Articles | Volume 14, issue 17
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9249–9258, 2014
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9249–9258, 2014

Research article 09 Sep 2014

Research article | 09 Sep 2014

Global emissions of HFC-143a (CH3CF3) and HFC-32 (CH2F2) from in situ and air archive atmospheric observations

S. O'Doherty1, M. Rigby1, J. Mühle2, D. J. Ivy3, B. R. Miller5,4, D. Young1, P. G. Simmonds1, S. Reimann6, M. K. Vollmer6, P. B. Krummel7, P. J. Fraser7, L. P. Steele7, B. Dunse7, P. K. Salameh2, C. M. Harth2, T. Arnold2, R. F. Weiss2, J. Kim2, S. Park8, S. Li9, C. Lunder10, O. Hermansen10, N. Schmidbauer10, L. X. Zhou11, B. Yao11, R. H. J. Wang12, A. J. Manning13, and R. G. Prinn3 S. O'Doherty et al.
  • 1Atmospheric Chemistry Research Group, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS, UK
  • 2Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
  • 3Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  • 4Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • 5Global Monitoring Division, ESRL, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • 6Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Empa), Dübendorf, Switzerland
  • 7Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia
  • 8Department of Oceanography, Kungpook National University, Sangju, South Korea
  • 9Research Institute of Oceanography, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
  • 10Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway
  • 11Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS), Beijing, China
  • 12School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
  • 13UK Meteorological Office, Exeter, UK

Abstract. High-frequency, in situ observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), for the period 2003 to 2012, combined with archive flask measurements dating back to 1977, have been used to capture the rapid growth of HFC-143a (CH3CF3) and HFC-32 (CH2F2) mole fractions and emissions into the atmosphere. Here we report the first in situ global measurements of these two gases. HFC-143a and HFC-32 are the third and sixth most abundant hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) respectively and they currently make an appreciable contribution to the HFCs in terms of atmospheric radiative forcing (1.7 ± 0.04 and 0.7 ± 0.02 mW m−2 in 2012 respectively). In 2012 the global average mole fraction of HFC-143a was 13.4 ± 0.3 ppt (1σ) in the lower troposphere and its growth rate was 1.4 ± 0.04 ppt yr−1; HFC-32 had a global mean mole fraction of 6.2 ± 0.2 ppt and a growth rate of 1.1 ± 0.04 ppt yr−1 in 2012. The extensive observations presented in this work have been combined with an atmospheric transport model to simulate global atmospheric abundances and derive global emission estimates. It is estimated that 23 ± 3 Gg yr−1 of HFC-143a and 21 ± 11 Gg yr−1 of HFC-32 were emitted globally in 2012, and the emission rates are estimated to be increasing by 7 ± 5% yr−1 for HFC-143a and 14 ± 11% yr−1 for HFC-32.

Final-revised paper