 883–898,Short summary
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a very potent greenhouse gas, which is present in the atmosphere only through its industrial use, for example as an electrical insulator. To estimate accurately the impact of SF6 emissions on climate we need to know how long it persists in the atmosphere before being removed. Previous estimates of the SF6 lifetime indicate a large degree of uncertainty. Here we use a detailed atmospheric model to calculate a current best estimate of the SF6 lifetime.
Á. Aythami Jurado-Navarro, Manuel López-Puertas, Bernd Funke, Maya García-Comas, Angela Gardini, Francisco González-Galindo, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Udo Grabowski, and Andrea Linden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 6081–6100,Short summary
We present global distributions of CO2 concentrations in the upper atmosphere (70–140 km) derived from high-resolution 4.3 µm MIPAS spectra from 2005 to 2012. CO2 relative abundances have been measured at 120–140 km for the first time. The data have an unprecedented accuracy. CO2 shows a strong seasonal behaviour. CO2 largely controls the temperature of the upper atmosphere and its measurement is very important for understanding the impact of climate change in this region.
Martyn P. Chipperfield, Qing Liang, Matthew Rigby, Ryan Hossaini, Stephen A. Montzka, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, L. Paul Steele, James D. Happell, Robert C. Rhew, James Butler, Shari A. Yvon-Lewis, Bradley Hall, David Nance, Fred Moore, Ben R. Miller, James W. Elkins, Jeremy J. Harrison, Chris D. Boone, Elliot L. Atlas, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15741–15754,Short summary
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a compound which, when released into the atmosphere, can cause depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Its emissions are controlled under the Montreal Protocol, and its atmospheric abundance is slowly decreasing. However, this decrease is not as fast as expected based on estimates of its emissions and its atmospheric lifetime. We have used an atmospheric model to look at the uncertainties in the CCl4 lifetime and to examine the impact on its atmospheric decay.
Bastiaan Jonkheid, Thomas Röckmann, Norbert Glatthor, Christof Janssen, Gabriele Stiller, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 6069–6079,
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
Bärbel Vogel, Gebhard Günther, Rolf Müller, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Armin Afchine, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Martina Krämer, Stefan Müller, Martin Riese, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Gabriele P. Stiller, Jörn Ungermann, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15301–15325,Short summary
The identification of transport pathways from the Asian monsoon anticyclone into the lower stratosphere is unclear. Global simulations with the CLaMS model demonstrate that source regions in Asia and in the Pacific Ocean have a significant impact on the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere by flooding the extratropical lower stratosphere with young moist air masses. Two main horizontal transport pathways from the Asian monsoon anticyclone are identified.
Quentin Errera, Simone Ceccherini, Yves Christophe, Simon Chabrillat, Michaela I. Hegglin, Alyn Lambert, Richard Ménard, Piera Raspollini, Sergey Skachko, Michiel van Weele, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5895–5909,Short summary
When this study started, its goal was to provide a reanalysis of the stratospheric composition of methane and nitrous oxide, two important sources of hydrogen and nitrogen species in the stratosphere that influence the ozone abundance. However, the goal changed when several issues in the assimilated observations were discovered. Finally, this study illustrates how data assimilation methods can be used to add value to the observations as well as to diagnose their limitations.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Chris A. McLinden, Peter F. Bernath, Adam E. Bourassa, John P. Burrows, Doug A. Degenstein, Bernd Funke, Didier Fussen, Gloria L. Manney, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, Cora E. Randall, Piera Raspollini, Alexei Rozanov, James M. Russell III, Makoto Suzuki, Masato Shiotani, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, and Joseph M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5781–5810,Short summary
This study validates version 3.5 of the ACE-FTS NOy species data sets by comparing diurnally scaled ACE-FTS data to correlative data from 11 other satellite limb sounders. For all five species examined (NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2), there is good agreement between ACE-FTS and the other data sets in various regions of the atmosphere. In these validated regions, these NOy data products can be used for further investigation into the composition, dynamics, and climate of the stratosphere.
Minqiang Zhou, Corinne Vigouroux, Bavo Langerock, Pucai Wang, Geoff Dutton, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Jean-Marc Metzger, Geoff Toon, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5621–5636,Short summary
Profiles of CFC-11, CFC-12 and HCFC-22 have been obtained from FTIR measurements above the Saint-Denis and Maïdo sites at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) with low vertical resolution. The trends derived from the FTIR measurements are −0.86 ± 0.12 % and 2.84 ± 0.06 % for CFC-11 and HCFC-22, respectively, for the period 2004 to 2016, and −0.76 ± 0.05 % for CFC-12 for 2009 to 2016, which are consistent with ground-based in situ observations. Our FTIR data and the collocated MIPAS data are in good agreement.
Thomas von Clarmann and Udo Grabowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14563–14584,Short summary
We present a method which uses global measurements of stable stratospheric trace species to infer stratospheric circulation. This method finds the circulation vectors which best satisfy the continuity equation for the given measurements. Some of the main disadvantages of more conventional methods are avoided. As a proof of concept, this method has been applied to measurements from the MIPAS instrument. Its adequacy has been proven since the inferred circulation shows the expected features.
Elisa Castelli, Marco Ridolfi, Massimo Carlotti, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Oliver Kirner, Michael Kiefer, and Bianca Maria Dinelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5499–5508,Short summary
MIPAS is a satellite-borne limb emission sounder. The algorithm used to infer atmospheric composition from its measurements exploits the assumption that the atmosphere is horizontally homogeneous. This assumption can cause significant errors. We use synthetic observations to quantify these errors. Furthermore we show that the inclusion of any kind of horizontal variability model improves all the retrieval targets and that the two-dimensional approach implies the smallest errors.
Michael Höpfner, Rainer Volkamer, Udo Grabowski, Michel Grutter, Johannes Orphal, Gabriele Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, and Gerald Wetzel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14357–14369,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere is important because of its influence on aerosol and cloud formation and its increasing anthropogenic emissions. We report the first detection of NH3 in the upper troposphere by the analysis of infrared limb emission spectra measured by the MIPAS instrument on Envisat. We have found enhanced values of NH3 within the Asian summer monsoon upper troposphere, where it might contribute to the composition of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer.
Debra Wunch, Geoffrey C. Toon, Jacob K. Hedelius, Nicholas Vizenor, Coleen M. Roehl, Katherine M. Saad, Jean-François L. Blavier, Donald R. Blake, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14091–14105,Short summary
This paper investigates the cause of the known underestimate of bottom-up inventories of methane in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). We use total column measurements of methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and other trace gases beginning in the late 1980s to calculate emissions and attribute sources of excess methane to the atmosphere. We conclude that more than half of the excess methane to the SoCAB atmosphere is attributable to processed natural gas.
Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Nelly A. M. Uitslag, Mark S. Zahniser, David D. Nelson, Stephen A. Montzka, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5293–5314,Short summary
The accuracy of carbon models, used for the prediction of global climate change, is limited by the knowledge of the uptake of carbon by plants through photosynthesis. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been suggested as a tracer for this process. To be able to further explore and verify the application of this novel tracer we have tested a laser spectrometer for its suitability to obtain accurate and high precision measurements of COS and CO2 with both laboratory experiments and field measurements.
Richard J. Pope, Nigel A. D. Richards, Martyn P. Chipperfield, David P. Moore, Sarah A. Monks, Stephen R. Arnold, Norbert Glatthor, Michael Kiefer, Tom J. Breider, Jeremy J. Harrison, John J. Remedios, Carsten Warneke, James M. Roberts, Glenn S. Diskin, Lewis G. Huey, Armin Wisthaler, Eric C. Apel, Peter F. Bernath, and Wuhu Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13541–13559,
Florian Obersteiner, Harald Bönisch, Timo Keber, Simon O'Doherty, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5265–5279,Short summary
The analysis of trace gases in ambient air requires a preconcentration technique, in many cases to make the species of interest detectable and quantifiable. In this paper, such a preconcentration set-up is presented. Target species are trapped on adsorptive material cooled by a Stirling cooler which allows for a very low adsorption temperature but only requires electrical power. A simple and lightweight mechanical design guarantees very good suitability for remote-site field operation.
Francesco Graziosi, Jgor Arduini, Paolo Bonasoni, Francesco Furlani, Umberto Giostra, Alistair J. Manning, Archie McCulloch, Simon O'Doherty, Peter G. Simmonds, Stefan Reimann, Martin K. Vollmer, and Michela Maione
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12849–12859,Short summary
Carbon tetrachloride is an ozone-depleting greenhouse gas banned under the Montreal Protocol. Measurements of atmospheric levels combined with global transport models indicate that it is still being emitted, in contrast to what is reported. In order to help solve the "mystery of carbon tetrachloride", we estimated European emissions during 2006–2014 using atmospheric observations and models. We identified emission hot spots and showed inconsistencies in national emission declarations.
Andreas Ostler, Ralf Sussmann, Prabir K. Patra, Sander Houweling, Marko De Bruine, Gabriele P. Stiller, Florian J. Haenel, Johannes Plieninger, Philippe Bousquet, Yi Yin, Marielle Saunois, Kaley A. Walker, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, Thorsten Warneke, Zhiting Wang, Rigel Kivi, and John Robinson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4843–4859,Short summary
Our evaluation of column-averaged methane (XCH4) in models and TCCON reveals latitudinal biases between 0.4 % and 2.1 % originating from an inter-model spread in stratospheric CH4. Substituting model stratospheric CH4 fields by satellite data significantly reduces the large XCH4 bias observed for one model. For other models, showing only minor biases, the impact is ambiguous; i.e., the satellite uncertainty range hinders a more accurate model evaluation needed to improve inverse modeling.
Cathy M. Trudinger, Paul J. Fraser, David M. Etheridge, William T. Sturges, Martin K. Vollmer, Matt Rigby, Patricia Martinerie, Jens Mühle, David R. Worton, Paul B. Krummel, L. Paul Steele, Benjamin R. Miller, Johannes Laube, Francis S. Mani, Peter J. Rayner, Christina M. Harth, Emmanuel Witrant, Thomas Blunier, Jakob Schwander, Simon O'Doherty, and Mark Battle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11733–11754,Short summary
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are potent, long-lived and mostly man-made greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere mainly during aluminium production and semiconductor manufacture. Here we present the first continuous histories of three PFCs from 1800 to 2014, derived from measurements of these PFCs in the atmosphere and in air bubbles in polar ice. The records show how human actions have affected these important greenhouse gases over the past century.
Niall J. Ryan, Kaley A. Walker, Uwe Raffalski, Rigel Kivi, Jochen Gross, and Gloria L. Manney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4503–4519,Short summary
Atmospheric ozone concentrations above Kiruna, Sweden, within 16–54 km altitude, were obtained using measurements from two ground-based instruments, KIMRA and MIRA 2. The results were compared to satellite and balloon data for validation, revealing an oscillatory offset in KIMRA data between 18 and 35 km. KIMRA data from 2008 to 2013 show a local minimum in mid-stratospheric winter ozone concentrations that is likely due to dynamics related to the polar vortex.
Swagata Payra, Philippe Ricaud, Rachid Abida, Laaziz El Amraoui, Jean-Luc Attié, Emmanuel Rivière, Fabien Carminati, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4355–4373,Short summary
The study deals with the budget of water vapour (H2O) at the tropical tropopause. The MOCAGE-VALENTINA assimilation tool has been used to assimilate Microwave Limb Sounder H2O space-borne measurements within the 316–5 hPa range from August 2011 to March 2013. Diagnostics are developed to assess the quality of the analyses depending on several parameters. Sensitivity studies show the improvement on the analyses when assimilating measurements of better quality, mainly over the convective areas.
James H. Butler, Shari A. Yvon-Lewis, Jurgen M. Lobert, Daniel B. King, Stephen A. Montzka, John L. Bullister, Valentin Koropalov, James W. Elkins, Bradley D. Hall, Lei Hu, and Yina Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10899–10910,Short summary
This study was conducted to understand the influence of the ocean on the lifetime of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride, a strong, ozone-depleting gas. Data from 16 research cruises conducted between 1987 and 2010 show that, unlike the unreactive chlorofluorocarbons, carbon tetrachloride is undersaturated in surface waters regardless of temperature, wind, or biological regime, but with larger undersaturations with upwelling. Results suggest that the ocean consumes about 18 % of atmospheric CCl4.
Stefan Müller, Peter Hoor, Heiko Bozem, Ellen Gute, Bärbel Vogel, Andreas Zahn, Harald Bönisch, Timo Keber, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Martin Riese, Hans Schlager, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10573–10589,Short summary
In situ airborne measurements performed during TACTS/ESMVal 2012 were analysed to investigate the chemical compostion of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. N2O, CO and O3 data show an increase in tropospherically affected air masses within the extratropical stratosphere from August to September 2012, which originate from the Asian monsoon region. Thus, the Asian monsoon anticyclone significantly affected the chemical composition of the extratropical stratosphere during summer 2012.
Lorena Moreira, Klemens Hocke, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Ellen Eckert, Thomas von Clarmann, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10455–10467,Short summary
The GROMOS radiometer in Bern has been part of the NDACC since 1994. Our time series of stratospheric ozone profiles allow the assessment of natural oscillations, which are essential for the evaluation of detected stratospheric ozone trends. Among our new findings are the link between the upper stratospheric O3-SAO and the polar stratopause warmings in winter. We have also detected a strong peak amplitude of 5 % related to the solar activity cycle and the ENSO effect in ozone at midlatitudes.
Enrico Dammers, Mathias Palm, Martin Van Damme, Corinne Vigouroux, Dan Smale, Stephanie Conway, Geoffrey C. Toon, Nicholas Jones, Eric Nussbaumer, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Lieven Clarisse, Cathy Clerbaux, Christian Hermans, Erik Lutsch, Kim Strong, James W. Hannigan, Hideaki Nakajima, Isamu Morino, Beatriz Herrera, Wolfgang Stremme, Michel Grutter, Martijn Schaap, Roy J. Wichink Kruit, Justus Notholt, Pierre-F. Coheur, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10351–10368,Short summary
Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) measured by the IASI satellite instrument is compared to observations from ground-based FTIR instruments. The seasonal cycles of NH3 in both datasets are consistent for most sites. Correlations are found to be high at sites with considerable NH3 levels, whereas correlations are lower at sites with low NH3 levels close to the detection limit of the IASI instrument. The study's results further indicate that the IASI-NH3 product performs better than earlier estimates.
Jacob K. Hedelius, Camille Viatte, Debra Wunch, Coleen M. Roehl, Geoffrey C. Toon, Jia Chen, Taylor Jones, Steven C. Wofsy, Jonathan E. Franklin, Harrison Parker, Manvendra K. Dubey, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3527–3546,Short summary
Portable FTS instruments with lower resolution are being used to measure gases (including CO2, CH4, CO, and N2O) in the atmosphere. We compared measurements from four of these instruments for a few weeks, and with one for nearly a year to a higher resolution TCCON standard. We also performed tests to assess performance under different atmospheric and instrumental conditions. We noted consistent offsets in the short-term (~1 month); more research is still needed to assess precision longer term.
Brian J. Connor, Vanessa Sherlock, Geoff Toon, Debra Wunch, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3513–3525,Short summary
An algorithm for retrieval of vertical profiles of CO2 from ground-based spectra is described. Retrieval of CO2 vertical profiles from would be very beneficial for carbon cycle studies and the validation of satellite measurements. There are approximately 3 degrees of freedom for the CO2 profile. The accuracy of retrievals of CO2 from the spectral band used is limited by small errors in the calculated spectrum. Ongoing research is needed and described.
Wolfgang Woiwode, Michael Höpfner, Lei Bi, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, Hermann Oelhaf, Sergej Molleker, Stephan Borrmann, Marcus Klingebiel, Gennady Belyaev, Andreas Ebersoldt, Sabine Griessbach, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Thomas Gulde, Martina Krämer, Guido Maucher, Christof Piesch, Christian Rolf, Christian Sartorius, Reinhold Spang, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9505–9532,Short summary
The analysis of spectral signatures of a polar stratospheric cloud in airborne infrared remote sensing observations in the Arctic in combination with further collocated measurements supports the view that the observed cloud consisted of highly aspherical nitric acid trihydrate particles. A characteristic "shoulder-like" spectral signature may be exploited for identification of large, highly aspherical nitric acid trihydrate particles involved in denitrification of the polar winter stratosphere.
E. Eckert, A. Laeng, S. Lossow, S. Kellmann, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, M. Kiefer, H. Oelhaf, J. Orphal, B. Funke, U. Grabowski, F. Haenel, A. Linden, G. Wetzel, W. Woiwode, P. F. Bernath, C. Boone, G. S. Dutton, J. W. Elkins, A. Engel, J. C. Gille, F. Kolonjari, T. Sugita, G. C. Toon, and K. A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3355–3389,Short summary
We investigate the accuracy, precision and long-term stability of the MIPAS Envisat IMK/IAA CFC-11 (CCl3F) and CFC-12 (CCl2F2) products. For comparisons we use several data products from satellite, airplane and balloon-borne instruments as well as ground-based data. MIPAS Envisat CFC-11 has a slight high bias at the lower end of the profile. CFC-12 agrees well with other data products. The temporal stability is good up to ~ 30 km, but still leaves room for improvement.
R. Hossaini, P. K. Patra, A. A. Leeson, G. Krysztofiak, N. L. Abraham, S. J. Andrews, A. T. Archibald, J. Aschmann, E. L. Atlas, D. A. Belikov, H. Bönisch, L. J. Carpenter, S. Dhomse, M. Dorf, A. Engel, W. Feng, S. Fuhlbrügge, P. T. Griffiths, N. R. P. Harris, R. Hommel, T. Keber, K. Krüger, S. T. Lennartz, S. Maksyutov, H. Mantle, G. P. Mills, B. Miller, S. A. Montzka, F. Moore, M. A. Navarro, D. E. Oram, K. Pfeilsticker, J. A. Pyle, B. Quack, A. D. Robinson, E. Saikawa, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Sala, B.-M. Sinnhuber, S. Taguchi, S. Tegtmeier, R. T. Lidster, C. Wilson, and F. Ziska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9163–9187,
Markus Kunze, Peter Braesicke, Ulrike Langematz, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8695–8714,
Bernd Funke, Manuel López-Puertas, Gabriele P. Stiller, Stefan Versick, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8667–8693,Short summary
We present a semi-empirical model for the reconstruction of polar winter descent of reactive nitrogen (NOy) produced by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) into the stratosphere. It can be used to prescribe NOy in chemistry climate models with an upper lid below the EPP source region. We also found a significant reduction of the EPP-generated NOy during the last 30 years, likely affecting the long-term NOy trend by counteracting the expected increase caused by growing N2O emission.
Sabine Brinkop, Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, Hella Garny, Stefan Lossow, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8125–8140,Short summary
This study investigates the water vapour decline in the stratosphere beginning in the year 2000 and other similarly strong stratospheric water vapour reductions. The driving forces are tropical sea surface temperature (SST) changes due to coincidence with a preceding ENSO event and supported by the west to east change of the QBO. There are indications that both SSTs and the specific dynamical state of the atmosphere contribute to the long period of low water vapour values from 2001 to 2006.
Joe McNorton, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Manuel Gloor, Chris Wilson, Wuhu Feng, Garry D. Hayman, Matt Rigby, Paul B. Krummel, Simon O'Doherty, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Dickon Young, Ed Dlugokencky, and Steve A. Montzka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7943–7956,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. The growth of atmospheric CH4 stalled from 1999 to 2006, with current explanations focussed mainly on changing surface fluxes. We combine models with observations and meteorological data to assess the atmospheric contribution to CH4 changes. We find that variations in mean atmospheric hydroxyl concentration can explain part of the stall in growth. Our study highlights the role of multi-annual variability in atmospheric chemistry in global CH4 trends.
Daan Hubert, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Tijl Verhoelst, José Granville, Arno Keppens, Jean-Luc Baray, Adam E. Bourassa, Ugo Cortesi, Doug A. Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Karl W. Hoppel, Bryan J. Johnson, Erkki Kyrölä, Thierry Leblanc, Günter Lichtenberg, Marion Marchand, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, Hideaki Nakane, Thierry Portafaix, Richard Querel, James M. Russell III, Jacobo Salvador, Herman G. J. Smit, Kerstin Stebel, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Kevin B. Strawbridge, René Stübi, Daan P. J. Swart, Ghassan Taha, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Joachim Urban, Joanna A. E. van Gijsel, Roeland Van Malderen, Peter von der Gathen, Kaley A. Walker, Elian Wolfram, and Joseph M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2497–2534,Short summary
A more detailed understanding of satellite O3 profile data records is vital for further progress in O3 research. To this end, we made a comprehensive assessment of 14 limb/occultation profilers using ground-based reference data. The mutual consistency of satellite O3 in terms of bias, short-term variability and decadal stability is generally good over most of the stratosphere. However, we identified some exceptions that impact the quality of recently merged data sets and ozone trend assessments.
Maya García-Comas, Manuel López-Puertas, Bernd Funke, Á. Aythami Jurado-Navarro, Angela Gardini, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, and Michael Höpfner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6701–6719,Short summary
We have analysed IR measurements of PMCs in the NH and SH from 2005 to 2012. This technique is sensitive to the total ice volume independent of particle size. For the first time, we have measured the total ice volume from the midlatitudes to the poles. The data indicate a layer of ice from 81 to 89 km and from the poles to 50–60º in each hemisphere, increasing near the poles. The ice density is larger in the NH than in the SH and located 1 km lower. PMCs also show a diurnal variation.
Frank Hase, Matthias Frey, Matthäus Kiel, Thomas Blumenstock, Roland Harig, Axel Keens, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2303–2313,Short summary
We describe an extension of a portable FTIR (Fourier transform infrafed) spectrometer dedicated to the measurement of column-averaged abundances of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The measurement principle is based on a spectrally resolved solar absorption observation (trace gas amounts are deduced from the strength of near-infrared absorption bands). The dual-channel set-up presented here allows co-observing CO while maintaining the highly favourable characteristics of the original device.
Gerrit Holl, Kaley A. Walker, Stephanie Conway, Naoko Saitoh, Chris D. Boone, Kimberly Strong, and James R. Drummond
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1961–1980,Short summary
Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, and we need to measure it globally with satellite instruments. We compare measurements from two satellites with measurements from the ground in Eureka, Nunavut, Canada to assess their different strengths and weaknesses. The differences between measurements are discussed and assessed considering the details of each measurement technique and processing. Recommendations are provided for utilization of these data sets for monitoring methane in the high Arctic.
Xuekun Fang, Min Shao, Andreas Stohl, Qiang Zhang, Junyu Zheng, Hai Guo, Chen Wang, Ming Wang, Jiamin Ou, Rona L. Thompson, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3369–3382,Short summary
This is the first study reporting top-down estimates of benzene and toluene emissions in southern China using atmospheric measurement data from a rural site in the area, an atmospheric transport model and an inverse modeling method. This study shows in detail the temporal and spatial differences between the inversion estimate and four different bottom-up emission inventories (RCP, REAS, MEIC; Yin et al., 2015). We propose that more observations are urgently needed in future.
Kevin S. Olsen, Geoffrey C. Toon, Chris D. Boone, and Kimberly Strong
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1063–1082,Short summary
A new version of the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer was intended to be sent to Mars to perform a detailed study of the composition of the Martian atmosphere. Of critical importance for such a mission is a method to accurately determine the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere. This paper presents a new algorithm for measuring temperature and pressure from high-resolution infrared spectra of CO2 absorption and applies it to terrestrial spectra.
Andreas Engel, Harald Bönisch, Tim Schwarzenberger, Hans-Peter Haase, Katja Grunow, Jana Abalichin, and Stephan Sala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1051–1062,Short summary
We present a validation of MIPAS-ENVISAT vertical profiles (ESA operational retrieval version 6.0) of N2O, CH4, CFC-12, and CFC-11. The geophysical validation is performed using data from a balloon-borne cryogenic whole air sampler and trajectory matching. We show that the validation results are different for the period prior to 2005 compared to the post 2005 period. N2O, CH4, and CFC-12 show partly good agreement while CFC-11 data from this retrieval cannot be used for scientific studies.
Stig B. Dalsøren, Cathrine L. Myhre, Gunnar Myhre, Angel J. Gomez-Pelaez, Ole A. Søvde, Ivar S. A. Isaksen, Ray F. Weiss, and Christina M. Harth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3099–3126,Short summary
Methane is a key greenhouse gas. Observations at surface sites show a more than 10 % increase over the period 1984–2012. Using an atmospheric model we calculate a growth in the atmospheric chemical methane loss the last decades. Without this, the rise in atmospheric methane would have been even higher. The model reproduces trends and short-term variations in observation data. However, some discrepancies in model performance question the accuracy in estimates of emission increases in Asia.
Johannes Plieninger, Alexandra Laeng, Stefan Lossow, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele P. Stiller, Sylvia Kellmann, Andrea Linden, Michael Kiefer, Kaley A. Walker, Stefan Noël, Mark E. Hervig, Martin McHugh, Alyn Lambert, Joachim Urban, James W. Elkins, and Donal Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 765–779,Short summary
We compare concentration profiles of methane and nitrous oxide measured from MIPAS-ENVISAT and derived with a new retrieval setup to those measured by other satellite instruments and to surface measurements. For methane we use profiles measured by ACE-FTS, HALOE and SCIAMACHY; for nitrous oxide we use profiles measured by ACE-FTS, Aura-MLS and Odin-SMR for the comparisons. We give a quantitative bias estimation and compare the estimated errors provided by the instruments.
M. Kiel, D. Wunch, P. O. Wennberg, G. C. Toon, F. Hase, and T. Blumenstock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 669–682,
S. Tegtmeier, M. I. Hegglin, J. Anderson, B. Funke, J. Gille, A. Jones, L. Smith, T. von Clarmann, and K. A. Walker
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 61–78,Short summary
The first comprehensive intercomparison of CFC-11, CFC-12, HF, and SF6 satellite data was performed as part of the SPARC Data Initiative following a new "top-down" concept of satellite measurement validation and thus providing a global picture of the data characteristics. The comparisons will provide basic information on quality and consistency of the various data sets and will serve as a guide for their use in empirical studies of climate and variability, and in model-measurement comparisons.
F. Obersteiner, H. Bönisch, and A. Engel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 179–194,Short summary
We present the characterization and application of a new gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument, with focus on quantitative analysis of halocarbons in air samples. The applicability of the TOFMS technique, e.g. to form the basis of a "digital air archieve", is supported by the findings of this work: very high sensitivity, high measurement precision, a large dynamical range and an open data format which allows in-depth analysis of the data.
P. G. Simmonds, M. Rigby, A. J. Manning, M. F. Lunt, S. O'Doherty, A. McCulloch, P. J. Fraser, S. Henne, M. K. Vollmer, J. Mühle, R. F. Weiss, P. K. Salameh, D. Young, S. Reimann, A. Wenger, T. Arnold, C. M. Harth, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, B. L. Dunse, B. R. Miller, C. R. Lunder, O. Hermansen, N. Schmidbauer, T. Saito, Y. Yokouchi, S. Park, S. Li, B. Yao, L. X. Zhou, J. Arduini, M. Maione, R. H. J. Wang, D. Ivy, and R. G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 365–382,Short summary
We report regional and global emissions estimates of HFC-152a using high frequency measurements from 11 observing sites and archived air samples dating back to 1978 together with atmospheric transport models. The "bottom-up" emissions of HFC-152a reported to the UNFCCC appear to significantly underestimate those reported here from observations. This discrepancy we suggest arises from largely underestimated USA and undeclared Asian emissions.
K. Weigel, A. Rozanov, F. Azam, K. Bramstedt, R. Damadeo, K.-U. Eichmann, C. Gebhardt, D. Hurst, M. Kraemer, S. Lossow, W. Read, N. Spelten, G. P. Stiller, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 133–158,Short summary
The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard the Envisat satellite provided measurements between 2002 and 2012 with different viewing geometries. The limb viewing geometry allows the retrieval of water vapour profiles in the UTLS (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere) from the near-infrared spectral range (1353–1410 nm). Here, we present data version 3.01 and compare it to other water vapour data.
F. Khosrawi, J. Urban, S. Lossow, G. Stiller, K. Weigel, P. Braesicke, M. C. Pitts, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, and D. Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 101–121,Short summary
Our sensitivity studies based on air parcel trajectories confirm that Polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation is quite sensitive to water vapour and temperature changes. Considering water vapour time series from satellite measurements we do not find a consistent, significant trend in water vapour in the lower stratosphere during the past 15 years (2000–2014). Thus, the severe dentrification observed in 2010/2011 cannot be directly related to increases in stratospheric water vapour.
A. Laeng, J. Plieninger, T. von Clarmann, U. Grabowski, G. Stiller, E. Eckert, N. Glatthor, F. Haenel, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, L. Deaver, A. Engel, M. Hervig, I. Levin, M. McHugh, S. Noël, G. Toon, and K. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5251–5261,
S. J. Lawson, M. D. Keywood, I. E. Galbally, J. L. Gras, J. M. Cainey, M. E. Cope, P. B. Krummel, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, S. T. Bentley, C. P. Meyer, Z. Ristovski, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13393–13411,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) plumes were opportunistically measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Station in Tasmania, Australia. We provide a unique set of trace gas and particle emission factors for temperate Australian coastal heathland fires, and attribute a major short-lived enhancement in emission ratios to a minor rainfall event. The ability of BB particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei, and the contribution of BB emissions to observed particle growth and ozone enhancements are discussed.
V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. L. Croteau, S. Verlhac, R. Fröhlich, C. A. Belis, W. Aas, M. Äijälä, A. Alastuey, B. Artiñano, D. Baisnée, N. Bonnaire, M. Bressi, M. Canagaratna, F. Canonaco, C. Carbone, F. Cavalli, E. Coz, M. J. Cubison, J. K. Esser-Gietl, D. C. Green, V. Gros, L. Heikkinen, H. Herrmann, C. Lunder, M. C. Minguillón, G. Močnik, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, J.-E. Petit, E. Petralia, L. Poulain, M. Priestman, V. Riffault, A. Ripoll, R. Sarda-Estève, J. G. Slowik, A. Setyan, A. Wiedensohler, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. T. Jayne, and O. Favez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5063–5087,Short summary
A large intercomparison study of 13 Q-ACSM was conducted for a 3-week period in the region of Paris to evaluate the performance of this instrument and to monitor the major NR-PM1 chemical components. Reproducibility expanded uncertainties of Q-ACSM concentration measurements were found to be 9, 15, 19, 28, and 36% for NR-PM1, NO3, OM, SO4, and NH4, respectively. Some recommendations regarding best calibration practices, standardized data processing and data treatment are also provided.
F. J. Haenel, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, E. Eckert, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, and T. Reddmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13161–13176,Short summary
Stratospheric circulation is thought to change as a consequence of climate change. Empirical evidence, however, is sparse. In this paper we present latitude- and altitude-resolved trends of the mean age of stratospheric air as derived from SF6 measurements performed by the MIPAS satellite instrument. The mean of the age of stratospheric air is a measure of the intensity of the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In this paper we discuss differences with respect to a preceding analysis by Stiller et al.
D. Pendlebury, D. Plummer, J. Scinocca, P. Sheese, K. Strong, K. Walker, and D. Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12465–12485,Short summary
The CMAM30 data set takes a chemistry-climate model and relaxes the dynamics to reanalysis, which can then provide chemistry fields not available from the reanalysis data set. This paper addresses this gap by comparing temperature, water vapour, ozone and methane to satellite data to determine and document any biases in the model fields. The lack of ozone destruction and dehydration in the SH polar vortex is shown to be due to the treatment of polar stratosphere clouds in the model.
A. Butz, J. Orphal, R. Checa-Garcia, F. Friedl-Vallon, T. von Clarmann, H. Bovensmann, O. Hasekamp, J. Landgraf, T. Knigge, D. Weise, O. Sqalli-Houssini, and D. Kemper
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4719–4734,Short summary
The Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E) is a mission concept for a greenhouse gas sounder in geostationary orbit. It is designed to provide column-average concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide with high spatial and 2-hour temporal resolution throughout the central European continent. The prospective data density, precision and accuracy suggest G3E as a key component of a future carbon emission monitoring system.
J. Plieninger, T. von Clarmann, G. P. Stiller, U. Grabowski, N. Glatthor, S. Kellmann, A. Linden, F. Haenel, M. Kiefer, M. Höpfner, A. Laeng, and S. Lossow
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4657–4670,Short summary
We present our revised CH4 and N2O profiles derived from MIPAS-ENVISAT spectra, which are now available for the entire measurement period. We describe the retrieval of the profiles and discuss the improvements compared to earlier versions and their effect on the mixing ratios. We analyse the averaging kernels and the resolution of the profiles. An error discussion for both gases is given.
F. Deng, D. B. A. Jones, T. W. Walker, M. Keller, K. W. Bowman, D. K. Henze, R. Nassar, E. A. Kort, S. C. Wofsy, K. A. Walker, A. E. Bourassa, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11773–11788,Short summary
The upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is characterized by strong gradients in the distribution of long-lived tracers, which are sensitive to discrepancies in transport in models. We found that our model overestimates CO2 in the polar UTLS through comparison of modeled CO2 with aircraft observations. We then corrected the modeled CO2 and quantified the impact of the correction on the flux estimates using an atmospheric model together with atmospheric CO2 measured from a satellite.
S. T. Lennartz, G. Krysztofiak, C. A. Marandino, B.-M. Sinnhuber, S. Tegtmeier, F. Ziska, R. Hossaini, K. Krüger, S. A. Montzka, E. Atlas, D. E. Oram, T. Keber, H. Bönisch, and B. Quack
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11753–11772,Short summary
Marine-produced short-lived trace gases such as halocarbons and DMS significantly impact atmospheric chemistry. To assess this impact on ozone depletion and the radiative budget, it is critical that their marine emissions in atmospheric chemistry models are quantified as accurately as possible. We show that calculating emissions online with an interactive atmosphere improves the agreement with current observations and should be employed regularly in models where marine sources are important.
S. Fadnavis, K. Semeniuk, M. G. Schultz, M. Kiefer, A. Mahajan, L. Pozzoli, and S. Sonbawane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11477–11499,Short summary
The model and MIPAS satellite data show that there are three regions which contribute substantial pollution to the south Asian UTLS: the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), the North American monsoon (NAM) and the West African monsoon (WAM). However, penetration due to ASM convection reaches deeper into the UTLS compared to NAM and WAM outflow. Simulations show that westerly winds drive North American and European pollutants eastward where they can become part of the ASM and lifted to LS.