Articles | Volume 13, issue 20
Research article 17 Oct 2013
Research article | 17 Oct 2013
Identification and quantification of particle growth channels during new particle formation
M. R. Pennington et al.
No articles found.
Arto Heitto, Kari Lehtinen, Tuukka Petäjä, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Markku Kulmala, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
When organic molecules condense on atmospheric nano-sized particles, they can combine forming larger molecules (oligomerization) or fragment to smaller molecules (decomposition). We investigated the effects of these reactions with particle growth model MODNAG and found out that they have potential to significantly affect the growth of atmospheric aerosol particles. These reactions are often excluded from growth models and it is important to increase our understanding of them.
Haijie Tong, Fobang Liu, Alexander Filippi, Jake Wilson, Andrea M. Arangio, Yun Zhang, Siyao Yue, Steven Lelieveld, Fangxia Shen, Helmi-Marja K. Keskinen, Jing Li, Haoxuan Chen, Ting Zhang, Thorsten Hoffmann, Pingqing Fu, William H. Brune, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Maosheng Yao, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10439–10455,Short summary
We measured radical yields of aqueous PM2.5 extracts and found lower yields at higher concentrations of PM2.5. Abundances of water-soluble transition metals and aromatics in PM2.5 were positively correlated with the relative fraction of •OH but negatively correlated with the relative fraction of C-centered radicals among detected radicals. Composition-dependent reactive species yields may explain differences in the reactivity and health effects of PM2.5 in clean versus polluted air.
Lucía Caudillo, Birte Rörup, Martin Heinritzi, Guillaume Marie, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Antonio Amorim, Farnoush Ataei, Rima Baalbaki, Barbara Bertozzi, Zoé Brasseur, Randall Chiu, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Xu-Cheng He, Victoria Hofbauer, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Brandon Lopez, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Dario Massabò, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Antti Onnela, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Meredith Schervish, Wiebke Scholz, Benjamin Schulze, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Mihnea Surdu, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Steffen Vogt, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Wang Yonghong, Wu Yusheng, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Kristina Höhler, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Neil M. Donahue, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We performed experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN at low temperatures to simulate new particle formation in the upper free troposphere (at −30 °C and −50 °C). We measured particle and gas phase and found that most of the compounds that are present in the gas phase are detected as well in the particle phase. The major compounds in the particles are C8-10 and C18-20. Specifically, we showed that C5 and C15 compounds are detected in a mixed system with isoprene and α-pinene at −30 °C, 20 % RH.
Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Gang Chen, Olga Garmash, Diego Aliaga, Frans Graeffe, Meri Räty, Krista Luoma, Pasi Aalto, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10081–10109,Short summary
In many locations worldwide aerosol particles have been shown to be made up of organic aerosol (OA). The boreal forest is a region where aerosol particles possess a high OA mass fraction. Here, we studied OA composition using the longest time series of OA composition ever obtained from a boreal environment. For this purpose, we tested a new analysis framework and discovered that most of the OA was highly oxidized, with strong seasonal behaviour reflecting different sources in summer and winter.
Pak Lun Fung, Martha A. Zaidan, Jarkko V. Niemi, Erkka Saukko, Hilkka Timonen, Anu Kousa, Joel Kuula, Topi Rönkkö, Ari Karppinen, Sasu Tarkoma, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Tareq Hussein
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We develop an input-adaptive mixed effects model, which is automatised to select the best combination of input variables, including up to three fixed effect variables and three time indictors as random effect variables. We test the model to estimate lung deposited surface area (LDSA), which correlates well with human’s health. The results show the inclusion of time indicators improves the sensitivity and the accuracy of the model so that it could serve as a network of virtual sensors.
Magdalena Okuljar, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jenni Kontkanen, Olga Garmash, Miska Olin, Jarkko V. Niemi, Hilkka Timonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Yee Jun Tham, Rima Baalbaki, Mikko Sipilä, Laura Salo, Henna Lintusaari, Harri Portin, Kimmo Teinilä, Minna Aurela, Miikka Dal Maso, Topi Rönkkö, Tuukka Petäjä, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9931–9953,Short summary
To estimate the relative contribution of different sources to the particle population in an urban environment, we conducted simultaneous measurements at a street canyon and an urban background station in Helsinki. We investigated the contribution of traffic and new particle formation to particles with a diameter between 1 and 800 nm. We found that during spring traffic does not dominate the particles smaller than 3 nm at either of the stations.
Jing Cai, Cheng Wu, Jiandong Wang, Wei Du, Feixue Zheng, Simo Hakala, Xiaolong Fan, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Zemin Feng, Yongchun Liu, Yele Sun, Jun Zheng, Chao Yan, Federico Bianchi, Markku Kulmala, Claudia Mohr, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study investigates the connection between organic aerosol (OA) molecular composition and particle absorptive properties in autumn Beijing. We find that the molecular properties of OA compounds in different episodes influence particle light absorption properties differently: the light-absorption enhancement of black carbon and the light absorption coefficient of brown carbon were mostly related to more oxygenated OA (low C number and 4O atoms) and aromatics/nitro-aromatics, respectively.
Rima Baalbaki, Michael Pikridas, Tuija Jokinen, Tiia Laurila, Lubna Dada, Spyros Bezantakos, Lauri Ahonen, Kimmo Neitola, Anne Maisser, Elie Bimenyimana, Aliki Christodoulou, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, George Biskos, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jean Sciare, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9223–9251,Short summary
This study investigates new particle formation (NPF) in the less represented region of the Mediterranean basin using 1-year measurements of aerosol particles down to ~ 1 nm in diameter. We report a high frequency of NPF and give examples of interesting NPF features. We quantify the strength of NPF events by calculating formation rates and growth rates. We further unveil the atmospheric conditions and variables considered important for the intra-monthly and inter-monthly occurrence of NPF.
Wei Huang, Haiyan Li, Nina Sarnela, Liine Heikkinen, Yee Jun Tham, Jyri Mikkilä, Steven J. Thomas, Neil M. Donahue, Markku Kulmala, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8961–8977,Short summary
We show full characterization of gaseous organic compounds in a boreal forest. Molecular composition and volatility of gaseous organic compounds with different oxidation extents (from volatile organic compounds to highly oxygenated organic molecules) were investigated and discussed. We provide a more comprehensive understanding of atmospheric organic compounds in this boreal forest and new insights into interpreting ambient measurements or testing and improving parameterizations in models.
Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, Magdalena Okuljar, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Giorgia Demaria, Thanaporn Liangsupree, Elisa Zagatti, Juho Aalto, Kari Hartonen, Jussi Heinonsalo, Jaana Bäck, Tuukka Petäjä, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8775–8790,Short summary
Altogether, 84 size-segregated aerosol samples from four particle size fractions were collected at the Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations, Hyytiälä, Finland, in autumn 2017 for the clarification of the complex interrelationships between airborne and particulate chemical traces, amino acids and saccharides, gene copy numbers (16S and 18S for bacteria and fungi, respectively), gas-phase chemistry, and the particle size distribution.
Mingyi Wang, Xu-Cheng He, Henning Finkenzeller, Siddharth Iyer, Dexian Chen, Jiali Shen, Mario Simon, Victoria Hofbauer, Jasper Kirkby, Joachim Curtius, Norbert Maier, Theo Kurtén, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Matti Rissanen, Rainer Volkamer, Yee Jun Tham, Neil M. Donahue, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4187–4202,Short summary
Atmospheric iodine species are often short-lived with low abundance and have thus been challenging to measure. We show that the bromide chemical ionization mass spectrometry, compatible with both the atmospheric pressure and reduced pressure interfaces, can simultaneously detect various gas-phase iodine species. Combining calibration experiments and quantum chemical calculations, we quantify detection sensitivities to HOI, HIO3, I2, and H2SO4, giving detection limits down to < 106 molec. cm-3.
Markku Kulmala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Juha Pekkanen, Sami Paatero, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8313–8322,Short summary
The eastern part of China as a whole is practically a gigacity with 650 million inhabitants. The gigacity, with its emissions, processes in the pollution cocktail and numerous feedbacks and interactions, has a crucial and big impact on regional air quality and on global climate. A large-scale research and innovation program is needed to meet the interlinked grand challenges in this gigacity and to serve as a platform for finding pathways for sustainable development of the globe.
Janne Lampilahti, Katri Leino, Antti Manninen, Pyry Poutanen, Anna Franck, Maija Peltola, Paula Hietala, Lisa Beck, Lubna Dada, Lauriane Quéléver, Ronja Öhrnberg, Ying Zhou, Madeleine Ekblom, Ville Vakkari, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7901–7915,Short summary
Using airborne measurements we observed increased number concentrations of sub-25 nm particles in the upper residual layer. These particles may be entrained into the well-mixed boundary layer and observed at the surface. We attribute our observations to new particle formation in the topmost part of the residual layer.
Haoran Li, Ottmar Möhler, Tuukka Petäjä, and Dmitri Moisseev
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In natural clouds, ice nucleating particles are expected to be rare above −10 °C. In the current manuscript, we found that the formation of ice columns is frequent in stratiform clouds and is associated with increased precipitation intensity and liquid water path. In single-layer shallow clouds, the produciton of ice columns were attributed to secondary ice production, despite that the rime-splintering process is not expected to take place in such clouds.
Benjamin Foreback, Lubna Dada, Kaspar Dällenbach, Chao Yan, Lili Wang, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Tom V. Kokkonen, Mona Kurppa, Rosaria E. Pileci, Yonghong Wang, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Lin Zhuohui, Yishou Guo, Chang Li, Rima Baalbaki, Joni Kujansuu, Xiaolong Fan, Zemin Feng, Pekka Rantala, Shahzad Gani, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Yongchun Liu, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study analysed air quality in Beijing during the Chinese New Year over seven years, including data from a new in-depth measurement station. This is one of few studies to look at long-term impacts, including the outcome of firework restrictions starting in 2018. Results show that firework pollution has gone down since 2016, indicating a positive result from the restrictions. Results of this study may be useful in making future decisions about the use of fireworks to improve air quality.
Hanna Lappalainen, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vihma, Jouni Räisänen, Alexander Baklanov, Sergey Chalov, Igor Esau, Ekaterina Ezhova, Matti Leppäranta, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Jukka Pumpanen, Meinrat O. Andreae, Michael Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Jianhui Bai, Igor Bashmachnikov, Boris Belan, Federico Bianchi, Boris Biskaborn, Michael Boy, Jaana Bäck, Bin Cheng, Natalia Ye Chubarova, Jonathan Duplissy, Egor Dyukarev, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Martin Forsius, Martin Heimann, Sirkku Juhola, Vladimir Konovalov, Igor Konovalov, Pavel Konstantinov, Kajar Koster, Elena Lapsina, Anna Lintunen, Alexander Mahura, Risto Makkonen, Svetlana Malkhazova, Ivan Mammarella, Stefano Mammola, Stephany Mazon, Outi Meinander, Eugene Mikhailov, Victoria Miles, Stanislav Myslenko, Dimitry Orlov, Jean-Daniel Paris, Robertta Pirazzini, Olga Popovicheva, Jouni Pulliainen, Kimmo Rautiainen, Torsten Sachs, Vladimir Shevchenko, Andrey Skorokhod, Andreas Stohl, Elli Suhonen, Erik S. Thomson, Marina Tsidilina, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Petteri Uotila, Aki Virkkula, Nadezhda Voropay, Tobias Wolf, Sayaka Yasunaka, Jiahua Zhang, Yubao Qui, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Nikolay Kasimov, Sergey Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We summarize results during the last five years in the Northern Eurasian region, especially from Russia, and introduce recent observations on the air quality in the urban environments in China. Although the scientific knowledge in these regions has increased, there are still gaps in our understanding of large-scale climate-Earth surface interactions and feedbacks. This arises from limitations in research infrastructures and integrative data analyses, hindering a comprehensive system analysis.
Yongchun Liu, Zeming Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolei Bao, Pengfei Liu, Yanli Ge, Yan Zhao, Tao Jiang, Yunwen Liao, Yusheng Zhang, Xiaolong Fan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Federico Bianch, Tuukka Petäjä, Yujing Mu, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The mechanisms and kinetics of particulate sulfate formation in the atmosphere are still open questions although they have been extensively discussed. We found that uptake of SO2 is the rate determining step for the conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfate. NH4NO3 plays an important role in the AWC, the phase state of aerosol particles, subsequently, the uptake kinetics of SO2 under high RH conditions. This work is a good exmple about the feedback between aerosol physics and aerosol chemistry.
Ying Zhou, Simo Hakala, Chao Yan, Yang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Biwu Chu, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Shahzad Gani, Jenni Kontkanen, Pauli Paasonen, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Lubna Dada
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We characterized the connection between new particle formation (NPF) events in terms of frequency, intensity and growth at a near-highway location in central Beijing and at a background mountain site 200 km away from it. Due to the substantial contribution of NPF to the global aerosol budget, identifying the conditions that promote the occurrence of regional events could help understand their participation on a large scale and would improve their implementation in global models.
Lukas Fischer, Martin Breitenlechner, Eva Canaval, Wiebke Scholz, Marcus Striednig, Martin Graus, Thomas G. Karl, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Ecosystems emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), which are then oxidized in the atmosphere contributing to ozone and secondary aerosol formation. While flux measurements of BVOC are state of the art, flux measurements of the less volatile oxidation products are difficult to achieve due to inlet losses. Here we present first flux measurements utilizing a novel PTR3 instrument in combination with a specially designed “wall-less” inlet we put on top of the Hyytiälä tower in Finland.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Sander Mirme, Mikael Ehn, Iida Pullinen, Katri Leino, Siegfried Schobesberger, Juha Kangasluoma, Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Riikka Väänänen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Radovan Krejci, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Janne Levula, Aadu Mirme, Stefano Decesari, Ralf Tillmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We studied aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different locations (Po Valley, Italy and Hyytiälä, Finland). The observations consist of airborne measurements on board an instrumented Zeppelin and a small airplane combined with comprehensive ground-based measurements.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Chang Li, Wei Ma, Zemin Feng, Ying Zhou, Zhuohui Lin, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Rujing Yin, Jenni Kontkanen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Runlong Cai, Federico Bianchi, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5499–5511,Short summary
Fog, cloud and haze are very common natural phenomena. Sulfuric acid (SA) is one of the key compounds forming those suspended particles, technically called aerosols, through gas-to-particle conversion. Therefore, the concentration level, source and sink of SA is very important. Our results show that ozonolysis of alkenes plays a major role in nighttime SA formation under unpolluted conditions in urban Beijing, and nighttime cluster mode particles are probably driven by SA in urban environments.
Dana L. McGuffin, Yuanlong Huang, Richard C. Flagan, Tuukka Petäjä, B. Erik Ydstie, and Peter J. Adams
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1821–1839,Short summary
Atmospheric particle formation, emissions, and growth process rates are significant sources of uncertainty in predicting climate change. We aim to reduce that uncertainty by using measurements from several ground-based sites across Europe. We developed an estimation technique to adapt the governing process rates so model–measurement bias decays. The estimation framework developed has potential to improve model predictions while providing insight into the underlying atmospheric particle physics.
Thomas Thorp, Stephen R. Arnold, Richard J. Pope, Dominick V. Spracklen, Luke Conibear, Christoph Knote, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Belan, Eija Asmi, Tuomas Laurila, Andrei I. Skorokhod, Tuomo Nieminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4677–4697,Short summary
We compare modelled near-surface pollutants with surface and satellite observations to better understand the controls on the regional concentrations of pollution in western Siberia for late spring and summer in 2011. We find two commonly used emission inventories underestimate human emissions when compared to observations. Transport emissions are the main source of pollutants within the region during this period, whilst fire emissions peak during June and are only significant south of 60° N.
Clémence Rose, Matti P. Rissanen, Siddharth Iyer, Jonathan Duplissy, Chao Yan, John B. Nowak, Aurélie Colomb, Régis Dupuy, Xu-Cheng He, Janne Lampilahti, Yee Jun Tham, Daniela Wimmer, Jean-Marc Metzger, Pierre Tulet, Jérôme Brioude, Céline Planche, Markku Kulmala, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4541–4560,Short summary
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is commonly accepted as a key precursor for atmospheric new particle formation. However, direct measurements of [H2SO4] remain challenging, motivating the development of proxies. Using data collected in two different volcanic plumes, we show, under these specific conditions, the good performance of a proxy from the literature and also highlight the benefit of the newly developed proxies for the prediction of the highest [H2SO4] values.
Sabrina Chee, Kelley Barsanti, James N. Smith, and Nanna Myllys
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We explored molecular properties affecting atmospheric particle formation efficiency and derived a parameterization between particle formation rate and heterodimer concentration, which showed good agreement to previously reported experimental data. Considering the simplicity of calculating heterodimer concentration, this approach has potential to improve estimates of global cloud condensation nuclei in models that are limited by the computational expense of calculating particle formation rate.
Haiyan Li, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Yanjun Zhang, Steven Thomas, Liine Heikkinen, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Eric Villenave, Emilie Perraudin, Douglas Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4123–4147,Short summary
For the first time, we performed binPMF analysis on the complex mass spectra acquired with the Vocus PTR-TOF in two European pine forests and identified various primary emission sources and secondary oxidation processes of atmospheric organic vapors, i.e., terpenes and their oxidation products, with varying oxidation degrees. Further insights were gained regarding monoterpene and sesquiterpene reactions based on the interpretation results.
Pak Lun Fung, Martha Arbayani Zaidan, Ola Surakhi, Sasu Tarkoma, Tuukka Petäjä, and Tareq Hussein
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Aerosol size distribution measurements rely on a variety of techniques to classify the aerosol size and measure the size distribution. However, due to the instrumental insufficiency and inversion limitations, raw dataset contains missing gaps or negative values, which hinder further analysis. With a merged particle size distribution in Jordan, this paper suggests a neural network model to estimate number concentrations at a particular size bin by the number concentration at other size bins.
Julia Schneider, Kristina Höhler, Paavo Heikkilä, Jorma Keskinen, Barbara Bertozzi, Pia Bogert, Tobias Schorr, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Franziska Vogel, Zoé Brasseur, Yusheng Wu, Simo Hakala, Jonathan Duplissy, Dmitri Moisseev, Markku Kulmala, Michael P. Adams, Benjamin J. Murray, Kimmo Korhonen, Liqing Hao, Erik S. Thomson, Dimitri Castarède, Thomas Leisner, Tuukka Petäjä, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3899–3918,Short summary
By triggering the formation of ice crystals, ice-nucleating particles (INP) strongly influence cloud formation. Continuous, long-term measurements are needed to characterize the atmospheric INP variability. Here, a first long-term time series of INP spectra measured in the boreal forest for more than 1 year is presented, showing a clear seasonal cycle. It is shown that the seasonal dependency of INP concentrations and prevalent INP types is driven by the abundance of biogenic aerosol.
Ditte Taipale, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Mikael Ehn, Markku Kulmala, and Ülo Niinemets
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Larval feeding and fungal infections of leaves can change the emission of volatile compounds from plants a lot and thereby influence aerosol processes in the air. We developed a model which considers the dynamics of larvae and fungi and the dependency of the emission on the severity of stress. We show that the infections can be highly atmospherically relevant during long periods of time and at times be more important to consider than the parameters which are currently used in emission models.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, James Brean, Francis D. Pope, Manuel Dall'Osto, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Noemi Perez, Tuukka Petäjä, Andreas Massling, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3345–3370,Short summary
New particle formation events from 16 sites over Europe have been studied, and the influence of meteorological and atmospheric composition variables has been investigated. Some variables, like solar radiation intensity and temperature, have a positive effect on the occurrence of these events, while others have a negative effect, affecting different aspects such as the rate at which particles are formed or grow. This effect varies depending on the site type and magnitude of these variables.
Imre Salma, Wanda Thén, Pasi Aalto, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Anikó Kern, Zoltán Barcza, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2861–2880,Short summary
The distribution of the monthly mean nucleation frequency possessed a characteristic pattern. Its shape was compared to those of environmental variables, including vegetation-derived properties. The spring maximum in the occurrence frequency often overlapped with the positive T anomaly. The link between the heat stress and the occurrence minimum in summer could not be proven, whereas an association between the occurrence frequency and vegetation growth dynamics was clearly identified in spring.
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Nahid Atashi, Dariush Rahimi, Victoria A. Sinclair, Martha A. Zaidan, Anton Rusanen, Henri Vuollekoski, Markku Kulmala, Timo Vesala, and Tareq Hussein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
Dew formation potential during a long-term period (1979–2018) was assessed in Iran aiming to identify dew formation zones and to investigate the impacts of long-term variation in meteorological parameters on dew formation.
Runlong Cai, Chenxi Li, Xu-Cheng He, Chenjuan Deng, Yiqun Lu, Rujing Yin, Chao Yan, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2287–2304,Short summary
Growth rate determines the survival probability of atmospheric new particles and hence their impacts. We clarify the impacts of coagulation on the values retrieved by the appearance time method, which is widely used for growth rate evaluation. A new formula with coagulation correction is proposed based on derivation and tested using both models and atmospheric data. We show that the sub-3 nm particle growth rate in polluted environments may be overestimated without the coagulation correction.
Krista Luoma, Jarkko V. Niemi, Minna Aurela, Pak Lun Fung, Aku Helin, Tareq Hussein, Leena Kangas, Anu Kousa, Topi Rönkkö, Hilkka Timonen, Aki Virkkula, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1173–1189,Short summary
This study combined black carbon measurements from 15 Finnish sites that represented different environments (traffic, detached housing area, urban background, and regional background). The seasonal and diurnal variations in the black carbon concentration were associated with local emissions from traffic and residential wood burning. The study observed decreasing trends in the black carbon concentration and associated them with decreases in traffic emissions.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wanger, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid-base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span the four orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in the ambient. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Juha Sulo, Nina Sarnela, Jenni Kontkanen, Lauri Ahonen, Pauli Paasonen, Tiia Laurila, Tuija Jokinen, Juha Kangasluoma, Heikki Junninen, Mikko Sipilä, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Katrianne Lehtipalo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 695–715,Short summary
In this study, we analyzed over 5 years of sub-3 nm particle concentrations and their precursor vapors, identifying atmoshperic vapors important to the formation of these particles in the boreal forest. We also observed seasonal differences in both particle and precursor vapor concentrations and the formation pathways of these particles. Our results confirm the importance of organic vapors in atmospheric aerosol formation and highlight key seasonal differences that require further study.
Oleg Sizov, Ekaterina Ezhova, Petr Tsymbarovich, Andrey Soromotin, Nikolay Prihod'ko, Tuukka Petäjä, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, and Kajar Köster
Biogeosciences, 18, 207–228,Short summary
In changing climate, tundra is expected to turn into shrubs and trees, diminishing reindeer pasture and increasing risks of tick-borne diseases. However, this transition may require a disturbance. Fires in Siberia are increasingly widespread. We studied wildfire dynamics and tundra–forest transition over 60 years in northwest Siberia near the Arctic Circle. Based on satellite data analysis, we found that transition occurs in 40 %–85 % of burned tundra compared to 5 %–15 % in non-disturbed areas.
Mikko Sipilä, Nina Sarnela, Kimmo Neitola, Totti Laitinen, Deniz Kemppainen, Lisa Beck, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Salla Kuittinen, Tuuli Lehmusjärvi, Janne Lampilahti, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Pasi P. Aalto, Petri Keronen, Erkki Siivola, Pekka A. Rantala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Tuija Jokinen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Metallurgical industry in Kola peninsula is a large source of air pollution in the (sub-)Arctic domain. Sulphur dioxide emissions from the ore smelters are transported to wide areas. We investigated sulphur dioxide and its transformation to sulphuric acid aerosol particles during winter months in Finnish Lapland, close to Kola industrial areas. We observed intense formation of new aerosol particles despite the low solar radiation intensity, often required for new particle formation elsewhere.
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system which effects are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
Helmi-Marja Keskinen, Ilona Ylivinkka, Liine Heikkinen, Pasi P. Aalto, Tuomo Nieminen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juho Aalto, Janne Levula, Jutta Kesti, Lauri R. Ahonen, Ekaterina Ezhova, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Long-term (2005–2017) aerosol particulate matter (PM) concentration measurements at Finland at Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II, Hyytiälä) have been measured with three different measurement equipment. The comparison revealed an equivalence among the three methods. Mass concentrations were generally highest in summer. The descending trend was visible here in spring, summer and winter. This might have resulted at least partly from air quality legislation.
Xiaolong Fan, Jing Cai, Chao Yan, Jian Zhao, Yishuo Guo, Chang Li, Kaspar R. Dällenbach, Feixue Zheng, Zhuohui Lin, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Lubna Dada, Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Du, Jenni Kontkanen, Theo Kurtén, Siddhart Iyer, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Federico Bianchi, Yee Jun Tham, Lei Yao, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We observed significant concentrations of gaseous HBr and HCl throughout the winter and springtime in urban Beijing. Our results indicate that the gaseous HCl and HBr are most likely originated from anthropogenic emissions such as burning activities, and the gas-aerosol partitioning may play a crucial role in contributing to the gaseous HCl and HBr. These observations suggest that there is an important recycling pathway of halogen species in inland megacities.
Jingsha Xu, Shaojie Song, Roy M. Harrison, Congbo Song, Lianfang Wei, Qiang Zhang, Yele Sun, Lu Lei, Chao Zhang, Xiaohong Yao, Dihui Chen, Weijun Li, Miaomiao Wu, Hezhong Tian, Lining Luo, Shengrui Tong, Weiran Li, Junling Wang, Guoliang Shi, Yanqi Huangfu, Yingze Tian, Baozhu Ge, Shaoli Su, Chao Peng, Yang Chen, Fumo Yang, Aleksandra Mihajlidi-Zelić, Dragana Đorđević, Stefan J. Swift, Imogen Andrews, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Ye Sun, Agung Kramawijaya, Jinxiu Han, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Clarissa Baldo, Siqi Hou, Feixue Zheng, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Chao Yan, Yongchun Liu, Markku Kulmala, Pingqing Fu, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6325–6341,Short summary
An interlaboratory comparison was conducted for the first time to examine differences in water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) measured by 10 labs using ion chromatography (IC) and by two online aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) methods. Major ions including SO42−, NO3− and NH4+ agreed well in 10 IC labs and correlated well with ACSM data. WSII interlab variability strongly affected aerosol acidity results based on ion balance, but aerosol pH computed by ISORROPIA II was very similar.
Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Hassan Lyamani, Lubna Dada, Simo Hakala, Pauli Paasonen, Roberto Román, Roberto Fraile, Tuukka Petäjä, Francisco José Olmo-Reyes, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14253–14271,Short summary
New particle formation was investigated at two stations located close to each other but at different altitudes: urban and high-altitude sites. Results show that sulfuric acid is able to explain a minimal fraction contribution to the observed growth rates and point to the availability of volatile organic compounds as the main factor controlling NPF events at both sites. A closer analysis of the NPF events that were observed at high-altitude sites during a Saharan dust episode was carried out.
Yongchun Liu, Yusheng Zhang, Chaofan Lian, Chao Yan, Zeming Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolong Fan, Yan Chen, Weigang Wang, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Jing Cai, Wei Du, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Joni Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Xuefei Wang, Bo Hu, Yuesi Wang, Maofa Ge, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13023–13040,Short summary
Understanding of the chemical and physical processes leading to atmospheric aerosol particle formation is crucial to devising effective mitigation strategies to protect the public and reduce uncertainties in climate predictions. We found that the photolysis of nitrous acid could promote the formation of organic and nitrate aerosol and that traffic-related emission is a major contributor to ambient nitrous acid on haze days in wintertime in Beijing.
Jing Cai, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Chao Yan, Liine M. Heikkinen, Feixue Zheng, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Shaojun Zhang, Daoyuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Tom V. Kokkonen, Tommy Chan, Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Pauli Paasonen, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Claudia Mohr, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Yele Sun, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Wei Du, Markku Kulmala, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12721–12740,Short summary
By applying both OA PMF and size PMF at the same urban measurement site in Beijing, similar particle source types, including vehicular emissions, cooking emissions and secondary formation-related sources, were resolved by both frameworks and agreed well. It is also found that in the absence of new particle formation, vehicular and cooking emissions dominate the particle number concentration, while secondary particulate matter governed PM2.5 mass during spring and summer in Beijing.
Ilona Ylivinkka, Santeri Kaupinmäki, Meri Virman, Maija Peltola, Ditte Taipale, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Ekaterina Ezhova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5595–5619,Short summary
In this study, we developed a new algorithm for cloud classification using solar radiation and cloud base height measurements. Our objective was to develop a simple and inexpensive but effective algorithm for the needs of studies related to ecosystem and atmosphere interactions. In the present study, we used the algorithm for obtaining cloud statistics at a measurement station in southern Finland, and we discuss the advantages and shortcomings of the algorithm.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna Elina Manninen, Katri Leino, Riikka Väänänen, Antti Manninen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Tuomo Nieminen, Matti Leskinen, Joonas Enroth, Marja Bister, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Juha Kangasluoma, Heikki Järvinen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11841–11854,Short summary
In this work, by using co-located airborne and ground-based measurements, we show that counter-rotating horizontal circulations in the planetary boundary layer (roll vortices) frequently enhance regional new particle formation or induce localized bursts of new particle formation. These observations can be explained by the ability of the rolls to efficiently lift low-volatile vapors emitted from the surface to the top of the boundary layer where new particle formation is more favorable.
Martin Heinritzi, Lubna Dada, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andrea C. Wagner, Lukas Fischer, Lauri R. Ahonen, Stavros Amanatidis, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Bernhard Baumgartner, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, Antonio Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Imad El Haddad, Xucheng He, Johanna Helm, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Juha Kangasluoma, Timo Keber, Changhyuk Kim, Andreas Kürten, Houssni Lamkaddam, Tiia M. Laurila, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna Elina Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy Lee Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Tuomo Nieminen, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Monica Passananti, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Clémence Rose, Siegfried Schobesberger, Wiebke Scholz, Kay Scholze, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Annele Virtanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Rainer Volkamer, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11809–11821,Short summary
With experiments performed at CLOUD, we show how isoprene interferes in monoterpene oxidation via RO2 termination at atmospherically relevant concentrations. This interference shifts the distribution of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) away from C20 class dimers towards C15 class dimers, which subsequently reduces both biogenic nucleation and early growth rates. Our results may help to understand the absence of new-particle formation in isoprene-rich environments.
Lubna Dada, Ilona Ylivinkka, Rima Baalbaki, Chang Li, Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Lei Yao, Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Rujing Yin, Chenjuan Deng, Biwu Chu, Tuomo Nieminen, Yonghong Wang, Zhuohui Lin, Roseline C. Thakur, Jenni Kontkanen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Mikko Sipilä, Tareq Hussein, Pauli Paasonen, Federico Bianchi, Imre Salma, Tamás Weidinger, Michael Pikridas, Jean Sciare, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11747–11766,Short summary
We rely on sulfuric acid measurements in four contrasting environments, Hyytiälä, Finland; Agia Marina, Cyprus; Budapest, Hungary; and Beijing, China, representing semi-pristine boreal forest, rural environment in the Mediterranean area, urban environment, and heavily polluted megacity, respectively, in order to define the sources and sinks of sulfuric acid in these environments and to derive a new sulfuric acid proxy to be utilized in locations and during periods when it is not measured.
Jenni Kontkanen, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Lubna Dada, Ying Zhou, Jing Cai, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Simo Hakala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Zhuohui Lin, Yongchun Liu, Yonghong Wang, Chao Yan, Tuukka Petäjä, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11329–11348,Short summary
To estimate the impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles on air quality, knowledge of size distributions of particles emitted from anthropogenic sources is needed. We introduce a new method for determining size-resolved particle number emissions from measured particle size distributions. We apply our method to data measured in Beijing, China. We find that particle number emissions at our site are dominated by emissions of particles smaller than 30 nm, originating mainly from traffic.
Tommy Chan, Runlong Cai, Lauri R. Ahonen, Yiliang Liu, Ying Zhou, Joonas Vanhanen, Lubna Dada, Yan Chao, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4885–4898,Short summary
Using a particle size magnifier (PSM; Airmodus, Finland), we determined the particle size distribution using four inversion methods and compared each method to the others to establish their strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, we provided a step-by-step procedure on how to invert measured data using the PSM. Finally, we provided recommendations, code and data related to the data inversion. This is an important paper, as no operating procedure exists regarding how to process measured PSM data.
Krista Luoma, Aki Virkkula, Pasi Aalto, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
The study presents a comparison of three different absorption photometers that measured ambient aerosol particles at a boreal forest site. The study aims to better understand problems related to filter-based measurements. Results show how different correction algorithms, which are used to produce the data, affect the derived optical properties of aerosol particles.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Francis D. Pope, David C. Beddows, Manuel Dall’Osto, Andreas Massling, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nørdstrom, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Tuukka Petäjä, Noemi Perez, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Formation of new particles is a key process in the atmosphere. New Particle Formation events arising from nucleation of gaseous precursors have been analysed in extensive datasets from thirteen sites in five European countries in terms of frequency, nucleation rate and particle growth rate, with several common features and many differences identified. Although nucleation frequencies are lower at roadside sites, nucleation rates and particle growth rates are typically higher.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Mario Simon, Lubna Dada, Martin Heinritzi, Wiebke Scholz, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lukas Fischer, Andrea C. Wagner, Andreas Kürten, Birte Rörup, Xu-Cheng He, João Almeida, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, Anton Bergen, Federico Bianchi, Steffen Bräkling, Sophia Brilke, Lucia Caudillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, António Dias, Danielle C. Draper, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El-Haddad, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Loic Gonzalez-Carracedo, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Jani Hakala, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Changhyuk Kim, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Matti P. Rissanen, Simon Schallhart, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee J. Tham, António R. Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Alexander L. Vogel, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Yusheng Wu, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Xueqin Zhou, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9183–9207,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic compounds (HOMs) have been identified as key vapors involved in atmospheric new-particle formation (NPF). The molecular distribution, HOM yield, and NPF from α-pinene oxidation experiments were measured at the CLOUD chamber over a wide tropospheric-temperature range. This study shows on a molecular scale that despite the sharp reduction in HOM yield at lower temperatures, the reduced volatility counteracts this effect and leads to an overall increase in the NPF rate.
Shahzad Gani, Sahil Bhandari, Kanan Patel, Sarah Seraj, Prashant Soni, Zainab Arub, Gazala Habib, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, and Joshua S. Apte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8533–8549,Short summary
Delhi, India, has had the highest fine particle mass (PM2.5; diameter < 2.5 µm) concentrations of any megacity on the planet in recent years. Here, we undertook a year of detailed measurements of particle size distributions. We observed that the number count of ultrafine particles (diameter < 100 nm) – unlike PM2.5 – is not dramatically elevated in Delhi. Using observations and a simple model, we illustrate how the high amount of PM2.5 in Delhi may suppress ultrafine particle concentrations.
Tuukka Petäjä, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ksenia Tabakova, Julia Schmale, Barbara Altstädter, Gerard Ancellet, Mikhail Arshinov, Yurii Balin, Urs Baltensperger, Jens Bange, Alison Beamish, Boris Belan, Antoine Berchet, Rossana Bossi, Warren R. L. Cairns, Ralf Ebinghaus, Imad El Haddad, Beatriz Ferreira-Araujo, Anna Franck, Lin Huang, Antti Hyvärinen, Angelika Humbert, Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Pavel Konstantinov, Astrid Lampert, Matthew MacLeod, Olivier Magand, Alexander Mahura, Louis Marelle, Vladimir Masloboev, Dmitri Moisseev, Vaios Moschos, Niklas Neckel, Tatsuo Onishi, Stefan Osterwalder, Aino Ovaska, Pauli Paasonen, Mikhail Panchenko, Fidel Pankratov, Jakob B. Pernov, Andreas Platis, Olga Popovicheva, Jean-Christophe Raut, Aurélie Riandet, Torsten Sachs, Rosamaria Salvatori, Roberto Salzano, Ludwig Schröder, Martin Schön, Vladimir Shevchenko, Henrik Skov, Jeroen E. Sonke, Andrea Spolaor, Vasileios K. Stathopoulos, Mikko Strahlendorff, Jennie L. Thomas, Vito Vitale, Sterios Vratolis, Carlo Barbante, Sabine Chabrillat, Aurélien Dommergue, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jyri Heilimo, Kathy S. Law, Andreas Massling, Steffen M. Noe, Jean-Daniel Paris, André S. H. Prévôt, Ilona Riipinen, Birgit Wehner, Zhiyong Xie, and Hanna K. Lappalainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8551–8592,Short summary
The role of polar regions is increasing in terms of megatrends such as globalization, new transport routes, demography, and the use of natural resources with consequent effects on regional and transported pollutant concentrations. Here we summarize initial results from our integrative project exploring the Arctic environment and pollution to deliver data products, metrics, and indicators for stakeholders.
Yuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Putian Zhou, Dan Yao, Dongsheng Ji, Jie Sun, Yinghong Wang, Shuman Zhao, Wei Huang, Shuanghong Yang, Dean Chen, Wenkang Gao, Zirui Liu, Bo Hu, Renjian Zhang, Limin Zeng, Maofa Ge, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8181–8200,
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Alex B. Guenther, Jeong-Hoo Park, Roger Seco, Eliane Alves, Sarah Batalha, Raoni Santana, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Julio Tóta, and Oscar Vega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7179–7191,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are important components of the atmosphere due to their contribution to atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we report major BVOCs, e.g. isoprene and total monoterpene flux measurements with a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) using the eddy covariance (EC) method at a primary rainforest in eastern Amazonia. We used the measured data to evaluate the MEGAN2.1 model for the emission site.
Zainab Arub, Sahil Bhandari, Shahzad Gani, Joshua S. Apte, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, and Gazala Habib
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6953–6971,Short summary
Aerosol physiochemical properties were characterized for three prominent air masses over New Delhi, a highly polluted megacity. The chemical composition and size distribution data were used to deduce the hygroscopicity parameter and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration. The activated fraction was the highest in the world for any continental site. The aerosol physiochemical properties and their diurnal patterns were interlinked and impacted aerosol hygroscopicity and CCN activity.
Mikhail Paramonov, Saskia Drossaart van Dusseldorp, Ellen Gute, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Paavo Heikkilä, Jorma Keskinen, Xuemeng Chen, Krista Luoma, Liine Heikkinen, Liqing Hao, Tuukka Petäjä, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6687–6706,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particle (INP) measurements were performed in the boreal environment of southern Finland in the winter–spring of 2018. It was found that no single parameter could be used to predict the INP number concentration at the measurement location during the examined time period. It was also not possible to identify physical and chemical properties of ambient INPs despite the complexity of the instrumental set-up. Therefore, this paper addresses the necessity for future INP measurements.
Zhuohui Lin, Yonghong Wang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Yishuo Guo, Zemin Feng, Chang Li, Yusheng Zhang, Simo Hakala, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Xiaolong Fan, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Runlong Cai, Tom V. Kokkonen, Putian Zhou, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACP
Dean Chen, Putian Zhou, Tuomo Nieminen, Pontus Roldin, Ximeng Qi, Petri Clusius, Carlton Xavier, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Markku Kulmala, Pekka Rantala, Juho Aalto, Nina Sarnela, Pasi Kolari, Petri Keronen, Matti P. Rissanen, Metin Baykara, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Atmospheric oxidants OH, O3 and NO3 dominate the atmospheric oxidation capacity, and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is considered as a main driver for new particle formation events. We studied how the trends of these atmospheric oxidants and H2SO4 changed in southern Finland during the past 12 years and discussed how these trends related to decreasing emissions of air pollutants in Europe. Our results showed that OH increased by 1.56 % yr−1 at daytime and NO3 decreased by 3.92 % yr−1 at nighttime.
Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Matthieu Riva, Krista Luoma, Kaspar Dällenbach, Juho Aalto, Pasi Aalto, Diego Aliaga, Minna Aurela, Helmi Keskinen, Ulla Makkonen, Pekka Rantala, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3151–3180,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air. They are known as a health risk, but they also influence the Earth's climate. The composition of aerosols becomes important when predicting their effect on climate. We show both seasonal and year-to-year variability of aerosol chemical composition in the boreal forest of Finland. We observed a consistent bimodal seasonal trend: a biogenic summertime maximum and an anthropogenic wintertime maximum in the mass concentration.
Leigh R. Crilley, Ajit Singh, Louisa J. Kramer, Marvin D. Shaw, Mohammed S. Alam, Joshua S. Apte, William J. Bloss, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, Pingqing Fu, Weiqi Fu, Shahzad Gani, Michael Gatari, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Alastair C. Lewis, David Ng'ang'a, Yele Sun, Rachel C. W. Whitty, Siyao Yue, Stuart Young, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1181–1193,Short summary
There is considerable interest in using low-cost optical particle counters (OPCs) for particle mass measurements; however, there is no agreed upon method with respect to calibration. Here we exploit a number of datasets globally to demonstrate that particle composition and relative humidity are the key factors affecting measured concentrations from a low-cost OPC, and we present a simple correction methodology that corrects for this influence.
Haiyan Li, Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Liine Heikkinen, Kaspar Daellenbach, Jordan E. Krechmer, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Douglas Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Eric Villenave, Emilie Perraudin, Mikael Ehn, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1941–1959,Short summary
We deployed the recently developed Vocus PTR-TOF in the French Landes forest during summertime to gain insights into terpene chemistry. In addition to isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and the low-volatility diterpenes, various terpene reaction products are characterized. Through the analysis of terpene chemistry, we demonstrate the capability of the Vocus PTR-TOF for the detection of oxidized reaction products, highlighting its importance in investigating atmospheric oxidation processes.
Ditte Taipale, Juho Aalto, Pauliina Schiestl-Aalto, Markku Kulmala, and Jaana Bäck
Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yiliang Liu, Yueyun Fu, Juha Kangasluoma, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Federico Bianchi, Tom V. Kokkonen, Yongchun Liu, Joni Kujansuu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1201–1216,Short summary
In this study, we focus on explaining the concentration variations in the observed particle modes, by relating them to the potential aerosol sources and sinks, and on understanding the connections between these modes. Interestingly, even in the atmospheric cocktail in urban Beijing, secondary new particle formation (NPF) drives the particle number concentration, especially in the sub-3 nm range. We found that the total number concentration is ~ 4 times higher on NPF days than on haze days.
Sahil Bhandari, Shahzad Gani, Kanan Patel, Dongyu S. Wang, Prashant Soni, Zainab Arub, Gazala Habib, Joshua S. Apte, and Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 735–752,Short summary
Delhi, India, is the most polluted megacity on the planet, posing acute challenges to public health. We report on source apportionment conducted on 15 months of highly time-resolved mass spectrometer data. We find that severe air pollution episodes are dominated by primary organic aerosol, while secondary organic aerosol dominates the fractional contributions year-round, suggesting the importance of sources as well as their atmospheric processing on pollution levels in Delhi.
Marja Hemmilä, Ulla Makkonen, Aki Virkkula, Georgia Panagiotopoulou, Juho Aalto, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Hannele Hakola, and Heidi Hellén
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
Amines are atmospheric bases, which can affect to nucleation of aerosols. Lately, a computational study showed that guanidine could be even more effective to stabilize sulphuric acid clusters. In this paper we used a a dynamic flow-through chamber with an online ion chromatograph MARGA coupled with a mass spectrometer (MARGA-MS). We studied amine and guanidine emission from a boreal forest floor in Finland, and find out, that the boreal forest floor is a source of amines and guanidine.
Matti Räsänen, Mika Aurela, Ville Vakkari, Johan P. Beukes, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Pieter G. Van Zyl, Miroslav Josipovic, Stefan J. Siebert, Tuomas Laurila, Markku Kulmala, Lauri Laakso, Janne Rinne, Ram Oren, and Gabriel Katul
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The annual ET is approximately equal to precipitation during six measured years for grazed savanna grassland. The computed annual transpiration was highly constrained when rainfall was near or above the long-term mean but was reduced during severe drought year. The developed methodologies can be used in a wide range of arid and semi-arid ecosystems.
Yonghong Wang, Miao Yu, Yuesi Wang, Guiqian Tang, Tao Song, Putian Zhou, Zirui Liu, Bo Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Lili Wang, Xiaowan Zhu, Chao Yan, Mikael Ehn, Wenkang Gao, Yuepeng Pan, Jinyuan Xin, Yang Sun, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 45–53,Short summary
We found a positive particle matter-mixing layer height feedback at three observation platforms at the 325 m Beijing meteorology tower, which is characterized by a shallower mixing layer height and a higher particle matter concentration. Measurements of solar radiation, aerosol chemical composition, meteorology parameters, trace gases and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) could explain the feedback mechanism to some extent.
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Krista Luoma, Helmi Keskinen, Pasi P. Aalto, Xuguang Chi, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15483–15502,Short summary
Long-term cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN) data are scarce; there are a lot more data on aerosol optical properties (AOPs). It is therefore valuable to derive parameterizations for estimating NCCN from AOP measurements. With the new parameterization NCCN can be estimated from backscatter fraction, scattering Ångström exponent, and total light-scattering coefficient. The NCCN–AOP relationships depend on the geometric mean diameter and the width of the size distribution.
Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Dean Chen, Michael Boy, Ditte Taipale, Ville Vakkari, Putian Zhou, Tuukka Petäjä, and Heidi Hellén
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14431–14453,Short summary
Our study shows that, despite our best efforts and recent progress, our knowledge of the chemical composition of the air under the canopy of a boreal forest still cannot be fully characterized. The discrepancy between the measured total reactivity of the air and the reactivity derived from the known chemical composition highlights the need to better understand the emissions from vegetation, but also other sources, such as the forest soil.
Jingda Liu, Lili Wang, Mingge Li, Zhiheng Liao, Yang Sun, Tao Song, Wenkang Gao, Yonghong Wang, Yan Li, Dongsheng Ji, Bo Hu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yuesi Wang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14477–14492,Short summary
We analyzed the surface ozone variation characteristics and quantified the impact of synoptic and local meteorological factors on northern China during the warm season based on multi-city, in situ ozone and meteorological data, as well as meteorological reanalysis. The results of quantitative exploration on synoptic and local meteorological factors influencing both interannual and day-to-day ozone variations will provide the scientific basis for evaluating emission reduction measures.
Simonas Kecorius, Teresa Vogl, Pauli Paasonen, Janne Lampilahti, Daniel Rothenberg, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Manuela van Pinxteren, Markus Hartmann, Silvia Henning, Xianda Gong, Andre Welti, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14339–14364,Short summary
Arctic sea-ice retreat, atmospheric new particle formation (NPF), and aerosol–cloud interaction may all be linked via a positive feedback mechanism. Understanding the sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is an important piece in the Arctic amplification puzzle. We show that Arctic newly formed particles do not have to grow beyond the Aitken mode to act as CCN. This is important, because NPF occurrence in the Arctic is expected to increase, making it a significant contributor to CCN budget.
Hayley S. Glicker, Michael J. Lawler, John Ortega, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Rodrigo de Souza, Julio Tota, Annmarie Carlton, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13053–13066,Short summary
An understanding of the chemical composition of the smallest particles in the air over the Amazon Basin provides insights into the natural and human-caused influences on particle production in this sensitive region. We present measurements of the composition of sub-100 nm diameter particles performed during the wet season and identify unique constituents that point to both natural and human-caused sources and processes.
Krista Luoma, Aki Virkkula, Pasi Aalto, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11363–11382,Short summary
We present an over 10-year-long time series of aerosol optical properties (AOPs) measured at a rural boreal forest site. Knowledge of AOPs is needed in determining the direct effect of aerosol particles on climate. We observed decreasing trends in scattering and absorption and increasing trends in backscattering fraction and single-scattering albedo. Trends of single-scattering albedo and backscattering fraction increased the efficiency of aerosol particles to scatter radiation back into space.
Simo Hakala, Mansour A. Alghamdi, Pauli Paasonen, Ville Vakkari, Mamdouh I. Khoder, Kimmo Neitola, Lubna Dada, Ahmad S. Abdelmaksoud, Hisham Al-Jeelani, Ibrahim I. Shabbaj, Fahd M. Almehmadi, Anu-Maija Sundström, Heikki Lihavainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jenni Kontkanen, Markku Kulmala, Tareq Hussein, and Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10537–10555,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have significant effects on human health and the climate. A large fraction of these aerosols originate from new particle formation, where atmospheric vapors form small nanosized particles that grow into larger sizes, thus becoming climatically relevant. We show that large amounts of fast-growing particles are formed frequently at a site located in western Saudi Arabia and that these particles are likely connected to strong nearby emissions from human activities.
Nanna Myllys, Jakub Kubečka, Vitus Besel, Dina Alfaouri, Tinja Olenius, James Norman Smith, and Monica Passananti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9753–9768,Short summary
In atmospheric sulfuric-acid-driven particle formation, bases are able to stabilize the initial molecular clusters and thus enhance particle formation. We have investigated the enhancing potential of different bases in atmospheric particle formation. We show that strong bases with low abundance are likely to dominate electrically neutral particle formation, whereas weak bases with high abundance have a larger role in ion-mediated particle formation.
Lee Tiszenkel, Chris Stangl, Justin Krasnomowitz, Qi Ouyang, Huan Yu, Michael J. Apsokardu, Murray V. Johnston, and Shan-Hu Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8915–8929,Short summary
Understanding the processes surrounding the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles is essential for understanding their effects on air quality, human health and cloud formation. Current atmospheric models neglect many essential variables that influence these processes. This study investigates temperature effects on new particle formation and the formation of clusters and their subsequent growth in differing temperature conditions.
Shahzad Gani, Sahil Bhandari, Sarah Seraj, Dongyu S. Wang, Kanan Patel, Prashant Soni, Zainab Arub, Gazala Habib, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, and Joshua S. Apte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6843–6859,Short summary
Delhi experiences particulate matter concentrations that are among the highest in the world. We conducted a long-term campaign to make highly time-resolved measurements of submicron particle (PM1) chemical composition in Delhi. Our dataset illuminates key sources and atmospheric processes that impact Delhi's PM1 concentrations, with sharp differences among seasons and between day and night. In addition to local sources, Delhi's PM1 levels are amplified by regional pollution and meteorology.
Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Ivan Kourtchev, Alexander L. Vogel, Emily A. Bruns, Jianhui Jiang, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Markus Kalberer, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5973–5991,Short summary
Here we present the molecular composition of the organic aerosol (OA) at an urban site in Central Europe (Zurich, Switzerland) and compare it to smog chamber wood smoke and ambient biogenic secondary OA (SOA) (Orbitrap analyses). Accordingly, we are able to explain the strong seasonality of the molecular composition by aged wood smoke and biogenic SOA during winter and summer. Our results could also explain the predominance of non-fossil organic carbon at European locations throughout the year.
Yonghong Wang, Yuesi Wang, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Qiaozhi Zha, Chongshui Gong, Sixuan Li, Yuepeng Pan, Bo Hu, Jinyuan Xin, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5881–5888,Short summary
Satellite observations combined with in situ measurements demonstrate that increased inorganic aerosol fractions of NO2 and SO2 contribute to air pollution and frequently occurring haze in China from 1980 to 2010. Currently, the reduction of nitrate, sulfate and their precursor gases would contribute towards better visibility in China.
Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Jordan E. Krechmer, Otso Peräkylä, Yanjun Zhang, Liine Heikkinen, Olga Garmash, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2403–2421,Short summary
The impact of aerosol particles on climate and air quality remains poorly understood due to multiple factors. One of the current limitations is the incomplete understanding of the contribution of oxygenated species, formed from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to aerosol formation. Taking advantage of recent mass spectrometric developments, we have evaluated and compared the capability of multiple state-of-the-art mass spectrometers to detect a wide variety of oxygenated VOCs.
Katri Leino, Janne Lampilahti, Pyry Poutanen, Riikka Väänänen, Antti Manninen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Lubna Dada, Anna Franck, Daniela Wimmer, Pasi P. Aalto, Lauri R. Ahonen, Joonas Enroth, Juha Kangasluoma, Petri Keronen, Frans Korhonen, Heikki Laakso, Teemu Matilainen, Erkki Siivola, Hanna E. Manninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4127–4138,Short summary
This study presents airborne observations of particles, starting from 1.5 nm in diameter, above the boreal forest from 100 m up to 2700 m. The aim was to study the extent of NPF and likely places for nucleation. We found that the highest concentrations of 1.5–3 nm particles were above the forest canopy top on NPF event mornings, and the concentration decreased with increasing altitude. This would indicate the importance of gaseous precursors from vegetation for NPF processes in this area.
Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Francesco Canonaco, Liine Heikkinen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, André S. H. Prévôt, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3645–3672,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometry produces large amounts of complex data, the analysis of which necessitates chemometrics – the application of advanced statistical and mathematical tools to chemical data. Here, we perform a data-driven analysis of multiple aerosol mass spectrometric data sets, to show that the traditional separation of organics and inorganics is not necessary. The resulting 7-component aerosol speciation explains 83 % to 96 % of observed variability at our boreal forest experiment site.
Nikos Kalivitis, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Evaggelia Tzitzikalaki, Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Nikos Daskalakis, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Hanna E. Manninen, Pontus Roldin, Tuukka Petäjä, Michael Boy, Markku Kulmala, Maria Kanakidou, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2671–2686,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is an important source of atmospheric aerosols. For the Mediterranean atmosphere, only few studies exist. In this study we present one of the longest series of NPF by analyzing 10 years of data from Crete, Greece. NPF took place on 27 % of the available days; it was more frequent in spring and less so in late summer. Model simulations showed that NPF in the subtropical environment may differ greatly from that in the boreal environment.
Michael Boy, Erik S. Thomson, Juan-C. Acosta Navarro, Olafur Arnalds, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Jaana Bäck, Frank Berninger, Merete Bilde, Zoé Brasseur, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Dimitri Castarède, Maryam Dalirian, Gerrit de Leeuw, Monika Dragosics, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Jonathan Duplissy, Annica M. L. Ekman, Keyan Fang, Jean-Charles Gallet, Marianne Glasius, Sven-Erik Gryning, Henrik Grythe, Hans-Christen Hansson, Margareta Hansson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Trond Iversen, Ingibjorg Jonsdottir, Ville Kasurinen, Alf Kirkevåg, Atte Korhola, Radovan Krejci, Jon Egill Kristjansson, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Antti Lauri, Matti Leppäranta, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Makkonen, Andreas Massling, Outi Meinander, E. Douglas Nilsson, Haraldur Olafsson, Jan B. C. Pettersson, Nønne L. Prisle, Ilona Riipinen, Pontus Roldin, Meri Ruppel, Matthew Salter, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, Heikki Seppä, Henrik Skov, Joana Soares, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Jonas Svensson, Erik Swietlicki, Ksenia Tabakova, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Aki Virkkula, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Yusheng Wu, Paul Zieger, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2015–2061,Short summary
The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere–Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011–2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date and aimed to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. The paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated and provides a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC.
Timo Vihma, Petteri Uotila, Stein Sandven, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Alexander Makshtas, Alexander Pelyasov, Roberta Pirazzini, Finn Danielsen, Sergey Chalov, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Vladimir Ivanov, Ivan Frolov, Anna Albin, Bin Cheng, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Viktor Arkhipkin, Stanislav Myslenkov, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1941–1970,Short summary
The Arctic marine climate system, ecosystems, and socio-economic systems are changing rapidly. This calls for the establishment of a marine Arctic component of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (MA-PEEX), for which we present a plan. The program will promote international collaboration; sustainable marine meteorological, sea ice, and oceanographic observations; advanced data management; and multidisciplinary research on the marine Arctic and its interaction with the Eurasian continent.
Yiqun Lu, Chao Yan, Yueyun Fu, Yan Chen, Yiliang Liu, Gan Yang, Yuwei Wang, Federico Bianchi, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Rujing Yin, Rima Baalbaki, Olga Garmash, Chenjuan Deng, Weigang Wang, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1971–1983,Short summary
Gaseous sulfuric acid is one of the key precursors for atmospheric new particle formation processes, but its measurement remains challenging. This work develops an estimation method for the gaseous sulfuric acid concentration in an urban environment in China using multiple atmospheric variables that are easier to measure. The consideration of the heterogeneous formation of HONO and the subsequent photo-production of OH radicals improves the performance of the estimation method.
Xiaoxiao Li, Sabrina Chee, Jiming Hao, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Jingkun Jiang, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1555–1570,Short summary
We performed lab experiments to explore the role of relative humidity, RH, in atmospheric monoterpene oxidation and new particle formation. These studies will provide insights into the most important steps in the process, while also more accurately representing the real atmosphere. We found that the detected compounds did not change with RH, and in fact could mostly be fully explained by the autoxidation of organic peroxy radicals followed by bimolecular reactions with other peroxy radicals.
Biwu Chu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Federico Bianchi, Chao Yan, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 115–138,Short summary
The characteristics of new particle formation (NPF) in China, including frequency, formation rate, and particle growth rate, were summarized comprehensively and were compared among observations in different environments. The interactions between air pollution and NPF are discussed, as well as the possible reasons for more frequent NPF under heavy pollution conditions than in our current understanding. Significant and future research directions for NPF studies in China are also summarized.
Fidel Pankratov, Alexander Mahura, Tuukka Petäjä, Valentin Popov, and Vladimir Masloboev
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Analysis of long-term observations for atmospheric mercury in the Russian Arctic, considering inter-annual, seasonal and monthly variabilities is in focus. Linkage of elevated concentrations with volcanic eruptions in Iceland is explored. Results showed that active volcanoes can play a role of sources for increased mercury levels in the Northern Hemisphere due to long-range atmospheric transport of volcanic clouds towards the Arctic.
Ekaterina Ezhova, Ilona Ylivinkka, Joel Kuusk, Kaupo Komsaare, Marko Vana, Alisa Krasnova, Steffen Noe, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Belan, Sung-Bin Park, Jošt Valentin Lavrič, Martin Heimann, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Pasi Kolari, Jaana Bäck, Üllar Rannik, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17863–17881,Short summary
Understanding the connections between aerosols, solar radiation and photosynthesis in terrestrial ecosystems is important for estimates of the CO2 balance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosols and clouds influence solar radiation. In this study, we quantify the aerosol effect on solar radiation in boreal forests and study forest ecosystems response to this change in the radiation conditions. The analysis is based on atmospheric observations from several remote stations in Eurasian forests.
Lubna Dada, Robert Chellapermal, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Pauli Paasonen, Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17883–17893,Short summary
Our paper provides an automatic method to classify new particle formation events into four classes based on the accompanying air ion concentrations. The method is applied to 10 years of data measured within the SMEAR II station and was capable of eliminating the undefined class as well as defining the start, peak and end times of a regional event by monitoring the initial steps of cluster formation. Our method can be modified and applied to different locations where particle formation occurs.
Liqing Hao, Olga Garmash, Mikael Ehn, Pasi Miettinen, Paola Massoli, Santtu Mikkonen, Tuija Jokinen, Pontus Roldin, Pasi Aalto, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jorma Joutsensaari, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17705–17716,Short summary
An aerosol mass spectrometer was used to characterize aerosol chemical composition during new particle formation periods. The time profiles of mass concentrations and chemical composition of observed aerosol particles are subjected to joint effects of boundary layer dilution, atmospheric chemistry and aerosol mixing in different boundary layers. During the nighttime, the increase in organic aerosol mass correlated well with the increase in condensed highly oxygenated organic molecules' mass.
Qiaozhi Zha, Chao Yan, Heikki Junninen, Matthieu Riva, Nina Sarnela, Juho Aalto, Lauriane Quéléver, Simon Schallhart, Lubna Dada, Liine Heikkinen, Otso Peräkylä, Jun Zou, Clémence Rose, Yonghong Wang, Ivan Mammarella, Gabriel Katul, Timo Vesala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17437–17450,Short summary
Vertical measurements of highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) below and above the forest canopy were performed for the first time in a boreal forest during September 2016. Our results highlight that near-ground HOM measurements may only be representative of a small fraction of the entire nocturnal boundary layer, which may sequentially influence the growth of newly formed particles and SOA formation close to ground surface, where the majority of measurements are conducted.
Cristina Carnerero, Noemí Pérez, Cristina Reche, Marina Ealo, Gloria Titos, Hong-Ku Lee, Hee-Ram Eun, Yong-Hee Park, Lubna Dada, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Enrique Mantilla, Miguel Escudero, Francisco J. Gómez-Moreno, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Esther Coz, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, David C. S. Beddows, Roy M. Harrison, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Kang-Ho Ahn, Andrés Alastuey, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16601–16618,Short summary
The vertical distribution of new particle formation events was studied using tethered balloons carrying miniaturized instrumentation. Results show that new particle formation and growth occurs only in the lower layer of the atmosphere, where aerosols are mixed due to convection, especially when the atmosphere is clean. A comparison of urban and suburban surface stations was also made, suggesting that such events may have a significant impact on ultrafine particle concentrations in a wide area.
Dongyu S. Wang and Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15535–15553,Short summary
We investigated the formation of atmospheric pollutants from chlorine-initiated oxidation of alkanes, which may occur in polluted environments. We report for the first the formation of alkane-derived chlorinated organics. We also propose a new approach to representing the chemical composition, volatility, and thermal desorption behavior of organic aerosols. Overall, our study suggests that the oxidation of alkanes can be an important source of organic aerosols in polluted environments.
Tracey Leah Laban, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Johan Paul Beukes, Ville Vakkari, Kerneels Jaars, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Miroslav Josipovic, Anne Mee Thompson, Markku Kulmala, and Lauri Laakso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15491–15514,Short summary
Surface O3 was measured at four sites in the north-eastern interior of South Africa, which revealed that O3 is a regional problem in continental South Africa, with elevated O3 levels found at rural background and industrial sites. Increased O3 concentrations were associated with high CO levels predominantly related to regional biomass burning, while the O3 production regime was established to be predominantly VOC limited. Increased O3 is associated with strong seasonality of precursor sources.
Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Urs Baltensperger, David C. S. Beddows, Johan Paul Beukes, Don Collins, Aijun Ding, Roy M. Harrison, Bas Henzing, Rakesh Hooda, Min Hu, Urmas Hõrrak, Niku Kivekäs, Kaupo Komsaare, Radovan Krejci, Adam Kristensson, Lauri Laakso, Ari Laaksonen, W. Richard Leaitch, Heikki Lihavainen, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Zoltán Németh, Wei Nie, Colin O'Dowd, Imre Salma, Karine Sellegri, Birgitta Svenningsson, Erik Swietlicki, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Ville Vakkari, Marko Vana, Alfred Wiedensohler, Zhijun Wu, Annele Virtanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14737–14756,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have diverse effects on air quality, human health, and global climate. One important source of aerosols is their formation via nucleation and growth in the atmosphere. We have analyzed long-term observations of regional new particle formation events around the globe and provide a comprehensive view on the characteristics of this phenomenon in diverse environments. The results are useful in developing more realistic representation of atmospheric aerosols in global models.
Juan Hong, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Changqing Yin, Liqing Hao, Fei Li, Mingfu Cai, Xuejiao Deng, Nan Wang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Lin Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14079–14094,Short summary
In this manuscript, we provide the results of the hygroscopicity of a more anthropogenically influenced aerosol in a suburban site in China. Organic material in the current type of aerosols showed moderate hygroscopicity, and it appeared to be less sensitive towards the variation of its oxidation level, which suggests different characteristics of the oxidation products in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) under the suburban/urban atmosphere in China when compared to other background environments.
Heidi Hellén, Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Ilona Ylivinkka, Ville Vakkari, Jaana Bäck, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13839–13863,Short summary
Exceptionally large ambient air concentration datasets of VOCs were measured in a boreal forest. For the first time concentration of the main sesquiterpene (β-caryophyllene) emitted by the local trees was also measured. Sesquiterpenes were found to have a major impact on local atmospheric chemistry, even though their concentrations were 30 times lower than the monoterpene concentrations. In addition, sesquiterpenes are expected to have a high impact on local secondary organic aerosol production.
David Patoulias, Christos Fountoukis, Ilona Riipinen, Ari Asmi, Markku Kulmala, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13639–13654,Short summary
PMCAMx-UF, a 3-D chemical transport model focusing on the simulation of ultrafine particles, has been extended with the addition of the volatility basis set (VBS) approach for the simulation of organic aerosol. The model was applied in Europe and its predictions were evaluated against field observations collected during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign. The condensation of organics led to an increase (50–120 %) in the larger particles but the total number concentration decreased by 10–30 %.
Jenni Kontkanen, Tinja Olenius, Markku Kulmala, and Ilona Riipinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13733–13754,Short summary
New particle formation involving sulfuric acid, bases and organic compounds is an important source of atmospheric aerosol particles. We investigate the capability of nano-Köhler theory to describe this process by simulating the dynamics of atmospheric molecular clusters. We find that nano-Köhler-type behavior occurs in our simulations when the saturation ratio of the organic vapor and the ratio between organic and inorganic vapor concentrations are in a suitable range.
John N. Crowley, Nicolas Pouvesle, Gavin J. Phillips, Raoul Axinte, Horst Fischer, Tuukka Petäjä, Anke Nölscher, Jonathan Williams, Korbinian Hens, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez-Harder, Anna Novelli, Dagmar Kubistin, Birger Bohn, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13457–13479,Short summary
Simultaneous observations of PAA, PAN and H2O2 are used to provide insight into processes influencing the HOx chemistry of the boreal forest, including two biomass-burning-impacted periods. A significant contribution from photolytic HOx sources was included in a box model analysis to align model predictions with measurements. The model predicts high levels of organic peroxy radicals, also at night-time.
Pertti Hari, Steffen Noe, Sigrid Dengel, Jan Elbers, Bert Gielen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Bart Kruijt, Liisa Kulmala, Anders Lindroth, Ivan Mammarella, Tuukka Petäjä, Guy Schurgers, Anni Vanhatalo, Markku Kulmala, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13321–13328,Short summary
The development of eddy-covariance measurements of ecosystem CO2 fluxes began a new era in the field studies of photosynthesis. The interpretation of the very variable CO2 fluxes in evergreen forests has been problematic especially in seasonal transition times. We apply two theoretical needle-level equations and show they can predict photosynthetic CO2 flux between the atmosphere and Scots pine forests. This has strong implications for the interpretation of the global change and boreal forests.
Daniela Wimmer, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Hanna Elina Manninen, Juha Kangasluoma, Alessandro Franchin, Tuomo Nieminen, John Backman, Jian Wang, Chongai Kuang, Radovan Krejci, Joel Brito, Fernando Goncalves Morais, Scot Turnbull Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Markku Kulmala, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13245–13264,Short summary
This work focuses on understanding the production of very small airborne particles in the undisturbed environment of the Amazon basin. Computer models have shown that up to 70 % of these tiny particles are responsible for cloud formation on a global scale. The processes behind the production of these very small particles have been studied intensely recently. Their appearance has been observed almost all over the world. We directly measure sub-3 nm aerosols for the first time in the Amazon basin.
Chao Yan, Lubna Dada, Clémence Rose, Tuija Jokinen, Wei Nie, Siegfried Schobesberger, Heikki Junninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Nina Sarnela, Ulla Makkonen, Olga Garmash, Yonghong Wang, Qiaozhi Zha, Pauli Paasonen, Federico Bianchi, Mikko Sipilä, Mikael Ehn, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13231–13243,Short summary
Ions can play an important role in atmospheric new particle formation by stabilizing the embryonic clusters. Such a process is called ion-induced nucleation (IIN). We found two distinct IIN mechanisms – driven by H2SO4-NH3 clusters and by organic vapors, respectively. The concentration ratio of organic vapors to H2SO4 regulates via which pathway the IIN occur. As the organic vapor concentration is influenced by temperature, a seasonal variation in the main IIN mechanism can be expected.
Martha A. Zaidan, Ville Haapasilta, Rishi Relan, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Heikki Junninen, Markku Kulmala, and Adam S. Foster
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12699–12714,Short summary
This article promotes the use of the mutual information method for finding any non-linear associations among atmospheric variables. We demonstrate that the same results from previous studies are obtained by this method, which operates without supervision and without the need of understanding the physics deeply. This suggests that the method is suitable to be implemented widely in the atmospheric field to discover other interesting phenomena and their relevant variables.
Anna L. Hodshire, Brett B. Palm, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Qijing Bian, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Eben S. Cross, Douglas A. Day, Suzane S. de Sá, Alex B. Guenther, Armin Hansel, James F. Hunter, Werner Jud, Thomas Karl, Saewung Kim, Jesse H. Kroll, Jeong-Hoo Park, Zhe Peng, Roger Seco, James N. Smith, Jose L. Jimenez, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12433–12460,Short summary
We investigate the nucleation and growth processes that shape the aerosol size distribution inside oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) that sampled ambient air from Colorado and the Amazon rainforest. Results indicate that organics are important for both nucleation and growth, vapor uptake was limited to accumulation-mode particles, fragmentation reactions were important to limit particle growth at higher OH exposures, and an H2SO4-organics nucleation mechanism captured new particle formation well.
Pauli Paasonen, Maija Peltola, Jenni Kontkanen, Heikki Junninen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12085–12103,Short summary
We determine aerosol growth rates in diameter ranges from below 10 to over 300 nm from long-term data with a novel automatic method. We show that aerosol growth rate in boreal forest increases with increasing particle diameter from 10 nm to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sizes and that the growth rate of sub-CCN particles is not suppressed by increasing condensation sink. Our findings suggest that aerosol growth to CCN sizes is a faster and less self-regulated process than previously estimated.
Ximeng Qi, Aijun Ding, Pontus Roldin, Zhengning Xu, Putian Zhou, Nina Sarnela, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Anton Rusanen, Mikael Ehn, Matti P. Rissanen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11779–11791,Short summary
In this study we simulate the HOM concentrations and discuss their roles in NPF at a remote boreal forest site in Finland and a suburban site in eastern China. We found that sulfuric acid and HOM organonitrate concentrations in the gas phase are significantly higher but other HOM monomers and dimers from monoterpene oxidation are lower in eastern China. This study highlights the need for molecular-scale measurements in improving the understanding of NPF mechanisms in polluted areas.
Ben H. Lee, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Emma L. D'Ambro, Putian Zhou, Michael Boy, Tuukka Petäjä, Liqing Hao, Annele Virtanen, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11547–11562,Short summary
Molecular identities and abundances of organic compounds residing in the gas and particle phases above a Finnish boreal forest are presented. We determined that in each phase, the organic components are categorized into three subgroups based on their behavior in time. Some are more enhanced at night, others during midday, and another around sunrise. Identifying such collective behavior can potentially connect the chemical processes that evolve in time to specific distributions of products.
Runlong Cai, Dongsen Yang, Lauri R. Ahonen, Linlin Shi, Frans Korhonen, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Tuukka Petäjä, Jun Zheng, Juha Kangasluoma, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4477–4491,Short summary
We tested the performance of four inversion methods to recover sub-3 nm aerosol size distributions using the particle size magnifier (PSM). The PSM is widely used in new particle formation study; however, the inversion methods used in previous studies may report false particle concentrations. Due to the results, we suggest using the expectation–maximization algorithm to address the PSM inversion problem. We also gave practical suggestions on PSM operation based on the inversion analysis.
Anna Nikandrova, Ksenia Tabakova, Antti Manninen, Riikka Väänänen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Ewan O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10575–10591,Short summary
We investigated temporal and vertical aerosol properties in a rural environment during BAECC (Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Cloud and Climate) campaign. Differences were observed in aerosol number size distribution, variability and mixing in the layers between two case studies: clear-sky and partly cloudy case. We also conclude that care should be taken in selecting appropriate arrival heights of backward trajectories, since the modelled and observed layer heights did not always coincide.
Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Pontus Roldin, Joel Brito, John Backman, Erik Swietlicki, Radovan Krejci, Peter Tunved, Tukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10255–10274,Short summary
Aerosols are tiny particles suspended in the air that can interact with sunlight and form clouds, which in turn affect the climate. They can also recycle nutrients in forest environments. Aerosols are naturally emitted at the surface in the Amazon forest, in addition to being brought down from above the boundary layer by intense air movements. In this work, we describe how the particle size number concentrations of aerosols change over hours, days and seasons in a multi-year study in Amazonia.
Filippo Xausa, Pauli Paasonen, Risto Makkonen, Mikhail Arshinov, Aijun Ding, Hugo Denier Van Der Gon, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10039–10054,Short summary
Our project describes the feasibility of implementing particle number emissions taken from the GAINS model in global climate modeling through a simulation with the ECHAM-HAM global climate model. The results from the simulations have important implications regarding modeled particle number concentrations and future climate effects. Our findings represent an important starting point for further simulations concerning climate effects derived from anthropogenic particle emissions on a global scale.
Chunxiang Ye, Xianliang Zhou, Dennis Pu, Jochen Stutz, James Festa, Max Spolaor, Catalina Tsai, Christopher Cantrell, Roy L. Mauldin III, Andrew Weinheimer, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Eric C. Apel, Alex Guenther, Lisa Kaser, Bin Yuan, Thomas Karl, Julie Haggerty, Samuel Hall, Kirk Ullmann, James Smith, and John Ortega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9107–9120,Short summary
Substantial levels of HONO existed during the day throughout the troposphere over the southeastern US during NOMADSS 2013. Particulate nitrate photolysis appeared to be the major volume HONO source, while NOx was an important HONO precursor only in industrial and urban plumes. HONO was not a significant OH radical precursor in the rural troposphere away from the ground surface; however, its production from particulate nitrate photolysis was an important renoxification pathway.
Marco Pandolfi, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Christo Angelov, Begoña Artiñano, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Paolo Bonasoni, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martine Collaud Coen, Sébastien Conil, Esther Coz, Vincent Crenn, Vadimas Dudoitis, Marina Ealo, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Patrick Ginot, Martin Gysel, Bas Henzing, Andras Hoffer, Adela Holubova Smejkalova, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Chris Lunder, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marcel Moerman, José Nicolas, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean Marc Pichon, Nina Prokopciuk, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Sergio Rodríguez, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Erik Swietlicki, Gloria Titos, Thomas Tuch, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Aditya Vaishya, Milan Vana, Aki Virkkula, Stergios Vratolis, Ernest Weingartner, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877–7911,Short summary
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle light-scattering measurements obtained over the past decade at 28 measuring atmospheric observatories which are part of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure, and most of them belong to the GAW network. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol particles optical properties in Europe.
Vladimir Melnikov, Viktor Gennadinik, Markku Kulmala, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Sergej Zilitinkevich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6535–6542,Short summary
The cryosphere of the Earth overlaps with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere over vast areas with temperatures below zero C and pronounced H2O phase changes. The cryosphere plays the role of a global thermostat; however, the processes related to the cryosphere attract insufficient attention from research communities. We call attention to crucial importance of cryogenic anomalies, which make the Earth atmosphere and the entire Earth system unique.
Marja Hemmilä, Heidi Hellén, Aki Virkkula, Ulla Makkonen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Jenni Kontkanen, Lauri Ahonen, Markku Kulmala, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6367–6380,Short summary
We measured gas- and particle-phase amine and ammonia concentrations in a boreal forest site in 2015 with online ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We wanted to know how much and which kinds of amines there are, and how they behave and could affect nucleation. We observed seasonal and diurnal variations for different amines. Amines turned out to be a heterogeneous group of compounds. To our best knowledge, our amine measurements are the longest time series that has been made.
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Jiaping Wang, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Xin Huang, Qiang Liu, Longfei Zheng, Zheng Xu, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Congbin Fu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5265–5292,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were measured at SORPES, a regional background station in Nanjing, China from June 2013 to May 2015. The aerosol was highly scattering. The single-scattering albedo in Nanjing appears to be slightly higher than at several other sites. The data do not suggest any significant contribution to absorption by brown carbon. The sources of high values are mainly in eastern China. During pollution episodes, pollutant concentrations increased gradually but decreased fast.
Joonas Enroth, Jyri Mikkilä, Zoltán Németh, Markku Kulmala, and Imre Salma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4533–4548,Short summary
The urban aerosol particles in central Budapest consist of two externally mixed classes – nearly hydrophobic and less volatile particles, which were assigned to vehicle emissions (large mass fractions of soot likely coated with water-insoluble organic compounds) – and of less hygroscopic and volatile particles (moderately transformed aged combustion particles composed of partly oxygenated organics and inorganic salts internally mixed).
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Jonathan Duplissy, Chao Yan, Tuomo Nieminen, Mikael Ehn, Siegfried Schobesberger, Martin Heinritzi, Sebastian Ehrhart, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jasmin Tröstl, Mario Simon, Andreas Kürten, Markus Leiminger, Michael J. Lawler, Matti P. Rissanen, Federico Bianchi, Arnaud P. Praplan, Jani Hakala, Antonio Amorim, Marc Gonin, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Josef Dommen, Joachim Curtius, James N. Smith, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Neil M. Donahue, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2363–2380,Short summary
Atmospheric trace gases can form small molecular clusters, which can grow to larger sizes through the condensation of vapours. This process is called new particle formation. In this paper we studied the formation of sulfuric acid and highly oxygenated molecules, the key compounds in atmospheric new particle formation, in chamber experiments and introduced a way to simulate these ozonolysis products of α-pinene in a simple manner.
Ekaterina Ezhova, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2431–2442,Short summary
A condensation sink (CS) quantifies the rate of uptake of condensing vapours by pre-existing aerosol and can be used as well to quantify losses of monomers/clusters. An analytical solution of the condensation equation valid in a wide range of particle diameters is presented. We describe the dynamics of atmospheric CS, test the formulas against field observations and further use them to develop a simplified model of the coupled dynamics of aerosol and condensing vapours in the atmosphere.
Luís Miguel Feijó Barreira, Geoffroy Duporté, Tuukka Rönkkö, Jevgeni Parshintsev, Kari Hartonen, Lydia Hyrsky, Enna Heikkinen, Matti Jussila, Markku Kulmala, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 881–893,Short summary
Our results demonstrated the benefits and challenges of using new SPME Arrow over SPME fiber for the sampling of BVOCs emitted by terrestrial vegetation in the atmosphere. The new SPME Arrow system showed significant improvement on sampling capacity, with collected amounts being approximately 2 times higher for monoterpenes and 7–8 times higher for aldehydes than with SPME fiber. Higher extraction efficiencies were obtained with dynamic collection prior to equilibrium regime.
Michael J. Apsokardu and Murray V. Johnston
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1895–1907,Short summary
The ability of particle-phase chemistry to alter the molecular composition and enhance the growth rate of nanoparticles is investigated through the use of a kinetic growth model. The effects of particle-phase chemistry are found to be most pronounced for particles larger than about 20 nm in diameter. The results are discussed in the context of recent experimental measurements of particle-size-dependent molecular composition.
Johannes Größ, Amar Hamed, André Sonntag, Gerald Spindler, Hanna Elina Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Markku Kulmala, Urmas Hõrrak, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Wolfram Birmili
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1835–1861,Short summary
This paper revisits the atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) process in the polluted troposphere. Novel aspects include a new NPF classification, which aims at more objectivity, and a long-term analysis of neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer data. Intense NPF events were associated with enhanced sulfur dioxide concentrations and solar radiation, while no significant relationships were observed with the condensation sink, surface-measured turbulence parameters, or ammonia.
Lukas Pichelstorfer, Dominik Stolzenburg, John Ortega, Thomas Karl, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, James N. Smith, Peter H. McMurry, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1307–1323,Short summary
Quantification of new particle formation as a source of atmospheric aerosol is clearly of importance for climate and health aspects. In our new study we developed two analysis methods that allow retrieval of nanoparticle growth dynamics at much higher precision than it was possible so far. Our results clearly demonstrate that growth rates show much more variation than is currently known and suggest that the Kelvin effect governs growth in the sub-10 nm size range.
Simon Schallhart, Pekka Rantala, Maija K. Kajos, Juho Aalto, Ivan Mammarella, Taina M. Ruuskanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 815–832,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have impact to air quality, human health and climate. We investigated the development of VOC exchange in a boreal forest between April and June 2013. VOC exchange and diversity increased towards summer, but over 75 % of the biogenic net exchange was driven by methanol, monoterpenes and acetone only. The boreal forest emitted less than 0.2 % carbon in form of VOCs in relation to the carbon uptake.
Andreas Kürten, Chenxi Li, Federico Bianchi, Joachim Curtius, António Dias, Neil M. Donahue, Jonathan Duplissy, Richard C. Flagan, Jani Hakala, Tuija Jokinen, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ari Laaksonen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Vladimir Makhmutov, Antti Onnela, Matti P. Rissanen, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Penglin Ye, and Peter H. McMurry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 845–863,Short summary
A recent laboratory study (CLOUD) showed that new particles nucleate efficiently from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine (DMA). The reanalysis of previously published data reveals that the nucleation rates are even faster than previously assumed, i.e., nucleation can proceed at rates that are compatible with collision-controlled new particle formation for atmospheric conditions. This indicates that sulfuric acid–DMA nucleation is likely an important source of particles in the boundary layer.
Haihan Chen, Anna L. Hodshire, John Ortega, James Greenberg, Peter H. McMurry, Annmarie G. Carlton, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Dave R. Hanson, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 311–326,Short summary
Much of what we know about atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is based on ground-level measurements. We used tethered balloon measurements and remote sensing to study the location in the boundary layer in which NPF events are initiated, the degree to which the boundary layer is well-mixed during NPF, and the potential role that water may play in aerosol particle chemical evolution. This information will improve the representativeness of process level models and laboratory experiments.
Carla Frege, Ismael K. Ortega, Matti P. Rissanen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Gerhard Steiner, Martin Heinritzi, Lauri Ahonen, António Amorim, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Martin Breitenlechner, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El-Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Marc Gonin, Armin Hansel, Christopher R. Hoyle, Tuija Jokinen, Heikki Junninen, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Roy Lee Mauldin, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Tuukka Petäjä, Nina Sarnela, Siegfried Schobesberger, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Dominik Stolzenburg, António Tomé, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Paul M. Winkler, Josef Dommen, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 65–79,Short summary
It was recently shown that biogenic highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) form particles in the absence of sulfuric acid and ions enhance the nucleation rate. Here we compare the molecular composition of positive and negative HOM clusters at 25, 5 and −25 °C. At lower temperatures the HOM average oxygen-to-carbon ratio decreases indicating a reduction in the rate of autoxidation due to rather high activation energy. The experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations.
Xuemeng Chen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Pak L. Fung, Jutta Kesti, Matti P. Rissanen, Jaana Bäck, Petri Keronen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 49–63,Short summary
We analysed a 20-year-long dataset collected in a Finnish boreal forest at SMEAR II station to investigate the frequency and strength of ozone depletion events. We could identify a number of ozone depletion events that lasted for more than 3 h, mainly in the autumn and winter months. Their occurrence was likely related to the formation of a low mixing layer under the conditions of low temperatures, low wind speeds, high relative humidities and limited intensity of solar radiation.
Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jonathan Duplissy, Tuomo Nieminen, Juha Kangasluoma, Lauri R. Ahonen, Lubna Dada, Jenni Kontkanen, Hanna E. Manninen, Antonio Dias, Antonio Amorim, Paulus S. Bauer, Anton Bergen, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Xuemeng Chen, Danielle C. Draper, Lukas Fischer, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Jani Hakala, Liine Heikkinen, Martin Heinritzi, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Alexander N. Kvashnin, Tiia Laurila, Michael J. Lawler, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Roy L. Mauldin III, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Felix Piel, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Nina Sarnela, Simon Schallhart, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Yrjö Viisanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Mao Xiao, Penglin Ye, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, James N. Smith, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas Worsnop, Mikael Ehn, Mikko Sipilä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15181–15197,
Pertti Hari, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Liisa Kulmala, Markku Kulmala, Steffen Noe, Tuukka Petäjä, Anni Vanhatalo, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15045–15053,Short summary
We developed a theory on the seasonal behaviour of photosynthesis in natural conditions and tested the theory with intensive measurements. Light, temperature, water vapor and CO2 concentration explained the daily variation in photosynthesis, and the physiological state of the photosynthetic machinery explained the annual pattern of photosynthesis. The theory explained about 95 % of the variance of photosynthesis measured with chambers in the field in northern Finland.
Xuemeng Chen, Aki Virkkula, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Hanna E. Manninen, Maurizio Busetto, Christian Lanconelli, Angelo Lupi, Vito Vitale, Massimo Del Guasta, Paolo Grigioni, Riikka Väänänen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13783–13800,Short summary
An air ion spectrometer was deployed for characterizing air ions for the first time at the Concordia station at Dome C on the Antarctic Plateau. We observed different ion processes: new particle formation (NPF), wind-induced ion production, and ion formation related to cloud and/or fog formation. Insights into these phenomena are presented. Additionally, the analysis on the growth of NPF events showed a size dependency of growth rates (GRs), i.e. GRs increase with particle sizes.
Federico Bianchi, Olga Garmash, Xucheng He, Chao Yan, Siddharth Iyer, Ida Rosendahl, Zhengning Xu, Matti P. Rissanen, Matthieu Riva, Risto Taipale, Nina Sarnela, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, and Heikki Junninen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13819–13831,Short summary
Naturally charged highly oxidised molecules (HOMs) were characterized using advanced mass spectrometers. Two different classes of compounds, clustered with the nitrate and bisulfate ions, were identified: HOMs containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and nitrogen-containing HOMs or organonitrates (ONs). They exhibit strong diurnal variations where HOMs peak during night and ONs during day. Finally, large clusters containing up to 40 carbon atoms (four oxidized α-pinene units) were observed.
Dongyu S. Wang and Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13491–13508,Short summary
We investigated the formation of atmospheric pollutants from chlorine-initiated oxidation of isoprene. Our study is the first to report formation of airborne particles from these reactions. We analyzed the chemical composition of both gas- and particle-phase products and propose methods to better detect particle-phase pollutants. Overall, our study demonstrates that reactions between isoprene and chlorine can have important implications for atmospheric composition and therefore human health.
Elham Baranizadeh, Tuomo Nieminen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Ari Leskinen, Mika Komppula, Ari Laaksonen, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13361–13371,Short summary
Extrapolation of the particle formation rates from one measured larger size (e.g., 7 nm) to smaller sizes (e.g., 3 nm) based on simplified growth-scavenging dynamics works fairly well to estimate mean daily formation rates, but it fails to predict the time evolution of the particle population. This points to the challenges in predicting atmospheric nucleation rates for locations where the particle growth and loss rates are size- and time-dependent.
Robert C. Rhew, Malte Julian Deventer, Andrew A. Turnipseed, Carsten Warneke, John Ortega, Steve Shen, Luis Martinez, Abigail Koss, Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, James N. Smith, Alex B. Guenther, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13417–13438,Short summary
Alkenes emanate from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can contribute to atmospheric ozone production. This study measured
lightalkene (ethene, propene and butene) fluxes from a ponderosa pine forest using a novel relaxed eddy accumulation method, revealing much larger emissions than previously estimated and accounting for a significant fraction of OH reactivity. Emissions have a diurnal cycle related to sunlight and temperature, and the forest canopy appears to be the source.
Michael I. Cotterell, Rose E. Willoughby, Bryan R. Bzdek, Andrew J. Orr-Ewing, and Jonathan P. Reid
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9837–9851,Short summary
The optical properties of aerosols are required to analyse measurements of aerosol properties, estimate radiative forcing and interpret remote sensing retrievals. We provide comprehensive data sets of the refractive indices of the most important inorganic aerosol constituents, reporting parameterisations for the wavelength and relative humidity dependencies for each system. We assess the accuracy of this study, made on single trapped particles, against previous less comprehensive data sets.
Georgios Tsagkogeorgas, Pontus Roldin, Jonathan Duplissy, Linda Rondo, Jasmin Tröstl, Jay G. Slowik, Sebastian Ehrhart, Alessandro Franchin, Andreas Kürten, Antonio Amorim, Federico Bianchi, Jasper Kirkby, Tuukka Petäjä, Urs Baltensperger, Michael Boy, Joachim Curtius, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Neil M. Donahue, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8923–8938,Short summary
The H2SO4 vapour pressure plays key role in Earth's and Venus' atmospheres. In regions where RH is low and stabilising bases are scarce, H2SO4 can evaporate from particles; however the H2SO4 vapour pressure at low RH is uncertain. To address this, we measured H2SO4 evaporation versus T and RH in the CLOUD chamber and constrained the equilibrium constants for dissociation and dehydration of H2SO4. This study is important for nucleation, particle growth and H2SO4 formation occurring in atmosphere.
Anna Novelli, Korbinian Hens, Cheryl Tatum Ernest, Monica Martinez, Anke C. Nölscher, Vinayak Sinha, Pauli Paasonen, Tuukka Petäjä, Mikko Sipilä, Thomas Elste, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Gavin J. Phillips, Dagmar Kubistin, Jonathan Williams, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7807–7826,Short summary
The ambient concentration of stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs) was estimated for two environments using field data. The low concentrations predicted indicate that SCIs are unlikely to have a large impact on atmospheric chemistry. Concurrent measurements of an OH background signal using the Mainz IPI-LIF-FAGE instrument were found to be consistent with the chemistry of SCIs during the measurement campaigns.
Peijun Tu and Murray V. Johnston
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7593–7603,Short summary
In this study, we determined the particle-size-dependent molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that was produced from β-pinene, an important biogenic precursor. We find that the composition changes significantly with particle size, and these changes can be linked to changes in the chemical processes that contribute to particle growth. Measurements of this type can aid the modeling and prediction of SOA formation.
Juha Kangasluoma, Susanne Hering, David Picard, Gregory Lewis, Joonas Enroth, Frans Korhonen, Markku Kulmala, Karine Sellegri, Michel Attoui, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2271–2281,Short summary
The manuscript presents a characterization of three new particle counters able to detect airborne nanoparticles smaller than 3 nm in diameter. We explored some of the parameters affecting the smallest detectable particle size, such as sample flow relative humidity, the particle chemical composition and the electrical charging state. The characterization results help one to select a suitable particle counter for a given application.
Lubna Dada, Pauli Paasonen, Tuomo Nieminen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Jenni Kontkanen, Otso Peräkylä, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Tareq Hussein, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jaana Bäck, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6227–6241,Short summary
We studied new particle formation under clear-sky conditions in the boreal forest in southern Finland. We compared varying conditions between new particle events and nonevents. We then formulated a threshold value that separates new particle events from nonevents and reached a probability distribution for the frequency of new particle formation. This study serves as the basis for scientists aiming to improve their understanding of new particle formation.
Kgaugelo Euphinia Chiloane, Johan Paul Beukes, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Petra Maritz, Ville Vakkari, Miroslav Josipovic, Andrew Derick Venter, Kerneels Jaars, Petri Tiitta, Markku Kulmala, Alfred Wiedensohler, Catherine Liousse, Gabisile Vuyisile Mkhatshwa, Avishkar Ramandh, and Lauri Laakso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6177–6196,Short summary
This paper presents atmospheric black carbon (BC) data collected in South Africa (SA). In general, BC level were higher than in the developed world. At one site, five sources were identified, with household combustion as well as savannah and grassland fires the most significant sources during winter and spring, while coal-fired power stations, pyrometallurgical smelters and traffic contributed year round.
Eero Nikinmaa, Tuomo Kalliokoski, Kari Minkkinen, Jaana Bäck, Michael Boy, Yao Gao, Nina Janasik-Honkela, Janne I. Hukkinen, Maarit Kallio, Markku Kulmala, Nea Kuusinen, Annikki Mäkelä, Brent D. Matthies, Mikko Peltoniemi, Risto Sievänen, Ditte Taipale, Lauri Valsta, Anni Vanhatalo, Martin Welp, Luxi Zhou, Putian Zhou, and Frank Berninger
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
We estimated the impact of boreal forest management on climate, considering the effects of carbon, albedo, aerosols, and effects of industrial wood use. We made analyses both in current and warmer climate of 2050. The aerosol effect was comparable to that of carbon sequestration. Deciduous trees may have a large potential for mitigation due to their high albedo and aerosol effects. If the forests will be used more intensively and mainly for pulp and energy, the warming influence is clear.
Yuqin Liu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jiahua Zhang, Putian Zhou, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Olaf Krüger, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5623–5641,Short summary
The aerosol effects on warm cloud parameters over the Yangtze River Delta are systematically examined using multi-sensor retrievals. This study shows that the COT–CDR and CWP–CDR relationships are not unique, but are affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. CDR and cloud fraction show different behaviours for low and high AOD. Aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust. Meteorological conditions play an important role in ACI.
Juan Hong, Mikko Äijälä, Silja A. K. Häme, Liqing Hao, Jonathan Duplissy, Liine M. Heikkinen, Wei Nie, Jyri Mikkilä, Markku Kulmala, Nønne L. Prisle, Annele Virtanen, Mikael Ehn, Pauli Paasonen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ilona Riipinen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4387–4399,Short summary
Estimates of volatility of secondary organic aerosols was characterized in a boreal forest environment of Hyytiälä, southern Finland. This was done by interpreting field measurements using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) with a kinetic evaporation model and by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer data. About 16 % of the variation can be explained by the linear regression between the results from these two methods.
Wei Nie, Juan Hong, Silja A. K. Häme, Aijun Ding, Yugen Li, Chao Yan, Liqing Hao, Jyri Mikkilä, Longfei Zheng, Yuning Xie, Caijun Zhu, Zheng Xu, Xuguang Chi, Xin Huang, Yang Zhou, Peng Lin, Annele Virtanen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, Jianzhen Yu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3659–3672,Short summary
HULIS are demonstrated to be important low-volatility, or even extremely low volatility, compounds in the organic aerosol phase. This sheds new light on the connection between atmospheric HULIS and ELVOCs. The interaction between HULIS and ammonium sulfate was found to decrease the volatility of the HULIS part in HULIS-AS mixed samples, indicating multiphase processes have the potential to lower the volatility of organic compounds in the aerosol phase.
Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Mari Pihlatie, Samuli Launiainen, Markku Kulmala, Marja-Liisa Riekkola, Jevgeni Parshintsev, Ivan Mammarella, Timo Vesala, and Jussi Heinonsalo
Biogeosciences, 14, 1075–1091,Short summary
The alkylamines are important precursors in secondary aerosol formation in boreal forests. We quantified alkylamine concentrations in fungal species present in boreal forests in order to estimate soil as a source of atmospheric alkylamines. Based on our knowledge we estimated possible soil–atmosphere exchange of these compounds. The results shows that the boreal forest soil could act as a source of alkylamines depending on environmental conditions and studied compound.
Hannele Hakola, Virpi Tarvainen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Kerneels Jaars, Marja Hemmilä, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, and Heidi Hellén
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3357–3370,Short summary
We present spring and summer VOC emission rate measurements from Norway spruce using an in situ gas chromatograph. Monoterpene and C4–C10 aldehyde emission rates reached maxima in July. SQT emissions increased at the end of July and in August SQT were the most abundant group. The MT emission pattern varied a lot from tree to tree and therefore emission fluxes on canopy level should be conducted for more representative measurements. However, leaf level measurements produce more reliable SQT data.
Mikko Äijälä, Liine Heikkinen, Roman Fröhlich, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3165–3197,Short summary
Mass spectrometric measurements commonly yield data on hundreds of variables over thousands of points in time. Refining and synthesising this “raw” data into chemical information necessitates the use of advanced, statistics-based data analysis techniques. Here we present an example of combining data dimensionality reduction (factorisation) with exploratory classification (clustering) and show that the results complement and broaden our current perspectives on aerosol chemical classification.
Carla Frege, Federico Bianchi, Ugo Molteni, Jasmin Tröstl, Heikki Junninen, Stephan Henne, Mikko Sipilä, Erik Herrmann, Michel J. Rossi, Markku Kulmala, Christopher R. Hoyle, Urs Baltensperger, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2613–2629,Short summary
We present measurements of the chemical composition of atmospheric ions at high altitude (3450 m a.s.l.) during a 9-month campaign. We detected remarkably high correlation between methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and SO5−. Halogenated species were also detected frequently at this continental location. New-particle formation events occurred via the condensation of highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) at very low sulfuric acid concentration or, less frequently, due to ammonia–sulfuric acid clusters.
Jenni Kontkanen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri Ahonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Hanna E. Manninen, Jani Hakala, Clémence Rose, Karine Sellegri, Shan Xiao, Lin Wang, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Aijun Ding, Huan Yu, Shanhu Lee, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2163–2187,Short summary
The concentrations of ~1–3 nm particles were investigated at nine sites around the world. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were highest at the sites with strong anthropogenic influence. Electrically neutral particles dominated sub-3 nm particle concentrations in polluted environments and in boreal forest during spring and summer. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were observed to be determined by the availability of precursor vapors rather than the sink caused by preexisting aerosol particles.
Heidi Hellén, Simon Schallhart, Arnaud P. Praplan, Tuukka Petäjä, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 281–289,Short summary
There is a lack of knowledge of volatile organic acids (VOAs), other than formic and acetic acids in gas phase, and this is at least partly due to the lack of sensitive enough measurement methods. In the present study we developed an in situ GC–MS measurement method for measuring C2–C7 monocarboxylic VOAs at ambient air concentration levels, which we used to measure ambient air concentrations in a boreal forest site. In addition, found mixing ratios were compared with PTR-TOFMS data.
Kerneels Jaars, Pieter G. van Zyl, Johan P. Beukes, Heidi Hellén, Ville Vakkari, Micky Josipovic, Andrew D. Venter, Matti Räsänen, Leandra Knoetze, Dirk P. Cilliers, Stefan J. Siebert, Markku Kulmala, Janne Rinne, Alex Guenther, Lauri Laakso, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15665–15688,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) – important in tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation – were measured at a savannah grassland in South Africa. Results presented are the most extensive for this type of landscape. Compared to other parts of the world, monoterpene levels were similar, while very low isoprene levels led to significantly lower total BVOC levels. BVOC levels were an order of magnitude lower compared to anthropogenic VOC levels measured at Welgegund.
Lei Yao, Ming-Yi Wang, Xin-Ke Wang, Yi-Jun Liu, Hang-Fei Chen, Jun Zheng, Wei Nie, Ai-Jun Ding, Fu-Hai Geng, Dong-Fang Wang, Jian-Min Chen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14527–14543,Short summary
We present the development of a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) method, utilizing protonated ethanol as reagent ions to simultaneously detect atmospheric gaseous amines (C1 to C6) and amides (C1 to C6). Deployment of this ethanol HR-ToF-CIMS has been demonstrated in a field campaign in urban Shanghai, China, detecting amines (from a few pptv to hundreds of pptv) and amides (from tens of pptv to a few ppbv).
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Laura Riuttanen, Marja Bister, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Viju O. John, Anu-Maija Sundström, Miikka Dal Maso, Jouni Räisänen, Victoria A. Sinclair, Risto Makkonen, Filippo Xausa, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14331–14342,Short summary
Here we show observational evidence that aerosols increase upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) via changes in the microphysics of deep convection. Using remote sensing data over the ocean east of China in summer, we show that increased aerosol loads are associated with an UTH increase of 2.2 ± 1.5 in units of relative humidity. We show that humidification of aerosols or other meteorological covariation is very unlikely to be the cause for this result indicating relevance for the global climate.
Xuemeng Chen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jussi Paatero, Pauli Paasonen, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14297–14315,Short summary
Ionising radiation is responsible for air ion production. However, minor efforts have been invested in understanding the connection of observed air ions to ionising radiation in the lower atmosphere and underlying processes therein. In this work, we analysed 4 years of ambient data collected in a Finnish boreal forest and found that gamma radiation dominates air ion production in the lower atmosphere and demonstrated clear promotion effects of the ionising radiation on air ion production.
Michael J. Lawler, Paul M. Winkler, Jaeseok Kim, Lars Ahlm, Jasmin Tröstl, Arnaud P. Praplan, Siegfried Schobesberger, Andreas Kürten, Jasper Kirkby, Federico Bianchi, Jonathan Duplissy, Armin Hansel, Tuija Jokinen, Helmi Keskinen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Tuukka Petäjä, Matti Rissanen, Linda Rondo, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Christina Williamson, Daniela Wimmer, Ilona Riipinen, Annele Virtanen, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13601–13618,Short summary
We present chemical observations of newly formed particles as small as ~ 10 nm from new particle formation experiments using sulfuric acid, dimethylamine, ammonia, and water vapor as gas phase reactants. The nanoparticles were more acidic than expected based on thermodynamic expectations, particularly at the smallest measured sizes. The results suggest rapid surface conversion of SO2 to sulfate and show a marked composition change between 10 and 15 nm, possibly indicating a phase change.
Petri Tiitta, Ari Leskinen, Liqing Hao, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Miika Kortelainen, Julija Grigonyte, Jarkko Tissari, Heikki Lamberg, Anni Hartikainen, Kari Kuuspalo, Aki-Matti Kortelainen, Annele Virtanen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Mika Komppula, Simone Pieber, André S. H. Prévôt, Timothy B. Onasch, Douglas R. Worsnop, Hendryk Czech, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, and Olli Sippula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13251–13269,Short summary
Real-time measurements of OA aging and SOA formation from logwood combustion were conducted under dark and UV oxidation. Substantial SOA formation was observed in all experiments, leading to twice the initial OA mass emphasizing the importance of the burning conditions for the aging processes. The results prove that emissions are subject to intensive chemical processing in the atmosphere; e.g. the most of the POA was found to become oxidized after the ozone addition, forming aged POA.
Jenni Kontkanen, Pauli Paasonen, Juho Aalto, Jaana Bäck, Pekka Rantala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13291–13307,Short summary
We developed proxies for estimating the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland. The proxies for the monoterpene concentration include temperature-controlled emissions, dilution and different oxidation processes. The proxies were observed to capture the seasonal and diurnal variation of the monoterpene concentration reasonably well. Our proxies can be used in the analysis of new particle formation and growth in boreal environments.
Xuan Zhang, Jordan E. Krechmer, Michael Groessl, Wen Xu, Stephan Graf, Michael Cubison, John T. Jayne, Jose L. Jimenez, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Manjula R. Canagaratna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12945–12959,Short summary
We develop a novel two-dimensional space to probe the molecular composition of atmospheric organic aerosols.
Chao Yan, Wei Nie, Mikko Äijälä, Matti P. Rissanen, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Paola Massoli, Heikki Junninen, Tuija Jokinen, Nina Sarnela, Silja A. K. Häme, Siegfried Schobesberger, Francesco Canonaco, Lei Yao, André S. H. Prévôt, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Mikko Sipilä, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12715–12731,Short summary
Highly oxidized multifunctional compounds (HOMs) are known to have a significant contribution to secondary aerosol formation, yet their dominating formation pathways remain unclear in the atmosphere. We apply positive matrix factorization (PMF) on HOM data, and successfully retrieve factors representing different formation pathways. The results improve our understanding of HOM formation, and provide new perspectives on using PMF to study the variation of short-lived specie.
Ivan Kourtchev, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Sarah Connors, James G. Levine, Alex T. Archibald, Ana F. L. Godoi, Sarah L. Paralovo, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Antonio O. Manzi, Roger Seco, Steve Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex Guenther, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Scot T. Martin, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11899–11913,
Luís Miguel Feijó Barreira, Yu Xue, Geoffroy Duporté, Jevgeni Parshintsev, Kari Hartonen, Matti Jussila, Markku Kulmala, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3661–3671,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds play a key role in atmospheric chemistry and physics by influencing the climate. Trace concentrations need to be determined, even at remote locations, like forests. In this research, an easy and fast method using a portable device was developed for determination of relevant atmospheric compounds. Links between these compounds and meteorological factors were observed. Also, accumulation of volatiles in the snow was measured.
Hanna E. Manninen, Sander Mirme, Aadu Mirme, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3577–3605,Short summary
This paper reports a standard operation procedure (SOP) for a Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) to detect small clusters and nucleation mode particles. The NAIS measures number size distributions of charged and neutral aerosol particles. The SOP is needed to provide comparable results measured by NAIS users around the world. The work is based on discussions between the NAIS users (lead by University of Helsinki, Finland) and the NAIS manufacturer (Airel Ltd., Estonia).
Anna L. Hodshire, Michael J. Lawler, Jun Zhao, John Ortega, Coty Jen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jared F. Brewer, Jack K. Kodros, Kelley C. Barsanti, Dave R. Hanson, Peter H. McMurry, James N. Smith, and Jeffery R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9321–9348,Short summary
Processes that control the growth of newly formed particles are not well understood and limit predictions of aerosol climate impacts. We combine state-of-the-art measurements at a central-US site with a particle-growth model to investigate the species and processes contributing to growth. Observed growth was dominated by organics, sulfate salts, or a mixture of these two. The model qualitatively captures the variability between different days.
Hilkka Timonen, Mike Cubison, Minna Aurela, David Brus, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Hillamo, Manjula Canagaratna, Bettina Nekat, Rolf Weller, Douglas Worsnop, and Sanna Saarikoski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3263–3281,Short summary
The applicability, methods and limitations of constrained peak fitting on mass spectra of low mass resolving power (m∕Δm50 ∼ 500) recorded with a time-of-flight aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ToF-ACSM) are explored. Calibration measurements and ambient data are used to exemplify the methods that should be applied to maximise data quality and assess confidence in peak-fitting results.
Jordan E. Krechmer, Michael Groessl, Xuan Zhang, Heikki Junninen, Paola Massoli, Andrew T. Lambe, Joel R. Kimmel, Michael J. Cubison, Stephan Graf, Ying-Hsuan Lin, Sri H. Budisulistiorini, Haofei Zhang, Jason D. Surratt, Richard Knochenmuss, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jose-Luis Jimenez, and Manjula R. Canagaratna
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3245–3262,
Moa K. Sporre, Ewan J. O'Connor, Nina Håkansson, Anke Thoss, Erik Swietlicki, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3193–3203,Short summary
Satellite measurements of cloud top height and liquid water path are compared to ground-based remote sensing to evaluate the satellite retrievals. The overall performance of the satellite retrievals of cloud top height are good, but they become more problematic when several layers of clouds are present. The liquid water path retrievals also agree well, and the average differences are within the estimated measurement uncertainties.
Imre Salma, Zoltán Németh, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Pasi Aalto, Tuomo Nieminen, Tamás Weidinger, Ágnes Molnár, Kornélia Imre, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8715–8728,Short summary
We revealed that NPF seen in a central large city of the Carpathian Basin, Budapest, and its regional background occur in a consistent and spatially coherent way as a result of a joint atmospheric phenomenon taking place on large horizontal scales.
Riikka Väänänen, Radovan Krejci, Hanna E. Manninen, Antti Manninen, Janne Lampilahti, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Tuomo Nieminen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jenni Kontkanen, Ari Asmi, Pasi P. Aalto, Petri Keronen, Toivo Pohja, Ewan O'Connor, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
A light aircraft was used as a platform to explore the horizontal and vertical variability of the aerosol particles over a boreal forest in Central Finland. This information is needed when data measured at ground level station is extrapolated and parameterized to represent the conditions of the larger scale. The measurements showed that despite local fluctuations there was a good agreement between the on-ground and airborne measurements inside the planetary boundary layer.
Juha Kangasluoma, Alessandro Franchin, Jonahtan Duplissy, Lauri Ahonen, Frans Korhonen, Michel Attoui, Jyri Mikkilä, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Joonas Vanhanen, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2977–2988,Short summary
The paper describes technical aspects of using the Airmodus A11 nCNC at various inlet pressures and how temperature selection affects the performance of the instrument. We also present a sampling box to minimize the inlet losses and make use of the instrument more convenient.
Yele Sun, Wei Du, Pingqing Fu, Qingqing Wang, Jie Li, Xinlei Ge, Qi Zhang, Chunmao Zhu, Lujie Ren, Weiqi Xu, Jian Zhao, Tingting Han, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8309–8329,Short summary
We have a comprehensive characterization of the sources, variations and processes of submicron aerosols in Beijing in winter using HR-AMS and GC/MS measurements. The primary sources including traffic, cooking, biomass burning and coal combustion emissions, and secondary components were separated and quantified with PMF. Our results elucidated the important roles of primary emissions, particularly coal combustion, and aqueous-phase processing in the formation of severe air pollution in winter.
Pekka Rantala, Leena Järvi, Risto Taipale, Terhi K. Laurila, Johanna Patokoski, Maija K. Kajos, Mona Kurppa, Sami Haapanala, Erkki Siivola, Tuukka Petäjä, Taina M. Ruuskanen, and Janne Rinne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7981–8007,Short summary
Fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured above an urban landscape in Helsinki, northern Europe. We found that traffic was a major source for many oxygenated and aromatic VOCs, whereas isoprene originated mostly from the urban vegetation. Overall, the VOC fluxes were quite small in comparison with the earlier urban VOC flux measurements.
Alessandro Franchin, Andy Downard, Juha Kangasluoma, Tuomo Nieminen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Gerhard Steiner, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Richard C. Flagan, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2709–2720,Short summary
High transmission efficiency is key for classifying and counting atmospheric aerosol below 10 nm. We developed a new high-transmission inlet for the Caltech nano-radial DMA (nRDMA) and successfully deployed the nRDMA, equipped with the new inlet, in chamber measurements, using a particle size magnifier (PSM) and a booster CPC as a counter. With this setup, we were able to measure size distributions of ions between 1.3 and 6 nm in mobility diameter.
Karoliina Ignatius, Thomas B. Kristensen, Emma Järvinen, Leonid Nichman, Claudia Fuchs, Hamish Gordon, Paul Herenz, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jonathan Duplissy, Sarvesh Garimella, Antonio Dias, Carla Frege, Niko Höppel, Jasmin Tröstl, Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Martin W. Gallagher, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Martin Schnaiter, Antonio Tomé, Annele Virtanen, Douglas Worsnop, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6495–6509,Short summary
Viscous solid or semi-solid secondary organic aerosol (SOA) may influence cloud properties through ice nucleation in the atmosphere. Here, we observed heterogeneous ice nucleation of viscous α-pinene SOA at temperatures between −39 °C and −37.2 °C with ice saturation ratios significantly below the homogeneous freezing limit. Global modelling suggests that viscous biogenic SOA are present in regions where cirrus formation takes place and could contribute to the global ice nuclei budget.
Jenni Kontkanen, Tinja Olenius, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hanna Vehkamäki, Markku Kulmala, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5545–5560,
S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. A. T. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Fan, G. Fisch, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. L. Jimenez, U. Pöschl, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785–4797,Short summary
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Leonid Nichman, Thomas B. Kristensen, Claudia Fuchs, Christopher R. Hoyle, Niko Höppel, Joel C. Corbin, Jill Craven, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El Haddad, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Tuija Jokinen, Peter Kallinger, Jasper Kirkby, Alexei Kiselev, Karl-Heinz Naumann, Tuukka Petäjä, Tamara Pinterich, Andre S. H. Prevot, Harald Saathoff, Thea Schiebel, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Jay G. Slowik, Jasmin Tröstl, Annele Virtanen, Paul Vochezer, Steffen Vogt, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Paul M. Winkler, Chao Yan, Urs Baltensperger, Neil M. Donahue, Rick C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ottmar Möhler, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4423–4438,
Antti J. Manninen, Ewan J. O'Connor, Ville Vakkari, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 817–827,Short summary
Current commercially available Doppler lidars provide a cost-effective solution for measuring vertical and horizontal wind velocities, and the co- and cross-polarised backscatter profiles. However, the background noise behaviour becomes a limiting factor for the instrument sensitivity in low aerosol load regions. In this paper we present a correction method which can improve the data availability up to 50 % and greatly improves the calculation of turbulent properties in weak signal regimes.
Xin Huang, Luxi Zhou, Aijun Ding, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Minghuai Wang, Xuguang Chi, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Pontus Roldin, Anton Rusanen, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2477–2492,Short summary
By combining a regional model and a box model, this study simulates new particle formation in Nanjing, China, when the air masses were affected by anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. The simulations reveal that biogenic organic compounds play a vital role in growth of newly formed clusters. This novel combination of two models makes it possible to accomplish new particle formation simulation without direct measurements of all chemical species.
Jeffrey K. Bean and Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2175–2184,Short summary
The fate of organic nitrates influences their role as sinks and sources of NOx and their effects on the formation of tropospheric ozone and organic aerosol. Organic nitrates were formed from the photo-oxidation of α-pinene in environmental chamber experiments. Results on partitioning and hydrolysis of organic nitrates from this work could be implemented in chemical transport models to more accurately represent the fate of NOx and the formation of ozone and particulate matter.
Andrea Paciga, Eleni Karnezi, Evangelia Kostenidou, Lea Hildebrandt, Magda Psichoudaki, Gabriella J. Engelhart, Byong-Hyoek Lee, Monica Crippa, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2013–2023,Short summary
We estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter field campaigns in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The OA factors (hydrocarbon like OA, cooking OA, marine OA, oxygenated OA) had a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and average oxygen to carbon of the OA components.
M. Dal Maso, L. Liao, J. Wildt, A. Kiendler-Scharr, E. Kleist, R. Tillmann, M. Sipilä, J. Hakala, K. Lehtipalo, M. Ehn, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Kulmala, D. Worsnop, and T. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1955–1970,Short summary
In this paper, we present the first direct laboratory observations of nanoparticle formation from sulfuric acid and realistic BVOC precursor vapour mixtures performed at atmospherically relevant concentration levels. We found that the formation rate was proportional to the product of sulphuric acid and biogenic VOC emission strength, and that the formation rates were consistent with a mechanism in which nucleating BVOC oxidation products are rapidly formed and activate with sulfuric acid.
Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Hanna E. Manninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, Stefano Decesari, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Ari Laaksonen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1919–1935,
C. R. Hoyle, C. Fuchs, E. Järvinen, H. Saathoff, A. Dias, I. El Haddad, M. Gysel, S. C. Coburn, J. Tröstl, A.-K. Bernhammer, F. Bianchi, M. Breitenlechner, J. C. Corbin, J. Craven, N. M. Donahue, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, C. Frege, H. Gordon, N. Höppel, M. Heinritzi, T. B. Kristensen, U. Molteni, L. Nichman, T. Pinterich, A. S. H. Prévôt, M. Simon, J. G. Slowik, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, A. L. Vogel, R. Volkamer, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, A. S. Wexler, C. Williamson, P. M. Winkler, C. Yan, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, M. W. Gallagher, R. C. Flagan, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, M. Kulmala, O. Möhler, F. Stratmann, D. R. Worsnop, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1693–1712,Short summary
A significant portion of sulphate, an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, is formed via the aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone. The rate of this reaction has previously only been measured over a relatively small temperature range. Here, we use the state of the art CLOUD chamber at CERN to perform the first measurements of this reaction rate in super-cooled droplets, confirming that the existing extrapolation of the reaction rate to sub-zero temperatures is accurate.
J. Kukkonen, M. Karl, M. P. Keuken, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, B. R. Denby, V. Singh, J. Douros, A. Manders, Z. Samaras, N. Moussiopoulos, S. Jonkers, M. Aarnio, A. Karppinen, L. Kangas, S. Lützenkirchen, T. Petäjä, I. Vouitsis, and R. S. Sokhi
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 451–478,Short summary
For analyzing the health effects of particulate matter, it is necessary to consider not only the mass of particles, but also their sizes and composition. A simple measure for the former is the number concentration of particles. We present particle number concentrations in five major European cities, namely Helsinki, Oslo, London, Rotterdam, and Athens, in 2008, based mainly on modelling. The concentrations of PN were mostly influenced by the emissions from local vehicular traffic.
A. W. H. Chan, N. M. Kreisberg, T. Hohaus, P. Campuzano-Jost, Y. Zhao, D. A. Day, L. Kaser, T. Karl, A. Hansel, A. P. Teng, C. R. Ruehl, D. T. Sueper, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, J. L. Jimenez, S. V. Hering, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1187–1205,Short summary
Using a novel instrument, we have made measurements of organic compounds that can exist as a gas or particle in the rural atmosphere. Through hourly measurements, we have identified the sources and atmospheric processes of these compounds, which are important for modeling the climate and health impact of these emissions.
L. Xu, L. R. Williams, D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, P. Massoli, E. Fortner, P. Chhabra, S. Herndon, W. A. Brooks, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, A. C. Aiken, S. Liu, K. Gorkowski, M. K. Dubey, Z. L. Fleming, S. Visser, A. S. H. Prévôt, and N. L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1139–1160,Short summary
We investigate the spatial distribution of submicron aerosol in the greater London area as part of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Although the concentrations of organic aerosol (OA) are similar between a rural and an urban site, the OA sources are different. We also examine the volatility of submicron aerosol at the rural site and find that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical processing as refractory black carbon.
P. Hari, T. Petäjä, J. Bäck, V.-M. Kerminen, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Vihma, T. Laurila, Y. Viisanen, T. Vesala, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1017–1028,Short summary
This manuscript introduces a conceptual design of a global, hierarchical observation network which provides tools and increased understanding to tackle the inter-connected environmental and societal challenges that we will face in the coming decades. Each ecosystem type on the globe has its own characteristic features that need to be taken into consideration. The hierarchical network is able to tackle problems related to large spatial scales, heterogeneity of ecosystems and their complexity.
J. Kim, L. Ahlm, T. Yli-Juuti, M. Lawler, H. Keskinen, J. Tröstl, S. Schobesberger, J. Duplissy, A. Amorim, F. Bianchi, N. M. Donahue, R. C. Flagan, J. Hakala, M. Heinritzi, T. Jokinen, A. Kürten, A. Laaksonen, K. Lehtipalo, P. Miettinen, T. Petäjä, M. P. Rissanen, L. Rondo, K. Sengupta, M. Simon, A. Tomé, C. Williamson, D. Wimmer, P. M. Winkler, S. Ehrhart, P. Ye, J. Kirkby, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, K. E. J. Lehtinen, J. N. Smith, I. Riipinen, and A. Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 293–304,Short summary
The hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was measured in the presence of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid-dimethylamine, and sulfuric acid-organics derived from α-pinene oxidation during CLOUD7 at CERN in 2012. The hygroscopicity parameter κ decreased with increasing particle size, indicating decreasing acidity of particles.
R. L. Mauldin III, M. P. Rissanen, T. Petäjä, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The manuscript describes a novel instrument for the measurement of OH, HO2+RO2, and other atmospheric species. The instrument described combines the chemical ionization techniques of nitrate CIMS, OH conversion to H2SO4, HO2+RO2 conversion to H2SO4, and high resolution time of flight mass spectroscopy into one system. By using one instrument to obtain spectra it is possible to compare spectra from the different modes and gain further chemical information towards peak identification.
A. M. K. Hansen, J. Hong, T. Raatikainen, K. Kristensen, A. Ylisirniö, A. Virtanen, T. Petäjä, M. Glasius, and N. L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 14071–14089,Short summary
This paper presents the first study of the hygroscopic properties of limonene derived organosulfates (L-OS 250). The results showed that L-OS 250 particles are weakly hygroscopic and able to activate into cloud droplets. Particles of L-OS 250 mixed with ammonium sulfate were much more hygroscopic than expected from model parametrizations and the ZSR mixing rule, indicating that solubility and non-ideal droplet interactions could be important for the hygroscopic properties of the mixed particles.
F. Yu, G. Luo, S. C. Pryor, P. R. Pillai, S. H. Lee, J. Ortega, J. J. Schwab, A. G. Hallar, W. R. Leaitch, V. P. Aneja, J. N. Smith, J. T. Walker, O. Hogrefe, and K. L. Demerjian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13993–14003,Short summary
The role of low-volatility organics in new particle formation (NPF) in the atmosphere is assessed. An empirical formulation in which formation rate is a function of the concentrations of sulfuric acid and low-volatility organics significantly overpredicts NPF in the summer. Two different schemes predict quite different nucleation rates (including their spatial patterns), concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol first indirect radiative forcing in North America.
V. N. Dos Santos, E. Herrmann, H. E. Manninen, T. Hussein, J. Hakala, T. Nieminen, P. P. Aalto, M. Merkel, A. Wiedensohler, M. Kulmala, T. Petäjä, and K. Hämeri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13717–13737,Short summary
Atmospheric charged particles, i.e. air ions, contribute to secondary aerosol formation and have an effect on global climate as potential cloud condensation nuclei. We aimed to evaluate air ion concentrations and characteristics during new particle formation (NPF) events in the megacity Paris, France. We analyzed frequency and seasonal variations of NPF events, diurnal and seasonal cycles of ions, and aerosol particles.
W. Q. Xu, Y. L. Sun, C. Chen, W. Du, T. T. Han, Q. Q. Wang, P. Q. Fu, Z. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, L. B. Zhou, D. S. Ji, P. C. Wang, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13681–13698,Short summary
We have investigated the response of aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation properties to emission controls during the 2014 Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing. Our results showed substantial changes of aerosol bulk composition during APEC with the most reductions in secondary aerosols in large accumulation modes, demonstrating that that emission controls over regional scales can substantially reduce secondary particulates.
D. M. Lienhard, A. J. Huisman, U. K. Krieger, Y. Rudich, C. Marcolli, B. P. Luo, D. L. Bones, J. P. Reid, A. T. Lambe, M. R. Canagaratna, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, D. R. Worsnop, S. S. Steimer, T. Koop, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13599–13613,Short summary
New data of water diffusivity in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material and organic/inorganic model mixtures is presented over an extensive temperature range. Our data suggest that water diffusion in SOA is sufficiently fast so that it is unlikely to have significant consequences on the direct climatic effect under tropospheric conditions. Glass formation in SOA is unlikely to restrict homogeneous ice nucleation.
M. Kulmala, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Petäjä, T. Kurten, V.-M. Kerminen, Y. Viisanen, P. Hari, S. Sorvari, J. Bäck, V. Bondur, N. Kasimov, V. Kotlyakov, G. Matvienko, A. Baklanov, H. D. Guo, A. Ding, H.-C. Hansson, and S. Zilitinkevich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13085–13096,Short summary
The Pan-European Experiment (PEEX) is introduced. PEEX is a multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research, research infrastructure and capacity-building program. This paper outlines the mission, vision and objectives of PEEX and introduces its main components, including the research agenda, research infrastructure, knowledge transfer and potential impacts on society. The paper also summarizes the main scientific questions that PEEX is going to tackle in the future.
C. E. Scott, D. V. Spracklen, J. R. Pierce, I. Riipinen, S. D. D'Andrea, A. Rap, K. S. Carslaw, P. M. Forster, P. Artaxo, M. Kulmala, L. V. Rizzo, E. Swietlicki, G. W. Mann, and K. J. Pringle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12989–13001,Short summary
To understand the radiative effects of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) it is necessary to consider the manner in which it is distributed across the existing aerosol size distribution. We explore the importance of the approach taken by global-scale models to do this, when calculating the direct radiative effect (DRE) & first aerosol indirect effect (AIE) due to biogenic SOA. This choice has little effect on the DRE, but a substantial impact on the magnitude and even sign of the first AIE
C. Chen, Y. L. Sun, W. Q. Xu, W. Du, L. B. Zhou, T. T. Han, Q. Q. Wang, P. Q. Fu, Z. F. Wang, Z. Q. Gao, Q. Zhang, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12879–12895,Short summary
A comprehensive characterization of submicron aerosol composition and sources at 260m in urban Beijing during APEC 2014 is presented. Aerosol species were shown to decrease substantially by 40–80% during APEC, whereas the bulk composition was relatively similar to the result of synergetic controls of secondary precursors. Our results elucidated that the good air quality during APEC was the combined result of emission controls and meteorological effects, with the former playing the dominant role.
S. Carbone, T. Onasch, S. Saarikoski, H. Timonen, K. Saarnio, D. Sueper, T. Rönkkö, L. Pirjola, A. Häyrinen, D. Worsnop, and R. Hillamo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4803–4815,Short summary
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the quantification of trace metal content in black carbon aerosol in real time, such as combustion-related emissions, by using the SP-AMS. The properties of 13 different trace metals (Na, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Ba) were investigated in a controlled laboratory experiment. The results from the laboratory tests were applied to study fine particles in emissions of a heavy-fuel-oil-fired heating station.
X. M. Qi, A. J. Ding, W. Nie, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, E. Herrmann, Y. N. Xie, L. F. Zheng, H. Manninen, P. Aalto, J. N. Sun, Z. N. Xu, X. G. Chi, X. Huang, M. Boy, A. Virkkula, X.-Q. Yang, C. B. Fu, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12445–12464,Short summary
We report 2 years of measurements of submicron particles at the SORPES station and provide a comprehensive understanding of main factors controlling temporal variation of the aerosol size distribution and NPF in eastern China. The number concentrations of total particles at Nanjing were comparable to other Chinese megacities but the frequency of NPF was much higher. Year-to-year differences of meteorological conditions could significantly influence the seasonal cycle of NPF and growth.
T. Nieminen, T. Yli-Juuti, H. E. Manninen, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12385–12396,
M. Paramonov, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Gysel, P. P. Aalto, M. O. Andreae, E. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, A. Bougiatioti, D. Brus, G. P. Frank, N. Good, S. S. Gunthe, L. Hao, M. Irwin, A. Jaatinen, Z. Jurányi, S. M. King, A. Kortelainen, A. Kristensson, H. Lihavainen, M. Kulmala, U. Lohmann, S. T. Martin, G. McFiggans, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Nenes, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, T. Petäjä, U. Pöschl, G. C. Roberts, D. Rose, B. Svenningsson, E. Swietlicki, E. Weingartner, J. Whitehead, A. Wiedensohler, C. Wittbom, and B. Sierau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12211–12229,Short summary
The research paper presents the first comprehensive overview of field measurements with the CCN Counter performed at a large number of locations around the world within the EUCAARI framework. The paper sheds light on the CCN number concentrations and activated fractions around the world and their dependence on the water vapour supersaturation ratio, the dependence of aerosol hygroscopicity on particle size, and seasonal and diurnal variation of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties.
J. C. Corbin, A. Othman, J. D. Allan, D. R. Worsnop, J. D. Haskins, B. Sierau, U. Lohmann, and A. A. Mensah
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4615–4636,Short summary
Peak-integration uncertainties in the Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) are analyzed in detail using a combination of empirical data analysis and Monte Carlo approaches. The most general conclusion, applicable to any mass spectrometer, is that non-zero mass accuracy leads to a percentage error in constrained peak fits, even for well-resolved peaks. For overlapping peaks, this mass-accuracy effect may be viewed as a reduction in the effective m/z-calibration precision.
J. Hong, J. Kim, T. Nieminen, J. Duplissy, M. Ehn, M. Äijälä, L. Q. Hao, W. Nie, N. Sarnela, N. L. Prisle, M. Kulmala, A. Virtanen, T. Petäjä, and V.-M. Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11999–12009,
M. K. Kajos, P. Rantala, M. Hill, H. Hellén, J. Aalto, J. Patokoski, R. Taipale, C. C. Hoerger, S. Reimann, T. M. Ruuskanen, J. Rinne, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4453–4473,
B. Wehner, F. Werner, F. Ditas, R. A. Shaw, M. Kulmala, and H. Siebert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11701–11711,Short summary
During the CARRIBA campaign on Barbados, 91 cases with increased aerosol particle number concentrations near clouds were detected from helicopter-borne measurements. Most of these cases are correlated with enhanced irradiance in the ultraviolet range. The events have a mean length of 100m, corresponding to a lifetime of 300s, meaning a growth of several nm/h. Such high values cannot be explained by sulfuric acid alone; thus extremely low volatility organic compounds are probably involved here.
A. Virkkula, X. Chi, A. Ding, Y. Shen, W. Nie, X. Qi, L. Zheng, X. Huang, Y. Xie, J. Wang, T. Petäjä, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4415–4427,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties were measured with a seven-wavelength aethalometer and a three-wavelength nephelometer in Nanjing, China, in September 2013–January 2015. The aethalometer compensation parameter k depended on the backscatter fraction, measured with an independent method, the integrating nephelometer. The compensation parameter decreased with increasing single-scattering albedo.
R. Fröhlich, M. J. Cubison, J. G. Slowik, N. Bukowiecki, F. Canonaco, P. L. Croteau, M. Gysel, S. Henne, E. Herrmann, J. T. Jayne, M. Steinbacher, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11373–11398,Short summary
This manuscript presents the first long-term (14-month) and highly time-resolved (10 min) measurements of NR-PM1 aerosol chemical composition at a high-altitude site (JFJ, Switzerland, 3580m a.s.l.). The elevated location allowed the investigation of free tropospheric aerosol year round. Total and relative mass loadings, diurnal variations as well as seasonal variations are discussed together with geographical origin, organic aerosol sources and the influence of the planetary boundary layer.
M. Sipilä, N. Sarnela, T. Jokinen, H. Junninen, J. Hakala, M. P. Rissanen, A. Praplan, M. Simon, A. Kürten, F. Bianchi, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, T. Petäjä, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4001–4011,Short summary
Atmospheric concentrations of amines are poorly known mainly due to challenges related to their reliable high-sensitivity detection. We have created a method and instrument that is capable for detecting amines with lowest limit of detection of around 0.01 parts per trillion. Application of the instrument in the field study indicates that concentrations of dimethyl amine in a boreal forest site are below 0.03ppt, not enough to account for the observed new particle formation rates.
A. Kürten, S. Münch, L. Rondo, F. Bianchi, J. Duplissy, T. Jokinen, H. Junninen, N. Sarnela, S. Schobesberger, M. Simon, M. Sipilä, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, N. M. Donahue, E. M. Dunne, R. C. Flagan, A. Franchin, J. Kirkby, A. Kupc, V. Makhmutov, T. Petäjä, A. P. Praplan, F. Riccobono, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, G. Tsagkogeorgas, P. E. Wagner, D. Wimmer, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop, and J. Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10701–10721,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is an important atmospheric process. At cold temperatures in the upper troposphere the binary (H2SO4-H2O) and ternary (H2SO4-H2O-NH3) system are thought to be important for NPF. Sulfuric acid monomer (H2SO4) and sulfuric acid dimer ((H2SO4)2) concentrations were measured between 208 and 248K for these systems and dimer evaporation rates were derived. These data will help to better understand and predict binary and ternary nucleation at low temperatures.
M. Pikridas, J. Sciare, F. Freutel, S. Crumeyrolle, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, A. Borbon, A. Schwarzenboeck, M. Merkel, M. Crippa, E. Kostenidou, M. Psichoudaki, L. Hildebrandt, G. J. Engelhart, T. Petäjä, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Drewnick, U. Baltensperger, A. Wiedensohler, M. Kulmala, M. Beekmann, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10219–10237,Short summary
Aerosol size distribution measurements from three ground sites, two mobile laboratories, and one airplane are combined to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of ultrafine particles in and around Paris during the summer and winter MEGAPOLI campaigns. The role of nucleation as a particle source and the influence of Paris emissions on their surroundings are examined.
Y. L. Sun, Z. F. Wang, W. Du, Q. Zhang, Q. Q. Wang, P. Q. Fu, X. L. Pan, J. Li, J. Jayne, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10149–10165,Short summary
We conducted the first long-term real-time measurement of submicron aerosol composition in Beijing using an ACSM for 1 year. The seasonal variations of mass concentrations and chemical composition of submicron aerosol were investigated in detail, and the meteorological effects on aerosol chemistry, particularly temperature and relative humidity, were elucidated. Finally, the potential source areas of aerosol species during four seasons were identified.
N. Kalivitis, V.-M. Kerminen, G. Kouvarakis, I. Stavroulas, A. Bougiatioti, A. Nenes, H. E. Manninen, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and N. Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9203–9215,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production associated with atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is presented, and this is the first direct evidence of CCN production resulting from NPF in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere. We show that condensation of both gaseous sulfuric acid and organic compounds from multiple sources leads to the rapid growth of nucleated particles. Sub-100nm particles were found to be substantially less hygroscopic than larger particles during the active NPF period.
L. Zhou, R. Gierens, A. Sogachev, D. Mogensen, J. Ortega, J. N. Smith, P. C. Harley, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, A. Turnipseed, A. Rusanen, S. Smolander, A. B. Guenther, M. Kulmala, T. Karl, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8643–8656,
L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, A. L. Paciga, K. M. Cerully, A. Nenes, N. M. Donahue, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8301–8313,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is transformed after its initial formation. We explored the effects of this chemical aging on the composition, mass yield, volatility, and hygroscopicity of SOA formed from the photo-oxidation of small aromatic volatile organic compounds. Higher exposure to the hydroxyl radical resulted in different SOA composition, average carbon oxidation state, and mass yield. The vapor pressure of SOA formed under different conditions varied by as much as a factor of 30.
F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, M. Ehn, F. Rubach, E. Kleist, J. Wildt, Th. F. Mentel, A. J. Carrasquillo, K. E. Daumit, J. F. Hunter, J. H. Kroll, D. R. Worsnop, and J. A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7765–7776,Short summary
We measured a large suite organic compounds using a recently developed Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a (HR-ToF-CIMS). The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We find that approximately 50% of the detected particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4, or more, orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured products.
D. Wimmer, K. Lehtipalo, T. Nieminen, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, J. Almeida, L. Rondo, A. Franchin, F. Kreissl, F. Bianchi, H. E. Manninen, M. Kulmala, J. Curtius, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7547–7555,
P. Zieger, P. P. Aalto, V. Aaltonen, M. Äijälä, J. Backman, J. Hong, M. Komppula, R. Krejci, M. Laborde, J. Lampilahti, G. de Leeuw, A. Pfüller, B. Rosati, M. Tesche, P. Tunved, R. Väänänen, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7247–7267,Short summary
The effect of water uptake (hygroscopicity) on aerosol light scattering properties is generally lower for boreal aerosol due to the dominance of organic substances. A columnar optical closure study using ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol optical, chemical and microphysical properties was conducted and the implications and limitations are discussed.
A. Franchin, S. Ehrhart, J. Leppä, T. Nieminen, S. Gagné, S. Schobesberger, D. Wimmer, J. Duplissy, F. Riccobono, E. M. Dunne, L. Rondo, A. Downard, F. Bianchi, A. Kupc, G. Tsagkogeorgas, K. Lehtipalo, H. E. Manninen, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, P. E. Wagner, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, A. Kürten, N. M. Donahue, V. Makhmutov, S. Mathot, A. Metzger, T. Petäjä, R. Schnitzhofer, M. Sipilä, Y. Stozhkov, A. Tomé, V.-M. Kerminen, K. Carslaw, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7203–7216,Short summary
The ion-ion recombination coefficient was measured at different temperatures, relative humidities and concentrations of ozone and sulfur dioxide. The experiments were carried out using the CLOUD chamber at CERN. We observed a strong dependency on temperature and on relative humidity, which has not been reported previously. No dependency of the ion-ion recombination coefficient on ozone concentration was observed and a weak variation with sulfur dioxide concentration was also observed.
A.-M. Sundström, A. Nikandrova, K. Atlaskina, T. Nieminen, V. Vakkari, L. Laakso, J. P. Beukes, A. Arola, P. G. van Zyl, M. Josipovic, A. D. Venter, K. Jaars, J. J. Pienaar, S. Piketh, A. Wiedensohler, E. K. Chiloane, G. de Leeuw, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4983–4996,
A. P. Praplan, S. Schobesberger, F. Bianchi, M. P. Rissanen, M. Ehn, T. Jokinen, H. Junninen, A. Adamov, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Duplissy, J. Hakala, A. Hansel, M. Heinritzi, J. Kangasluoma, J. Kirkby, M. Krapf, A. Kürten, K. Lehtipalo, F. Riccobono, L. Rondo, N. Sarnela, M. Simon, A. Tomé, J. Tröstl, P. M. Winkler, C. Williamson, P. Ye, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, N. M. Donahue, M. Kulmala, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4145–4159,Short summary
Our study shows, based on data from three atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometers measuring in parallel charged and neutral molecules and molecular clusters, how oxidised organic compounds bind to inorganic ions (e.g. bisulfate, nitrate, ammonium). This ionisation is selective for compounds with lower molar mass due to their limited amount and variety of functional groups. We also found that extremely low volatile organic compounds (ELVOCs) can be formed immediately.
D. Mogensen, R. Gierens, J. N. Crowley, P. Keronen, S. Smolander, A. Sogachev, A. C. Nölscher, L. Zhou, M. Kulmala, M. J. Tang, J. Williams, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3909–3932,
K. Neitola, D. Brus, U. Makkonen, M. Sipilä, R. L. Mauldin III, N. Sarnela, T. Jokinen, H. Lihavainen, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3429–3443,Short summary
A discrepancy of 2 orders of magnitude was found between the measured sulfuric acid monomer concentration and total sulfate, when measured with independent methods (mass spectrometry and ion chromatography) with the same source of sulphuric acid vapor. The ion chromatography method produces the exact concentrations predicted by empirical equations, and the mass spectrometry method shows significantly lower values. The discrepancy is investigated thoroughly from different points of views.
C. Rose, K. Sellegri, E. Asmi, M. Hervo, E. Freney, A. Colomb, H. Junninen, J. Duplissy, M. Sipilä, J. Kontkanen, K. Lehtipalo, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3413–3428,
A. T. Lambe, P. S. Chhabra, T. B. Onasch, W. H. Brune, J. F. Hunter, J. H. Kroll, M. J. Cummings, J. F. Brogan, Y. Parmar, D. R. Worsnop, C. E. Kolb, and P. Davidovits
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3063–3075,Short summary
We compared the chemistry and yields of SOA generated from OH oxidation of gas-phase precursors in a flow reactor (high OH, short residence time) and environmental chambers (low OH, long residence time). We find that chemical composition of SOA produced in the flow reactor and in chambers is similar. SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than in chambers. Seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in the flow reactor and may account in part for higher SOA yields in chambers.
S. Xiao, M. Y. Wang, L. Yao, M. Kulmala, B. Zhou, X. Yang, J. M. Chen, D. F. Wang, Q. Y. Fu, D. R. Worsnop, and L. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1769–1781,
W. Nie, A. J. Ding, Y. N. Xie, Z. Xu, H. Mao, V.-M. Kerminen, L. F. Zheng, X. M. Qi, X. Huang, X.-Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, E. Herrmann, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and C. B. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1147–1159,
H. Vuollekoski, M. Vogt, V. A. Sinclair, J. Duplissy, H. Järvinen, E.-M. Kyrö, R. Makkonen, T. Petäjä, N. L. Prisle, P. Räisänen, M. Sipilä, J. Ylhäisi, and M. Kulmala
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 601–613,Short summary
The global potential for collecting usable water from dew on an artificial collector sheet was investigated by utilising 34 years of meteorological reanalysis data as input to a dew formation model. Continental dew formation was found to be frequent and common, but daily yields were mostly below 0.1mm.
R. Oswald, M. Ermel, K. Hens, A. Novelli, H. G. Ouwersloot, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, M. Sipilä, P. Keronen, J. Bäck, R. Königstedt, Z. Hosaynali Beygi, H. Fischer, B. Bohn, D. Kubistin, H. Harder, M. Martinez, J. Williams, T. Hoffmann, I. Trebs, and M. Sörgel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 799–813,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key species in atmospheric photochemistry since the photolysis leads to the important hydroxyl radical (OH). Although the importance of HONO as a precursor of OH is known, the formation pathways of HONO, especially during daytime, are a major challenge in atmospheric science. We present a detailed analysis of sources and sinks for HONO in the atmosphere for a field measurement campaign in the boreal forest in Finland and wonder if there is really a source term missing.
I. Nuaaman, S.-M. Li, K. L. Hayden, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. Sueper, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, P. K. Quinn, and R. McLaren
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
In this paper, we focus on the measurement and reporting of mass concentrations of particulate chloride and sea salt in a marine area off the coast of California using a High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. We outline a method of deconvolving the total aerosol chloride mass into refractory and non-refractory components, previously not reported in the literature. This can be important in regions where refractory sea salt aerosols can contribute to the aerosol chloride signal measured with t
A.-M. Sundström, A. Arola, P. Kolmonen, Y. Xue, G. de Leeuw, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 505–518,Short summary
In this work, a satellite-based approach to derive the aerosol direct shortwave (SW) radiative effect (ADRE) is studied. The method is based on using coincident satellite observations of SW fluxes and aerosol optical depths (AODs). The key findings of this study are that using normalized values of observed fluxes improves the estimates of ADRE and aerosol-free TOA fluxes as compared to a model. The method was applied over eastern China where the satellite-based mean ADRE of -5Wm-2 was obtained.
M. R. Canagaratna, J. L. Jimenez, J. H. Kroll, Q. Chen, S. H. Kessler, P. Massoli, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, E. Fortner, L. R. Williams, K. R. Wilson, J. D. Surratt, N. M. Donahue, J. T. Jayne, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 253–272,Short summary
Atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O:C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H:C), and organic mass-to-organic carbon (OM:OC) ratios of ambient organic aerosol (OA) species provide key constraints for understanding their sources and impacts. Here an improved method for obtaining accurate O:C, H:C, and OM:OC with a widely used aerosol mass spectrometer is developed. These results imply that OA is more oxidized than previously estimated and indicate the need for new chemical mechanisms that simulate ambient oxidation.
S. Schobesberger, A. Franchin, F. Bianchi, L. Rondo, J. Duplissy, A. Kürten, I. K. Ortega, A. Metzger, R. Schnitzhofer, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, E. M. Dunne, M. Ehn, S. Gagné, L. Ickes, H. Junninen, A. Hansel, V.-M. Kerminen, J. Kirkby, A. Kupc, A. Laaksonen, K. Lehtipalo, S. Mathot, A. Onnela, T. Petäjä, F. Riccobono, F. D. Santos, M. Sipilä, A. Tomé, G. Tsagkogeorgas, Y. Viisanen, P. E. Wagner, D. Wimmer, J. Curtius, N. M. Donahue, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 55–78,Short summary
We used an ion mass spectrometer at CERN's CLOUD chamber to investigate the detailed composition of ammonia--sulfuric acid ion clusters (of both polarities) as they initially form and then grow into aerosol particles, at atmospherically relevant conditions. We found that these clusters’ composition is mainly determined by the ratio of the precursor vapors and ranges from ammonia-free clusters to clusters containing > 1 ammonia per sulfuric acid. Acid--base bindings are a key formation mechanism.
P. S. Chhabra, A. T. Lambe, M. R. Canagaratna, H. Stark, J. T. Jayne, T. B. Onasch, P. Davidovits, J. R. Kimmel, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1–18,Short summary
Authors of this publication used acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry (acetate-CIMS) to measure experimental products of alpha-pinene and naphthalene oxidation formed in a flow reactor. Acetate-CIMS instrumentation is selective toward carboxylic acid compounds which are readily formed in atmospheric photooxidation processes. Spectral information was used to identify previously measured products of both systems and to estimate their volatilities.
J.-E. Petit, O. Favez, J. Sciare, F. Canonaco, P. Croteau, G. Močnik, J. Jayne, D. Worsnop, and E. Leoz-Garziandia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13773–13787,
L. Q. Hao, A. Kortelainen, S. Romakkaniemi, H. Portin, A. Jaatinen, A. Leskinen, M. Komppula, P. Miettinen, D. Sueper, A. Pajunoja, J. N. Smith, K. E. J. Lehtinen, D. R. Worsnop, A. Laaksonen, and A. Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13483–13495,Short summary
Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to the unified high-resolution mass spectra organic species with NO+ and NO2+ ions from the measurement in a mixed region between the boreal forestland and the urban area. The PMF analysis succeeded in separating the mixed spectra into three distinct organic factors and one inorganic factor. The particulate organic nitrate was distinguished by PMF for the first time, with a contribution of one-third of the total nitrate mass.
M. D. Willis, A. K. Y. Lee, T. B. Onasch, E. C. Fortner, L. R. Williams, A. T. Lambe, D. R. Worsnop, and J. P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4507–4516,
J. Backman, A. Virkkula, V. Vakkari, J. P. Beukes, P. G. Van Zyl, M. Josipovic, S. Piketh, P. Tiitta, K. Chiloane, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and L. Laakso
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4285–4298,
M. Sipilä, T. Jokinen, T. Berndt, S. Richters, R. Makkonen, N. M. Donahue, R. L. Mauldin III, T. Kurtén, P. Paasonen, N. Sarnela, M. Ehn, H. Junninen, M. P. Rissanen, J. Thornton, F. Stratmann, H. Herrmann, D. R. Worsnop, M. Kulmala, V.-M. Kerminen, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12143–12153,
M. K. Sporre, E. Swietlicki, P. Glantz, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12167–12179,
Y. You, V. P. Kanawade, J. A. de Gouw, A. B. Guenther, S. Madronich, M. R. Sierra-Hernández, M. Lawler, J. N. Smith, S. Takahama, G. Ruggeri, A. Koss, K. Olson, K. Baumann, R. J. Weber, A. Nenes, H. Guo, E. S. Edgerton, L. Porcelli, W. H. Brune, A. H. Goldstein, and S.-H. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12181–12194,Short summary
Amiens play important roles in atmospheric secondary aerosol formation and human health, but the fast response measurements of amines are lacking. Here we show measurements in a southeastern US forest and a moderately polluted midwestern site. Our results show that gas to particle conversion is an important process that controls ambient amine concentrations and that biomass burning is an important source of amines.
L. Rondo, A. Kürten, S. Ehrhart, S. Schobesberger, A. Franchin, H. Junninen, T. Petäjä, M. Sipilä, D. R. Worsnop, and J. Curtius
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3849–3859,
S. Decesari, J. Allan, C. Plass-Duelmer, B. J. Williams, M. Paglione, M. C. Facchini, C. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, J. K. Gietl, H. Coe, L. Giulianelli, G. P. Gobbi, C. Lanconelli, C. Carbone, D. Worsnop, A. T. Lambe, A. T. Ahern, F. Moretti, E. Tagliavini, T. Elste, S. Gilge, Y. Zhang, and M. Dall'Osto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12109–12132,Short summary
We made use of multiple spectrometric techniques for characterizing the aerosol chemical composition and mixing in the Po Valley in the summer. The oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) concentrations were correlated with simple tracers for recirculated planetary boundary layer air. A full internal mixing between black carbon (BC) and the non-refractory aerosol components was never observed. Local sources in the Po Valley were responsible for the production of organic particles unmixed with BC.
J. Kukkonen, J. Nikmo, M. Sofiev, K. Riikonen, T. Petäjä, A. Virkkula, J. Levula, S. Schobesberger, and D. M. Webber
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2663–2681,
J.-P. Pietikäinen, S. Mikkonen, A. Hamed, A. I. Hienola, W. Birmili, M. Kulmala, and A. Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11711–11729,
M. J. Lawler, J. Whitehead, C. O'Dowd, C. Monahan, G. McFiggans, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11557–11569,Short summary
This work describes the chemical and physical characterization of very small (< 100 nm diameter) particles in the marine atmosphere. We show that sea salt is present even at very small sizes and present evidence that organic species are important contributors to apparent new particle formation events over the ocean.
Y. Y. Cui, A. Hodzic, J. N. Smith, J. Ortega, J. Brioude, H. Matsui, E. J. T. Levin, A. Turnipseed, P. Winkler, and B. de Foy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11011–11029,
S. G. Gonser, F. Klein, W. Birmili, J. Größ, M. Kulmala, H. E. Manninen, A. Wiedensohler, and A. Held
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10547–10563,
S. Smolander, Q. He, D. Mogensen, L. Zhou, J. Bäck, T. Ruuskanen, S. Noe, A. Guenther, H. Aaltonen, M. Kulmala, and M. Boy
Biogeosciences, 11, 5425–5443,
K. Hens, A. Novelli, M. Martinez, J. Auld, R. Axinte, B. Bohn, H. Fischer, P. Keronen, D. Kubistin, A. C. Nölscher, R. Oswald, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, E. Regelin, R. Sander, V. Sinha, M. Sipilä, D. Taraborrelli, C. Tatum Ernest, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8723–8747,
L. Liao, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Boy, M. Kulmala, and M. Dal Maso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8295–8308,
M. Vestenius, H. Hellén, J. Levula, P. Kuronen, K.J. Helminen, T. Nieminen, M. Kulmala, and H. Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7883–7893,
T. R. Dallmann, T. B. Onasch, T. W. Kirchstetter, D. R. Worton, E. C. Fortner, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, J. P. Franklin, D. R. Worsnop, A. H. Goldstein, and R. A. Harley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7585–7599,
S. Saarikoski, S. Carbone, M. J. Cubison, R. Hillamo, P. Keronen, C. Sioutas, D. R. Worsnop, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2121–2135,
K. Jaars, J. P. Beukes, P. G. van Zyl, A. D. Venter, M. Josipovic, J. J. Pienaar, V. Vakkari, H. Aaltonen, H. Laakso, M. Kulmala, P. Tiitta, A. Guenther, H. Hellén, L. Laakso, and H. Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7075–7089,
S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. R. Canagaratna, P. L. Croteau, K. Baumann, E. S. Edgerton, M. S. Kollman, N. L. Ng, V. Verma, S. L. Shaw, E. M. Knipping, D. R. Worsnop, J. T. Jayne, R.J. Weber, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1929–1941,
A. Setyan, C. Song, M. Merkel, W. B. Knighton, T. B. Onasch, M. R. Canagaratna, D. R. Worsnop, A. Wiedensohler, J. E. Shilling, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6477–6494,
J. Ortega, A. Turnipseed, A. B. Guenther, T. G. Karl, D. A. Day, D. Gochis, J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, P. J. DeMott, Y. Tobo, E. G. Patton, A. Hodzic, Y. Y. Cui, P. C. Harley, R. S. Hornbrook, E. C. Apel, R. K. Monson, A. S. D. Eller, J. P. Greenberg, M. C. Barth, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, J. L. Jimenez, A. C. Aiken, M. K. Dubey, C. Geron, J. Offenberg, M. G. Ryan, P. J. Fornwalt, S. C. Pryor, F. N. Keutsch, J. P. DiGangi, A. W. H. Chan, A. H. Goldstein, G. M. Wolfe, S. Kim, L. Kaser, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Hansel, C. A. Cantrell, R. L. Mauldin, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6345–6367,