Articles | Volume 17, issue 10
Research article 19 May 2017
Research article | 19 May 2017
Spatial, temporal and source contribution assessments of black carbon over the northern interior of South Africa
Kgaugelo Euphinia Chiloane et al.
No articles found.
Xiaolong Fan, Jing Cai, Chao Yan, Jian Zhao, Yishuo Guo, Chang Li, Kaspar R. Dällenbach, Feixue Zheng, Zhuohui Lin, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Lubna Dada, Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Du, Jenni Kontkanen, Theo Kurtén, Siddhart Iyer, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Federico Bianchi, Yee Jun Tham, Lei Yao, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11437–11452,Short summary
We observed significant concentrations of gaseous HBr and HCl throughout the winter and springtime in urban Beijing, China. Our results indicate that gaseous HCl and HBr are most likely originated from anthropogenic emissions such as burning activities, and the gas–aerosol partitioning may play a crucial role in contributing to the gaseous HCl and HBr. These observations suggest that there is an important recycling pathway of halogen species in inland megacities.
Arto Heitto, Kari Lehtinen, Tuukka Petäjä, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Markku Kulmala, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
When organic molecules condense on atmospheric nano-sized particles, they can combine forming larger molecules (oligomerization) or fragment to smaller molecules (decomposition). We investigated the effects of these reactions with particle growth model MODNAG and found out that they have potential to significantly affect the growth of atmospheric aerosol particles. These reactions are often excluded from growth models and it is important to increase our understanding of them.
Haijie Tong, Fobang Liu, Alexander Filippi, Jake Wilson, Andrea M. Arangio, Yun Zhang, Siyao Yue, Steven Lelieveld, Fangxia Shen, Helmi-Marja K. Keskinen, Jing Li, Haoxuan Chen, Ting Zhang, Thorsten Hoffmann, Pingqing Fu, William H. Brune, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Maosheng Yao, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10439–10455,Short summary
We measured radical yields of aqueous PM2.5 extracts and found lower yields at higher concentrations of PM2.5. Abundances of water-soluble transition metals and aromatics in PM2.5 were positively correlated with the relative fraction of •OH but negatively correlated with the relative fraction of C-centered radicals among detected radicals. Composition-dependent reactive species yields may explain differences in the reactivity and health effects of PM2.5 in clean versus polluted air.
Lucía Caudillo, Birte Rörup, Martin Heinritzi, Guillaume Marie, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Antonio Amorim, Farnoush Ataei, Rima Baalbaki, Barbara Bertozzi, Zoé Brasseur, Randall Chiu, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Xu-Cheng He, Victoria Hofbauer, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Brandon Lopez, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Dario Massabò, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Antti Onnela, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Meredith Schervish, Wiebke Scholz, Benjamin Schulze, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Mihnea Surdu, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Steffen Vogt, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Wang Yonghong, Wu Yusheng, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Kristina Höhler, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Neil M. Donahue, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We performed experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN at low temperatures to simulate new particle formation in the upper free troposphere (at −30 °C and −50 °C). We measured particle and gas phase and found that most of the compounds that are present in the gas phase are detected as well in the particle phase. The major compounds in the particles are C8-10 and C18-20. Specifically, we showed that C5 and C15 compounds are detected in a mixed system with isoprene and α-pinene at −30 °C, 20 % RH.
Anna Franck, Dmitri Moisseev, Ville Vakkari, Matti Leskinen, Janne Lampilahti, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Ewan O'Connor
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We proposed a method to derive a convective boundary layer height using insects and Bragg scatter in radar observations and investigated the consistency of these retrievals between different radar frequencies (5, 35 and 94 GHz). This method can be applied to radars at other measurement stations and serve as additional way to estimate the boundary layer height during summer. The entrainment zone was also observed by the 5 GHz radar above the boundary layer in a form of a Bragg scatter layer.
Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Gang Chen, Olga Garmash, Diego Aliaga, Frans Graeffe, Meri Räty, Krista Luoma, Pasi Aalto, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10081–10109,Short summary
In many locations worldwide aerosol particles have been shown to be made up of organic aerosol (OA). The boreal forest is a region where aerosol particles possess a high OA mass fraction. Here, we studied OA composition using the longest time series of OA composition ever obtained from a boreal environment. For this purpose, we tested a new analysis framework and discovered that most of the OA was highly oxidized, with strong seasonal behaviour reflecting different sources in summer and winter.
Pak Lun Fung, Martha A. Zaidan, Jarkko V. Niemi, Erkka Saukko, Hilkka Timonen, Anu Kousa, Joel Kuula, Topi Rönkkö, Ari Karppinen, Sasu Tarkoma, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Tareq Hussein
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We develop an input-adaptive mixed effects model, which is automatised to select the best combination of input variables, including up to three fixed effect variables and three time indictors as random effect variables. We test the model to estimate lung deposited surface area (LDSA), which correlates well with human’s health. The results show the inclusion of time indicators improves the sensitivity and the accuracy of the model so that it could serve as a network of virtual sensors.
Jing Cai, Cheng Wu, Jiandong Wang, Wei Du, Feixue Zheng, Simo Hakala, Xiaolong Fan, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Zemin Feng, Yongchun Liu, Yele Sun, Jun Zheng, Chao Yan, Federico Bianchi, Markku Kulmala, Claudia Mohr, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study investigates the connection between organic aerosol (OA) molecular composition and particle absorptive properties in autumn Beijing. We find that the molecular properties of OA compounds in different episodes influence particle light absorption properties differently: the light-absorption enhancement of black carbon and the light absorption coefficient of brown carbon were mostly related to more oxygenated OA (low C number and 4O atoms) and aromatics/nitro-aromatics, respectively.
Rima Baalbaki, Michael Pikridas, Tuija Jokinen, Tiia Laurila, Lubna Dada, Spyros Bezantakos, Lauri Ahonen, Kimmo Neitola, Anne Maisser, Elie Bimenyimana, Aliki Christodoulou, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, George Biskos, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jean Sciare, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9223–9251,Short summary
This study investigates new particle formation (NPF) in the less represented region of the Mediterranean basin using 1-year measurements of aerosol particles down to ~ 1 nm in diameter. We report a high frequency of NPF and give examples of interesting NPF features. We quantify the strength of NPF events by calculating formation rates and growth rates. We further unveil the atmospheric conditions and variables considered important for the intra-monthly and inter-monthly occurrence of NPF.
Wei Huang, Haiyan Li, Nina Sarnela, Liine Heikkinen, Yee Jun Tham, Jyri Mikkilä, Steven J. Thomas, Neil M. Donahue, Markku Kulmala, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8961–8977,Short summary
We show full characterization of gaseous organic compounds in a boreal forest. Molecular composition and volatility of gaseous organic compounds with different oxidation extents (from volatile organic compounds to highly oxygenated organic molecules) were investigated and discussed. We provide a more comprehensive understanding of atmospheric organic compounds in this boreal forest and new insights into interpreting ambient measurements or testing and improving parameterizations in models.
Mingyi Wang, Xu-Cheng He, Henning Finkenzeller, Siddharth Iyer, Dexian Chen, Jiali Shen, Mario Simon, Victoria Hofbauer, Jasper Kirkby, Joachim Curtius, Norbert Maier, Theo Kurtén, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Matti Rissanen, Rainer Volkamer, Yee Jun Tham, Neil M. Donahue, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4187–4202,Short summary
Atmospheric iodine species are often short-lived with low abundance and have thus been challenging to measure. We show that the bromide chemical ionization mass spectrometry, compatible with both the atmospheric pressure and reduced pressure interfaces, can simultaneously detect various gas-phase iodine species. Combining calibration experiments and quantum chemical calculations, we quantify detection sensitivities to HOI, HIO3, I2, and H2SO4, giving detection limits down to < 106 molec. cm-3.
Markku Kulmala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Juha Pekkanen, Sami Paatero, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8313–8322,Short summary
The eastern part of China as a whole is practically a gigacity with 650 million inhabitants. The gigacity, with its emissions, processes in the pollution cocktail and numerous feedbacks and interactions, has a crucial and big impact on regional air quality and on global climate. A large-scale research and innovation program is needed to meet the interlinked grand challenges in this gigacity and to serve as a platform for finding pathways for sustainable development of the globe.
Janne Lampilahti, Katri Leino, Antti Manninen, Pyry Poutanen, Anna Franck, Maija Peltola, Paula Hietala, Lisa Beck, Lubna Dada, Lauriane Quéléver, Ronja Öhrnberg, Ying Zhou, Madeleine Ekblom, Ville Vakkari, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7901–7915,Short summary
Using airborne measurements we observed increased number concentrations of sub-25 nm particles in the upper residual layer. These particles may be entrained into the well-mixed boundary layer and observed at the surface. We attribute our observations to new particle formation in the topmost part of the residual layer.
Benjamin Foreback, Lubna Dada, Kaspar Dällenbach, Chao Yan, Lili Wang, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Tom V. Kokkonen, Mona Kurppa, Rosaria E. Pileci, Yonghong Wang, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Lin Zhuohui, Yishou Guo, Chang Li, Rima Baalbaki, Joni Kujansuu, Xiaolong Fan, Zemin Feng, Pekka Rantala, Shahzad Gani, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Yongchun Liu, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study analysed air quality in Beijing during the Chinese New Year over seven years, including data from a new in-depth measurement station. This is one of few studies to look at long-term impacts, including the outcome of firework restrictions starting in 2018. Results show that firework pollution has gone down since 2016, indicating a positive result from the restrictions. Results of this study may be useful in making future decisions about the use of fireworks to improve air quality.
Hanna Lappalainen, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vihma, Jouni Räisänen, Alexander Baklanov, Sergey Chalov, Igor Esau, Ekaterina Ezhova, Matti Leppäranta, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Jukka Pumpanen, Meinrat O. Andreae, Michael Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Jianhui Bai, Igor Bashmachnikov, Boris Belan, Federico Bianchi, Boris Biskaborn, Michael Boy, Jaana Bäck, Bin Cheng, Natalia Ye Chubarova, Jonathan Duplissy, Egor Dyukarev, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Martin Forsius, Martin Heimann, Sirkku Juhola, Vladimir Konovalov, Igor Konovalov, Pavel Konstantinov, Kajar Koster, Elena Lapsina, Anna Lintunen, Alexander Mahura, Risto Makkonen, Svetlana Malkhazova, Ivan Mammarella, Stefano Mammola, Stephany Mazon, Outi Meinander, Eugene Mikhailov, Victoria Miles, Stanislav Myslenko, Dimitry Orlov, Jean-Daniel Paris, Robertta Pirazzini, Olga Popovicheva, Jouni Pulliainen, Kimmo Rautiainen, Torsten Sachs, Vladimir Shevchenko, Andrey Skorokhod, Andreas Stohl, Elli Suhonen, Erik S. Thomson, Marina Tsidilina, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Petteri Uotila, Aki Virkkula, Nadezhda Voropay, Tobias Wolf, Sayaka Yasunaka, Jiahua Zhang, Yubao Qui, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Nikolay Kasimov, Sergey Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We summarize results during the last five years in the Northern Eurasian region, especially from Russia, and introduce recent observations on the air quality in the urban environments in China. Although the scientific knowledge in these regions has increased, there are still gaps in our understanding of large-scale climate-Earth surface interactions and feedbacks. This arises from limitations in research infrastructures and integrative data analyses, hindering a comprehensive system analysis.
Christoffer Hallgren, Stefan Ivanell, Heiner Körnich, Ville Vakkari, and Erik Sahlée
Wind Energ. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for WESShort summary
As wind power becomes more popular, there is a growing demand for accurate power production forecasts. In this paper we investigated different methods to improve wind power forecasts for an offshore location in the Baltic Sea, using both simple and more advanced techniques. The performance of the methods are evaluated for different weather conditions. Smoothing the forecast was found to be the best method in general, but we recommend to select which method to use based on the forecasted weather.
Stephanie Bohlmann, Xiaoxia Shang, Ville Vakkari, Elina Giannakaki, Ari Leskinen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Sanna Pätsi, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7083–7097,Short summary
Measurements of the multi-wavelength Raman polarization lidar PollyXT and a Halo Photonics StreamLine Doppler lidar have been combined with measurements of pollen type and concentration using a traditional pollen trap at the rural forest site in Vehmasmäki, Finland. Depolarization ratios were measured at three wavelengths. High depolarization ratios were detected during an event with high birch and spruce pollen concentrations and a wavelength dependence of the depolarization ratio was observed.
Yongchun Liu, Zeming Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolei Bao, Pengfei Liu, Yanli Ge, Yan Zhao, Tao Jiang, Yunwen Liao, Yusheng Zhang, Xiaolong Fan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Federico Bianch, Tuukka Petäjä, Yujing Mu, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The mechanisms and kinetics of particulate sulfate formation in the atmosphere are still open questions although they have been extensively discussed. We found that uptake of SO2 is the rate determining step for the conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfate. NH4NO3 plays an important role in the AWC, the phase state of aerosol particles, subsequently, the uptake kinetics of SO2 under high RH conditions. This work is a good exmple about the feedback between aerosol physics and aerosol chemistry.
Ying Zhou, Simo Hakala, Chao Yan, Yang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Biwu Chu, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Shahzad Gani, Jenni Kontkanen, Pauli Paasonen, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Lubna Dada
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We characterized the connection between new particle formation (NPF) events in terms of frequency, intensity and growth at a near-highway location in central Beijing and at a background mountain site 200 km away from it. Due to the substantial contribution of NPF to the global aerosol budget, identifying the conditions that promote the occurrence of regional events could help understand their participation on a large scale and would improve their implementation in global models.
Lukas Fischer, Martin Breitenlechner, Eva Canaval, Wiebke Scholz, Marcus Striednig, Martin Graus, Thomas G. Karl, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Ecosystems emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), which are then oxidized in the atmosphere contributing to ozone and secondary aerosol formation. While flux measurements of BVOC are state of the art, flux measurements of the less volatile oxidation products are difficult to achieve due to inlet losses. Here we present first flux measurements utilizing a novel PTR3 instrument in combination with a specially designed “wall-less” inlet we put on top of the Hyytiälä tower in Finland.
Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Thomas Müller, Sascha Pfeifer, María Cruz Minguillón, Björn Briel, Paul Buckley, Vadimas Dudoitis, Javier Fernández-García, María Fernández-Amado, Joel Ferreira De Brito, Veronique Riffault, Harald Flentje, Eimear Heffernan, Nikolaos Kalivitis, Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Hannes Keernik, Luminita Marmureanu, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Michael Pikridas, Gerhard Schauer, Norbert Serfozo, Henri Servomaa, Gloria Titos, Jesús Yus-Díez, Natalia Zioła, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3195–3216,Short summary
Measurements of black carbon must be conducted with instruments operating in quality-checked and assured conditions to generate reliable and comparable data. Here, 23 Aethalometers monitoring black carbon mass concentrations in European networks were characterized and intercompared. The influence of different aerosol sources, maintenance activities, and the filter material on the instrumental variabilities were investigated. Good agreement and in general low deviations were seen.
Ville Vakkari, Holger Baars, Stephanie Bohlmann, Johannes Bühl, Mika Komppula, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, and Ewan James O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5807–5820,Short summary
The depolarization ratio is a valuable parameter for aerosol categorization from remote sensing measurements. Here, we introduce particle depolarization ratio measurements at the 1565 nm wavelength, which is substantially longer than previously utilized wavelengths and enhances our capabilities to study the wavelength dependency of the particle depolarization ratio.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Sander Mirme, Mikael Ehn, Iida Pullinen, Katri Leino, Siegfried Schobesberger, Juha Kangasluoma, Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Riikka Väänänen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Radovan Krejci, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Janne Levula, Aadu Mirme, Stefano Decesari, Ralf Tillmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We studied aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different locations (Po Valley, Italy and Hyytiälä, Finland). The observations consist of airborne measurements on board an instrumented Zeppelin and a small airplane combined with comprehensive ground-based measurements.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Chang Li, Wei Ma, Zemin Feng, Ying Zhou, Zhuohui Lin, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Rujing Yin, Jenni Kontkanen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Runlong Cai, Federico Bianchi, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5499–5511,Short summary
Fog, cloud and haze are very common natural phenomena. Sulfuric acid (SA) is one of the key compounds forming those suspended particles, technically called aerosols, through gas-to-particle conversion. Therefore, the concentration level, source and sink of SA is very important. Our results show that ozonolysis of alkenes plays a major role in nighttime SA formation under unpolluted conditions in urban Beijing, and nighttime cluster mode particles are probably driven by SA in urban environments.
Pontus von Schoenberg, Peter Tunved, Håkan Grahn, Alfred Wiedensohler, Radovan Krejci, and Niklas Brännström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5173–5193,Short summary
In a radiological emergency preparedness system, Lagrangian particle dispersion models are often used to track the dispersion of radioactive material. In this study we have shown the importance of simulating advanced aerosol dynamic processes that are commonly neglected or simplified in these simulations. We show that inclusion of detailed ambient-aerosol dynamics can play a large role in the model result in simulations adopting a more detailed representation of aerosol–cloud interactions.
Diego Aliaga, Victoria A. Sinclair, Marcos Andrade, Paulo Artaxo, Samara Carbone, Evgeny Kadantsev, Paolo Laj, Alfred Wiedensohler, Radovan Krejci, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We investigate the origin of air masses sampled at mount Chacaltaya, Bolivia. Three quarters of the measured air has not been influenced by the surface in the previous four days. However, it is rare that, at any given time, the sampled air has not been influenced at all by the surface and often the sampled air has multiple origins. The influence of the surface is more prevalent during day than night. Furthermore, during the 6-month study, one third of the air masses originated from Amazonia.
Clémence Rose, Matti P. Rissanen, Siddharth Iyer, Jonathan Duplissy, Chao Yan, John B. Nowak, Aurélie Colomb, Régis Dupuy, Xu-Cheng He, Janne Lampilahti, Yee Jun Tham, Daniela Wimmer, Jean-Marc Metzger, Pierre Tulet, Jérôme Brioude, Céline Planche, Markku Kulmala, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4541–4560,Short summary
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is commonly accepted as a key precursor for atmospheric new particle formation. However, direct measurements of [H2SO4] remain challenging, motivating the development of proxies. Using data collected in two different volcanic plumes, we show, under these specific conditions, the good performance of a proxy from the literature and also highlight the benefit of the newly developed proxies for the prediction of the highest [H2SO4] values.
Haiyan Li, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Yanjun Zhang, Steven Thomas, Liine Heikkinen, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Eric Villenave, Emilie Perraudin, Douglas Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4123–4147,Short summary
For the first time, we performed binPMF analysis on the complex mass spectra acquired with the Vocus PTR-TOF in two European pine forests and identified various primary emission sources and secondary oxidation processes of atmospheric organic vapors, i.e., terpenes and their oxidation products, with varying oxidation degrees. Further insights were gained regarding monoterpene and sesquiterpene reactions based on the interpretation results.
Julia Schneider, Kristina Höhler, Paavo Heikkilä, Jorma Keskinen, Barbara Bertozzi, Pia Bogert, Tobias Schorr, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Franziska Vogel, Zoé Brasseur, Yusheng Wu, Simo Hakala, Jonathan Duplissy, Dmitri Moisseev, Markku Kulmala, Michael P. Adams, Benjamin J. Murray, Kimmo Korhonen, Liqing Hao, Erik S. Thomson, Dimitri Castarède, Thomas Leisner, Tuukka Petäjä, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3899–3918,Short summary
By triggering the formation of ice crystals, ice-nucleating particles (INP) strongly influence cloud formation. Continuous, long-term measurements are needed to characterize the atmospheric INP variability. Here, a first long-term time series of INP spectra measured in the boreal forest for more than 1 year is presented, showing a clear seasonal cycle. It is shown that the seasonal dependency of INP concentrations and prevalent INP types is driven by the abundance of biogenic aerosol.
Ditte Taipale, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Mikael Ehn, Markku Kulmala, and Ülo Niinemets
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Larval feeding and fungal infections of leaves can change the emission of volatile compounds from plants a lot and thereby influence aerosol processes in the air. We developed a model which considers the dynamics of larvae and fungi and the dependency of the emission on the severity of stress. We show that the infections can be highly atmospherically relevant during long periods of time and at times be more important to consider than the parameters which are currently used in emission models.
Laurent Poulain, Benjamin Fahlbusch, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Zhijun Wu, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Wolfram Birmili, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3667–3684,Short summary
We present results from source apportionment analysis on the carbonaceous aerosol particles, including organic aerosol (OA) and equivalent black carbon (eBC), allowing us to distinguish local emissions from long-range transport for OA and eBC sources. By merging online chemical measurements and considering particle number size distribution, the different air masses reaching the sampling place were described and discussed, based on their respective chemical composition and size distribution.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, James Brean, Francis D. Pope, Manuel Dall'Osto, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Noemi Perez, Tuukka Petäjä, Andreas Massling, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3345–3370,Short summary
New particle formation events from 16 sites over Europe have been studied, and the influence of meteorological and atmospheric composition variables has been investigated. Some variables, like solar radiation intensity and temperature, have a positive effect on the occurrence of these events, while others have a negative effect, affecting different aspects such as the rate at which particles are formed or grow. This effect varies depending on the site type and magnitude of these variables.
Sebastian Düsing, Albert Ansmann, Holger Baars, Joel C. Corbin, Cyrielle Denjean, Martin Gysel-Beer, Thomas Müller, Laurent Poulain, Holger Siebert, Gerald Spindler, Thomas Tuch, Birgit Wehner, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The work deals with optical properties of aerosol particles in dried and atmospheric state. Based on two measurement campaigns in the rural background of Central Europe different measurement approaches were compared with each other, such as modeling based on Mie theory and direct in-situ or remote sensing measurements. Among others, it was shown that the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio is relative humidity dependent, and refinement with respect to the model input parameters is needed.
Imre Salma, Wanda Thén, Pasi Aalto, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Anikó Kern, Zoltán Barcza, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2861–2880,Short summary
The distribution of the monthly mean nucleation frequency possessed a characteristic pattern. Its shape was compared to those of environmental variables, including vegetation-derived properties. The spring maximum in the occurrence frequency often overlapped with the positive T anomaly. The link between the heat stress and the occurrence minimum in summer could not be proven, whereas an association between the occurrence frequency and vegetation growth dynamics was clearly identified in spring.
Nikolaos Evangeliou, Stephen M. Platt, Sabine Eckhardt, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Paolo Laj, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Angela Marinoni, Marco Pandolfi, Jesus Yus-Dìez, Natalia Prats, Jean P. Putaud, Karine Sellegri, Mar Sorribas, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Stergios Vratolis, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Andreas Stohl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2675–2692,Short summary
Following the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to Europe, social distancing rules were introduced to prevent further spread. We investigate the impacts of the European lockdowns on black carbon (BC) emissions by means of in situ observations and inverse modelling. BC emissions declined by 23 kt in Europe during the lockdowns as compared with previous years and by 11 % as compared to the period prior to lockdowns. Residential combustion prevailed in Eastern Europe, as confirmed by remote sensing data.
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Nahid Atashi, Dariush Rahimi, Victoria A. Sinclair, Martha A. Zaidan, Anton Rusanen, Henri Vuollekoski, Markku Kulmala, Timo Vesala, and Tareq Hussein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
Dew formation potential during a long-term period (1979–2018) was assessed in Iran aiming to identify dew formation zones and to investigate the impacts of long-term variation in meteorological parameters on dew formation.
Runlong Cai, Chenxi Li, Xu-Cheng He, Chenjuan Deng, Yiqun Lu, Rujing Yin, Chao Yan, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2287–2304,Short summary
Growth rate determines the survival probability of atmospheric new particles and hence their impacts. We clarify the impacts of coagulation on the values retrieved by the appearance time method, which is widely used for growth rate evaluation. A new formula with coagulation correction is proposed based on derivation and tested using both models and atmospheric data. We show that the sub-3 nm particle growth rate in polluted environments may be overestimated without the coagulation correction.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wanger, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid-base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span the four orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in the ambient. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Juha Sulo, Nina Sarnela, Jenni Kontkanen, Lauri Ahonen, Pauli Paasonen, Tiia Laurila, Tuija Jokinen, Juha Kangasluoma, Heikki Junninen, Mikko Sipilä, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Katrianne Lehtipalo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 695–715,Short summary
In this study, we analyzed over 5 years of sub-3 nm particle concentrations and their precursor vapors, identifying atmoshperic vapors important to the formation of these particles in the boreal forest. We also observed seasonal differences in both particle and precursor vapor concentrations and the formation pathways of these particles. Our results confirm the importance of organic vapors in atmospheric aerosol formation and highlight key seasonal differences that require further study.
David Brus, Jani Gustafsson, Ville Vakkari, Osku Kemppinen, Gijs de Boer, and Anne Hirsikko
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 517–533,Short summary
This paper summarizes Finnish Meteorological Institute and Kansas State University unmanned aerial vehicle measurements during the summer 2018 Lower Atmospheric Process Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) campaign in the San Luis Valley, providing an overview of the rotorcraft deployed, payloads, scientific goals and flight strategies and presenting observations of atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol and gas parameters in the vertical column.
Baseerat Romshoo, Thomas Müller, Sascha Pfeifer, Jorge Saturno, Andreas Nowak, Krzysztof Ciupek, Paul Quincey, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The modifications in radiative properties of black carbon (BC) due to aging are presented and quantified in this study using a state-of-the-art description scheme of BC fractal aggregates. It is shown that the relative change in BC radiative forcing can be larger than 50 % as a function of changing fractal dimension and organic content. A comprehensive parameterization scheme for coated BC radiative properties is developed with applications for modeling, ambient, and laboratory-based BC studies.
Oleg Sizov, Ekaterina Ezhova, Petr Tsymbarovich, Andrey Soromotin, Nikolay Prihod'ko, Tuukka Petäjä, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, and Kajar Köster
Biogeosciences, 18, 207–228,Short summary
In changing climate, tundra is expected to turn into shrubs and trees, diminishing reindeer pasture and increasing risks of tick-borne diseases. However, this transition may require a disturbance. Fires in Siberia are increasingly widespread. We studied wildfire dynamics and tundra–forest transition over 60 years in northwest Siberia near the Arctic Circle. Based on satellite data analysis, we found that transition occurs in 40 %–85 % of burned tundra compared to 5 %–15 % in non-disturbed areas.
Mikko Sipilä, Nina Sarnela, Kimmo Neitola, Totti Laitinen, Deniz Kemppainen, Lisa Beck, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Salla Kuittinen, Tuuli Lehmusjärvi, Janne Lampilahti, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Pasi P. Aalto, Petri Keronen, Erkki Siivola, Pekka A. Rantala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Tuija Jokinen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Metallurgical industry in Kola peninsula is a large source of air pollution in the (sub-)Arctic domain. Sulphur dioxide emissions from the ore smelters are transported to wide areas. We investigated sulphur dioxide and its transformation to sulphuric acid aerosol particles during winter months in Finnish Lapland, close to Kola industrial areas. We observed intense formation of new aerosol particles despite the low solar radiation intensity, often required for new particle formation elsewhere.
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system which effects are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
Marta Wenta, David Brus, Konstantinos Doulgeris, Ville Vakkari, and Agnieszka Herman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 33–42,Short summary
Representations of the atmospheric boundary layer over sea ice are a challenge for numerical weather prediction models. To increase our understanding of the relevant processes, a field campaign was carried out over the sea ice in the Baltic Sea from 27 February to 2 March 2020. Observations included 27 unmanned aerial vehicle flights, four photogrammetry missions, and shore-based automatic weather station and lidar wind measurements. The dataset obtained is used to validate model results.
Gloria Titos, María A. Burgos, Paul Zieger, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Urs Baltensperger, Anne Jefferson, James Sherman, Ernest Weingartner, Bas Henzing, Krista Luoma, Colin O'Dowd, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This manuscript investigates the impact of water uptake on the aerosol optical properties, in particular the aerosol light-scattering coefficient. Although in-situ measurements are performed at low relative humidity (typically at RH < 40 %), to address the climatic impact of aerosol particles it is necessary to take into account the effect that water uptake may have on the aerosol optical properties.
Martti Honkanen, Jens Daniel Müller, Jukka Seppälä, Gregor Rehder, Sami Kielosto, Pasi Ylöstalo, Timo Mäkelä, Juha Hatakka, and Lauri Laakso
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for OSShort summary
The exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the sea and the atmosphere is regulated by the gradient of CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) between the sea and the air. The daily variation of the seawater pCO2 recorded at the fixed station Utö in the Baltic Sea was found to be mainly biologically driven. Calculation of the annual net exchange of CO2 between the sea and atmosphere based on daily measurements of pCO2 carried out using the same sampling time every day could introduce a bias of up to a 12 %.
Huan Song, Xiaorui Chen, Keding Lu, Qi Zou, Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Alfred Wiedensohler, Daniel R. Moon, Dwayne E. Heard, María-Teresa Baeza-Romero, Mei Zheng, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15835–15850,Short summary
Accurate calculation of the HO2 uptake coefficient is one of the key parameters to quantify the co-reduction of both aerosol and ozone pollution. We modelled various lab measurements of γHO2 based on a gas-liquid phase kinetic model and developed a state-of-the-art parameterized equation. Based on a dataset from a comprehensive field campaign in the North China Plain, we proposed that the determination of the heterogeneous uptake process for HO2 should be included in future field campaigns.
Helmi-Marja Keskinen, Ilona Ylivinkka, Liine Heikkinen, Pasi P. Aalto, Tuomo Nieminen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juho Aalto, Janne Levula, Jutta Kesti, Lauri R. Ahonen, Ekaterina Ezhova, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Long-term (2005–2017) aerosol particulate matter (PM) concentration measurements at Finland at Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II, Hyytiälä) have been measured with three different measurement equipment. The comparison revealed an equivalence among the three methods. Mass concentrations were generally highest in summer. The descending trend was visible here in spring, summer and winter. This might have resulted at least partly from air quality legislation.
Markus Hartmann, Xianda Gong, Simonas Kecorius, Manuela van Pinxteren, Teresa Vogl, André Welti, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are not well characterized in the Arctic despite their importance for the Arctic energy budget. Little is known about their nature (mineral or biogenic) and sources (terrestrial or marine and long-range transport or local). We find indications that at the beginning of the melt season, a local, biogenic, probably marine source is likely, but significant enrichment of INPs has to take place from the ocean to the aerosol phase.
Jingsha Xu, Shaojie Song, Roy M. Harrison, Congbo Song, Lianfang Wei, Qiang Zhang, Yele Sun, Lu Lei, Chao Zhang, Xiaohong Yao, Dihui Chen, Weijun Li, Miaomiao Wu, Hezhong Tian, Lining Luo, Shengrui Tong, Weiran Li, Junling Wang, Guoliang Shi, Yanqi Huangfu, Yingze Tian, Baozhu Ge, Shaoli Su, Chao Peng, Yang Chen, Fumo Yang, Aleksandra Mihajlidi-Zelić, Dragana Đorđević, Stefan J. Swift, Imogen Andrews, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Ye Sun, Agung Kramawijaya, Jinxiu Han, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Clarissa Baldo, Siqi Hou, Feixue Zheng, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Chao Yan, Yongchun Liu, Markku Kulmala, Pingqing Fu, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6325–6341,Short summary
An interlaboratory comparison was conducted for the first time to examine differences in water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) measured by 10 labs using ion chromatography (IC) and by two online aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) methods. Major ions including SO42−, NO3− and NH4+ agreed well in 10 IC labs and correlated well with ACSM data. WSII interlab variability strongly affected aerosol acidity results based on ion balance, but aerosol pH computed by ISORROPIA II was very similar.
Yangang Ren, Bastian Stieger, Gerald Spindler, Benoit Grosselin, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13069–13089,Short summary
We present HONO measurements from the TROPOS research site in Melpitz, Germany. Investigations of HONO sources and sinks revealed the nighttime formation by heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO followed by a significant surface deposition at night. The evaporation of dew was identified as the main HONO source in the morning. In the following, dew measurements with a self-made dew collector were performed to estimate the amount of evaporated HONO from dew in the atmospheric HONO distribution.
Yongchun Liu, Yusheng Zhang, Chaofan Lian, Chao Yan, Zeming Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolong Fan, Yan Chen, Weigang Wang, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Jing Cai, Wei Du, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Joni Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Xuefei Wang, Bo Hu, Yuesi Wang, Maofa Ge, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13023–13040,Short summary
Understanding of the chemical and physical processes leading to atmospheric aerosol particle formation is crucial to devising effective mitigation strategies to protect the public and reduce uncertainties in climate predictions. We found that the photolysis of nitrous acid could promote the formation of organic and nitrate aerosol and that traffic-related emission is a major contributor to ambient nitrous acid on haze days in wintertime in Beijing.
Jing Cai, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Chao Yan, Liine M. Heikkinen, Feixue Zheng, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Shaojun Zhang, Daoyuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Tom V. Kokkonen, Tommy Chan, Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Pauli Paasonen, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Claudia Mohr, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Yele Sun, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Wei Du, Markku Kulmala, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12721–12740,Short summary
By applying both OA PMF and size PMF at the same urban measurement site in Beijing, similar particle source types, including vehicular emissions, cooking emissions and secondary formation-related sources, were resolved by both frameworks and agreed well. It is also found that in the absence of new particle formation, vehicular and cooking emissions dominate the particle number concentration, while secondary particulate matter governed PM2.5 mass during spring and summer in Beijing.
Ilona Ylivinkka, Santeri Kaupinmäki, Meri Virman, Maija Peltola, Ditte Taipale, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Ekaterina Ezhova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5595–5619,Short summary
In this study, we developed a new algorithm for cloud classification using solar radiation and cloud base height measurements. Our objective was to develop a simple and inexpensive but effective algorithm for the needs of studies related to ecosystem and atmosphere interactions. In the present study, we used the algorithm for obtaining cloud statistics at a measurement station in southern Finland, and we discuss the advantages and shortcomings of the algorithm.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna Elina Manninen, Katri Leino, Riikka Väänänen, Antti Manninen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Tuomo Nieminen, Matti Leskinen, Joonas Enroth, Marja Bister, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Juha Kangasluoma, Heikki Järvinen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11841–11854,Short summary
In this work, by using co-located airborne and ground-based measurements, we show that counter-rotating horizontal circulations in the planetary boundary layer (roll vortices) frequently enhance regional new particle formation or induce localized bursts of new particle formation. These observations can be explained by the ability of the rolls to efficiently lift low-volatile vapors emitted from the surface to the top of the boundary layer where new particle formation is more favorable.
Martin Heinritzi, Lubna Dada, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andrea C. Wagner, Lukas Fischer, Lauri R. Ahonen, Stavros Amanatidis, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Bernhard Baumgartner, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, Antonio Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Imad El Haddad, Xucheng He, Johanna Helm, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Juha Kangasluoma, Timo Keber, Changhyuk Kim, Andreas Kürten, Houssni Lamkaddam, Tiia M. Laurila, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna Elina Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy Lee Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Tuomo Nieminen, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Monica Passananti, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Clémence Rose, Siegfried Schobesberger, Wiebke Scholz, Kay Scholze, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Annele Virtanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Rainer Volkamer, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11809–11821,Short summary
With experiments performed at CLOUD, we show how isoprene interferes in monoterpene oxidation via RO2 termination at atmospherically relevant concentrations. This interference shifts the distribution of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) away from C20 class dimers towards C15 class dimers, which subsequently reduces both biogenic nucleation and early growth rates. Our results may help to understand the absence of new-particle formation in isoprene-rich environments.
Ting Lei, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Thomas Tuch, Xin Wang, Zhibin Wang, Mira Pöhlker, Maofa Ge, Weigang Wang, Eugene Mikhailov, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5551–5567,Short summary
We present the design of a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) apparatus that enables high accuracy and precision in hygroscopic growth measurements of aerosol nanoparticles with diameters less than 10 nm. We further introduce comprehensive methods for system calibration and validation of the performance of the system. We then study the size dependence of the deliquescence and the efflorescence of aerosol nanoparticles for sizes down to 6 nm.
Philipp G. Eger, Jan Schuladen, Nicolas Sobanski, Horst Fischer, Einar Karu, Jonathan Williams, Ville Vakkari, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
We determine the impact of pyruvic acid photolysis on the formation of acetaldehyde and peroxy radicals during summer and autumn in the Finnish boreal forest using a data-constrained box-model. Our results are dependent on the chosen scenario in which the main photolysis products are either acetaldehyde or peroxy radicals, with different overall quantum yields. We highlight that pyruvic acid photolysis can be an important contributor to acetaldehyde formation in remote, forested regions.
Lubna Dada, Ilona Ylivinkka, Rima Baalbaki, Chang Li, Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Lei Yao, Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Rujing Yin, Chenjuan Deng, Biwu Chu, Tuomo Nieminen, Yonghong Wang, Zhuohui Lin, Roseline C. Thakur, Jenni Kontkanen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Mikko Sipilä, Tareq Hussein, Pauli Paasonen, Federico Bianchi, Imre Salma, Tamás Weidinger, Michael Pikridas, Jean Sciare, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11747–11766,Short summary
We rely on sulfuric acid measurements in four contrasting environments, Hyytiälä, Finland; Agia Marina, Cyprus; Budapest, Hungary; and Beijing, China, representing semi-pristine boreal forest, rural environment in the Mediterranean area, urban environment, and heavily polluted megacity, respectively, in order to define the sources and sinks of sulfuric acid in these environments and to derive a new sulfuric acid proxy to be utilized in locations and during periods when it is not measured.
Jenni Kontkanen, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Lubna Dada, Ying Zhou, Jing Cai, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Simo Hakala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Zhuohui Lin, Yongchun Liu, Yonghong Wang, Chao Yan, Tuukka Petäjä, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11329–11348,Short summary
To estimate the impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles on air quality, knowledge of size distributions of particles emitted from anthropogenic sources is needed. We introduce a new method for determining size-resolved particle number emissions from measured particle size distributions. We apply our method to data measured in Beijing, China. We find that particle number emissions at our site are dominated by emissions of particles smaller than 30 nm, originating mainly from traffic.
Jost Heintzenberg, Wolfram Birmili, Bryan Hellack, Gerald Spindler, Thomas Tuch, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10967–10984,Short summary
A total of 10 years of hourly aerosol and gas data at four rural German stations have been combined with hourly back trajectories to the stations and inventories of the European Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), yielding emission maps and trends over Germany for PM10, particle number concentrations, and equivalent black carbon (eBC). The maps reflect aerosol emissions modified with atmospheric processes during transport between sources and receptor sites.
Laurent Poulain, Gerald Spindler, Achim Grüner, Thomas Tuch, Bastian Stieger, Dominik van Pinxteren, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4973–4994,Short summary
The stability and the comparability between ACSM and collocated filter sampling and MPSS measurements was investigated in order to examine the instruments robustness for year-long measurements. Specific attention was paid to the influence of the upper size cutoff diameter to better understand how it might affect the data validation. Recommendations are provided for better on-site quality assurance and quality control of the ACSM, which would be useful for either long-term or intensive campaigns.
Tommy Chan, Runlong Cai, Lauri R. Ahonen, Yiliang Liu, Ying Zhou, Joonas Vanhanen, Lubna Dada, Yan Chao, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4885–4898,Short summary
Using a particle size magnifier (PSM; Airmodus, Finland), we determined the particle size distribution using four inversion methods and compared each method to the others to establish their strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, we provided a step-by-step procedure on how to invert measured data using the PSM. Finally, we provided recommendations, code and data related to the data inversion. This is an important paper, as no operating procedure exists regarding how to process measured PSM data.
Jan-Stefan Swartz, Pieter G. van Zyl, Johan P. Beukes, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Avishkar Ramandh, and Jacobus J. Pienaar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10637–10665,Short summary
Statistical modelling of interdependencies between local, regional and global parameters on long-term trends of atmospheric SO2, NO2 and O2 within proximity of the pollution hotspot in South Africa indicated that changes in meteorological conditions and/or variances in source influences contributed to temporal variability. The impact of increased anthropogenic activities and energy demand was evident, while the El Niño–Southern Oscillation made a significant contribution to O3 levels.
Krista Luoma, Aki Virkkula, Pasi Aalto, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
The study presents a comparison of three different absorption photometers that measured ambient aerosol particles at a boreal forest site. The study aims to better understand problems related to filter-based measurements. Results show how different correction algorithms, which are used to produce the data, affect the derived optical properties of aerosol particles.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Francis D. Pope, David C. Beddows, Manuel Dall’Osto, Andreas Massling, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nørdstrom, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Tuukka Petäjä, Noemi Perez, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Formation of new particles is a key process in the atmosphere. New Particle Formation events arising from nucleation of gaseous precursors have been analysed in extensive datasets from thirteen sites in five European countries in terms of frequency, nucleation rate and particle growth rate, with several common features and many differences identified. Although nucleation frequencies are lower at roadside sites, nucleation rates and particle growth rates are typically higher.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Jill S. Johnson, Leighton A. Regayre, Masaru Yoshioka, Kirsty J. Pringle, Steven T. Turnock, Jo Browse, David M. H. Sexton, John W. Rostron, Nick A. J. Schutgens, Daniel G. Partridge, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Aijun Ding, David D. Cohen, Armand Atanacio, Ville Vakkari, Eija Asmi, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9491–9524,Short summary
We use over 9000 monthly aggregated grid-box measurements of aerosol to constrain the uncertainty in the HadGEM3-UKCA climate model. Measurements of AOD, PM2.5, particle number concentrations, sulfate and organic mass concentrations are compared to 1 million
variantsof the model using an implausibility metric. Despite many compensating effects in the model, the procedure constrains the probability distributions of many parameters, and direct radiative forcing uncertainty is reduced by 34 %.
Mario Simon, Lubna Dada, Martin Heinritzi, Wiebke Scholz, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lukas Fischer, Andrea C. Wagner, Andreas Kürten, Birte Rörup, Xu-Cheng He, João Almeida, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, Anton Bergen, Federico Bianchi, Steffen Bräkling, Sophia Brilke, Lucia Caudillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, António Dias, Danielle C. Draper, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El-Haddad, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Loic Gonzalez-Carracedo, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Jani Hakala, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Changhyuk Kim, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Matti P. Rissanen, Simon Schallhart, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee J. Tham, António R. Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Alexander L. Vogel, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Yusheng Wu, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Xueqin Zhou, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9183–9207,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic compounds (HOMs) have been identified as key vapors involved in atmospheric new-particle formation (NPF). The molecular distribution, HOM yield, and NPF from α-pinene oxidation experiments were measured at the CLOUD chamber over a wide tropospheric-temperature range. This study shows on a molecular scale that despite the sharp reduction in HOM yield at lower temperatures, the reduced volatility counteracts this effect and leads to an overall increase in the NPF rate.
Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Andrés Alastuey, Todor Petkov Arsov, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Cédric Couret, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Harald Flentje, Markus Fiebig, Martin Gysel-Beer, Jenny L. Hand, András Hoffer, Rakesh Hooda, Christoph Hueglin, Warren Joubert, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Casper Labuschagne, Neng-Huei Lin, Yong Lin, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marco Pandolfi, Natalia Prats, Anthony J. Prenni, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Ludwig Ries, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Elvis Torres, Thomas Tuch, Rolf Weller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paul Zieger, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8867–8908,Short summary
Long-term trends of aerosol radiative properties (52 stations) prove that aerosol load has significantly decreased over the last 20 years. Scattering trends are negative in Europe (EU) and North America (NA), not ss in Asia, and show a mix of positive and negative trends at polar stations. Absorption has mainly negative trends. The single scattering albedo has positive trends in Asia and eastern EU and negative in western EU and NA, leading to a global positive median trend of 0.02 % per year.
Yuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Putian Zhou, Dan Yao, Dongsheng Ji, Jie Sun, Yinghong Wang, Shuman Zhao, Wei Huang, Shuanghong Yang, Dean Chen, Wenkang Gao, Zirui Liu, Bo Hu, Renjian Zhang, Limin Zeng, Maofa Ge, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8181–8200,
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Jia Sun, Wolfram Birmili, Markus Hermann, Thomas Tuch, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Fabian Rasch, Thomas Müller, Alexander Schladitz, Susanne Bastian, Gunter Löschau, Josef Cyrys, Jianwei Gu, Harald Flentje, Björn Briel, Christoph Asbach, Heinz Kaminski, Ludwig Ries, Ralf Sohmer, Holger Gerwig, Klaus Wirtz, Frank Meinhardt, Andreas Schwerin, Olaf Bath, Nan Ma, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7049–7068,Short summary
To evaluate the effectiveness of emission mitigation policies, we evaluated the trends of the size-resolved particle number concentrations and equivalent black carbon mass concentration at 16 observational sites for various environments in Germany (2009–2018). Overall, significant decrease trends are found for most of the parameters and sites. This study suggests that a combination of emission mitigation policies can effectively improve the air quality on large spatial scales such as in Germany.
Anni Hartikainen, Petri Tiitta, Mika Ihalainen, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Jürgen Orasche, Hendryk Czech, Miika Kortelainen, Heikki Lamberg, Heikki Suhonen, Hanna Koponen, Liqing Hao, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, Jarkko Tissari, and Olli Sippula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6357–6378,Short summary
Residential wood combustion emits large amounts of organic compounds, which are transformed in the atmosphere via photochemical ageing reactions. We assessed this organic emission at various stages of exposure with an oxidation flow reactor. Ageing led to major changes in both gaseous and particulate phases including increased acidic compounds and transformation of the polycyclic aromatic compounds. Such changes have serious implications for the health- and climate-related effects of combustion.
Zhuohui Lin, Yonghong Wang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Yishuo Guo, Zemin Feng, Chang Li, Yusheng Zhang, Simo Hakala, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Xiaolong Fan, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Runlong Cai, Tom V. Kokkonen, Putian Zhou, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACP
Sascha Pfeifer, Thomas Müller, Andrew Freedman, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2161–2167,Short summary
The effect of the baseline drift on the resulting extinction values of three CAPS PMex monitors with different wavelengths was analysed for an urban background station. A significant baseline drift was observed, which leads to characteristic measurement artefacts for particle extinction. Two alternative methods for recalculating the baseline are shown. With these methods the extinction artefacts are diminished and the effective scattering of the resulting extinction values is reduced.
Dean Chen, Putian Zhou, Tuomo Nieminen, Pontus Roldin, Ximeng Qi, Petri Clusius, Carlton Xavier, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Markku Kulmala, Pekka Rantala, Juho Aalto, Nina Sarnela, Pasi Kolari, Petri Keronen, Matti P. Rissanen, Metin Baykara, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Atmospheric oxidants OH, O3 and NO3 dominate the atmospheric oxidation capacity, and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is considered as a main driver for new particle formation events. We studied how the trends of these atmospheric oxidants and H2SO4 changed in southern Finland during the past 12 years and discussed how these trends related to decreasing emissions of air pollutants in Europe. Our results showed that OH increased by 1.56 % yr−1 at daytime and NO3 decreased by 3.92 % yr−1 at nighttime.
Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Matthieu Riva, Krista Luoma, Kaspar Dällenbach, Juho Aalto, Pasi Aalto, Diego Aliaga, Minna Aurela, Helmi Keskinen, Ulla Makkonen, Pekka Rantala, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3151–3180,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air. They are known as a health risk, but they also influence the Earth's climate. The composition of aerosols becomes important when predicting their effect on climate. We show both seasonal and year-to-year variability of aerosol chemical composition in the boreal forest of Finland. We observed a consistent bimodal seasonal trend: a biogenic summertime maximum and an anthropogenic wintertime maximum in the mass concentration.
Yu Wang, Ying Chen, Zhijun Wu, Dongjie Shang, Yuxuan Bian, Zhuofei Du, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Rong Su, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Patrick Schlag, Thorsten Hohaus, Aristeidis Voliotis, Keding Lu, Limin Zeng, Chunsheng Zhao, M. Rami Alfarra, Gordon McFiggans, Alfred Wiedensohler, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Yuanhang Zhang, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2161–2175,Short summary
Severe haze events, with high particulate nitrate (pNO3−) burden, frequently prevail in Beijing. In this study, we demonstrate a mutual-promotion effect between aerosol water uptake and pNO3− formation backed up by theoretical calculations and field observations throughout a typical pNO3−-dominated haze event in Beijing wintertime. This self-amplified mutual-promotion effect between aerosol water content and particulate nitrate can rapidly deteriorate air quality and degrade visibility.
Haiyan Li, Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Liine Heikkinen, Kaspar Daellenbach, Jordan E. Krechmer, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Douglas Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Eric Villenave, Emilie Perraudin, Mikael Ehn, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1941–1959,Short summary
We deployed the recently developed Vocus PTR-TOF in the French Landes forest during summertime to gain insights into terpene chemistry. In addition to isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and the low-volatility diterpenes, various terpene reaction products are characterized. Through the analysis of terpene chemistry, we demonstrate the capability of the Vocus PTR-TOF for the detection of oxidized reaction products, highlighting its importance in investigating atmospheric oxidation processes.
Ditte Taipale, Juho Aalto, Pauliina Schiestl-Aalto, Markku Kulmala, and Jaana Bäck
Marco Paglione, Stefania Gilardoni, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Nicola Zanca, Silvia Sandrini, Lara Giulianelli, Dimitri Bacco, Silvia Ferrari, Vanes Poluzzi, Fabiana Scotto, Arianna Trentini, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Paola Massoli, Claudio Carbone, Maria Cristina Facchini, and Sandro Fuzzi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1233–1254,Short summary
Our multi-year observational study regarding organic aerosol (OA) in the Po Valley indicates that more than half of OA is of secondary origin (SOA) through all the year and at both urban and rural sites. Within the SOA, the measurements show the importance of biomass burning (BB) aging products during cold seasons and indicate aqueous-phase processing of BB emissions as a fundamental driver of SOA formation in wintertime, with important consequences for air quality policy at the global level.
Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yiliang Liu, Yueyun Fu, Juha Kangasluoma, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Federico Bianchi, Tom V. Kokkonen, Yongchun Liu, Joni Kujansuu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1201–1216,Short summary
In this study, we focus on explaining the concentration variations in the observed particle modes, by relating them to the potential aerosol sources and sinks, and on understanding the connections between these modes. Interestingly, even in the atmospheric cocktail in urban Beijing, secondary new particle formation (NPF) drives the particle number concentration, especially in the sub-3 nm range. We found that the total number concentration is ~ 4 times higher on NPF days than on haze days.
Ville Leinonen, Petri Tiitta, Olli Sippula, Hendryk Czech, Ari Leskinen, Juha Karvanen, Sini Isokääntä, and Santtu Mikkonen
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Ying Chen, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Chao Wei, Liang Ran, Ralf Wolke, Johannes Größ, Qiaoqiao Wang, Andrea Pozzer, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Gerald Spindler, Jos Lelieveld, Ina Tegen, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 771–786,Short summary
Particulate nitrate is one of the most important climate cooling agents. Our results show that interaction with sea-salt aerosol can shift nitrate to larger sized particles (redistribution effect), weakening its direct cooling effect. The modelling results indicate strong redistribution over coastal and offshore regions worldwide as well as continental Europe. Improving the consideration of the redistribution effect in global models fosters a better understanding of climate change.
Marja Hemmilä, Ulla Makkonen, Aki Virkkula, Georgia Panagiotopoulou, Juho Aalto, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Hannele Hakola, and Heidi Hellén
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
Amines are atmospheric bases, which can affect to nucleation of aerosols. Lately, a computational study showed that guanidine could be even more effective to stabilize sulphuric acid clusters. In this paper we used a a dynamic flow-through chamber with an online ion chromatograph MARGA coupled with a mass spectrometer (MARGA-MS). We studied amine and guanidine emission from a boreal forest floor in Finland, and find out, that the boreal forest floor is a source of amines and guanidine.
Matti Räsänen, Mika Aurela, Ville Vakkari, Johan P. Beukes, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Pieter G. Van Zyl, Miroslav Josipovic, Stefan J. Siebert, Tuomas Laurila, Markku Kulmala, Lauri Laakso, Janne Rinne, Ram Oren, and Gabriel Katul
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The annual ET is approximately equal to precipitation during six measured years for grazed savanna grassland. The computed annual transpiration was highly constrained when rainfall was near or above the long-term mean but was reduced during severe drought year. The developed methodologies can be used in a wide range of arid and semi-arid ecosystems.
Yonghong Wang, Miao Yu, Yuesi Wang, Guiqian Tang, Tao Song, Putian Zhou, Zirui Liu, Bo Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Lili Wang, Xiaowan Zhu, Chao Yan, Mikael Ehn, Wenkang Gao, Yuepeng Pan, Jinyuan Xin, Yang Sun, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 45–53,Short summary
We found a positive particle matter-mixing layer height feedback at three observation platforms at the 325 m Beijing meteorology tower, which is characterized by a shallower mixing layer height and a higher particle matter concentration. Measurements of solar radiation, aerosol chemical composition, meteorology parameters, trace gases and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) could explain the feedback mechanism to some extent.
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Krista Luoma, Helmi Keskinen, Pasi P. Aalto, Xuguang Chi, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15483–15502,Short summary
Long-term cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN) data are scarce; there are a lot more data on aerosol optical properties (AOPs). It is therefore valuable to derive parameterizations for estimating NCCN from AOP measurements. With the new parameterization NCCN can be estimated from backscatter fraction, scattering Ångström exponent, and total light-scattering coefficient. The NCCN–AOP relationships depend on the geometric mean diameter and the width of the size distribution.
Aurélien Chauvigné, Diego Aliaga, Karine Sellegri, Nadège Montoux, Radovan Krejci, Griša Močnik, Isabel Moreno, Thomas Müller, Marco Pandolfi, Fernando Velarde, Kay Weinhold, Patrick Ginot, Alfred Wiedensohler, Marcos Andrade, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14805–14824,Short summary
The study presents for the first time the analysis of aerosol optical properties at the unique high-altitude station of Chacaltaya, Bolivia. Ideally located, the station allows us to better understand influences of urban areas and the Amazon Forest on tropospheric properties. An emerging method is applied to characterize aerosol origins and permits us to illustrate evidence of natural and anthropogenic influences.
Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Dean Chen, Michael Boy, Ditte Taipale, Ville Vakkari, Putian Zhou, Tuukka Petäjä, and Heidi Hellén
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14431–14453,Short summary
Our study shows that, despite our best efforts and recent progress, our knowledge of the chemical composition of the air under the canopy of a boreal forest still cannot be fully characterized. The discrepancy between the measured total reactivity of the air and the reactivity derived from the known chemical composition highlights the need to better understand the emissions from vegetation, but also other sources, such as the forest soil.
Jingda Liu, Lili Wang, Mingge Li, Zhiheng Liao, Yang Sun, Tao Song, Wenkang Gao, Yonghong Wang, Yan Li, Dongsheng Ji, Bo Hu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yuesi Wang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14477–14492,Short summary
We analyzed the surface ozone variation characteristics and quantified the impact of synoptic and local meteorological factors on northern China during the warm season based on multi-city, in situ ozone and meteorological data, as well as meteorological reanalysis. The results of quantitative exploration on synoptic and local meteorological factors influencing both interannual and day-to-day ozone variations will provide the scientific basis for evaluating emission reduction measures.
Simonas Kecorius, Teresa Vogl, Pauli Paasonen, Janne Lampilahti, Daniel Rothenberg, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Manuela van Pinxteren, Markus Hartmann, Silvia Henning, Xianda Gong, Andre Welti, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14339–14364,Short summary
Arctic sea-ice retreat, atmospheric new particle formation (NPF), and aerosol–cloud interaction may all be linked via a positive feedback mechanism. Understanding the sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is an important piece in the Arctic amplification puzzle. We show that Arctic newly formed particles do not have to grow beyond the Aitken mode to act as CCN. This is important, because NPF occurrence in the Arctic is expected to increase, making it a significant contributor to CCN budget.
Sebastian Düsing, Birgit Wehner, Thomas Müller, Almond Stöcker, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5879–5895,Short summary
This study examines the effect of changes in relative humidity on measurements made by two different filter-based absorption photometers. Different filter loads, loading materials, and filter types are considered. It was found that both instruments react opposingly and with different magnitudes. One of the devices showed a variation in the dependence on the loading material. For each of the two devices, a correction approach is provided. Recommendations based on the findings are given.
Krista Luoma, Aki Virkkula, Pasi Aalto, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11363–11382,Short summary
We present an over 10-year-long time series of aerosol optical properties (AOPs) measured at a rural boreal forest site. Knowledge of AOPs is needed in determining the direct effect of aerosol particles on climate. We observed decreasing trends in scattering and absorption and increasing trends in backscattering fraction and single-scattering albedo. Trends of single-scattering albedo and backscattering fraction increased the efficiency of aerosol particles to scatter radiation back into space.
Honey Dawn C. Alas, Kay Weinhold, Francesca Costabile, Antonio Di Ianni, Thomas Müller, Sascha Pfeifer, Luca Di Liberto, Jay R. Turner, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4697–4712,Short summary
Traffic-related air pollutants are highly variable in space. To determine their spatial distribution in relation to human exposure, portable black carbon and PM2.5 mass concentration sensors aboard mobile platforms can be used. High-spatial-resolution data can help improve exposure estimates. The quality of these data becomes increasingly important. This study provides a detailed methodology on how to achieve highly quality assured data from the abovementioned mobile measurements.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Thomas Müller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kristina Höhler, Konrad Kandler, Nan Ma, Barbara Dietel, Thea Schiebel, Ottmar Möhler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10883–10900,Short summary
For the diverse aerosol on Cyprus, we found the following: new particle formation can be a source of cloud condensation nuclei. Particle hygroscopicity showed that particles ~<100 nm contained mostly organic material, while larger ones were more hygroscopic. Two separate methods obtained similar concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INP), with mostly no evidence of a local origin. Different parameterizations overestimated INP concentration in this rather polluted region.
Simo Hakala, Mansour A. Alghamdi, Pauli Paasonen, Ville Vakkari, Mamdouh I. Khoder, Kimmo Neitola, Lubna Dada, Ahmad S. Abdelmaksoud, Hisham Al-Jeelani, Ibrahim I. Shabbaj, Fahd M. Almehmadi, Anu-Maija Sundström, Heikki Lihavainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jenni Kontkanen, Markku Kulmala, Tareq Hussein, and Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10537–10555,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have significant effects on human health and the climate. A large fraction of these aerosols originate from new particle formation, where atmospheric vapors form small nanosized particles that grow into larger sizes, thus becoming climatically relevant. We show that large amounts of fast-growing particles are formed frequently at a site located in western Saudi Arabia and that these particles are likely connected to strong nearby emissions from human activities.
Yonghong Wang, Yuesi Wang, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Qiaozhi Zha, Chongshui Gong, Sixuan Li, Yuepeng Pan, Bo Hu, Jinyuan Xin, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5881–5888,Short summary
Satellite observations combined with in situ measurements demonstrate that increased inorganic aerosol fractions of NO2 and SO2 contribute to air pollution and frequently occurring haze in China from 1980 to 2010. Currently, the reduction of nitrate, sulfate and their precursor gases would contribute towards better visibility in China.
Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Jordan E. Krechmer, Otso Peräkylä, Yanjun Zhang, Liine Heikkinen, Olga Garmash, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2403–2421,Short summary
The impact of aerosol particles on climate and air quality remains poorly understood due to multiple factors. One of the current limitations is the incomplete understanding of the contribution of oxygenated species, formed from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to aerosol formation. Taking advantage of recent mass spectrometric developments, we have evaluated and compared the capability of multiple state-of-the-art mass spectrometers to detect a wide variety of oxygenated VOCs.
Katri Leino, Janne Lampilahti, Pyry Poutanen, Riikka Väänänen, Antti Manninen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Lubna Dada, Anna Franck, Daniela Wimmer, Pasi P. Aalto, Lauri R. Ahonen, Joonas Enroth, Juha Kangasluoma, Petri Keronen, Frans Korhonen, Heikki Laakso, Teemu Matilainen, Erkki Siivola, Hanna E. Manninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4127–4138,Short summary
This study presents airborne observations of particles, starting from 1.5 nm in diameter, above the boreal forest from 100 m up to 2700 m. The aim was to study the extent of NPF and likely places for nucleation. We found that the highest concentrations of 1.5–3 nm particles were above the forest canopy top on NPF event mornings, and the concentration decreased with increasing altitude. This would indicate the importance of gaseous precursors from vegetation for NPF processes in this area.
Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Francesco Canonaco, Liine Heikkinen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, André S. H. Prévôt, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3645–3672,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometry produces large amounts of complex data, the analysis of which necessitates chemometrics – the application of advanced statistical and mathematical tools to chemical data. Here, we perform a data-driven analysis of multiple aerosol mass spectrometric data sets, to show that the traditional separation of organics and inorganics is not necessary. The resulting 7-component aerosol speciation explains 83 % to 96 % of observed variability at our boreal forest experiment site.
Nikos Kalivitis, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Evaggelia Tzitzikalaki, Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Nikos Daskalakis, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Hanna E. Manninen, Pontus Roldin, Tuukka Petäjä, Michael Boy, Markku Kulmala, Maria Kanakidou, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2671–2686,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is an important source of atmospheric aerosols. For the Mediterranean atmosphere, only few studies exist. In this study we present one of the longest series of NPF by analyzing 10 years of data from Crete, Greece. NPF took place on 27 % of the available days; it was more frequent in spring and less so in late summer. Model simulations showed that NPF in the subtropical environment may differ greatly from that in the boreal environment.
Michael Boy, Erik S. Thomson, Juan-C. Acosta Navarro, Olafur Arnalds, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Jaana Bäck, Frank Berninger, Merete Bilde, Zoé Brasseur, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Dimitri Castarède, Maryam Dalirian, Gerrit de Leeuw, Monika Dragosics, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Jonathan Duplissy, Annica M. L. Ekman, Keyan Fang, Jean-Charles Gallet, Marianne Glasius, Sven-Erik Gryning, Henrik Grythe, Hans-Christen Hansson, Margareta Hansson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Trond Iversen, Ingibjorg Jonsdottir, Ville Kasurinen, Alf Kirkevåg, Atte Korhola, Radovan Krejci, Jon Egill Kristjansson, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Antti Lauri, Matti Leppäranta, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Makkonen, Andreas Massling, Outi Meinander, E. Douglas Nilsson, Haraldur Olafsson, Jan B. C. Pettersson, Nønne L. Prisle, Ilona Riipinen, Pontus Roldin, Meri Ruppel, Matthew Salter, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, Heikki Seppä, Henrik Skov, Joana Soares, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Jonas Svensson, Erik Swietlicki, Ksenia Tabakova, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Aki Virkkula, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Yusheng Wu, Paul Zieger, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2015–2061,Short summary
The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere–Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011–2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date and aimed to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. The paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated and provides a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC.
Timo Vihma, Petteri Uotila, Stein Sandven, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Alexander Makshtas, Alexander Pelyasov, Roberta Pirazzini, Finn Danielsen, Sergey Chalov, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Vladimir Ivanov, Ivan Frolov, Anna Albin, Bin Cheng, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Viktor Arkhipkin, Stanislav Myslenkov, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1941–1970,Short summary
The Arctic marine climate system, ecosystems, and socio-economic systems are changing rapidly. This calls for the establishment of a marine Arctic component of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (MA-PEEX), for which we present a plan. The program will promote international collaboration; sustainable marine meteorological, sea ice, and oceanographic observations; advanced data management; and multidisciplinary research on the marine Arctic and its interaction with the Eurasian continent.
Yiqun Lu, Chao Yan, Yueyun Fu, Yan Chen, Yiliang Liu, Gan Yang, Yuwei Wang, Federico Bianchi, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Rujing Yin, Rima Baalbaki, Olga Garmash, Chenjuan Deng, Weigang Wang, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1971–1983,Short summary
Gaseous sulfuric acid is one of the key precursors for atmospheric new particle formation processes, but its measurement remains challenging. This work develops an estimation method for the gaseous sulfuric acid concentration in an urban environment in China using multiple atmospheric variables that are easier to measure. The consideration of the heterogeneous formation of HONO and the subsequent photo-production of OH radicals improves the performance of the estimation method.
Ville Vakkari, Antti J. Manninen, Ewan J. O'Connor, Jan H. Schween, Pieter G. van Zyl, and Eleni Marinou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 839–852,Short summary
Commercially available Doppler lidars have been proven to be efficient tools for studying winds and turbulence in the planetary boundary layer. However, in many cases low signal is still a limiting factor for utilising measurements by these devices. Here, we present a novel post-processing algorithm for Halo Stream Line Doppler lidars, which enables an improvement in sensitivity of a factor of 5 or more.
Biwu Chu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Federico Bianchi, Chao Yan, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 115–138,Short summary
The characteristics of new particle formation (NPF) in China, including frequency, formation rate, and particle growth rate, were summarized comprehensively and were compared among observations in different environments. The interactions between air pollution and NPF are discussed, as well as the possible reasons for more frequent NPF under heavy pollution conditions than in our current understanding. Significant and future research directions for NPF studies in China are also summarized.
Shan Huang, Zhijun Wu, Laurent Poulain, Manuela van Pinxteren, Maik Merkel, Denise Assmann, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18043–18062,Short summary
The Atlantic aerosols are characterized based on high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) measurements during four open-ocean cruises. This unique data set provides the latitudinal distribution of source contributions of organic aerosols (OAs) over the Atlantic Ocean, showing that marine sources could control the OA formation over the South Atlantic, while strong continental influence was found near Africa and Europe.
Ekaterina Ezhova, Ilona Ylivinkka, Joel Kuusk, Kaupo Komsaare, Marko Vana, Alisa Krasnova, Steffen Noe, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Belan, Sung-Bin Park, Jošt Valentin Lavrič, Martin Heimann, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Pasi Kolari, Jaana Bäck, Üllar Rannik, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17863–17881,Short summary
Understanding the connections between aerosols, solar radiation and photosynthesis in terrestrial ecosystems is important for estimates of the CO2 balance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosols and clouds influence solar radiation. In this study, we quantify the aerosol effect on solar radiation in boreal forests and study forest ecosystems response to this change in the radiation conditions. The analysis is based on atmospheric observations from several remote stations in Eurasian forests.
Lubna Dada, Robert Chellapermal, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Pauli Paasonen, Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17883–17893,Short summary
Our paper provides an automatic method to classify new particle formation events into four classes based on the accompanying air ion concentrations. The method is applied to 10 years of data measured within the SMEAR II station and was capable of eliminating the undefined class as well as defining the start, peak and end times of a regional event by monitoring the initial steps of cluster formation. Our method can be modified and applied to different locations where particle formation occurs.
Liqing Hao, Olga Garmash, Mikael Ehn, Pasi Miettinen, Paola Massoli, Santtu Mikkonen, Tuija Jokinen, Pontus Roldin, Pasi Aalto, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jorma Joutsensaari, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17705–17716,Short summary
An aerosol mass spectrometer was used to characterize aerosol chemical composition during new particle formation periods. The time profiles of mass concentrations and chemical composition of observed aerosol particles are subjected to joint effects of boundary layer dilution, atmospheric chemistry and aerosol mixing in different boundary layers. During the nighttime, the increase in organic aerosol mass correlated well with the increase in condensed highly oxygenated organic molecules' mass.
Qiaozhi Zha, Chao Yan, Heikki Junninen, Matthieu Riva, Nina Sarnela, Juho Aalto, Lauriane Quéléver, Simon Schallhart, Lubna Dada, Liine Heikkinen, Otso Peräkylä, Jun Zou, Clémence Rose, Yonghong Wang, Ivan Mammarella, Gabriel Katul, Timo Vesala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17437–17450,Short summary
Vertical measurements of highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) below and above the forest canopy were performed for the first time in a boreal forest during September 2016. Our results highlight that near-ground HOM measurements may only be representative of a small fraction of the entire nocturnal boundary layer, which may sequentially influence the growth of newly formed particles and SOA formation close to ground surface, where the majority of measurements are conducted.
Cristina Carnerero, Noemí Pérez, Cristina Reche, Marina Ealo, Gloria Titos, Hong-Ku Lee, Hee-Ram Eun, Yong-Hee Park, Lubna Dada, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Enrique Mantilla, Miguel Escudero, Francisco J. Gómez-Moreno, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Esther Coz, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, David C. S. Beddows, Roy M. Harrison, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Kang-Ho Ahn, Andrés Alastuey, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16601–16618,Short summary
The vertical distribution of new particle formation events was studied using tethered balloons carrying miniaturized instrumentation. Results show that new particle formation and growth occurs only in the lower layer of the atmosphere, where aerosols are mixed due to convection, especially when the atmosphere is clean. A comparison of urban and suburban surface stations was also made, suggesting that such events may have a significant impact on ultrafine particle concentrations in a wide area.
Tracey Leah Laban, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Johan Paul Beukes, Ville Vakkari, Kerneels Jaars, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Miroslav Josipovic, Anne Mee Thompson, Markku Kulmala, and Lauri Laakso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15491–15514,Short summary
Surface O3 was measured at four sites in the north-eastern interior of South Africa, which revealed that O3 is a regional problem in continental South Africa, with elevated O3 levels found at rural background and industrial sites. Increased O3 concentrations were associated with high CO levels predominantly related to regional biomass burning, while the O3 production regime was established to be predominantly VOC limited. Increased O3 is associated with strong seasonality of precursor sources.
Ulpu Leijala, Jan-Victor Björkqvist, Milla M. Johansson, Havu Pellikka, Lauri Laakso, and Kimmo K. Kahma
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2785–2799,Short summary
The coastal flooding risks based on the combined effect of sea level variations and wind-generated waves are estimated for the present, 2050 and 2100. The variability of the wave conditions between the two case study locations in the Helsinki archipelago leads to a difference in the safe building levels of up to 1 m. The rising mean sea level in the Gulf of Finland and the uncertainty of the associated scenarios contribute to the flooding risks notably in 2100.
Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Urs Baltensperger, David C. S. Beddows, Johan Paul Beukes, Don Collins, Aijun Ding, Roy M. Harrison, Bas Henzing, Rakesh Hooda, Min Hu, Urmas Hõrrak, Niku Kivekäs, Kaupo Komsaare, Radovan Krejci, Adam Kristensson, Lauri Laakso, Ari Laaksonen, W. Richard Leaitch, Heikki Lihavainen, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Zoltán Németh, Wei Nie, Colin O'Dowd, Imre Salma, Karine Sellegri, Birgitta Svenningsson, Erik Swietlicki, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Ville Vakkari, Marko Vana, Alfred Wiedensohler, Zhijun Wu, Annele Virtanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14737–14756,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have diverse effects on air quality, human health, and global climate. One important source of aerosols is their formation via nucleation and growth in the atmosphere. We have analyzed long-term observations of regional new particle formation events around the globe and provide a comprehensive view on the characteristics of this phenomenon in diverse environments. The results are useful in developing more realistic representation of atmospheric aerosols in global models.
Heidi Hellén, Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Ilona Ylivinkka, Ville Vakkari, Jaana Bäck, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13839–13863,Short summary
Exceptionally large ambient air concentration datasets of VOCs were measured in a boreal forest. For the first time concentration of the main sesquiterpene (β-caryophyllene) emitted by the local trees was also measured. Sesquiterpenes were found to have a major impact on local atmospheric chemistry, even though their concentrations were 30 times lower than the monoterpene concentrations. In addition, sesquiterpenes are expected to have a high impact on local secondary organic aerosol production.
David Patoulias, Christos Fountoukis, Ilona Riipinen, Ari Asmi, Markku Kulmala, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13639–13654,Short summary
PMCAMx-UF, a 3-D chemical transport model focusing on the simulation of ultrafine particles, has been extended with the addition of the volatility basis set (VBS) approach for the simulation of organic aerosol. The model was applied in Europe and its predictions were evaluated against field observations collected during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign. The condensation of organics led to an increase (50–120 %) in the larger particles but the total number concentration decreased by 10–30 %.
Jenni Kontkanen, Tinja Olenius, Markku Kulmala, and Ilona Riipinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13733–13754,Short summary
New particle formation involving sulfuric acid, bases and organic compounds is an important source of atmospheric aerosol particles. We investigate the capability of nano-Köhler theory to describe this process by simulating the dynamics of atmospheric molecular clusters. We find that nano-Köhler-type behavior occurs in our simulations when the saturation ratio of the organic vapor and the ratio between organic and inorganic vapor concentrations are in a suitable range.
Martti Honkanen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Tuomas Laurila, Timo Mäkelä, Juha Hatakka, Sami Kielosto, and Lauri Laakso
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5335–5350,Short summary
The exchange rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the atmosphere and the sea is typically small compared to the fluxes observed in the terrestrial ecosystems, causing technical challenges for the measurements of the CO2 sea–air fluxes. In this paper, we examine CO2 sea–air flux measurements carried out on a fixed station on an island. The problems generated by water vapor interference and unmet theoretical assumptions of the eddy covariance method are addressed.
Pertti Hari, Steffen Noe, Sigrid Dengel, Jan Elbers, Bert Gielen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Bart Kruijt, Liisa Kulmala, Anders Lindroth, Ivan Mammarella, Tuukka Petäjä, Guy Schurgers, Anni Vanhatalo, Markku Kulmala, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13321–13328,Short summary
The development of eddy-covariance measurements of ecosystem CO2 fluxes began a new era in the field studies of photosynthesis. The interpretation of the very variable CO2 fluxes in evergreen forests has been problematic especially in seasonal transition times. We apply two theoretical needle-level equations and show they can predict photosynthetic CO2 flux between the atmosphere and Scots pine forests. This has strong implications for the interpretation of the global change and boreal forests.
Daniela Wimmer, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Hanna Elina Manninen, Juha Kangasluoma, Alessandro Franchin, Tuomo Nieminen, John Backman, Jian Wang, Chongai Kuang, Radovan Krejci, Joel Brito, Fernando Goncalves Morais, Scot Turnbull Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Markku Kulmala, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13245–13264,Short summary
This work focuses on understanding the production of very small airborne particles in the undisturbed environment of the Amazon basin. Computer models have shown that up to 70 % of these tiny particles are responsible for cloud formation on a global scale. The processes behind the production of these very small particles have been studied intensely recently. Their appearance has been observed almost all over the world. We directly measure sub-3 nm aerosols for the first time in the Amazon basin.
Chao Yan, Lubna Dada, Clémence Rose, Tuija Jokinen, Wei Nie, Siegfried Schobesberger, Heikki Junninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Nina Sarnela, Ulla Makkonen, Olga Garmash, Yonghong Wang, Qiaozhi Zha, Pauli Paasonen, Federico Bianchi, Mikko Sipilä, Mikael Ehn, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13231–13243,Short summary
Ions can play an important role in atmospheric new particle formation by stabilizing the embryonic clusters. Such a process is called ion-induced nucleation (IIN). We found two distinct IIN mechanisms – driven by H2SO4-NH3 clusters and by organic vapors, respectively. The concentration ratio of organic vapors to H2SO4 regulates via which pathway the IIN occur. As the organic vapor concentration is influenced by temperature, a seasonal variation in the main IIN mechanism can be expected.
Yee Jun Tham, Zhe Wang, Qinyi Li, Weihao Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Keding Lu, Nan Ma, Chao Yan, Simonas Kecorius, Alfred Wiedensohler, Yuanhang Zhang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13155–13171,Short summary
This study addresses the limited understanding of heterogeneous N2O5 uptake and ClNO2 production in the polluted environment of China. The results showed that N2O5 uptake and ClNO2 yield cannot be well explained by previous parameterizations and were largely influenced by factors like aerosol water content and biomass burning emission. Our findings illuminate the need to realistically parameterize these heterogeneous processes for better simulation of photochemical and haze pollution in China.
Martha A. Zaidan, Ville Haapasilta, Rishi Relan, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Heikki Junninen, Markku Kulmala, and Adam S. Foster
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12699–12714,Short summary
This article promotes the use of the mutual information method for finding any non-linear associations among atmospheric variables. We demonstrate that the same results from previous studies are obtained by this method, which operates without supervision and without the need of understanding the physics deeply. This suggests that the method is suitable to be implemented widely in the atmospheric field to discover other interesting phenomena and their relevant variables.
Pauli Paasonen, Maija Peltola, Jenni Kontkanen, Heikki Junninen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12085–12103,Short summary
We determine aerosol growth rates in diameter ranges from below 10 to over 300 nm from long-term data with a novel automatic method. We show that aerosol growth rate in boreal forest increases with increasing particle diameter from 10 nm to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sizes and that the growth rate of sub-CCN particles is not suppressed by increasing condensation sink. Our findings suggest that aerosol growth to CCN sizes is a faster and less self-regulated process than previously estimated.
Ximeng Qi, Aijun Ding, Pontus Roldin, Zhengning Xu, Putian Zhou, Nina Sarnela, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Anton Rusanen, Mikael Ehn, Matti P. Rissanen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11779–11791,Short summary
In this study we simulate the HOM concentrations and discuss their roles in NPF at a remote boreal forest site in Finland and a suburban site in eastern China. We found that sulfuric acid and HOM organonitrate concentrations in the gas phase are significantly higher but other HOM monomers and dimers from monoterpene oxidation are lower in eastern China. This study highlights the need for molecular-scale measurements in improving the understanding of NPF mechanisms in polluted areas.
Eleni Karnezi, Benjamin N. Murphy, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Florian Rubach, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Thomas F. Mentel, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10759–10772,Short summary
Different parameterizations of the organic aerosol (OA) formation and evolution are evaluated using ground and airborne measurements collected in the 2012 PEGASOS field campaign in the Po Valley (Italy). Total OA concentration and O : C ratios were reproduced within experimental error by a number of schemes. Anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA) contributed 15–25 % of the total OA, 20–35 % of SOA from intermediate volatility compounds oxidation, and 15–45 % of biogenic SOA depending on the scheme.
Anna Nikandrova, Ksenia Tabakova, Antti Manninen, Riikka Väänänen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Ewan O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10575–10591,Short summary
We investigated temporal and vertical aerosol properties in a rural environment during BAECC (Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Cloud and Climate) campaign. Differences were observed in aerosol number size distribution, variability and mixing in the layers between two case studies: clear-sky and partly cloudy case. We also conclude that care should be taken in selecting appropriate arrival heights of backward trajectories, since the modelled and observed layer heights did not always coincide.
Angela Benedetti, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peter Knippertz, John H. Marsham, Francesca Di Giuseppe, Samuel Rémy, Sara Basart, Olivier Boucher, Ian M. Brooks, Laurent Menut, Lucia Mona, Paolo Laj, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Alexander Baklanov, Malcolm Brooks, Peter R. Colarco, Emilio Cuevas, Arlindo da Silva, Jeronimo Escribano, Johannes Flemming, Nicolas Huneeus, Oriol Jorba, Stelios Kazadzis, Stefan Kinne, Thomas Popp, Patricia K. Quinn, Thomas T. Sekiyama, Taichu Tanaka, and Enric Terradellas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10615–10643,Short summary
Numerical prediction of aerosol particle properties has become an important activity at many research and operational weather centers. This development is due to growing interest from a diverse set of stakeholders, such as air quality regulatory bodies, aviation authorities, solar energy plant managers, climate service providers, and health professionals. This paper describes the advances in the field and sets out requirements for observations for the sustainability of these activities.
Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Pontus Roldin, Joel Brito, John Backman, Erik Swietlicki, Radovan Krejci, Peter Tunved, Tukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10255–10274,Short summary
Aerosols are tiny particles suspended in the air that can interact with sunlight and form clouds, which in turn affect the climate. They can also recycle nutrients in forest environments. Aerosols are naturally emitted at the surface in the Amazon forest, in addition to being brought down from above the boundary layer by intense air movements. In this work, we describe how the particle size number concentrations of aerosols change over hours, days and seasons in a multi-year study in Amazonia.
Filippo Xausa, Pauli Paasonen, Risto Makkonen, Mikhail Arshinov, Aijun Ding, Hugo Denier Van Der Gon, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10039–10054,Short summary
Our project describes the feasibility of implementing particle number emissions taken from the GAINS model in global climate modeling through a simulation with the ECHAM-HAM global climate model. The results from the simulations have important implications regarding modeled particle number concentrations and future climate effects. Our findings represent an important starting point for further simulations concerning climate effects derived from anthropogenic particle emissions on a global scale.
Lauri Laakso, Santtu Mikkonen, Achim Drebs, Anu Karjalainen, Pentti Pirinen, and Pekka Alenius
Ocean Sci., 14, 617–632,Short summary
Meteorological observations at Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station, the Baltic Sea, started in 1881 and seawater temperature and salinity observations in 1900. Based on the dataset of more than 100 years of observations, we see an increase in atmospheric temperature after the 1980s, in line with reduced sea ice cover. We also found an increase in seawater temperatures, modulated by changes in salinities. The results indicate that the climate at Utö may have shifted into a new phase.
Marco Pandolfi, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Christo Angelov, Begoña Artiñano, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Paolo Bonasoni, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martine Collaud Coen, Sébastien Conil, Esther Coz, Vincent Crenn, Vadimas Dudoitis, Marina Ealo, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Patrick Ginot, Martin Gysel, Bas Henzing, Andras Hoffer, Adela Holubova Smejkalova, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Chris Lunder, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marcel Moerman, José Nicolas, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean Marc Pichon, Nina Prokopciuk, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Sergio Rodríguez, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Erik Swietlicki, Gloria Titos, Thomas Tuch, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Aditya Vaishya, Milan Vana, Aki Virkkula, Stergios Vratolis, Ernest Weingartner, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877–7911,Short summary
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle light-scattering measurements obtained over the past decade at 28 measuring atmospheric observatories which are part of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure, and most of them belong to the GAW network. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol particles optical properties in Europe.
Sekou Keita, Cathy Liousse, Véronique Yoboué, Pamela Dominutti, Benjamin Guinot, Eric-Michel Assamoi, Agnès Borbon, Sophie L. Haslett, Laetitia Bouvier, Aurélie Colomb, Hugh Coe, Aristide Akpo, Jacques Adon, Julien Bahino, Madina Doumbia, Julien Djossou, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Eric Gardrat, Sylvain Gnamien, Jean F. Léon, Money Ossohou, E. Touré N'Datchoh, and Laurent Roblou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7691–7708,Short summary
This study provides emission factor (EF) data for elemental and organic carbon, total particulate matter and 58 volatile organic compound species for combustion sources specific to Africa to establish emission inventories with less uncertainty. EFs obtained in this study are generally higher than those in the literature whose values are used in emissions inventories for Africa. This shows that particles and VOC emissions were sometimes underestimated and underlines this study's importance.
Vladimir Melnikov, Viktor Gennadinik, Markku Kulmala, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Sergej Zilitinkevich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6535–6542,Short summary
The cryosphere of the Earth overlaps with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere over vast areas with temperatures below zero C and pronounced H2O phase changes. The cryosphere plays the role of a global thermostat; however, the processes related to the cryosphere attract insufficient attention from research communities. We call attention to crucial importance of cryogenic anomalies, which make the Earth atmosphere and the entire Earth system unique.
Marja Hemmilä, Heidi Hellén, Aki Virkkula, Ulla Makkonen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Jenni Kontkanen, Lauri Ahonen, Markku Kulmala, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6367–6380,Short summary
We measured gas- and particle-phase amine and ammonia concentrations in a boreal forest site in 2015 with online ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We wanted to know how much and which kinds of amines there are, and how they behave and could affect nucleation. We observed seasonal and diurnal variations for different amines. Amines turned out to be a heterogeneous group of compounds. To our best knowledge, our amine measurements are the longest time series that has been made.
Julien Djossou, Jean-François Léon, Aristide Barthélemy Akpo, Cathy Liousse, Véronique Yoboué, Mouhamadou Bedou, Marleine Bodjrenou, Christelle Chiron, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Eric Gardrat, Marcellin Abbey, Sékou Keita, Julien Bahino, Evelyne Touré N'Datchoh, Money Ossohou, and Cossi Norbert Awanou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6275–6291,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols were collected in Cotonou/traffic (CT), Benin, and, Abidjan/traffic (AT), Abidjan/landfill (AL) and Abidjan/domestic fires (ADF), Côte d'Ivoire, from February 2015 to March 2017. We report the weekly PM2.5, elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) in both cities. PM2.5 was 32 ± 32, 32 ± 24, 28 ± 19 and 145 ± 69 µg m−3 at CT, AT, AL and ADF. OC / EC is 3.5 at CT, 2.0 at AT, 2.2 at AL and 5.2 at ADF. AOD is 0.58 at Cotonou and 0.68 at Abidjan.
Silvia Bucci, Paolo Cristofanelli, Stefano Decesari, Angela Marinoni, Silvia Sandrini, Johannes Größ, Alfred Wiedensohler, Chiara F. Di Marco, Eiko Nemitz, Francesco Cairo, Luca Di Liberto, and Federico Fierli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5371–5389,Short summary
This paper analyses some of the processes affecting PM levels over the Po Valley, one of the most polluted regions of Europe, during the 2012 summer campaigns. Under conditions of air transport from the Sahara, data show that desert dust can rapidly penetrate into the lower atmosphere, directly affecting the PM concentration at the ground. Processes of particles growth in high relative humidity and uplift of local soil particles, potentially affecting PM level, are also analysed.
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Jiaping Wang, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Xin Huang, Qiang Liu, Longfei Zheng, Zheng Xu, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Congbin Fu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5265–5292,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were measured at SORPES, a regional background station in Nanjing, China from June 2013 to May 2015. The aerosol was highly scattering. The single-scattering albedo in Nanjing appears to be slightly higher than at several other sites. The data do not suggest any significant contribution to absorption by brown carbon. The sources of high values are mainly in eastern China. During pollution episodes, pollutant concentrations increased gradually but decreased fast.
Julien Bahino, Véronique Yoboué, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Marcellin Adon, Aristide Akpo, Sékou Keita, Cathy Liousse, Eric Gardrat, Christelle Chiron, Money Ossohou, Sylvain Gnamien, and Julien Djossou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5173–5198,Short summary
This work, part of DACCIWA WP2
Air Pollution and Health, aims to characterize urban air pollution levels through the measurement of NO2, SO2, NH3, HNO3 and O3 at 21 measurements sites in the district of Abidjan, an important metropolis in western Africa. Results show a high spatial variability of gaseous pollutants at the scale of the district of Abidjan and the predominance of the concentration of two pollutants (NH3 and NO2) related to domestic fires and road traffic, respectively.
Joonas Enroth, Jyri Mikkilä, Zoltán Németh, Markku Kulmala, and Imre Salma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4533–4548,Short summary
The urban aerosol particles in central Budapest consist of two externally mixed classes – nearly hydrophobic and less volatile particles, which were assigned to vehicle emissions (large mass fractions of soot likely coated with water-insoluble organic compounds) – and of less hygroscopic and volatile particles (moderately transformed aged combustion particles composed of partly oxygenated organics and inorganic salts internally mixed).
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Jonathan Duplissy, Chao Yan, Tuomo Nieminen, Mikael Ehn, Siegfried Schobesberger, Martin Heinritzi, Sebastian Ehrhart, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jasmin Tröstl, Mario Simon, Andreas Kürten, Markus Leiminger, Michael J. Lawler, Matti P. Rissanen, Federico Bianchi, Arnaud P. Praplan, Jani Hakala, Antonio Amorim, Marc Gonin, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Josef Dommen, Joachim Curtius, James N. Smith, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Neil M. Donahue, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2363–2380,Short summary
Atmospheric trace gases can form small molecular clusters, which can grow to larger sizes through the condensation of vapours. This process is called new particle formation. In this paper we studied the formation of sulfuric acid and highly oxygenated molecules, the key compounds in atmospheric new particle formation, in chamber experiments and introduced a way to simulate these ozonolysis products of α-pinene in a simple manner.
Ekaterina Ezhova, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2431–2442,Short summary
A condensation sink (CS) quantifies the rate of uptake of condensing vapours by pre-existing aerosol and can be used as well to quantify losses of monomers/clusters. An analytical solution of the condensation equation valid in a wide range of particle diameters is presented. We describe the dynamics of atmospheric CS, test the formulas against field observations and further use them to develop a simplified model of the coupled dynamics of aerosol and condensing vapours in the atmosphere.
Luís Miguel Feijó Barreira, Geoffroy Duporté, Tuukka Rönkkö, Jevgeni Parshintsev, Kari Hartonen, Lydia Hyrsky, Enna Heikkinen, Matti Jussila, Markku Kulmala, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 881–893,Short summary
Our results demonstrated the benefits and challenges of using new SPME Arrow over SPME fiber for the sampling of BVOCs emitted by terrestrial vegetation in the atmosphere. The new SPME Arrow system showed significant improvement on sampling capacity, with collected amounts being approximately 2 times higher for monoterpenes and 7–8 times higher for aldehydes than with SPME fiber. Higher extraction efficiencies were obtained with dynamic collection prior to equilibrium regime.
Johannes Größ, Amar Hamed, André Sonntag, Gerald Spindler, Hanna Elina Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Markku Kulmala, Urmas Hõrrak, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Wolfram Birmili
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1835–1861,Short summary
This paper revisits the atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) process in the polluted troposphere. Novel aspects include a new NPF classification, which aims at more objectivity, and a long-term analysis of neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer data. Intense NPF events were associated with enhanced sulfur dioxide concentrations and solar radiation, while no significant relationships were observed with the condensation sink, surface-measured turbulence parameters, or ammonia.
Sebastian Düsing, Birgit Wehner, Patric Seifert, Albert Ansmann, Holger Baars, Florian Ditas, Silvia Henning, Nan Ma, Laurent Poulain, Holger Siebert, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Andreas Macke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1263–1290,
Simon Schallhart, Pekka Rantala, Maija K. Kajos, Juho Aalto, Ivan Mammarella, Taina M. Ruuskanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 815–832,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have impact to air quality, human health and climate. We investigated the development of VOC exchange in a boreal forest between April and June 2013. VOC exchange and diversity increased towards summer, but over 75 % of the biogenic net exchange was driven by methanol, monoterpenes and acetone only. The boreal forest emitted less than 0.2 % carbon in form of VOCs in relation to the carbon uptake.
Andreas Kürten, Chenxi Li, Federico Bianchi, Joachim Curtius, António Dias, Neil M. Donahue, Jonathan Duplissy, Richard C. Flagan, Jani Hakala, Tuija Jokinen, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ari Laaksonen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Vladimir Makhmutov, Antti Onnela, Matti P. Rissanen, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Penglin Ye, and Peter H. McMurry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 845–863,Short summary
A recent laboratory study (CLOUD) showed that new particles nucleate efficiently from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine (DMA). The reanalysis of previously published data reveals that the nucleation rates are even faster than previously assumed, i.e., nucleation can proceed at rates that are compatible with collision-controlled new particle formation for atmospheric conditions. This indicates that sulfuric acid–DMA nucleation is likely an important source of particles in the boundary layer.
Ying Chen, Ralf Wolke, Liang Ran, Wolfram Birmili, Gerald Spindler, Wolfram Schröder, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Ina Tegen, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 673–689,Short summary
The heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on particle surfaces is crucial for the nitrogen cycle in the atmosphere. The reaction rate is determined by meteorological and particle properties, but its parameterization in previous 3-D modelling studies did not comprehensively consider these parameters. We propose a parameterization to take these into account and improve nitrate prediction; we report that the organic coating suppression on the N2O5 reaction is not as important as expected in the EU.
Sophie L. Haslett, J. Chris Thomas, William T. Morgan, Rory Hadden, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Paul I. Williams, Sekou Keita, Cathy Liousse, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 385–403,Short summary
Wood burning is chaotic, so the particles emitted can be difficult to study in a repeatable way. Here, we addressed this problem by carefully controlling small wood fires in the lab. We saw three burning phases, which could be told apart chemically; we also saw evidence of these in measurements of wood burning in London in 2012. Controlled experiments like this help us to understand why emissions are so variable and to recognise burning conditions just from the particles seen in the atmosphere.
Carla Frege, Ismael K. Ortega, Matti P. Rissanen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Gerhard Steiner, Martin Heinritzi, Lauri Ahonen, António Amorim, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Martin Breitenlechner, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El-Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Marc Gonin, Armin Hansel, Christopher R. Hoyle, Tuija Jokinen, Heikki Junninen, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Roy Lee Mauldin, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Tuukka Petäjä, Nina Sarnela, Siegfried Schobesberger, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Dominik Stolzenburg, António Tomé, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Paul M. Winkler, Josef Dommen, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 65–79,Short summary
It was recently shown that biogenic highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) form particles in the absence of sulfuric acid and ions enhance the nucleation rate. Here we compare the molecular composition of positive and negative HOM clusters at 25, 5 and −25 °C. At lower temperatures the HOM average oxygen-to-carbon ratio decreases indicating a reduction in the rate of autoxidation due to rather high activation energy. The experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations.
Xuemeng Chen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Pak L. Fung, Jutta Kesti, Matti P. Rissanen, Jaana Bäck, Petri Keronen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 49–63,Short summary
We analysed a 20-year-long dataset collected in a Finnish boreal forest at SMEAR II station to investigate the frequency and strength of ozone depletion events. We could identify a number of ozone depletion events that lasted for more than 3 h, mainly in the autumn and winter months. Their occurrence was likely related to the formation of a low mixing layer under the conditions of low temperatures, low wind speeds, high relative humidities and limited intensity of solar radiation.
Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jonathan Duplissy, Tuomo Nieminen, Juha Kangasluoma, Lauri R. Ahonen, Lubna Dada, Jenni Kontkanen, Hanna E. Manninen, Antonio Dias, Antonio Amorim, Paulus S. Bauer, Anton Bergen, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Xuemeng Chen, Danielle C. Draper, Lukas Fischer, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Jani Hakala, Liine Heikkinen, Martin Heinritzi, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Alexander N. Kvashnin, Tiia Laurila, Michael J. Lawler, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Roy L. Mauldin III, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Felix Piel, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Nina Sarnela, Simon Schallhart, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Yrjö Viisanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Mao Xiao, Penglin Ye, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, James N. Smith, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas Worsnop, Mikael Ehn, Mikko Sipilä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15181–15197,
Pertti Hari, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Liisa Kulmala, Markku Kulmala, Steffen Noe, Tuukka Petäjä, Anni Vanhatalo, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15045–15053,Short summary
We developed a theory on the seasonal behaviour of photosynthesis in natural conditions and tested the theory with intensive measurements. Light, temperature, water vapor and CO2 concentration explained the daily variation in photosynthesis, and the physiological state of the photosynthetic machinery explained the annual pattern of photosynthesis. The theory explained about 95 % of the variance of photosynthesis measured with chambers in the field in northern Finland.
Xuemeng Chen, Aki Virkkula, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Hanna E. Manninen, Maurizio Busetto, Christian Lanconelli, Angelo Lupi, Vito Vitale, Massimo Del Guasta, Paolo Grigioni, Riikka Väänänen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13783–13800,Short summary
An air ion spectrometer was deployed for characterizing air ions for the first time at the Concordia station at Dome C on the Antarctic Plateau. We observed different ion processes: new particle formation (NPF), wind-induced ion production, and ion formation related to cloud and/or fog formation. Insights into these phenomena are presented. Additionally, the analysis on the growth of NPF events showed a size dependency of growth rates (GRs), i.e. GRs increase with particle sizes.
Federico Bianchi, Olga Garmash, Xucheng He, Chao Yan, Siddharth Iyer, Ida Rosendahl, Zhengning Xu, Matti P. Rissanen, Matthieu Riva, Risto Taipale, Nina Sarnela, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, and Heikki Junninen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13819–13831,Short summary
Naturally charged highly oxidised molecules (HOMs) were characterized using advanced mass spectrometers. Two different classes of compounds, clustered with the nitrate and bisulfate ions, were identified: HOMs containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and nitrogen-containing HOMs or organonitrates (ONs). They exhibit strong diurnal variations where HOMs peak during night and ONs during day. Finally, large clusters containing up to 40 carbon atoms (four oxidized α-pinene units) were observed.
Elham Baranizadeh, Tuomo Nieminen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Ari Leskinen, Mika Komppula, Ari Laaksonen, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13361–13371,Short summary
Extrapolation of the particle formation rates from one measured larger size (e.g., 7 nm) to smaller sizes (e.g., 3 nm) based on simplified growth-scavenging dynamics works fairly well to estimate mean daily formation rates, but it fails to predict the time evolution of the particle population. This points to the challenges in predicting atmospheric nucleation rates for locations where the particle growth and loss rates are size- and time-dependent.
Matthew J. Gunsch, Rachel M. Kirpes, Katheryn R. Kolesar, Tate E. Barrett, Swarup China, Rebecca J. Sheesley, Alexander Laskin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Thomas Tuch, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10879–10892,Short summary
Arctic sea ice loss is leading to increasing petroleum extraction and shipping. It is necessary to identify emissions from these activities for improved Arctic air quality and climate assessment. Atmospheric particles were measured from August to September 2015 in Utqiaġvik, AK. For periods influenced by Prudhoe Bay, significant influence associated with combustion emissions was observed, compared to fresh sea spray influence during Arctic Ocean periods.
Georgios Tsagkogeorgas, Pontus Roldin, Jonathan Duplissy, Linda Rondo, Jasmin Tröstl, Jay G. Slowik, Sebastian Ehrhart, Alessandro Franchin, Andreas Kürten, Antonio Amorim, Federico Bianchi, Jasper Kirkby, Tuukka Petäjä, Urs Baltensperger, Michael Boy, Joachim Curtius, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Neil M. Donahue, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8923–8938,Short summary
The H2SO4 vapour pressure plays key role in Earth's and Venus' atmospheres. In regions where RH is low and stabilising bases are scarce, H2SO4 can evaporate from particles; however the H2SO4 vapour pressure at low RH is uncertain. To address this, we measured H2SO4 evaporation versus T and RH in the CLOUD chamber and constrained the equilibrium constants for dissociation and dehydration of H2SO4. This study is important for nucleation, particle growth and H2SO4 formation occurring in atmosphere.
Juha Kangasluoma, Susanne Hering, David Picard, Gregory Lewis, Joonas Enroth, Frans Korhonen, Markku Kulmala, Karine Sellegri, Michel Attoui, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2271–2281,Short summary
The manuscript presents a characterization of three new particle counters able to detect airborne nanoparticles smaller than 3 nm in diameter. We explored some of the parameters affecting the smallest detectable particle size, such as sample flow relative humidity, the particle chemical composition and the electrical charging state. The characterization results help one to select a suitable particle counter for a given application.
Lubna Dada, Pauli Paasonen, Tuomo Nieminen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Jenni Kontkanen, Otso Peräkylä, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Tareq Hussein, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jaana Bäck, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6227–6241,Short summary
We studied new particle formation under clear-sky conditions in the boreal forest in southern Finland. We compared varying conditions between new particle events and nonevents. We then formulated a threshold value that separates new particle events from nonevents and reached a probability distribution for the frequency of new particle formation. This study serves as the basis for scientists aiming to improve their understanding of new particle formation.
Eero Nikinmaa, Tuomo Kalliokoski, Kari Minkkinen, Jaana Bäck, Michael Boy, Yao Gao, Nina Janasik-Honkela, Janne I. Hukkinen, Maarit Kallio, Markku Kulmala, Nea Kuusinen, Annikki Mäkelä, Brent D. Matthies, Mikko Peltoniemi, Risto Sievänen, Ditte Taipale, Lauri Valsta, Anni Vanhatalo, Martin Welp, Luxi Zhou, Putian Zhou, and Frank Berninger
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
We estimated the impact of boreal forest management on climate, considering the effects of carbon, albedo, aerosols, and effects of industrial wood use. We made analyses both in current and warmer climate of 2050. The aerosol effect was comparable to that of carbon sequestration. Deciduous trees may have a large potential for mitigation due to their high albedo and aerosol effects. If the forests will be used more intensively and mainly for pulp and energy, the warming influence is clear.
Yuqin Liu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jiahua Zhang, Putian Zhou, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Olaf Krüger, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5623–5641,Short summary
The aerosol effects on warm cloud parameters over the Yangtze River Delta are systematically examined using multi-sensor retrievals. This study shows that the COT–CDR and CWP–CDR relationships are not unique, but are affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. CDR and cloud fraction show different behaviours for low and high AOD. Aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust. Meteorological conditions play an important role in ACI.
Yuxuan Zhang, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Kebin He, Alfred Wiedensohler, Qiang Zhang, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The light absorption of black carbon (BC) strongly depends on their mixing state. By now, the BC mixing state in the atmosphere is still unclear. In this work, we have investigated the comprehensive characterization of BC mixing state at a polluted regional background site of the North China Plain (NCP) based on in site measurements. we found that BC aerosols of the NCP were fully aged, suggesting a strong optical and climate effect of BC on the regional scale in northern China.
Juan Hong, Mikko Äijälä, Silja A. K. Häme, Liqing Hao, Jonathan Duplissy, Liine M. Heikkinen, Wei Nie, Jyri Mikkilä, Markku Kulmala, Nønne L. Prisle, Annele Virtanen, Mikael Ehn, Pauli Paasonen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ilona Riipinen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4387–4399,Short summary
Estimates of volatility of secondary organic aerosols was characterized in a boreal forest environment of Hyytiälä, southern Finland. This was done by interpreting field measurements using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) with a kinetic evaporation model and by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer data. About 16 % of the variation can be explained by the linear regression between the results from these two methods.
Andrew D. Venter, Pieter G. van Zyl, Johan P. Beukes, Micky Josipovic, Johan Hendriks, Ville Vakkari, and Lauri Laakso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4251–4263,Short summary
Size-resolved trace metal concentrations were determined at a regional background site impacted by the major pollutant source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include a region holding a large number of pyrometallurgical smelters. ≥70% of trace metal species were in the smaller size fractions, indicating the influence of industrial activities, while the influence of wind-blown dust was reflected in the PM2.5–10 size fraction. Annual average Ni and As exceeded European standards.
Wei Nie, Juan Hong, Silja A. K. Häme, Aijun Ding, Yugen Li, Chao Yan, Liqing Hao, Jyri Mikkilä, Longfei Zheng, Yuning Xie, Caijun Zhu, Zheng Xu, Xuguang Chi, Xin Huang, Yang Zhou, Peng Lin, Annele Virtanen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, Jianzhen Yu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3659–3672,Short summary
HULIS are demonstrated to be important low-volatility, or even extremely low volatility, compounds in the organic aerosol phase. This sheds new light on the connection between atmospheric HULIS and ELVOCs. The interaction between HULIS and ammonium sulfate was found to decrease the volatility of the HULIS part in HULIS-AS mixed samples, indicating multiphase processes have the potential to lower the volatility of organic compounds in the aerosol phase.
Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Mari Pihlatie, Samuli Launiainen, Markku Kulmala, Marja-Liisa Riekkola, Jevgeni Parshintsev, Ivan Mammarella, Timo Vesala, and Jussi Heinonsalo
Biogeosciences, 14, 1075–1091,Short summary
The alkylamines are important precursors in secondary aerosol formation in boreal forests. We quantified alkylamine concentrations in fungal species present in boreal forests in order to estimate soil as a source of atmospheric alkylamines. Based on our knowledge we estimated possible soil–atmosphere exchange of these compounds. The results shows that the boreal forest soil could act as a source of alkylamines depending on environmental conditions and studied compound.
Hannele Hakola, Virpi Tarvainen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Kerneels Jaars, Marja Hemmilä, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, and Heidi Hellén
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3357–3370,Short summary
We present spring and summer VOC emission rate measurements from Norway spruce using an in situ gas chromatograph. Monoterpene and C4–C10 aldehyde emission rates reached maxima in July. SQT emissions increased at the end of July and in August SQT were the most abundant group. The MT emission pattern varied a lot from tree to tree and therefore emission fluxes on canopy level should be conducted for more representative measurements. However, leaf level measurements produce more reliable SQT data.
Matti Räsänen, Mika Aurela, Ville Vakkari, Johan P. Beukes, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Pieter G. Van Zyl, Miroslav Josipovic, Andrew D. Venter, Kerneels Jaars, Stefan J. Siebert, Tuomas Laurila, Janne Rinne, and Lauri Laakso
Biogeosciences, 14, 1039–1054,Short summary
This study presents measurements of carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and a grazed savanna grassland ecosystem for 3 years. We find that the yearly variation in carbon dioxide balance is largely determined by the changes in the early wet season balance (September to November) and in the mid-growing season balance (December to January).
Mikko Äijälä, Liine Heikkinen, Roman Fröhlich, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3165–3197,Short summary
Mass spectrometric measurements commonly yield data on hundreds of variables over thousands of points in time. Refining and synthesising this “raw” data into chemical information necessitates the use of advanced, statistics-based data analysis techniques. Here we present an example of combining data dimensionality reduction (factorisation) with exploratory classification (clustering) and show that the results complement and broaden our current perspectives on aerosol chemical classification.
Carla Frege, Federico Bianchi, Ugo Molteni, Jasmin Tröstl, Heikki Junninen, Stephan Henne, Mikko Sipilä, Erik Herrmann, Michel J. Rossi, Markku Kulmala, Christopher R. Hoyle, Urs Baltensperger, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2613–2629,Short summary
We present measurements of the chemical composition of atmospheric ions at high altitude (3450 m a.s.l.) during a 9-month campaign. We detected remarkably high correlation between methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and SO5−. Halogenated species were also detected frequently at this continental location. New-particle formation events occurred via the condensation of highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) at very low sulfuric acid concentration or, less frequently, due to ammonia–sulfuric acid clusters.
Jenni Kontkanen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri Ahonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Hanna E. Manninen, Jani Hakala, Clémence Rose, Karine Sellegri, Shan Xiao, Lin Wang, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Aijun Ding, Huan Yu, Shanhu Lee, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2163–2187,Short summary
The concentrations of ~1–3 nm particles were investigated at nine sites around the world. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were highest at the sites with strong anthropogenic influence. Electrically neutral particles dominated sub-3 nm particle concentrations in polluted environments and in boreal forest during spring and summer. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were observed to be determined by the availability of precursor vapors rather than the sink caused by preexisting aerosol particles.
Clémence Rose, Karine Sellegri, Isabel Moreno, Fernando Velarde, Michel Ramonet, Kay Weinhold, Radovan Krejci, Marcos Andrade, Alfred Wiedensohler, Patrick Ginot, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1529–1541,Short summary
Using an indirect method based on particle size distribution measurements, we show that new particle formation (NPF) is responsible for a large contribution to the cloud condensation nuclei concentration at the highest observatory in the world (Bolivia, 5240 m a.s.l.) as expected from some global model predictions. We also provide unique results related to the influence of the boundary layer on the NPF process, showing direct evidence for the important NPF frequency in the free troposphere.
Kerneels Jaars, Pieter G. van Zyl, Johan P. Beukes, Heidi Hellén, Ville Vakkari, Micky Josipovic, Andrew D. Venter, Matti Räsänen, Leandra Knoetze, Dirk P. Cilliers, Stefan J. Siebert, Markku Kulmala, Janne Rinne, Alex Guenther, Lauri Laakso, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15665–15688,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) – important in tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation – were measured at a savannah grassland in South Africa. Results presented are the most extensive for this type of landscape. Compared to other parts of the world, monoterpene levels were similar, while very low isoprene levels led to significantly lower total BVOC levels. BVOC levels were an order of magnitude lower compared to anthropogenic VOC levels measured at Welgegund.
Yee Jun Tham, Zhe Wang, Qinyi Li, Hui Yun, Weihao Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Likun Xue, Keding Lu, Nan Ma, Birger Bohn, Xin Li, Simonas Kecorius, Johannes Größ, Min Shao, Alfred Wiedensohler, Yuanhang Zhang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14959–14977,Short summary
This work addresses the unclear global significance of chlorine activation processes in the troposphere. The first high-quality measurement data set of ClNO2 in northern China revealed strong ClNO2 production in the residual layers, and demonstrated its significant effects on radical budget and ozone production. Our findings imply the widespread effects of ClNO2 over the polluted regions of northern China, which may increase photochemical and haze pollution.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Laura Riuttanen, Marja Bister, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Viju O. John, Anu-Maija Sundström, Miikka Dal Maso, Jouni Räisänen, Victoria A. Sinclair, Risto Makkonen, Filippo Xausa, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14331–14342,Short summary
Here we show observational evidence that aerosols increase upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) via changes in the microphysics of deep convection. Using remote sensing data over the ocean east of China in summer, we show that increased aerosol loads are associated with an UTH increase of 2.2 ± 1.5 in units of relative humidity. We show that humidification of aerosols or other meteorological covariation is very unlikely to be the cause for this result indicating relevance for the global climate.
Xuemeng Chen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jussi Paatero, Pauli Paasonen, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14297–14315,Short summary
Ionising radiation is responsible for air ion production. However, minor efforts have been invested in understanding the connection of observed air ions to ionising radiation in the lower atmosphere and underlying processes therein. In this work, we analysed 4 years of ambient data collected in a Finnish boreal forest and found that gamma radiation dominates air ion production in the lower atmosphere and demonstrated clear promotion effects of the ionising radiation on air ion production.
Petri Tiitta, Ari Leskinen, Liqing Hao, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Miika Kortelainen, Julija Grigonyte, Jarkko Tissari, Heikki Lamberg, Anni Hartikainen, Kari Kuuspalo, Aki-Matti Kortelainen, Annele Virtanen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Mika Komppula, Simone Pieber, André S. H. Prévôt, Timothy B. Onasch, Douglas R. Worsnop, Hendryk Czech, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, and Olli Sippula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13251–13269,Short summary
Real-time measurements of OA aging and SOA formation from logwood combustion were conducted under dark and UV oxidation. Substantial SOA formation was observed in all experiments, leading to twice the initial OA mass emphasizing the importance of the burning conditions for the aging processes. The results prove that emissions are subject to intensive chemical processing in the atmosphere; e.g. the most of the POA was found to become oxidized after the ozone addition, forming aged POA.
Jenni Kontkanen, Pauli Paasonen, Juho Aalto, Jaana Bäck, Pekka Rantala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13291–13307,Short summary
We developed proxies for estimating the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland. The proxies for the monoterpene concentration include temperature-controlled emissions, dilution and different oxidation processes. The proxies were observed to capture the seasonal and diurnal variation of the monoterpene concentration reasonably well. Our proxies can be used in the analysis of new particle formation and growth in boreal environments.
Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Zhibin Wang, Xiaoxiang Wang, Mira L. Pöhlker, Björn Nillius, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5183–5192,Short summary
In cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements, the supersaturation scan is often time-consuming and limits the temporal resolution of CCN measurements. Here we present a new concept, termed the broad supersaturation scanning (BS2) method, in which a range of supersaturation is simultaneously scanned, resulting in fast measurements of CCN activity.
Chao Yan, Wei Nie, Mikko Äijälä, Matti P. Rissanen, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Paola Massoli, Heikki Junninen, Tuija Jokinen, Nina Sarnela, Silja A. K. Häme, Siegfried Schobesberger, Francesco Canonaco, Lei Yao, André S. H. Prévôt, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Mikko Sipilä, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12715–12731,Short summary
Highly oxidized multifunctional compounds (HOMs) are known to have a significant contribution to secondary aerosol formation, yet their dominating formation pathways remain unclear in the atmosphere. We apply positive matrix factorization (PMF) on HOM data, and successfully retrieve factors representing different formation pathways. The results improve our understanding of HOM formation, and provide new perspectives on using PMF to study the variation of short-lived specie.
Ying Chen, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Ralf Wolke, Stephan Nordmann, Stephanie Schüttauf, Liang Ran, Birgit Wehner, Wolfram Birmili, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Qing Mu, Stefan Barthel, Gerald Spindler, Bastian Stieger, Konrad Müller, Guang-Jie Zheng, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12081–12097,Short summary
Sea salt aerosol (SSA) is important for primary and secondary aerosols on a global scale. During 10–20 September 2013, the SSA mass concentration was overestimated by a factor of 8–20 over central Europe by WRF-Chem model, stem from the uncertainty of its emission scheme. This could facilitate the coarse-mode nitrate formation (~ 140 % but inhibit the fine-mode nitrate formation (~−20 %). A special long-range transport mechanism could broaden this influence of SSA to a larger downwind region.
Quynh T. Nguyen, Marianne Glasius, Lise L. Sørensen, Bjarne Jensen, Henrik Skov, Wolfram Birmili, Alfred Wiedensohler, Adam Kristensson, Jacob K. Nøjgaard, and Andreas Massling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11319–11336,Short summary
Aerosol particles strongly influence climate change as they can absorb or reflect solar radiation. This work investigates aerosol particles in the remote northern Arctic. "Newly born" particles are small, then they "age" and grow in size due to different mechanisms. The results showed that during the polar night and especially Arctic spring, particles were likely transported from longer distances and were aged. During summer, "younger" particles are observed, which might be linked to ozone.
Wolfram Birmili, Kay Weinhold, Fabian Rasch, André Sonntag, Jia Sun, Maik Merkel, Alfred Wiedensohler, Susanne Bastian, Alexander Schladitz, Gunter Löschau, Josef Cyrys, Mike Pitz, Jianwei Gu, Thomas Kusch, Harald Flentje, Ulrich Quass, Heinz Kaminski, Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch, Frank Meinhardt, Andreas Schwerin, Olaf Bath, Ludwig Ries, Holger Gerwig, Klaus Wirtz, and Markus Fiebig
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 355–382,Short summary
The German Ultraﬁne Aerosol Network (GUAN) provides new continuous data on tropospheric aerosol particles including number size distributions and black carbon. The data are equally relevant for atmospheric studies related to both climate-related and health-related issues. The published data underwent uniform measures of quality assurance and control. The data are available free of charge at the World Data Center for Aerosols EBAS data repository.
Luís Miguel Feijó Barreira, Yu Xue, Geoffroy Duporté, Jevgeni Parshintsev, Kari Hartonen, Matti Jussila, Markku Kulmala, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3661–3671,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds play a key role in atmospheric chemistry and physics by influencing the climate. Trace concentrations need to be determined, even at remote locations, like forests. In this research, an easy and fast method using a portable device was developed for determination of relevant atmospheric compounds. Links between these compounds and meteorological factors were observed. Also, accumulation of volatiles in the snow was measured.
Hanna E. Manninen, Sander Mirme, Aadu Mirme, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3577–3605,Short summary
This paper reports a standard operation procedure (SOP) for a Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) to detect small clusters and nucleation mode particles. The NAIS measures number size distributions of charged and neutral aerosol particles. The SOP is needed to provide comparable results measured by NAIS users around the world. The work is based on discussions between the NAIS users (lead by University of Helsinki, Finland) and the NAIS manufacturer (Airel Ltd., Estonia).
Imre Salma, Zoltán Németh, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Pasi Aalto, Tuomo Nieminen, Tamás Weidinger, Ágnes Molnár, Kornélia Imre, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8715–8728,Short summary
We revealed that NPF seen in a central large city of the Carpathian Basin, Budapest, and its regional background occur in a consistent and spatially coherent way as a result of a joint atmospheric phenomenon taking place on large horizontal scales.
Riikka Väänänen, Radovan Krejci, Hanna E. Manninen, Antti Manninen, Janne Lampilahti, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Tuomo Nieminen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jenni Kontkanen, Ari Asmi, Pasi P. Aalto, Petri Keronen, Toivo Pohja, Ewan O'Connor, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
A light aircraft was used as a platform to explore the horizontal and vertical variability of the aerosol particles over a boreal forest in Central Finland. This information is needed when data measured at ground level station is extrapolated and parameterized to represent the conditions of the larger scale. The measurements showed that despite local fluctuations there was a good agreement between the on-ground and airborne measurements inside the planetary boundary layer.
Nan Ma, Chunsheng Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, Zhijun Wu, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Johannes Größ, Hongjian Liu, Yuxuan Bian, Ye Kuang, Monique Teich, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Min Hu, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8593–8607,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is one of main sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. Based on in situ measurements, we found that CCN activity of newly formed particles largely differs in different NPF events. It is therefore difficult to find a simple parameterization of CCN activity for NPF events. Using a fixed size-resolved activation ratio curve or critical diameter is very likely to result in large biases up to 50 % in the calculated NCCN during NPF events.
Juha Kangasluoma, Alessandro Franchin, Jonahtan Duplissy, Lauri Ahonen, Frans Korhonen, Michel Attoui, Jyri Mikkilä, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Joonas Vanhanen, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2977–2988,Short summary
The paper describes technical aspects of using the Airmodus A11 nCNC at various inlet pressures and how temperature selection affects the performance of the instrument. We also present a sampling box to minimize the inlet losses and make use of the instrument more convenient.
Elina Giannakaki, Pieter G. van Zyl, Detlef Müller, Dimitris Balis, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8109–8123,Short summary
Optical and microphysical properties of different aerosol types over South Africa measured with a multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar are presented. Aerosol characterization of elevated layers was performed. This study could assist in bridging existing gaps relating to aerosol properties over South Africa.
Amy P. Sullivan, Natasha Hodas, Barbara J. Turpin, Kate Skog, Frank N. Keutsch, Stefania Gilardoni, Marco Paglione, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Eiko Nemitz, Marsailidh M. Twigg, and Jeffrey L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8095–8108,Short summary
This paper presents the results from our measurements and approach for the investigation of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation in the ambient atmosphere. When local aqSOA formation was observed, a correlation of water-soluble organic carbon with organic aerosol, aerosol liquid water, relative humidity, and aerosol nitrate was found. Key factors of local aqSOA production include air mass stagnation, formation of local nitrate overnight, and significant amounts of ammonia.
Alessandro Franchin, Andy Downard, Juha Kangasluoma, Tuomo Nieminen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Gerhard Steiner, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Richard C. Flagan, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2709–2720,Short summary
High transmission efficiency is key for classifying and counting atmospheric aerosol below 10 nm. We developed a new high-transmission inlet for the Caltech nano-radial DMA (nRDMA) and successfully deployed the nRDMA, equipped with the new inlet, in chamber measurements, using a particle size magnifier (PSM) and a booster CPC as a counter. With this setup, we were able to measure size distributions of ions between 1.3 and 6 nm in mobility diameter.
Fanni Mylläri, Eija Asmi, Tatu Anttila, Erkka Saukko, Ville Vakkari, Liisa Pirjola, Risto Hillamo, Tuomas Laurila, Anna Häyrinen, Jani Rautiainen, Heikki Lihavainen, Ewan O'Connor, Ville Niemelä, Jorma Keskinen, Miikka Dal Maso, and Topi Rönkkö
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7485–7496,Short summary
The primary emissions of a coal-fired power plant were highly affected by the flue-gas cleaning technologies. The primary emission results were used as input values for a Gaussian plume model and the model correlated well with the atmospheric measurements from the flue-gas plume. Concentrations of newly formed particles in the flue gas plume were higher than the primary particle concentration, and thus the source of particle-forming precursors should be characterized in more detail.
Bernadette Rosati, Martin Gysel, Florian Rubach, Thomas F. Mentel, Brigitta Goger, Laurent Poulain, Patrick Schlag, Pasi Miettinen, Aki Pajunoja, Annele Virtanen, Henk Klein Baltink, J. S. Bas Henzing, Johannes Größ, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Alfred Wiedensohler, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Ernest Weingartner, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7295–7315,Short summary
This study presents PEGASOS project data from field campaigns in the Po Valley, Italy and the Netherlands. Vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition were investigated with airborne measurements on board a Zeppelin NT airship. A special focus was on the evolution of different mixing layers within the PBL as a function of daytime. A closure study showed that variations in aerosol hygroscopicity can well be explained by the variations in chemical composition.
Karoliina Ignatius, Thomas B. Kristensen, Emma Järvinen, Leonid Nichman, Claudia Fuchs, Hamish Gordon, Paul Herenz, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jonathan Duplissy, Sarvesh Garimella, Antonio Dias, Carla Frege, Niko Höppel, Jasmin Tröstl, Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Martin W. Gallagher, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Martin Schnaiter, Antonio Tomé, Annele Virtanen, Douglas Worsnop, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6495–6509,Short summary
Viscous solid or semi-solid secondary organic aerosol (SOA) may influence cloud properties through ice nucleation in the atmosphere. Here, we observed heterogeneous ice nucleation of viscous α-pinene SOA at temperatures between −39 °C and −37.2 °C with ice saturation ratios significantly below the homogeneous freezing limit. Global modelling suggests that viscous biogenic SOA are present in regions where cirrus formation takes place and could contribute to the global ice nuclei budget.
Markus Hermann, Andreas Weigelt, Denise Assmann, Sascha Pfeifer, Thomas Müller, Thomas Conrath, Jens Voigtländer, Jost Heintzenberg, Alfred Wiedensohler, Bengt G. Martinsson, Terry Deshler, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2179–2194,Short summary
Aerosol particles are an important component of the Earth's atmosphere. Here we describe the composition and characterization of a new optical particle size spectrometer (OPSS) for aircraft-borne measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution (how many particles there are with a certain size) in the 140–1050 nm size range. The OPSS was characterized throughout concerning its measurement capabilities (response, pressure dependence, coincidence) and validated versus balloon measurement.
Jenni Kontkanen, Tinja Olenius, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hanna Vehkamäki, Markku Kulmala, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5545–5560,
Yuxuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Kebin He
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1833–1843,Short summary
We develop a novel method in this work for in situ measurements of the morphology and effective density of ambient In-BC cores using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer and a single-particle soot photometer. We find that In-BC cores hardly transform the morphology of BC into a void-free sphere. Taking the morphology and density of ambient In-BC cores into account, our work provides a new insight into the enhancement of light absorption for In-BC particles in the atmosphere.
Holger Baars, Thomas Kanitz, Ronny Engelmann, Dietrich Althausen, Birgit Heese, Mika Komppula, Jana Preißler, Matthias Tesche, Albert Ansmann, Ulla Wandinger, Jae-Hyun Lim, Joon Young Ahn, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Patric Seifert, Julian Hofer, Annett Skupin, Florian Schneider, Stephanie Bohlmann, Andreas Foth, Sebastian Bley, Anne Pfüller, Eleni Giannakaki, Heikki Lihavainen, Yrjö Viisanen, Rakesh Kumar Hooda, Sérgio Nepomuceno Pereira, Daniele Bortoli, Frank Wagner, Ina Mattis, Lucja Janicka, Krzysztof M. Markowicz, Peggy Achtert, Paulo Artaxo, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Ved Prakesh Sharma, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Johan Paul Beukes, Junying Sun, Erich G. Rohwer, Ruru Deng, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, and Felix Zamorano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5111–5137,Short summary
The findings from more than 10 years of global aerosol lidar measurements with Polly systems are summarized, and a data set of optical properties for specific aerosol types is given. An automated data retrieval algorithm for continuous Polly lidar observations is presented and discussed by means of a Saharan dust advection event in Leipzig, Germany. Finally, a statistic on the vertical aerosol distribution including the seasonal variability at PollyNET locations around the globe is presented.
Bernadette Rosati, Erik Herrmann, Silvia Bucci, Federico Fierli, Francesco Cairo, Martin Gysel, Ralf Tillmann, Johannes Größ, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Luca Di Liberto, Guido Di Donfrancesco, Alfred Wiedensohler, Ernest Weingartner, Annele Virtanen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4539–4554,Short summary
We present vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties, which were explored within the planetary boundary layer in a case study in 2012 in the Po Valley region. A comparison of in situ measurements recorded aboard a Zeppelin NT and ground-based remote-sensing data was performed yielding good agreement. Additionally, the role of ambient relative humidity for the aerosol particles' optical properties was investigated.
Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Leonid Nichman, Thomas B. Kristensen, Claudia Fuchs, Christopher R. Hoyle, Niko Höppel, Joel C. Corbin, Jill Craven, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El Haddad, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Tuija Jokinen, Peter Kallinger, Jasper Kirkby, Alexei Kiselev, Karl-Heinz Naumann, Tuukka Petäjä, Tamara Pinterich, Andre S. H. Prevot, Harald Saathoff, Thea Schiebel, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Jay G. Slowik, Jasmin Tröstl, Annele Virtanen, Paul Vochezer, Steffen Vogt, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Paul M. Winkler, Chao Yan, Urs Baltensperger, Neil M. Donahue, Rick C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ottmar Möhler, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4423–4438,
Thomas B. Kristensen, Thomas Müller, Konrad Kandler, Nathalie Benker, Markus Hartmann, Joseph M. Prospero, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2675–2688,Short summary
We have investigated the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties in the trade wind marine boundary layer of the western North Atlantic during the dust season. Little is known about the CCN influencing cloud optical properties in that region. High mass concentrations of mineral dust were observed, but the number concentrations of mineral dust and sea salt were not high enough to influence CCN properties, and the CCN were likely to be dominated by a mixture of sulfates and organic species.
Antti J. Manninen, Ewan J. O'Connor, Ville Vakkari, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 817–827,Short summary
Current commercially available Doppler lidars provide a cost-effective solution for measuring vertical and horizontal wind velocities, and the co- and cross-polarised backscatter profiles. However, the background noise behaviour becomes a limiting factor for the instrument sensitivity in low aerosol load regions. In this paper we present a correction method which can improve the data availability up to 50 % and greatly improves the calculation of turbulent properties in weak signal regimes.
Xin Huang, Luxi Zhou, Aijun Ding, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Minghuai Wang, Xuguang Chi, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Pontus Roldin, Anton Rusanen, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2477–2492,Short summary
By combining a regional model and a box model, this study simulates new particle formation in Nanjing, China, when the air masses were affected by anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. The simulations reveal that biogenic organic compounds play a vital role in growth of newly formed clusters. This novel combination of two models makes it possible to accomplish new particle formation simulation without direct measurements of all chemical species.
M. Dal Maso, L. Liao, J. Wildt, A. Kiendler-Scharr, E. Kleist, R. Tillmann, M. Sipilä, J. Hakala, K. Lehtipalo, M. Ehn, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Kulmala, D. Worsnop, and T. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1955–1970,Short summary
In this paper, we present the first direct laboratory observations of nanoparticle formation from sulfuric acid and realistic BVOC precursor vapour mixtures performed at atmospherically relevant concentration levels. We found that the formation rate was proportional to the product of sulphuric acid and biogenic VOC emission strength, and that the formation rates were consistent with a mechanism in which nucleating BVOC oxidation products are rapidly formed and activate with sulfuric acid.
Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Hanna E. Manninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, Stefano Decesari, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Ari Laaksonen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1919–1935,
Ying Chen, Ya-Fang Cheng, Stephan Nordmann, Wolfram Birmili, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Nan Ma, Ralf Wolke, Birgit Wehner, Jia Sun, Gerald Spindler, Qing Mu, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1823–1835,Short summary
We evaluated the EC point sources in Germany with high-resolution simulation by WRF-Chem, and find out that point sources contribute too much EC in the coarse mode aerosol mass. The area emissions in Eastern Europe and Russia also allocate too much EC emission in coarse mode in the EUCAARI EC emission inventory. Because of the shorter life time of coarse mode EC, about 20–40 % less EC can be transported to Melpitz from Eastern Europe. Size segregation information is important for EC inventories.
C. R. Hoyle, C. Fuchs, E. Järvinen, H. Saathoff, A. Dias, I. El Haddad, M. Gysel, S. C. Coburn, J. Tröstl, A.-K. Bernhammer, F. Bianchi, M. Breitenlechner, J. C. Corbin, J. Craven, N. M. Donahue, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, C. Frege, H. Gordon, N. Höppel, M. Heinritzi, T. B. Kristensen, U. Molteni, L. Nichman, T. Pinterich, A. S. H. Prévôt, M. Simon, J. G. Slowik, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, A. L. Vogel, R. Volkamer, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, A. S. Wexler, C. Williamson, P. M. Winkler, C. Yan, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, M. W. Gallagher, R. C. Flagan, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, M. Kulmala, O. Möhler, F. Stratmann, D. R. Worsnop, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1693–1712,Short summary
A significant portion of sulphate, an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, is formed via the aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone. The rate of this reaction has previously only been measured over a relatively small temperature range. Here, we use the state of the art CLOUD chamber at CERN to perform the first measurements of this reaction rate in super-cooled droplets, confirming that the existing extrapolation of the reaction rate to sub-zero temperatures is accurate.
J.-V. Björkqvist, H. Pettersson, L. Laakso, K. K. Kahma, H. Jokinen, and P. Kosloff
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 17–25,Short summary
We identified a previously unknown artefact in the Datawell DWR-G4 wave buoy, which measures the GPS signal to resolve surface water waves. The artefact interferes with the part of the measurements containing information about the longer waves and must be removed to obtain accurate readings. We presented a correction method and found it to be accurate based on a comparison to measurements from a larger wave buoy that measures the movements of the device without using the GPS signal.
E. Asmi, V. Kondratyev, D. Brus, T. Laurila, H. Lihavainen, J. Backman, V. Vakkari, M. Aurela, J. Hatakka, Y. Viisanen, T. Uttal, V. Ivakhov, and A. Makshtas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1271–1287,Short summary
Aerosol number size distributions were measured in Arctic Russia continuously during 4 years. The particles' seasonal characteristics and sources were identified based on these data. In early spring, elevated concentrations were detected during episodes of Arctic haze and during days of secondary particle formation. In summer, Siberian forests biogenic emissions had a significant impact on particle number and mass. These are the first such results obtained from the region.
Z. J. Wu, J. Zheng, D. J. Shang, Z. F. Du, Y. S. Wu, L. M. Zeng, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1123–1138,Short summary
Most pre-existing measurements lack a linkage between particle hygroscopicity and chemical composition with a high time resolution in China. Our work provided a general overview of particle hygroscopicity and its closure with chemical composition on the basis of HTDMA and AMS measurements. An increase in particle hygroscopicity with increasing air pollution level was found, as well as a quick transformation from external mixtures to internal mixtures for pre-existing particles during NPF events.
P. Hari, T. Petäjä, J. Bäck, V.-M. Kerminen, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Vihma, T. Laurila, Y. Viisanen, T. Vesala, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1017–1028,Short summary
This manuscript introduces a conceptual design of a global, hierarchical observation network which provides tools and increased understanding to tackle the inter-connected environmental and societal challenges that we will face in the coming decades. Each ecosystem type on the globe has its own characteristic features that need to be taken into consideration. The hierarchical network is able to tackle problems related to large spatial scales, heterogeneity of ecosystems and their complexity.
E. W. Butt, A. Rap, A. Schmidt, C. E. Scott, K. J. Pringle, C. L. Reddington, N. A. D. Richards, M. T. Woodhouse, J. Ramirez-Villegas, H. Yang, V. Vakkari, E. A. Stone, M. Rupakheti, P. S. Praveen, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, M. Josipovic, E. J. S. Mitchell, S. M. Sallu, P. M. Forster, and D. V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 873–905,Short summary
We estimate the impact of residential emissions (cooking and heating) on atmospheric aerosol, human health, and climate. We find large contributions to annual mean ambient PM2.5 in residential sources regions resulting in significant but uncertain global premature mortality when key uncertainties in emission flux are considered. We show that residential emissions exert an uncertain global radiative effect and suggest more work is needed to characterise residential emissions climate importance.
J. Kim, L. Ahlm, T. Yli-Juuti, M. Lawler, H. Keskinen, J. Tröstl, S. Schobesberger, J. Duplissy, A. Amorim, F. Bianchi, N. M. Donahue, R. C. Flagan, J. Hakala, M. Heinritzi, T. Jokinen, A. Kürten, A. Laaksonen, K. Lehtipalo, P. Miettinen, T. Petäjä, M. P. Rissanen, L. Rondo, K. Sengupta, M. Simon, A. Tomé, C. Williamson, D. Wimmer, P. M. Winkler, S. Ehrhart, P. Ye, J. Kirkby, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, K. E. J. Lehtinen, J. N. Smith, I. Riipinen, and A. Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 293–304,Short summary
The hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was measured in the presence of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid-dimethylamine, and sulfuric acid-organics derived from α-pinene oxidation during CLOUD7 at CERN in 2012. The hygroscopicity parameter κ decreased with increasing particle size, indicating decreasing acidity of particles.
R. L. Mauldin III, M. P. Rissanen, T. Petäjä, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The manuscript describes a novel instrument for the measurement of OH, HO2+RO2, and other atmospheric species. The instrument described combines the chemical ionization techniques of nitrate CIMS, OH conversion to H2SO4, HO2+RO2 conversion to H2SO4, and high resolution time of flight mass spectroscopy into one system. By using one instrument to obtain spectra it is possible to compare spectra from the different modes and gain further chemical information towards peak identification.
V. N. Dos Santos, E. Herrmann, H. E. Manninen, T. Hussein, J. Hakala, T. Nieminen, P. P. Aalto, M. Merkel, A. Wiedensohler, M. Kulmala, T. Petäjä, and K. Hämeri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13717–13737,Short summary
Atmospheric charged particles, i.e. air ions, contribute to secondary aerosol formation and have an effect on global climate as potential cloud condensation nuclei. We aimed to evaluate air ion concentrations and characteristics during new particle formation (NPF) events in the megacity Paris, France. We analyzed frequency and seasonal variations of NPF events, diurnal and seasonal cycles of ions, and aerosol particles.
M. Kulmala, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Petäjä, T. Kurten, V.-M. Kerminen, Y. Viisanen, P. Hari, S. Sorvari, J. Bäck, V. Bondur, N. Kasimov, V. Kotlyakov, G. Matvienko, A. Baklanov, H. D. Guo, A. Ding, H.-C. Hansson, and S. Zilitinkevich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13085–13096,Short summary
The Pan-European Experiment (PEEX) is introduced. PEEX is a multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research, research infrastructure and capacity-building program. This paper outlines the mission, vision and objectives of PEEX and introduces its main components, including the research agenda, research infrastructure, knowledge transfer and potential impacts on society. The paper also summarizes the main scientific questions that PEEX is going to tackle in the future.
Z. J. Wu, L. Poulain, W. Birmili, J. Größ, N. Niedermeier, Z. B. Wang, H. Herrmann, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13071–13083,
C. E. Scott, D. V. Spracklen, J. R. Pierce, I. Riipinen, S. D. D'Andrea, A. Rap, K. S. Carslaw, P. M. Forster, P. Artaxo, M. Kulmala, L. V. Rizzo, E. Swietlicki, G. W. Mann, and K. J. Pringle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12989–13001,Short summary
To understand the radiative effects of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) it is necessary to consider the manner in which it is distributed across the existing aerosol size distribution. We explore the importance of the approach taken by global-scale models to do this, when calculating the direct radiative effect (DRE) & first aerosol indirect effect (AIE) due to biogenic SOA. This choice has little effect on the DRE, but a substantial impact on the magnitude and even sign of the first AIE
T. Nieminen, T. Yli-Juuti, H. E. Manninen, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12385–12396,
M. Paramonov, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Gysel, P. P. Aalto, M. O. Andreae, E. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, A. Bougiatioti, D. Brus, G. P. Frank, N. Good, S. S. Gunthe, L. Hao, M. Irwin, A. Jaatinen, Z. Jurányi, S. M. King, A. Kortelainen, A. Kristensson, H. Lihavainen, M. Kulmala, U. Lohmann, S. T. Martin, G. McFiggans, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Nenes, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, T. Petäjä, U. Pöschl, G. C. Roberts, D. Rose, B. Svenningsson, E. Swietlicki, E. Weingartner, J. Whitehead, A. Wiedensohler, C. Wittbom, and B. Sierau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12211–12229,Short summary
The research paper presents the first comprehensive overview of field measurements with the CCN Counter performed at a large number of locations around the world within the EUCAARI framework. The paper sheds light on the CCN number concentrations and activated fractions around the world and their dependence on the water vapour supersaturation ratio, the dependence of aerosol hygroscopicity on particle size, and seasonal and diurnal variation of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties.
B. Wehner, F. Werner, F. Ditas, R. A. Shaw, M. Kulmala, and H. Siebert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11701–11711,Short summary
During the CARRIBA campaign on Barbados, 91 cases with increased aerosol particle number concentrations near clouds were detected from helicopter-borne measurements. Most of these cases are correlated with enhanced irradiance in the ultraviolet range. The events have a mean length of 100m, corresponding to a lifetime of 300s, meaning a growth of several nm/h. Such high values cannot be explained by sulfuric acid alone; thus extremely low volatility organic compounds are probably involved here.
A. Virkkula, X. Chi, A. Ding, Y. Shen, W. Nie, X. Qi, L. Zheng, X. Huang, Y. Xie, J. Wang, T. Petäjä, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4415–4427,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties were measured with a seven-wavelength aethalometer and a three-wavelength nephelometer in Nanjing, China, in September 2013–January 2015. The aethalometer compensation parameter k depended on the backscatter fraction, measured with an independent method, the integrating nephelometer. The compensation parameter decreased with increasing single-scattering albedo.
A. Kürten, S. Münch, L. Rondo, F. Bianchi, J. Duplissy, T. Jokinen, H. Junninen, N. Sarnela, S. Schobesberger, M. Simon, M. Sipilä, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, N. M. Donahue, E. M. Dunne, R. C. Flagan, A. Franchin, J. Kirkby, A. Kupc, V. Makhmutov, T. Petäjä, A. P. Praplan, F. Riccobono, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, G. Tsagkogeorgas, P. E. Wagner, D. Wimmer, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop, and J. Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10701–10721,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is an important atmospheric process. At cold temperatures in the upper troposphere the binary (H2SO4-H2O) and ternary (H2SO4-H2O-NH3) system are thought to be important for NPF. Sulfuric acid monomer (H2SO4) and sulfuric acid dimer ((H2SO4)2) concentrations were measured between 208 and 248K for these systems and dimer evaporation rates were derived. These data will help to better understand and predict binary and ternary nucleation at low temperatures.
A. D. Venter, J. P. Beukes, P. G. van Zyl, E.-G. Brunke, C. Labuschagne, F. Slemr, R. Ebinghaus, and H. Kock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10271–10280,Short summary
Statistical techniques applied to continuous high-resolution Hg data and back-trajectory analyses showed lower GEM concentrations originating from the sparsely populated semi-arid interior of SA and the marine environment, whereas higher GEM concentrations coincided with trade routes and industrial activities along the coast. Multi-linear regression indicated the relation of GEM with other atmospheric parameters. Measured and MLR data confirm a decline in GEM concentrations at CPT GAW station.
M. Pikridas, J. Sciare, F. Freutel, S. Crumeyrolle, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, A. Borbon, A. Schwarzenboeck, M. Merkel, M. Crippa, E. Kostenidou, M. Psichoudaki, L. Hildebrandt, G. J. Engelhart, T. Petäjä, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Drewnick, U. Baltensperger, A. Wiedensohler, M. Kulmala, M. Beekmann, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10219–10237,Short summary
Aerosol size distribution measurements from three ground sites, two mobile laboratories, and one airplane are combined to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of ultrafine particles in and around Paris during the summer and winter MEGAPOLI campaigns. The role of nucleation as a particle source and the influence of Paris emissions on their surroundings are examined.
M. Beekmann, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Drewnick, J. Sciare, S. N. Pandis, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Crippa, F. Freutel, L. Poulain, V. Ghersi, E. Rodriguez, S. Beirle, P. Zotter, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Bressi, C. Fountoukis, H. Petetin, S. Szidat, J. Schneider, A. Rosso, I. El Haddad, A. Megaritis, Q. J. Zhang, V. Michoud, J. G. Slowik, S. Moukhtar, P. Kolmonen, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, A. Borbon, V. Gros, N. Marchand, J. L. Jaffrezo, A. Schwarzenboeck, A. Colomb, A. Wiedensohler, S. Borrmann, M. Lawrence, A. Baklanov, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9577–9591,Short summary
A detailed characterization of air quality in the Paris (France) agglomeration, a megacity, during two summer and winter intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations, revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported into the megacity from upwind regions. Unexpectedly, a major part of organic PM is of modern origin (woodburning and cooking activities, secondary formation from biogenic VOC).
N. Kalivitis, V.-M. Kerminen, G. Kouvarakis, I. Stavroulas, A. Bougiatioti, A. Nenes, H. E. Manninen, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and N. Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9203–9215,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production associated with atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is presented, and this is the first direct evidence of CCN production resulting from NPF in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere. We show that condensation of both gaseous sulfuric acid and organic compounds from multiple sources leads to the rapid growth of nucleated particles. Sub-100nm particles were found to be substantially less hygroscopic than larger particles during the active NPF period.
F. Kuik, A. Lauer, J. P. Beukes, P. G. Van Zyl, M. Josipovic, V. Vakkari, L. Laakso, and G. T. Feig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8809–8830,Short summary
The numerical model WRF-Chem is used to estimate the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to BC, aerosol optical depth and atmospheric heating rates over southern Africa. An evaluation of the model with observational data including long-term BC measurements shows that the basic meteorology is reproduced reasonably well but simulated near-surface BC concentrations are underestimated by up to 50%. It is found that up to 100% of the BC in highly industrialized regions is of anthropogenic origin.
L. Zhou, R. Gierens, A. Sogachev, D. Mogensen, J. Ortega, J. N. Smith, P. C. Harley, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, A. Turnipseed, A. Rusanen, S. Smolander, A. B. Guenther, M. Kulmala, T. Karl, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8643–8656,
D. Wimmer, K. Lehtipalo, T. Nieminen, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, J. Almeida, L. Rondo, A. Franchin, F. Kreissl, F. Bianchi, H. E. Manninen, M. Kulmala, J. Curtius, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7547–7555,
A. Franchin, S. Ehrhart, J. Leppä, T. Nieminen, S. Gagné, S. Schobesberger, D. Wimmer, J. Duplissy, F. Riccobono, E. M. Dunne, L. Rondo, A. Downard, F. Bianchi, A. Kupc, G. Tsagkogeorgas, K. Lehtipalo, H. E. Manninen, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, P. E. Wagner, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, A. Kürten, N. M. Donahue, V. Makhmutov, S. Mathot, A. Metzger, T. Petäjä, R. Schnitzhofer, M. Sipilä, Y. Stozhkov, A. Tomé, V.-M. Kerminen, K. Carslaw, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7203–7216,Short summary
The ion-ion recombination coefficient was measured at different temperatures, relative humidities and concentrations of ozone and sulfur dioxide. The experiments were carried out using the CLOUD chamber at CERN. We observed a strong dependency on temperature and on relative humidity, which has not been reported previously. No dependency of the ion-ion recombination coefficient on ozone concentration was observed and a weak variation with sulfur dioxide concentration was also observed.
Z. Wang, H. Su, X. Wang, N. Ma, A. Wiedensohler, U. Pöschl, and Y. Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2161–2172,
E. Giannakaki, A. Pfüller, K. Korhonen, T. Mielonen, L. Laakso, V. Vakkari, H. Baars, R. Engelmann, J. P. Beukes, P. G. Van Zyl, M. Josipovic, P. Tiitta, K. Chiloane, S. Piketh, H. Lihavainen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, and M. Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5429–5442,Short summary
In this study we summarize 1 year of Raman lidar observations over South Africa. The analyses of lidar measurements presented here could assist in bridging existing gaps in the knowledge of vertical distribution of aerosols above South Africa, since limited long-term data of this type are available for this region. For the first time, we have been able to cover the full seasonal cycle on geometrical characteristics and optical properties of free tropospheric aerosol layers in the region.
L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, C. Ruckstuhl, E. Coz, M. Rupakheti, J. Sciare, T. Müller, A. Wiedensohler, and A. D. A. Hansen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1965–1979,Short summary
We present a new real-time algorithm for compensation of the filter-loading effect in filter photometers, based on a two parallel spot measurement of optical absorption. This algorithm has been incorporated into the new Aethalometer AE33. Intercomparison studies show excellent reproducibility of the AE33 measurements and very good agreement with post-processed data obtained using earlier aethalometer models and other filter-based absorption photometers.
A.-M. Sundström, A. Nikandrova, K. Atlaskina, T. Nieminen, V. Vakkari, L. Laakso, J. P. Beukes, A. Arola, P. G. van Zyl, M. Josipovic, A. D. Venter, K. Jaars, J. J. Pienaar, S. Piketh, A. Wiedensohler, E. K. Chiloane, G. de Leeuw, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4983–4996,
V. Vakkari, E. J. O'Connor, A. Nisantzi, R. E. Mamouri, and D. G. Hadjimitsis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1875–1885,
A. P. Praplan, S. Schobesberger, F. Bianchi, M. P. Rissanen, M. Ehn, T. Jokinen, H. Junninen, A. Adamov, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Duplissy, J. Hakala, A. Hansel, M. Heinritzi, J. Kangasluoma, J. Kirkby, M. Krapf, A. Kürten, K. Lehtipalo, F. Riccobono, L. Rondo, N. Sarnela, M. Simon, A. Tomé, J. Tröstl, P. M. Winkler, C. Williamson, P. Ye, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, N. M. Donahue, M. Kulmala, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4145–4159,Short summary
Our study shows, based on data from three atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometers measuring in parallel charged and neutral molecules and molecular clusters, how oxidised organic compounds bind to inorganic ions (e.g. bisulfate, nitrate, ammonium). This ionisation is selective for compounds with lower molar mass due to their limited amount and variety of functional groups. We also found that extremely low volatile organic compounds (ELVOCs) can be formed immediately.
D. Mogensen, R. Gierens, J. N. Crowley, P. Keronen, S. Smolander, A. Sogachev, A. C. Nölscher, L. Zhou, M. Kulmala, M. J. Tang, J. Williams, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3909–3932,
K. Neitola, D. Brus, U. Makkonen, M. Sipilä, R. L. Mauldin III, N. Sarnela, T. Jokinen, H. Lihavainen, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3429–3443,Short summary
A discrepancy of 2 orders of magnitude was found between the measured sulfuric acid monomer concentration and total sulfate, when measured with independent methods (mass spectrometry and ion chromatography) with the same source of sulphuric acid vapor. The ion chromatography method produces the exact concentrations predicted by empirical equations, and the mass spectrometry method shows significantly lower values. The discrepancy is investigated thoroughly from different points of views.
C. Rose, K. Sellegri, E. Asmi, M. Hervo, E. Freney, A. Colomb, H. Junninen, J. Duplissy, M. Sipilä, J. Kontkanen, K. Lehtipalo, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3413–3428,
S. Xiao, M. Y. Wang, L. Yao, M. Kulmala, B. Zhou, X. Yang, J. M. Chen, D. F. Wang, Q. Y. Fu, D. R. Worsnop, and L. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1769–1781,
W. Nie, A. J. Ding, Y. N. Xie, Z. Xu, H. Mao, V.-M. Kerminen, L. F. Zheng, X. M. Qi, X. Huang, X.-Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, E. Herrmann, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and C. B. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1147–1159,
H. Vuollekoski, M. Vogt, V. A. Sinclair, J. Duplissy, H. Järvinen, E.-M. Kyrö, R. Makkonen, T. Petäjä, N. L. Prisle, P. Räisänen, M. Sipilä, J. Ylhäisi, and M. Kulmala
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 601–613,Short summary
The global potential for collecting usable water from dew on an artificial collector sheet was investigated by utilising 34 years of meteorological reanalysis data as input to a dew formation model. Continental dew formation was found to be frequent and common, but daily yields were mostly below 0.1mm.
A.-M. Sundström, A. Arola, P. Kolmonen, Y. Xue, G. de Leeuw, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 505–518,Short summary
In this work, a satellite-based approach to derive the aerosol direct shortwave (SW) radiative effect (ADRE) is studied. The method is based on using coincident satellite observations of SW fluxes and aerosol optical depths (AODs). The key findings of this study are that using normalized values of observed fluxes improves the estimates of ADRE and aerosol-free TOA fluxes as compared to a model. The method was applied over eastern China where the satellite-based mean ADRE of -5Wm-2 was obtained.
S. Schobesberger, A. Franchin, F. Bianchi, L. Rondo, J. Duplissy, A. Kürten, I. K. Ortega, A. Metzger, R. Schnitzhofer, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, E. M. Dunne, M. Ehn, S. Gagné, L. Ickes, H. Junninen, A. Hansel, V.-M. Kerminen, J. Kirkby, A. Kupc, A. Laaksonen, K. Lehtipalo, S. Mathot, A. Onnela, T. Petäjä, F. Riccobono, F. D. Santos, M. Sipilä, A. Tomé, G. Tsagkogeorgas, Y. Viisanen, P. E. Wagner, D. Wimmer, J. Curtius, N. M. Donahue, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 55–78,Short summary
We used an ion mass spectrometer at CERN's CLOUD chamber to investigate the detailed composition of ammonia--sulfuric acid ion clusters (of both polarities) as they initially form and then grow into aerosol particles, at atmospherically relevant conditions. We found that these clusters’ composition is mainly determined by the ratio of the precursor vapors and ranges from ammonia-free clusters to clusters containing > 1 ammonia per sulfuric acid. Acid--base bindings are a key formation mechanism.
J. Backman, A. Virkkula, V. Vakkari, J. P. Beukes, P. G. Van Zyl, M. Josipovic, S. Piketh, P. Tiitta, K. Chiloane, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and L. Laakso
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4285–4298,
S. Nordmann, Y. F. Cheng, G. R. Carmichael, M. Yu, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, Q. Zhang, P. E. Saide, U. Pöschl, H. Su, W. Birmili, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12683–12699,
M. Sipilä, T. Jokinen, T. Berndt, S. Richters, R. Makkonen, N. M. Donahue, R. L. Mauldin III, T. Kurtén, P. Paasonen, N. Sarnela, M. Ehn, H. Junninen, M. P. Rissanen, J. Thornton, F. Stratmann, H. Herrmann, D. R. Worsnop, M. Kulmala, V.-M. Kerminen, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12143–12153,