Submicron aerosol source apportionment of wintertime pollution in Paris, France by double positive matrix factorization (PMF2) using an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) and a multi-wavelength Aethalometer
- 1Institut National de l'EnviRonnement Industriel et des risqueS, INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte, France
- 2Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, LSCE, UMR8212, CNRS-CEA-UVSQ, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
- 3Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 PSI Villigen, Switzerland
- 4Aerodyne Research, Inc. 45 Manning Road Billerica, MA, USA
- 5Aerosol d.o.o., Kamniška 41, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Abstract. Online non-refractory submicron aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements in urban areas have successfully allowed the apportionment of specific sources and/or physical and chemical properties of the organic fraction. However, in order to be fully representative of PM pollution, a comprehensive source apportionment analysis is needed by taking into account all major components of submicron aerosols, creating strengthened bonds between the organic components and pollution sources. We present here a novel two-step methodology to perform such an analysis, by taking advantage of high time resolution of monitoring instruments: the aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) and the multi-wavelength absorption measurements (Aethalometer AE31) in Paris, France. As a first step, organic aerosols (OA) were deconvolved to hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) with positive matrix factorization (PMF), and black carbon was deconvolved into its wood burning and fossil fuel combustion fractions. A second PMF analysis was then carried out with organic factors, BC fractions and inorganic species (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, chloride), leading to a four-factor solution allowing highly time-resolved characterization of the major sources of PM1. Outputs of this PMF2 include two dominant combustion sources (wood burning and traffic) as well as semi-volatile and low-volatile secondary aerosols. While HOA is found to be emitted by both wood burning and traffic, the latter sources occurred to significantly contribute also to OOA.