Articles | Volume 17, issue 15
Research article 01 Aug 2017
Research article | 01 Aug 2017
Evaluating the impact of new observational constraints on P-S/IVOC emissions, multi-generation oxidation, and chamber wall losses on SOA modeling for Los Angeles, CA
Prettiny K. Ma et al.
No articles found.
Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Hongyu Guo, Paul J. Wooldridge, Ronald C. Cohen, Kenneth S. Docherty, J. Alex Huffman, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Particle-phase nitrates are an important component of atmospheric aerosols and chemistry. In this manuscript, we systematically explore the application of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the organic and inorganic nitrate fractions of aerosols in the atmosphere. While AMS has been used for a decade to quantify nitrates, methods are not standardized. We make recommendations for a more universal approach based on this analysis of a large range of field and laboratory observations.
Chuan Ping Lee, Mihnea Surdu, David M. Bell, Houssni Lamkaddam, Mingyi Wang, Farnoush Ataei, Victoria Hofbauer, Brandon Lopez, Neil M. Donahue, Josef Dommen, Andre S. H. Prevot, Jay G. Slowik, Dongyu Wang, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5913–5923,Short summary
Extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been deployed for high throughput online detection of particles with minimal fragmentation. Our study elucidates the extraction mechanism between the particles and electrospray (ES) droplets of different properties. The results show that the extraction rate is likely affected by the coagulation rate between the particles and ES droplets. Once coagulated, the particles undergo complete extraction within the ES droplet.
Vaios Moschos, Martin Gysel-Beer, Robin L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Dario Massabò, Camilla Costa, Silvia G. Danelli, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Sönke Szidat, Paolo Prati, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12809–12833,Short summary
This study provides a holistic approach to studying the spectrally resolved light absorption by atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) and black carbon using long time series of daily samples from filter-based measurements. The obtained results provide (1) a better understanding of the aerosol absorption profile and its dependence on BrC and on lensing from less absorbing coatings and (2) an estimation of the most important absorbers at typical European locations.
Dongwook Kim, Changmin Cho, Seokhan Jeong, Soojin Lee, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Jose L. Jimenez, Rainer Volkamer, Donald R. Blake, Armin Wisthaler, Alan Fried, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Jack Dibb, Christoph J. Knote, and Kyung-Eun Min
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
CHOCHO was simulated using a 0-D box model constrained by measurements during the KORUS-AQ mission. High CHOCHO concentrations were observed over highly populated cities and industrial areas. Aromatics were the most important precursors of CHOCHO production. Loss path to aerosol was the highest sink contributing to ~20 % of SOA formation. CHOCHO uptake rate can be affected by aerosol viscosity and irradiation. Finally, our work highlights the lacking knowledge to explain the CHOCHO solubility.
Ruth E. Hill-Pearce, Aimee Hillier, Eric Mussell Webber, Kanokrat Charoenpornpukdee, Simon O'Doherty, Joachim Mohn, Christoph Zellweger, David R. Worton, and Paul J. Brewer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5447–5458,Short summary
There is currently a need for gas reference materials with well-characterised delta values for monitoring N2O amount fractions. We present work towards the preparation of gas reference materials for calibration of in-field monitoring equipment, which target the WMO-GAW data quality objectives for comparability of amount fraction and demonstrate the stability of δ15Nα, δ15Nβ and δ18O values with pressure and effects of cylinder passivation.
Delaney B. Kilgour, Gordon A. Novak, Jon S. Sauer, Alexia N. Moore, Julie Dinasquet, Sarah Amiri, Emily B. Franklin, Kathryn Mayer, Margaux Winter, Clare K. Morris, Tyler Price, Francesca Malfatti, Daniel R. Crocker, Christopher Lee, Christopher D. Cappa, Allen H. Goldstein, Kimberly A. Prather, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We report measurements of gas-phase volatile organosulfur molecules made during a mesocosm phytoplankton bloom experiment. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), methanethiol (MeSH), and benzothiazole accounted for on average over 90 % of total gas-phase sulfur emissions. This work focuses on factors controlling the production and emission of DMS and MeSH and the role of non-DMS molecules (such as MeSH and benzothiazole) in secondary sulfate formation in coastal marine environments.
Paul Strobel, Marcel Bliedtner, Andrew S. Carr, Peter Frenzel, Björn Klaes, Gary Salazar, Julian Struck, Sönke Szidat, Roland Zech, and Torsten Haberzettl
Clim. Past, 17, 1567–1586,Short summary
This study presents a multi-proxy record from Lake Voёlvlei and provides new insights into the sea level and paleoclimate history of the past 8.5 ka at South Africa’s southern Cape coast. Our results show that sea level changes at the southern coast are in good agreement with the western coast of South Africa. In terms of climate our record provides valuable insights into changing sources of precipitation at the southern Cape coast, i.e. westerly- and easterly-derived precipitation contribution.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11201–11224,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions is predictable and is explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated with SOA in urban regions.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Jared F. Brewer, Ke Li, Jonathan M. Moch, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Hyunkwang Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Su Keun Kuk, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Xuan Wang, Pengfei Liu, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Katherine R. Travis, Johnathan W. Hair, Bruce E. Anderson, Jack E. Dibb, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Qiang Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Geostationary satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) has tremendous potential for monitoring surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We integrated data from surface networks, aircraft, and satellites with the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model to enhance our ability to relate AOD to PM2.5. We attributed 550 nm AOD mainly to secondary aerosols in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and explained the opposite seasonality between AOD and PM2.5 by seasonality in PBL heights and relative humidity.
Amir Yazdani, Nikunj Dudani, Satoshi Takahama, Amelie Bertrand, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
While the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer provides high time resolution characterization of the overall extent of oxidation, the extensive fragmentation of molecules and specificity of the technique has posed challenges toward deeper understanding of molecular structures in aerosols. This work demonstrates how functional group information can be extracted from a suite of commonly-measured mass fragments using collocated infrared spectroscopy measurements.
Yenny Gonzalez, Róisín Commane, Ethan Manninen, Bruce C. Daube, Luke D. Schiferl, J. Barry McManus, Kathryn McKain, Eric J. Hintsa, James W. Elkins, Stephen A. Montzka, Colm Sweeney, Fred Moore, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano Jost, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea R. Thompson, Eric Ray, Paul O. Wennberg, John Crounse, Michelle Kim, Hannah M. Allen, Paul A. Newman, Britton B. Stephens, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Benjamin A. Nault, Eric Morgan, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11113–11132,Short summary
Vertical profiles of N2O and a variety of chemical species and aerosols were collected nearly from pole to pole over the oceans during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography mission. We observed that tropospheric N2O variability is strongly driven by the influence of stratospheric air depleted in N2O, especially at middle and high latitudes. We also traced the origins of biomass burning and industrial emissions and investigated their impact on the variability of tropospheric N2O.
Evelyn Freney, Karine Sellegri, Alessia Nicosia, Leah R. Williams, Matteo Rinaldi, Jonathan T. Trueblood, André S. H. Prévôt, Melilotus Thyssen, Gérald Grégori, Nils Haëntjens, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, France Van Wambeke, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Karine Desboeufs, Eija Asmi, Hilkka Timonen, and Cécile Guieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10625–10641,Short summary
In this work, we present observations of the organic aerosol content in primary sea spray aerosols (SSAs) continuously generated along a 5-week cruise in the Mediterranean. This information is combined with seawater biogeochemical properties also measured continuously along the ship track to develop a number of parametrizations that can be used in models to determine SSA organic content in oligotrophic waters that represent 60 % of the oceans from commonly measured seawater variables.
Michael Zech, Marcel Lerch, Marcel Bliedtner, Tobias Bromm, Fabian Seemann, Sönke Szidat, Gary Salazar, Roland Zech, Bruno Glaser, Jean Nicolas Haas, Dieter Schäfer, and Clemens Geitner
E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 70, 171–186,
Amir Yazdani, Nikunj Dudani, Satoshi Takahama, Amelie Bertrand, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10273–10293,Short summary
Functional group compositions of primary and aged aerosols from wood burning and coal combustion sources from chamber experiments are interpreted through compounds present in the fuels and known gas-phase oxidation products. Infrared spectra of aged wood burning in the chamber and ambient biomass burning samples reveal striking similarities, and a new method for identifying burning-impacted samples in monitoring network measurements is presented.
Yandong Tong, Veronika Pospisilova, Lu Qi, Jing Duan, Yifang Gu, Varun Kumar, Pragati Rai, Giulia Stefenelli, Liwei Wang, Ying Wang, Haobin Zhong, Urs Baltensperger, Junji Cao, Ru-Jin Huang, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9859–9886,Short summary
We investigate SOA sources and formation processes by a field deployment of the EESI-TOF-MS and L-TOF AMS in Beijing in late autumn and early winter. Our study shows that the sources and processes giving rise to haze events in Beijing are variable and seasonally dependent: (1) in the heating season, SOA formation is driven by oxidation of aromatics from solid fuel combustion; and (2) under high-NOx and RH conditions, aqueous-phase chemistry can be a major contributor to SOA formation.
Richard H. Moore, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Adam T. Ahern, Stephen Zimmerman, Lauren Montgomery, Pedro Campuzano Jost, Claire E. Robinson, Luke D. Ziemba, Edward L. Winstead, Bruce E. Anderson, Charles A. Brock, Matthew D. Brown, Gao Chen, Ewan C. Crosbie, Hongyu Guo, Jose L. Jimenez, Carolyn E. Jordan, Ming Lyu, Benjamin A. Nault, Nicholas E. Rothfuss, Kevin J. Sanchez, Melinda Schueneman, Taylor J. Shingler, Michael A. Shook, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Nicholas L. Wagner, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4517–4542,Short summary
Atmospheric particles are everywhere and exist in a range of sizes, from a few nanometers to hundreds of microns. Because particle size determines the behavior of chemical and physical processes, accurately measuring particle sizes is an important and integral part of atmospheric field measurements! Here, we discuss the performance of two commonly used particle sizers and how changes in particle composition and optical properties may result in sizing uncertainties, which we quantify.
Rebecca A. Wernis, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Robert J. Weber, Yutong Liang, John Jayne, Susanne Hering, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
cTAG is a new scientific instrument that measures concentrations of organic chemicals in the atmosphere. cTAG is the first instrument capable of measuring small, light chemicals as well as heavier chemicals and everything in between on a single detector, every hour. In this work we explain how cTAG works and some of the tests we performed to verify that it works properly and reliably. We also present measurements of alkanes that suggest they have three dominant sources in a Bay Area suburb.
Dongyu S. Wang, Chuan Ping Lee, Jordan E. Krechmer, Francesca Majluf, Yandong Tong, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Julia Schmale, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Imad El Haddad, Jay G. Slowik, and David M. Bell
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
To understand the sources and fate of particulate matters in the atmosphere, the ability to quantitatively describe their chemical composition is essential. In this work, we developed a calibration method for a state-of-the-art measurement technique without the need for chemical standards. Statistical analyses identified for the firs time the driving factors behind instrument sensitivity variability towards individual components of particulate matters.
Siqi Hou, Di Liu, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Xuefang Wu, Deepchandra Srivastava, Pingqing Fu, Linjie Li, Yele Sun, Athanasia Vlachou, Vaios Moschos, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, André S. H. Prévôt, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8273–8292,Short summary
This study provides a newly developed method which combines radiocarbon (14C) with organic tracers to enable source apportionment of primary and secondary fossil vs. non-fossil sources of carbonaceous aerosols at an urban and a rural site of Beijing. The source apportionment results were compared with those by chemical mass balance and AMS/ACSM-PMF methods. Correlations of WINSOC and WSOC with different sources of OC were also performed to elucidate the formation mechanisms of SOC.
Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Dongwook Kim, Jack E. Dibb, Maximilian Dollner, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3631–3655,Short summary
We utilize a set of high-quality datasets collected during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography Mission to investigate the impact of differences in observable particle sizes across aerosol instruments in aerosol measurement comparisons. Very good agreement was found between chemically and physically derived submicron aerosol volume. Results support a lack of significant unknown biases in the response of an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) when sampling remote aerosols across the globe.
Karl Espen Yttri, Francesco Canonaco, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Hans Gundersen, Anne-Gunn Hjellbrekke, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, André S. H. Prévôt, David Simpson, Sverre Solberg, Jason Surratt, Kjetil Tørseth, Hilde Uggerud, Marit Vadset, Xin Wan, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7149–7170,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosol sources and trends were studied at the Birkenes Observatory. A large decrease in elemental carbon (EC; 2001–2018) and a smaller decline in levoglucosan (2008–2018) suggest that organic carbon (OC)/EC from traffic/industry is decreasing, whereas the abatement of OC/EC from biomass burning has been less successful. Positive matrix factorization apportioned 72 % of EC to fossil fuel sources and 53 % (PM2.5) and 78 % (PM10–2.5) of OC to biogenic sources.
David M. Bell, Cheng Wu, Amelie Bertrand, Emelie Graham, Janne Schoonbaert, Stamatios Giannoukos, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, Ilona Riipinen, Imad El Haddad, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
A series of studies designed to investigate the evolution of organic aerosol were performed in an atmospheric simulation chamber, using an oxidant found at night (NO3). The chemical composition steadily changed from its initial composition through different chemical reactions taking place inside of the aerosol. These results show the composition of organic aerosol is steadily changing during its lifetime in the atmosphere.
Cheng Wu, David Bell, Emelie L. Graham, Sophie Haslett, Ilona Riipinen, Urs Baltensperger, Amelie Bertrand, Stamatios Giannoukos, Janne Schoonbaert, Imad El Haddad, Andre S. H. Prevot, Wei Huang, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Night-time reactions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and nitrate radicals can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (BSOANO3). Here we study the impacts of light exposure on the BSOANO3 from three biogenic precursors. Our results suggest that photolysis causes photodegradation of a substantial fraction of BSOANO3, changes their chemical composition and bulk volatility, and might be a potentially important loss pathway of BSOANO3 during the night-to-day transition.
Wenfei Zhu, Song Guo, Min Hu, Zirui Zhang, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Zheng Chen, Ruizhe Shen, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Kefan Liu, Rongzhi Tang, Yi Liu, Shengrong Lou, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Shijin Shuai, Hongming Xu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Francesco Canonaco, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The experiments of primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from urban lifestyle sources (cooking and vehicle) were conducted. The mass spectral features of primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA were characterized by using high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. The work, for the first time, establishes the vehicle and cooking SOA source profiles, and can be further used as source constraints in the OA source apportionment in the ambient atmosphere.
Yutong Liang, Coty N. Jen, Robert J. Weber, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5719–5737,Short summary
This article reports the molecular composition of smoke particles people in SF Bay Area were exposed to during northern California wildfires in Oct. 2017. Major components are sugars, acids, aromatics, and terpenoids. These observations can be used to better understand health impacts of smoke exposure. Tracer compounds indicate which fuels burned, including diterpenoids for softwood and syringyls for hardwood. A statistical analysis reveals a group of secondary compounds formed in daytime aging.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Francesco Canonaco, Griša Močnik, Pragati Rai, Gang Chen, Jakub Bartyzel, Miroslaw Zimnoch, Katarzyna Styszko, Jaroslaw Nęcki, Markus Furger, Kazimierz Różański, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Krakow is among the cities with the highest particulate matter levels within Europe. We conducted long-term and highly time resolved measurements of the chemical composition of submicron particlulate matter (PM1). Combined with advanced source apportionment techniques, which allow for time-dependent factor profiles, our data elucidate key emission sources that influence the PM1 concentrations in Krakow.
Jianhui Jiang, Imad El Haddad, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giulia Stefenelli, Amelie Bertrand, Nicolas Marchand, Francesco Canonaco, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Stefania Gilardoni, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1681–1697,Short summary
We developed a box model with a volatility basis set to simulate organic aerosol (OA) from biomass burning and optimized the vapor-wall-loss-corrected OA yields with a genetic algorithm. The optimized parameterizations were then implemented in the air quality model CAMx v6.5. Comparisons with ambient measurements indicate that the vapor-wall-loss-corrected parameterization effectively improves the model performance in predicting OA, which reduced the mean fractional bias from −72.9 % to −1.6 %.
Melinda K. Schueneman, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Duseong S. Jo, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Brett B. Palm, Alma Hodzic, Jack E. Dibb, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2237–2260,Short summary
This work focuses on two important properties of the aerosol, acidity, and sulfate composition, which is important for our understanding of aerosol health and environmental impacts. We explore different methods to understand the composition of the aerosol with measurements from a specific instrument and apply those methods to a large dataset. These measurements are confounded by other factors, making it challenging to predict aerosol sulfate composition; pH estimations, however, show promise.
Duseong S. Jo, Alma Hodzic, Louisa K. Emmons, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Michael J. Mills, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Rahul A. Zaveri, Richard C. Easter, Balwinder Singh, Zheng Lu, Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, John E. Shilling, Armin Wisthaler, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3395–3425,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a major component of submicron particulate matter, but there are a lot of uncertainties in the future prediction of SOA. We used CESM 2.1 to investigate future IEPOX SOA concentration changes. The explicit chemistry predicted substantial changes in IEPOX SOA depending on the future scenario, but the parameterization predicted weak changes due to simplified chemistry, which shows the importance of correct physicochemical dependencies in future SOA prediction.
Charles A. Brock, Karl D. Froyd, Maximilian Dollner, Christina J. Williamson, Gregory Schill, Daniel M. Murphy, Nicholas J. Wagner, Agnieszka Kupc, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Douglas A. Day, Derek J. Price, Bernadett Weinzierl, Joshua P. Schwarz, Joseph M. Katich, Linghan Zeng, Rodney Weber, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, ThaoPaul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Bruce C. Daube, Róisín Commane, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The Atmospheric Tomography Mission was an airborne study that mapped the chemical composition of the remote atmosphere. From this, we developed a comprehensive description of aerosol properties that provides unique, global-scale dataset against which models can be compared. The data show the polluted nature of the remote atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere, and quantify the contributions of sea salt, dust, soot, biomass burning particles, and pollution particles to the haziness of the sky.
Demetrios Pagonis, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Hongyu Guo, Douglas A. Day, Melinda K. Schueneman, Wyatt L. Brown, Benjamin A. Nault, Harald Stark, Kyla Siemens, Alex Laskin, Felix Piel, Laura Tomsche, Armin Wisthaler, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Hannah S. Halliday, Jordan E. Krechmer, Richard H. Moore, David S. Thomson, Carsten Warneke, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1545–1559,Short summary
We describe the airborne deployment of an extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-MS). The instrument provides a quantitative 1 Hz measurement of the chemical composition of organic aerosol up to altitudes of 7 km, with single-compound detection limits as low as 50 ng per standard cubic meter.
Zhe Peng, Julia Lee-Taylor, Harald Stark, John J. Orlando, Bernard Aumont, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We use the fully explicit GECKO-A model to study the OH reactivity (OHR) evolution in the low-NO photooxidation of several volatile organic compounds. Oxidation progressively produces more saturated and functionalized species, then breaks them into small species. OHR per C atom evolution is similar for different precursors once saturated multifunctional species are formed. We also find that partitioning of these species to chamber walls leads to large deviations in chambers from the atmosphere.
Rongzhi Tang, Quanyang Lu, Song Guo, Hui Wang, Kai Song, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kefan Liu, Ruizhe Shen, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Spiro D. Jorga, Zhou Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Shijin Shuai, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2569–2583,Short summary
We performed chassis dynamometer experiments to investigate the emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from an on-road Chinese gasoline vehicle. High IVOC emission factors (EFs) and distinct volatility distribution were recognized. Our results indicate that vehicular IVOCs contribute significantly to SOA, implying the importance of reducing IVOCs when making air pollution control policies in urban areas of China.
Francesco Canonaco, Anna Tobler, Gang Chen, Yulia Sosedova, Jay Gates Slowik, Carlo Bozzetti, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Imad El Haddad, Monica Crippa, Ru-Jin Huang, Markus Furger, Urs Baltensperger, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 923–943,Short summary
Long-term ambient aerosol mass spectrometric data were analyzed with a statistical model (PMF) to obtain source contributions and fingerprints. The new aspects of this paper involve time-dependent source fingerprints by a rolling technique and the replacement of the full visual inspection of each run by a user-defined set of criteria to monitor the quality of each of these runs more efficiently. More reliable sources will finally provide better instruments for political mitigation strategies.
Pragati Rai, Jay G. Slowik, Markus Furger, Imad El Haddad, Suzanne Visser, Yandong Tong, Atinderpal Singh, Günther Wehrle, Varun Kumar, Anna K. Tobler, Deepika Bhattu, Liwei Wang, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Ru-Jin Huang, Jaroslaw Necki, Junji Cao, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 717–730,Short summary
We present a simple conceptual framework based on elemental size distributions and enrichment factors that allows for a characterization of major sources, site-to-site similarities, and local differences and the identification of key information required for efficient policy development. Absolute concentrations are by far the highest in Delhi, followed by Beijing, and then the European cities.
Megan S. Claflin, Demetrios Pagonis, Zachary Finewax, Anne V. Handschy, Douglas A. Day, Wyatt L. Brown, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jose L. Jimenez, Paul J. Ziemann, Joost de Gouw, and Brian M. Lerner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 133–152,Short summary
We have developed a field-deployable gas chromatograph with thermal desorption preconcentration and detector switching between two high-resolution mass spectrometers for in situ measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This system combines chromatography with both proton transfer and electron ionization to offer fast time response and continuous molecular speciation. This technique was applied during the 2018 ATHLETIC campaign to characterize VOC emissions in an indoor environment.
Gang Chen, Yulia Sosedova, Francesco Canonaco, Roman Fröhlich, Anna Tobler, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Carlo Bozzetti, Christoph Hueglin, Peter Graf, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We used a recently developed state-of-the-art rolling mechanism for the first time at a rural site, southern alpine valley (Magadino) to get a more realistic and detailed information of the organic aerosol sources. This work highlights the strength of this novel source apportionment technique by comparing with the results derived from conventional seasonal PMF. Overall, this detailed interpretation of chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) data could be a role model for similar analysis.
Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Jianhui Jiang, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15665–15680,Short summary
We investigated the role of ammonia in European air quality between 1990 and 2030 under varying land and ship emissions. If ship emissions will be regulated more strictly in the future, particulate nitrate will decrease in coastal areas in northern Europe, while sulfate aerosol will decrease in the Mediterranean region. We predict a shift in the sensitivity of aerosol formation from NH3 towards NOx emissions between 1990 and 2030 in most of Europe except the eastern part of the model domain.
Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Hongyu Guo, Duseong S. Jo, Anne V. Handschy, Demetrios Pagonis, Jason C. Schroder, Melinda K. Schueneman, Michael J. Cubison, Jack E. Dibb, Alma Hodzic, Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6193–6213,Short summary
Collecting particulate matter, or aerosols, onto filters to be analyzed offline is a widely used method to investigate the mass concentration and chemical composition of the aerosol, especially the inorganic portion. Here, we show that acidic aerosol (sulfuric acid) collected onto filters and then exposed to high ammonia mixing ratios (from human emissions) will lead to biases in the ammonium collected onto filters, and the uptake of ammonia is rapid (< 10 s), which impacts the filter data.
Yiqi Zheng, Joel A. Thornton, Nga Lee Ng, Hansen Cao, Daven K. Henze, Erin E. McDuffie, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Eloise A. Marais, Eric Edgerton, and Jingqiu Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13091–13107,Short summary
This study aims to address a challenge in biosphere–atmosphere interactions: to what extent can biogenic organic aerosol (OA) be modified through human activities? From three surface network observations, we show OA is weakly dependent on sulfate and aerosol acidity in the summer southeast US, on both long-term trends and monthly variability. The results are in strong contrast to a global model, GEOS-Chem, suggesting the need to revisit the representation of aqueous-phase secondary OA formation.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Dongyu S. Wang, Philip Croteau, Katarzyna Styszko, Jarosław Nęcki, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5293–5301,Short summary
Some quadrupole aerosol chemical speciation monitors (Q-ACSMs) have had issues with the quantification of particulate chloride, resulting in apparent negative chloride concentrations. We can show that this is due to the different behavior of Cl+ and HCl+, and we present a correction for the more accurate quantification of chloride. The correction can be applied to measurements in environments where the particulate chloride is dominated by NH4Cl.
Liwei Wang, Jay G. Slowik, Nidhi Tripathi, Deepika Bhattu, Pragati Rai, Varun Kumar, Pawan Vats, Rangu Satish, Urs Baltensperger, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Sachchida N. Tripathi, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9753–9770,
Martin Rigler, Luka Drinovec, Gašper Lavrič, Athanasia Vlachou, André S. H. Prévôt, Jean Luc Jaffrezo, Iasonas Stavroulas, Jean Sciare, Judita Burger, Irena Kranjc, Janja Turšič, Anthony D. A. Hansen, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4333–4351,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosols are a large fraction of fine particulate matter. They are extremely diverse, and they directly impact air quality, visibility, cloud formation and public health. In this paper we present a new instrument and new method to measure carbon content in particulate matter in real time and at a high time resolution. The new method was validated in a 1-month winter field campaign in Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Eirini Boleti, Christoph Hueglin, Stuart K. Grange, André S. H. Prévôt, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9051–9066,Short summary
Long-term temporal evolution of ozone concentrations between 2000 and 2015 in Europe was estimated using a signal decomposition technique. The seasonal cycles are correlated with local climate conditions and vary according to geographic region, while ozone levels are indicative of distance to emission sources. The site's environment plays a key role in ozone trends, with the most polluted environments showing the least reduction in ozone, while in less polluted areas ozone has decreased.
Fabian Rey, Erika Gobet, Christoph Schwörer, Albert Hafner, Sönke Szidat, and Willy Tinner
Clim. Past, 16, 1347–1367,Short summary
We present a novel post Last Glacial Maximum sediment record from Moossee (Swiss Plateau, southern central Europe). For the first time, five major reorganizations of vegetation could be definitely linked to paramount postglacial temperature and/or moisture changes. Present-day beech-dominated forests have been resilient to long-term climate change and human land use. They may prevail in future if climate warming does not exceed the amplitude of Mid Holocene temperature and moisture variability.
Tuukka Petäjä, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ksenia Tabakova, Julia Schmale, Barbara Altstädter, Gerard Ancellet, Mikhail Arshinov, Yurii Balin, Urs Baltensperger, Jens Bange, Alison Beamish, Boris Belan, Antoine Berchet, Rossana Bossi, Warren R. L. Cairns, Ralf Ebinghaus, Imad El Haddad, Beatriz Ferreira-Araujo, Anna Franck, Lin Huang, Antti Hyvärinen, Angelika Humbert, Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Pavel Konstantinov, Astrid Lampert, Matthew MacLeod, Olivier Magand, Alexander Mahura, Louis Marelle, Vladimir Masloboev, Dmitri Moisseev, Vaios Moschos, Niklas Neckel, Tatsuo Onishi, Stefan Osterwalder, Aino Ovaska, Pauli Paasonen, Mikhail Panchenko, Fidel Pankratov, Jakob B. Pernov, Andreas Platis, Olga Popovicheva, Jean-Christophe Raut, Aurélie Riandet, Torsten Sachs, Rosamaria Salvatori, Roberto Salzano, Ludwig Schröder, Martin Schön, Vladimir Shevchenko, Henrik Skov, Jeroen E. Sonke, Andrea Spolaor, Vasileios K. Stathopoulos, Mikko Strahlendorff, Jennie L. Thomas, Vito Vitale, Sterios Vratolis, Carlo Barbante, Sabine Chabrillat, Aurélien Dommergue, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jyri Heilimo, Kathy S. Law, Andreas Massling, Steffen M. Noe, Jean-Daniel Paris, André S. H. Prévôt, Ilona Riipinen, Birgit Wehner, Zhiyong Xie, and Hanna K. Lappalainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8551–8592,Short summary
The role of polar regions is increasing in terms of megatrends such as globalization, new transport routes, demography, and the use of natural resources with consequent effects on regional and transported pollutant concentrations. Here we summarize initial results from our integrative project exploring the Arctic environment and pollution to deliver data products, metrics, and indicators for stakeholders.
Ifayoyinsola Ibikunle, Andreas Beyersdorf, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Chelsea Corr, John D. Crounse, Jack Dibb, Glenn Diskin, Greg Huey, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Michelle J. Kim, Benjamin A. Nault, Eric Scheuer, Alex Teng, Paul O. Wennberg, Bruce Anderson, James Crawford, Rodney Weber, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Analysis of observations over South Korea during the NASA/NIER KORUS-AQ field campaign show that aerosol is fairly acidic (mean pH 2.43 ± 0.68). Aerosol formation is always sensitive to HNO3 levels, especially in highly polluted regions, while it is only exclusively sensitive to NH3 in some rural/remote regions. Nitrate levels accumulate because dry deposition velocity is low. HNO3 reductions achieved by NOx controls can be the most effective PM reduction strategy for all conditions observed.
Yunle Chen, Masayuki Takeuchi, Theodora Nah, Lu Xu, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Harald Stark, Karsten Baumann, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, L. Gregory Huey, Rodney J. Weber, and Nga L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8421–8440,Short summary
Two online mass spectrometry instruments, an aerosol mass spectrometer and a chemical ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols, were deployed at Yorkville, GA, for a comprehensive characterization of organic aerosol. We observed notable secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene and monoterpenes via different pathways during both day and night, and a series of highly oxidized acid-like compounds was found to be closely related to aged SOA.
Ryan Schmedding, Quazi Z. Rasool, Yue Zhang, Havala O. T. Pye, Haofei Zhang, Yuzhi Chen, Jason D. Surratt, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Allen H. Goldstein, and William Vizuete
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8201–8225,Short summary
Accurate model prediction of aerosol concentrations is a known challenge. It is assumed in many modeling systems that aerosols are in a homogeneously mixed phase state. It has been observed that aerosols do phase separate and can form a highly viscous organic shell with an aqueous core impacting the formation processes of aerosols. This work is a model implementation to determine an aerosol's phase state using glass transition temperature and aerosol composition.
Ying Li, Douglas A. Day, Harald Stark, Jose L. Jimenez, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8103–8122,Short summary
Viscosity is an important property of organic aerosols, but viscosity measurements of ambient organic aerosols are scarce. We developed a method to predict glass transition temperatures using volatility and the atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio. The method was applied to field observations of volatility distributions to predict viscosity of ambient organic aerosols, yielding consistent results with ambient particle phase-state measurements and global simulations.
Lu Qi, Alexander L. Vogel, Sepideh Esmaeilirad, Liming Cao, Jing Zheng, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Paola Fermo, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Mindong Chen, Xinlei Ge, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7875–7893,Short summary
We present the first application of this online and offline strategy using the new extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), which achieves increased chemical specificity relative to other online techniques. Measurement and source apportionment of 1 year of filter samples collected in Zurich, Switzerland, show seasonal contributions from fresh and aged wood combustion in winter and biogenic emission-derived SOA in summer, as well as other sources.
Pablo E. Saide, Meng Gao, Zifeng Lu, Daniel L. Goldberg, David G. Streets, Jung-Hun Woo, Andreas Beyersdorf, Chelsea A. Corr, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Bruce Anderson, Johnathan W. Hair, Amin R. Nehrir, Glenn S. Diskin, Jose L. Jimenez, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack Dibb, Eric Heim, Kara D. Lamb, Joshua P. Schwarz, Anne E. Perring, Jhoon Kim, Myungje Choi, Brent Holben, Gabriele Pfister, Alma Hodzic, Gregory R. Carmichael, Louisa Emmons, and James H. Crawford
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6455–6478,Short summary
Air quality forecasts over the Korean Peninsula captured aerosol optical depth but largely overpredicted surface PM during a Chinese haze transport event. Model deficiency was related to the calculation of optical properties. In order to improve it, aerosol size representation needs to be refined in the calculations, and the representation of aerosol properties, such as size distribution, chemical composition, refractive index, hygroscopicity parameter, and density, needs to be improved.
Luyao Tu, Paul Zander, Sönke Szidat, Ronald Lloren, and Martin Grosjean
Biogeosciences, 17, 2715–2729,Short summary
In a small, deep lake on the Swiss Plateau, net fluxes of labile P fractions in sediments that can be released to surface waters have been predominately controlled by past hypolimnetic anoxic conditions since the early 1900s. More than 40 years of hypolimnetic withdrawal can effectively reduce net P fluxes in sediments and internal P loads but not effectively decrease eutrophication. These findings should likely serve the management of deep eutrophic lakes in temperate zones.
Camille Mouchel-Vallon, Julia Lee-Taylor, Alma Hodzic, Paulo Artaxo, Bernard Aumont, Marie Camredon, David Gurarie, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Donald H. Lenschow, Scot T. Martin, Janaina Nascimento, John J. Orlando, Brett B. Palm, John E. Shilling, Manish Shrivastava, and Sasha Madronich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5995–6014,Short summary
The GoAmazon 2014/5 field campaign took place near the city of Manaus, Brazil, isolated in the Amazon rainforest, to study the impacts of urban pollution on natural air masses. We simulated this campaign with an extremely detailed organic chemistry model to understand how the city would affect the growth and composition of natural aerosol particles. Discrepancies between the model and the measurements indicate that the chemistry of naturally emitted organic compounds is still poorly understood.
Andrew T. Lambe, Ezra C. Wood, Jordan E. Krechmer, Francesca Majluf, Leah R. Williams, Philip L. Croteau, Manuela Cirtog, Anaïs Féron, Jean-Eudes Petit, Alexandre Albinet, Jose L. Jimenez, and Zhe Peng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2397–2411,Short summary
We present a new method to continuously generate N2O5 in the gas phase that is injected into a reactor where it decomposes to generate nitrate radicals (NO3). To assess the applicability of the method towards different chemical systems, we present experimental and model characterization of the integrated NO3 exposure and other metrics as a function of operating conditions. We demonstrate the method by characterizing secondary organic aerosol particles generated from the β-pinene + NO3 reaction.
Marcel Bliedtner, Hans von Suchodoletz, Imke Schäfer, Caroline Welte, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, Mischa Haas, Nathalie Dubois, and Roland Zech
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2105–2120,Short summary
This study investigates the age and origin of leaf wax n-alkanes from a fluvial sediment–paleosol sequence (FSPS) by compound-class 14C dating. Our results show varying age offsets between the formation and sedimentation of leaf wax n-alkanes from well-developed (paleo)soils and fluvial sediments that are mostly due to their complex origin in such sequences. Thus, dating the leaf wax n-alkanes is an important step for more robust leaf-wax-based paleoenvironmental reconstructions in FSPSs.
Alma Hodzic, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas A. Day, Karl D. Froyd, Bernd Heinold, Duseong S. Jo, Joseph M. Katich, John K. Kodros, Benjamin A. Nault, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Eric Ray, Jacob Schacht, Gregory P. Schill, Jason C. Schroder, Joshua P. Schwarz, Donna T. Sueper, Ina Tegen, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, Pengfei Yu, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4607–4635,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) is a key source of uncertainty in aerosol climate effects. We present the first pole-to-pole OA characterization during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography aircraft mission. OA has a strong seasonal and zonal variability, with the highest levels in summer and over fire-influenced regions and the lowest ones in the southern high latitudes. We show that global models predict the OA distribution well but not the relative contribution of OA emissions vs. chemical production.
Paul D. Zander, Sönke Szidat, Darrell S. Kaufman, Maurycy Żarczyński, Anna I. Poraj-Górska, Petra Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, and Martin Grosjean
Geochronology, 2, 63–79,Short summary
Recent technological advances allow researchers to obtain radiocarbon ages from smaller samples than previously possible. We investigate the reliability and precision of radiocarbon ages obtained from miniature (11–150 μg C) samples of terrestrial plant fragments taken from sediment cores from Lake Żabińskie, Poland. We further investigate how sampling density (the number of ages per 1000 years) and sample mass (which is related to age precision) influence the performance of age–depth models.
Quanyang Lu, Benjamin N. Murphy, Momei Qin, Peter J. Adams, Yunliang Zhao, Havala O. T. Pye, Christos Efstathiou, Chris Allen, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4313–4332,Short summary
This research work investigates organic aerosol formation in California during the CalNex study. We update the chemical transport model with the most recent mobile-source emission data and introduce a simple parameterization for secondary organic aerosol formed from intermediate-volatility organic compounds. Our results highlight the important contribution of IVOCs to SOA production in the Los Angeles region but underscore that other uncertainties must be addressed to close the SOA mass balance.
Sidhant J. Pai, Colette L. Heald, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Salvatore C. Farina, Eloise A. Marais, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Ann M. Middlebrook, Hugh Coe, John E. Shilling, Roya Bahreini, Justin H. Dingle, and Kennedy Vu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2637–2665,Short summary
Aerosols in the atmosphere have significant health and climate impacts. Organic aerosol (OA) accounts for a large fraction of the total aerosol burden, but models have historically struggled to accurately simulate it. This study compares two very different OA model schemes and evaluates them against a suite of globally distributed airborne measurements with the goal of providing insight into the strengths and weaknesses of each approach across different environments.
Therese S. Carter, Colette L. Heald, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Yutaka Kondo, Nobuhiro Moteki, Joshua P. Schwarz, Christine Wiedinmyer, Anton S. Darmenov, Arlindo M. da Silva, and Johannes W. Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2073–2097,Short summary
Fires and the smoke they emit impact air quality, health, and climate, but the abundance and properties of smoke remain uncertain and poorly constrained. To explore this, we compare model simulations driven by four commonly-used fire emission inventories with surface, aloft, and satellite observations. We show that across inventories smoke emissions differ by factors of 4 to 7 over North America, challenging our ability to accurately characterize the impact of smoke on air quality and climate.
Joseph R. Salazar, Benton T. Cartledge, John P. Haynes, Rachel York-Marini, Allen L. Robinson, Greg T. Drozd, Allen H. Goldstein, Sirine C. Fakra, and Brian J. Majestic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1849–1860,Short summary
The solubility of atmospheric iron is important in human health and environmental chemistry. To understand the origin of water-soluble iron in urban areas, tailpipe emissions were collected from 32 low-emitting vehicles, from which iron solubility averaged 30 % (0–82 %), more than 10 times the average in the Earth's crust. Water-soluble iron was independent of almost all exhaust components and of the iron phase in the particles but was correlated with specific exhaust-derived organic compounds.
Pragati Rai, Markus Furger, Jay G. Slowik, Francesco Canonaco, Roman Fröhlich, Christoph Hüglin, María Cruz Minguillón, Krag Petterson, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1657–1674,Short summary
A source apportionment study of hourly resolved elements in PM10 measured at a traffic-influenced site in Härkingen, Switzerland, using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and multilinear engine-2 (ME-2) offered resolution of robust and unambiguous factor profiles and contributions. We show that the rotational control available in ME-2 provides a means for treating extreme events such as fireworks within a PMF analysis.
Marco Paglione, Stefania Gilardoni, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Nicola Zanca, Silvia Sandrini, Lara Giulianelli, Dimitri Bacco, Silvia Ferrari, Vanes Poluzzi, Fabiana Scotto, Arianna Trentini, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Paola Massoli, Claudio Carbone, Maria Cristina Facchini, and Sandro Fuzzi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1233–1254,Short summary
Our multi-year observational study regarding organic aerosol (OA) in the Po Valley indicates that more than half of OA is of secondary origin (SOA) through all the year and at both urban and rural sites. Within the SOA, the measurements show the importance of biomass burning (BB) aging products during cold seasons and indicate aqueous-phase processing of BB emissions as a fundamental driver of SOA formation in wintertime, with important consequences for air quality policy at the global level.
Jianhui Jiang, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Imad El-Haddad, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Francesco Canonaco, Stefania Gilardoni, Marco Paglione, María Cruz Minguillón, Olivier Favez, Yunjiang Zhang, Nicolas Marchand, Liqing Hao, Annele Virtanen, Kalliopi Florou, Colin O'Dowd, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15247–15270,Short summary
We use an air quality model with a modified organic aerosol (OA) module based on chamber experiments to identify the OA sources and their contributions in Europe. Comparisons with long-term measurements at nine sites in 2011 show an improvement in OA simulation. Our results suggest that the biomass burning and biogenic emissions are the dominant sources in winter and summer, respectively. Contributions of diesel and gasoline vehicles are relatively small compared to a previous study in the US.
Giulia Stefenelli, Veronika Pospisilova, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Christoph Hüglin, Yandong Tong, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14825–14848,
Matthew M. Coggon, Christopher Y. Lim, Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Bin Yuan, Jessica B. Gilman, David H. Hagan, Vanessa Selimovic, Kyle J. Zarzana, Steven S. Brown, James M. Roberts, Markus Müller, Robert Yokelson, Armin Wisthaler, Jordan E. Krechmer, Jose L. Jimenez, Christopher Cappa, Jesse H. Kroll, Joost de Gouw, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14875–14899,Short summary
Wildfire emissions significantly contribute to adverse air quality; however, the chemical processes that lead to hazardous pollutants, such as ozone, are not fully understood. In this study, we describe laboratory experiments where we simulate the atmospheric chemistry of smoke emitted from a range of biomass fuels. We show that certain understudied compounds, such as furans and phenolic compounds, are significant contributors to pollutants formed as a result of typical atmospheric oxidation.
Yunjiang Zhang, Olivier Favez, Jean-Eudes Petit, Francesco Canonaco, Francois Truong, Nicolas Bonnaire, Vincent Crenn, Tanguy Amodeo, Andre S. H. Prévôt, Jean Sciare, Valerie Gros, and Alexandre Albinet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14755–14776,Short summary
We present 6-year source apportionment of organic aerosol (OA) achieved with near-continuous online measurements and subsequent receptor model analysis in the Paris region, France. The OA factors presented distinct seasonal patterns, associated with different atmospheric formation processes and roles in air pollution. Limited year-round trends for two primary anthropogenic factors and a biogenic-like secondary factor were observed, while a more oxidized secondary OA showed a decreasing feature.
Jun Zhou, Miriam Elser, Ru-Jin Huang, Manuel Krapf, Roman Fröhlich, Deepika Bhattu, Giulia Stefenelli, Peter Zotter, Emily A. Bruns, Simone M. Pieber, Haiyan Ni, Qiyuan Wang, Yichen Wang, Yaqing Zhou, Chunying Chen, Mao Xiao, Jay G. Slowik, Samuel Brown, Laure-Estelle Cassagnes, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Thomas Nussbaumer, Marianne Geiser, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El-Haddad, Junji Cao, Urs Baltensperger, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14703–14720,Short summary
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to contribute to the adverse health effects of aerosols. We measured particle-bound ROS (PB-ROS) with an online instrument in two distinct environments, i.e., Beijing (China) and Bern (Switzerland). In both cities these exogenic ROS are predominantly related to secondary organic aerosol (SOA). PB-ROS content in SOA from various anthropogenic emission sources tested in the laboratory was comparable to that in the ambient measurements.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Karl D. Froyd, Daniel M. Murphy, Charles A. Brock, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack E. Dibb, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Agnieszka Kupc, Ann M. Middlebrook, Gregory P. Schill, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Christina J. Williamson, James C. Wilson, and Luke D. Ziemba
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6209–6239,Short summary
Single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) instruments characterize the composition of individual aerosol particles in real time. We present a new method that combines SPMS composition with independently measured particle size distributions to determine absolute number, surface area, volume, and mass concentrations of mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, and other climate-relevant atmospheric particle types, with a fast time response applicable to aircraft sampling.
Brett B. Palm, Xiaoxi Liu, Jose L. Jimenez, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5829–5844,Short summary
We introduce a coaxial, low-pressure ion–molecule reaction (IMR) region for iodide-adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry, designed to decrease the effects of IMR wall interactions with organic/inorganic gases. This IMR has 3–10 times shorter delay times than previous IMRs. We introduce a conceptual framework for understanding and subtracting the background signal due to analyte molecules interacting with IMR walls. This framework can be applied to other tubing and instrument systems.
Xiaoli Shen, Heike Vogel, Bernhard Vogel, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Ramakrishna Ramisetty, Thomas Leisner, André S. H. Prévôt, and Harald Saathoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13189–13208,Short summary
This study provides good insight into the chemical nature and complex origin of aerosols by combining comprehensive field observations and transport modelling. We suggest that factors related to topography, metrological conditions, local emissions, in situ formation and growth, regional transport, and the interaction of biogenic and anthropogenic compounds need to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of aerosol processes.
Daun Jeong, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Youngro Lee, Benjamin A. Nault, Christoph J. Knote, Tom Mcgee, John T. Sullivan, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Donald R. Blake, Dianne Sanchez, Alex B. Guenther, David Tanner, L. Gregory Huey, Russell Long, Bruce E. Anderson, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Hye-jung Shin, Scott C. Herndon, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12779–12795,
Giulia Stefenelli, Jianhui Jiang, Amelie Bertrand, Emily A. Bruns, Simone M. Pieber, Urs Baltensperger, Nicolas Marchand, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, André S. H. Prévôt, Jay G. Slowik, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11461–11484,Short summary
Box model simulations, based on the volatility basis set approach, of smog chamber wood combustion experiments conducted at different temperatures (−10 °C, 2 °C, 15 °C), emission loads, combustion conditions (flaming and smoldering) and residential stoves fabricated in the last 2 decades. Novel parameterization methods based on a genetic algorithm approach allowed estimation of precursor class contributions to SOA and evaluation of the effect of emission variability on SOA yield predictions.
Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Veronika Pospisilova, Wei Huang, Markus Kalberer, Claudia Mohr, Giulia Stefenelli, Joel A. Thornton, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4867–4886,Short summary
We present a novel, field-deployable extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), which provides real-time, near-molecular measurements of organic aerosol at atmospherically relevant concentrations, addressing a critical gap in existing measurement capabilities. Successful deployments of the EESI-TOF for laboratory measurements, ground-based ambient sampling, and aboard a research aircraft highlight the versatility and potential of the EESI-TOF system.
Duseong S. Jo, Alma Hodzic, Louisa K. Emmons, Eloise A. Marais, Zhe Peng, Benjamin A. Nault, Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, and Jose L. Jimenez
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2983–3000,Short summary
We developed a parameterization method for IEPOX-SOA based on the detailed chemical mechanism. Our parameterizations were tested using a box model and 3-D chemical transport model, which accurately captured the spatiotemporal distribution and response to changes in emissions compared to the explicit full chemistry, while being more computationally efficient. The method developed in this study can be applied to global climate models for long-term studies with a lower computational cost.
Benjamin L. Deming, Demetrios Pagonis, Xiaoxi Liu, Douglas A. Day, Ranajit Talukdar, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joost A. de Gouw, Jose L. Jimenez, and Paul J. Ziemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3453–3461,Short summary
Losses or measurement delays of gas-phase compounds sampled through tubing are important to atmospheric science. Here we characterize 14 tubing materials by measuring the effects on step changes in organic compound concentration. We find that polymeric tubings exhibit absorptive partitioning behaviour while glass and metal tubings show adsorptive partitioning. Adsorptive materials impart complex humidity, concentration, and VOC–VOC interaction dependencies that absorptive tubings do not.
Lu Qi, Mindong Chen, Giulia Stefenelli, Veronika Pospisilova, Yandong Tong, Amelie Bertrand, Christoph Hueglin, Xinlei Ge, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8037–8062,Short summary
Current understanding of OA sources is limited by the chemical resolution of existing real-time measurement technology. We describe the first wintertime deployment of a novel extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, which provides near-molecular OA measurements with high time resolution. We show that biomass combustion strongly influences winter OA. Via factor analysis, aging-dependent signatures and time contributions of biomass-combustion-derived OA are resolved.
Suzane S. de Sá, Luciana V. Rizzo, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yingjun J. Liu, Arthur Sedlacek, Stephen Springston, Allen H. Goldstein, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7973–8001,Short summary
This study investigates the impacts of urban and fire emissions on the concentration, composition, and optical properties of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in central Amazonia during the dry season. Biomass-burning and urban emissions appeared to contribute at least 80 % of brown carbon absorption while accounting for 30 % to 40 % of the organic PM1 mass concentration. Only a fraction of the 9-fold increase in mass concentration relative to the wet season was due to biomass burning.
Xiaoxi Liu, Benjamin Deming, Demetrios Pagonis, Douglas A. Day, Brett B. Palm, Ranajit Talukdar, James M. Roberts, Patrick R. Veres, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joel A. Thornton, Joost A. de Gouw, Paul J. Ziemann, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3137–3149,Short summary
Delays or losses of gases in sampling tubing and instrumental surfaces due to surface interactions can lead to inaccurate quantification. By sampling with several chemical ionization mass spectrometers and six tubing materials, we quantify delays of semivolatile organic compounds and small polar gases. Delay times generally increase with decreasing volatility or increasing polarity and also depend on materials. The method and results will inform inlet material selection and instrumental design.
Charles A. Brock, Christina Williamson, Agnieszka Kupc, Karl D. Froyd, Frank Erdesz, Nicholas Wagner, Matthews Richardson, Joshua P. Schwarz, Ru-Shan Gao, Joseph M. Katich, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Jose L. Jimenez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Maximilian Dollner, ThaoPaul Bui, and Daniel M. Murphy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3081–3099,Short summary
From 2016 to 2018 a NASA aircraft profiled the atmosphere from 180 m to ~12 km from the Arctic to the Antarctic over both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. This program, ATom, sought to sample atmospheric chemical composition to compare with global climate models. We describe the how measurements of particulate matter were made during ATom, and show that the instrument performance was excellent. Data from this project can be used with confidence to evaluate models and compare with satellites.
Athanasia Vlachou, Anna Tobler, Houssni Lamkaddam, Francesco Canonaco, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, María Cruz Minguillón, Marek Maasikmets, Erik Teinemaa, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7279–7295,Short summary
The resolution of rotational ambiguity in positive matrix factorization (PMF) models is a major challenge. Here, we developed a method based on bootstrapping and correlations to extract environmentally meaningful solutions from PMF analysis based on offline aerosol mass spectrometry data. The method has been tested on a dataset that covers 1 full year of filter samples collected at three different sites in Estonia.
Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Ivan Kourtchev, Alexander L. Vogel, Emily A. Bruns, Jianhui Jiang, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Markus Kalberer, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5973–5991,Short summary
Here we present the molecular composition of the organic aerosol (OA) at an urban site in Central Europe (Zurich, Switzerland) and compare it to smog chamber wood smoke and ambient biogenic secondary OA (SOA) (Orbitrap analyses). Accordingly, we are able to explain the strong seasonality of the molecular composition by aged wood smoke and biogenic SOA during winter and summer. Our results could also explain the predominance of non-fossil organic carbon at European locations throughout the year.
Samantha Tremblay, Jean-Christophe Picard, Jill O. Bachelder, Erik Lutsch, Kimberly Strong, Pierre Fogal, W. Richard Leaitch, Sangeeta Sharma, Felicia Kolonjari, Christopher J. Cox, Rachel Y.-W. Chang, and Patrick L. Hayes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5589–5604,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols, tiny airborne particles, have an important impact on climate. However, a lack of understanding of the chemistry of aerosols is one of the largest contributors to uncertainty in predictions of climate change. Measurements of aerosols were carried out in the Arctic at Eureka Station, Canada, to better understand what role aerosols play in this fragile environment. It is found that organic aerosols, possibly originating from marine emissions, are ubiquitous during summertime.
Ali Akherati, Christopher D. Cappa, Michael J. Kleeman, Kenneth S. Docherty, Jose L. Jimenez, Stephen M. Griffith, Sebastien Dusanter, Philip S. Stevens, and Shantanu H. Jathar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4561–4594,Short summary
Unburned and partially burned organic compounds emitted from fossil fuel and biomass combustion can react in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight to form particles. In this work, we use an air pollution model to examine the influence of these organic compounds released by motor vehicles and fires on fine particle pollution in southern California.
Karl Espen Yttri, David Simpson, Robert Bergström, Gyula Kiss, Sönke Szidat, Darius Ceburnis, Sabine Eckhardt, Christoph Hueglin, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Cinzia Perrino, Ignazio Pisso, Andre Stephan Henry Prevot, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Gerald Spindler, Milan Vana, Yan-Lin Zhang, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4211–4233,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosols from natural sources were abundant regardless of season. Residential wood burning (RWB) emissions were occasionally equally as large as or larger than of fossil-fuel sources, depending on season and region. RWB emissions are poorly constrained; thus emissions inventories need improvement. Harmonizing emission factors between countries is likely the most important step to improve model calculations for biomass burning emissions and European PM2.5 concentrations in general.
Jianhui Jiang, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Emmanouil Oikonomakis, Imad El-Haddad, Francesco Canonaco, Colin O'Dowd, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, María Cruz Minguillón, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3747–3768,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from vegetation are essential inputs for air quality models but their uncertainties are very high. In this study we show the importance of BVOC emissions for modelled ozone and aerosol concentrations in Europe. Using different biogenic emissions from MEGAN and PSI models significantly affected organic aerosols (smaller effect on ozone), indicating the importance of harmonising the BVOC emissions in the model inter-comparison studies.
Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Francesco Canonaco, Liine Heikkinen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, André S. H. Prévôt, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3645–3672,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometry produces large amounts of complex data, the analysis of which necessitates chemometrics – the application of advanced statistical and mathematical tools to chemical data. Here, we perform a data-driven analysis of multiple aerosol mass spectrometric data sets, to show that the traditional separation of organics and inorganics is not necessary. The resulting 7-component aerosol speciation explains 83 % to 96 % of observed variability at our boreal forest experiment site.
Anna L. Hodshire, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, John K. Kodros, Betty Croft, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Jose L. Jimenez, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3137–3160,Short summary
A global chemical-transport model is used to determine the impact of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) on the aerosol size distribution and associated radiative effects, testing varying assumptions of MSA’s effective volatility and nucleating ability. We find that MSA mass best matches the ATom airborne measurements when volatility varies as a function of temperature, relative humidity, and available gas-phase bases, and the MSA radiative forcing is on the order of -50 mW m-2 over the Southern Ocean.
Jin Liao, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason St. Clair, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Alan Fried, Eloise A. Marais, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, Kelly Chance, Hiren T. Jethva, Thomas B. Ryerson, Carsten Warneke, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2765–2785,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) intimately links natural and anthropogenic emissions with air quality and climate. Direct OA measurements from space are currently not possible. This paper describes a new method to estimate OA by combining satellite HCHO and in situ OA and HCHO. The OA estimate is validated with the ground network. This new method has a potential for mapping observation-based global OA estimate.
Betty Croft, Randall V. Martin, W. Richard Leaitch, Julia Burkart, Rachel Y.-W. Chang, Douglas B. Collins, Patrick L. Hayes, Anna L. Hodshire, Lin Huang, John K. Kodros, Alexander Moravek, Emma L. Mungall, Jennifer G. Murphy, Sangeeta Sharma, Samantha Tremblay, Gregory R. Wentworth, Megan D. Willis, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2787–2812,Short summary
Summertime Arctic atmospheric aerosols are strongly controlled by processes related to natural regional sources. We use a chemical transport model with size-resolved aerosol microphysics to interpret measurements made during summertime 2016 in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Our results explore the processes that control summertime aerosol size distributions and support a climate-relevant role for Arctic marine secondary organic aerosol formed from precursor vapors with Arctic marine sources.
Li Xing, Jiarui Wu, Miriam Elser, Shengrui Tong, Suixin Liu, Xia Li, Lang Liu, Junji Cao, Jiamao Zhou, Imad El-Haddad, Rujin Huang, Maofa Ge, Xuexi Tie, André S. H. Prévôt, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2343–2359,Short summary
We used the WRF-CHEM model to simulate wintertime secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations over Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH), China. Heterogeneous HONO sources increased the near-surface SOA by 46.3 % in BTH. Direct emissions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from residential sources contributed 25.5 % to the total SOA mass. Our study highlights the importance of heterogeneous HONO sources and primary residential emissions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal to SOA formation in winter over BTH.
Ru-Jin Huang, Yichen Wang, Junji Cao, Chunshui Lin, Jing Duan, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Yifang Gu, Jin Yan, Wei Xu, Roman Fröhlich, Francesco Canonaco, Carlo Bozzetti, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El-Haddad, André S. H. Prévôt, and Colin D. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2283–2298,Short summary
We found that in wintertime Shijiazhuang fine PM was mostly from primary emissions without sufficient atmospheric aging. In addition, secondary inorganic and organic aerosol dominated in pollution events under high-RH conditions, likely due to enhanced aqueous-phase chemistry, whereas primary organic aerosol dominated in pollution events under low-RH and stagnant conditions. Our results also highlighted the importance of meteorological conditions for PM pollution in this highly polluted city.
Shino Toma, Steve Bertman, Christopher Groff, Fulizi Xiong, Paul B. Shepson, Paul Romer, Kaitlin Duffey, Paul Wooldridge, Ronald Cohen, Karsten Baumann, Eric Edgerton, Abigail R. Koss, Joost de Gouw, Allen Goldstein, Weiwei Hu, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1867–1880,Short summary
Acyl peroxy nitrates (APN) were measured near the ground in Alabama using GC in summer 2013 to study biosphere–atmosphere interactions. APN were lower than measured in the SE USA over the past 2 decades. Historical data showed APN in 2013 was limited by NOx and production was dominated by biogenic precursors more than in the past. Isoprene-derived MPAN correlated with isoprene hydroxynitrates as NOx-dependent products. MPAN varied with aerosol growth, but not with N-containing particles.
Dagny A. Ullmann, Mallory L. Hinks, Adrian M. Maclean, Christopher L. Butenhoff, James W. Grayson, Kelley Barsanti, Jose L. Jimenez, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Saeid Kamal, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1491–1503,Short summary
We measured the viscosity and diffusion of organic molecules in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from the ozonolysis of limonene. The results suggest that the mixing times of large organics in the SOA studied are short (< 1 h) for conditions found in the planetary boundary layer. The results also show that the Stokes–Einstein equation gives accurate predictions of diffusion coefficients of large organics within the studied SOA up to a viscosity of 102 to 104 Pa s.
Coty N. Jen, Lindsay E. Hatch, Vanessa Selimovic, Robert J. Yokelson, Robert Weber, Arantza E. Fernandez, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Kelley C. Barsanti, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1013–1026,Short summary
Wildfires in the western US are occurring more frequently and burning larger land areas. Smoke from these fires will play a greater role in regional air quality and atmospheric chemistry than in the past. To help fire and climate modelers and atmospheric experimentalists better understand how smoke impacts the environment, we have separated, identified, classified, and quantified the thousands of organic compounds found in smoke and related their amounts emitted to fire conditions.
Zhe Peng, Julia Lee-Taylor, John J. Orlando, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 813–834,Short summary
The use of oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) has been rapidly increasing. We investigate organic peroxy radical (RO2) chemistry in OFRs by kinetic modeling. It is found that, at low NO, UV intensity should be limited to avoid high radical levels leading to significant reaction of RO2 with OH and negligible RO2 isomerization, both of which are atmospherically irrelevant. We also develop two RO2 fate estimators (for general use and for OFRs) to aid experiment design and interpretation.
Juhi Nagori, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Juliane L. Fry, Maarten Krol, Jose L. Jimenez, Weiwei Hu, and Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 701–729,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is produced through a complex interaction of sunlight, volatile organic compounds emitted from trees, anthropogenic emissions, and atmospheric chemistry. We are able to successfully model the formation and diurnal evolution of SOA using a model that takes into consideration the surface and boundary layer dynamics (1–2 km from the surface) and photochemistry above the southeastern US with data collected during the SOAS campaign to constrain the model.
Andrew T. Lambe, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Jason R. Casar, Anthony J. Carrasquillo, Jonathan D. Raff, Jose L. Jimenez, and Douglas R. Worsnop
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 299–311,Short summary
This paper is an evaluation of methods used to generate OH radicals under conditions with high concentrations of NO and NO2 to simulate oxidation chemistry in polluted urban atmospheres over equivalent atmospheric timescales of ~ 1 day.
Nivedita K. Kumar, Joel C. Corbin, Emily A. Bruns, Dario Massabó, Jay G. Slowik, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, Paolo Prati, Athanasia Vlachou, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17843–17861,Short summary
It is clear that considerable uncertainties still exist in understanding the magnitude of aerosol absorption on a global scale and its contribution to global warming. This manuscript provides a comprehensive assessment of the optical absorption by organic aerosols (brown carbon) from residential wood combustion as a function of atmospheric aging.
Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Bruce Anderson, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Donald R. Blake, William H. Brune, Yonghoon Choi, Chelsea A. Corr, Joost A. de Gouw, Jack Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Alan Fried, L. Gregory Huey, Michelle J. Kim, Christoph J. Knote, Kara D. Lamb, Taehyoung Lee, Taehyun Park, Sally E. Pusede, Eric Scheuer, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jung-Hun Woo, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17769–17800,Short summary
Aerosol impacts visibility and human health in large cities. Sources of aerosols are still highly uncertain, especially for cities surrounded by numerous other cities. We use observations collected during the Korea–United States Air Quality study to determine sources of organic aerosol (OA). We find that secondary OA (SOA) is rapidly produced over Seoul, South Korea, and that the sources of the SOA originate from short-lived hydrocarbons, which originate from local emissions.
Lindsay E. Hatch, Albert Rivas-Ubach, Coty N. Jen, Mary Lipton, Allen H. Goldstein, and Kelley C. Barsanti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17801–17817,Short summary
We demonstrate the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) disks for the untargeted analysis of gas-phase intermediate volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from biomass burning. SPE and Teflon filter samples collected from laboratory fires were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography, with distinct differences in the observed chromatographic profiles as a function of fuel type. Fuel-dependent emissions and volatility differences among benzenediol isomers were captured.
Quanyang Lu, Yunliang Zhao, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17637–17654,Short summary
This work combines previously published data to illustrate the mechanics of emission from internal combustion engine sources. Engine exhaust can be decomposed into combustion "by-product", "unburned fuel" and "oil" modes. Intermediate and semi-volatile organic compounds are included to create comprehensive model-ready organic emission profiles. Gasoline and gas-turbine engine emissions are enriched in intermediate volatile organic compounds relative to unburned fuel.
Nicholas D. C. Allen, David R. Worton, Paul J. Brewer, Celine Pascale, and Bernhard Niederhauser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6429–6438,Short summary
This paper investigates the stability of trace level static terpene primary reference materials (PRMs) and how the choice of passivation affects this process. For the first time, sampling canisters that can be used in the field are tested and demonstrated to be suitable for terpene mixtures. The PRMs were compared against a novel dynamic generator system based on dilution of pure limonene vapour emitted from a permeation tube. The effect of cylinder pressure and decanting are also investigated.
Rishabh U. Shah, Ellis S. Robinson, Peishi Gu, Allen L. Robinson, Joshua S. Apte, and Albert A. Presto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16325–16344,Short summary
We measured spatial differences in airborne particulate matter (PM) in Oakland, CA, with repeated mobile measurements on all city streets. In addition to primary, we also find higher secondary organic PM downtown, which suggests stronger photochemical PM production in areas of high emissions and poor air ventilation (i.e., urban street canyons). This finding is original because while other modeling studies have predicted higher photochemistry in street canyons, we confirm this observationally.
Barbara Ervens, Armin Sorooshian, Abdulmonam M. Aldhaif, Taylor Shingler, Ewan Crosbie, Luke Ziemba, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16099–16119,Short summary
The paper presents a new framework that can be used to identify emission scenarios in which aerosol populations are most likely modified by chemical processes in clouds. We show that in neither very polluted nor in very clean air masses is this the case. Only if the ratio of possible aerosol mass precursors (sulfur dioxide, some organics) and preexisting aerosol mass is sufficiently high will aerosol particles show substantially modified physicochemical properties upon cloud processing.
Yingjie Zhang, Wei Du, Yuying Wang, Qingqing Wang, Haofei Wang, Haitao Zheng, Fang Zhang, Hongrong Shi, Yuxuan Bian, Yongxiang Han, Pingqing Fu, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Tong Zhu, Pucai Wang, Zhanqing Li, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14637–14651,Short summary
We have a comprehensive characterization of aerosol chemistry and particle growth events at a downwind site of a highly polluted city in the North China Plain. Aerosol particles at the urban downwind site were highly aged and mainly from secondary formation. New particle growth events were also frequently observed on both clean and polluted days. While both sulfate and SOA played important roles in particle growth during clean periods, SOA was more important than sulfate during polluted events.
Jason A. Ducker, Christopher D. Holmes, Trevor F. Keenan, Silvano Fares, Allen H. Goldstein, Ivan Mammarella, J. William Munger, and Jordan Schnell
Biogeosciences, 15, 5395–5413,Short summary
We have developed an accurate method (SynFlux) to estimate ozone deposition and stomatal uptake across 103 flux tower sites (43 US, 60 Europe), where ozone concentrations and fluxes have not been measured. In all, the SynFlux public dataset provides monthly values of ozone dry deposition for 926 site years across a wide array of ecosystems. The SynFlux dataset will promote further applications to ecosystem, air quality, or climate modeling across the geoscience community.
Anna L. Hodshire, Brett B. Palm, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Qijing Bian, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Eben S. Cross, Douglas A. Day, Suzane S. de Sá, Alex B. Guenther, Armin Hansel, James F. Hunter, Werner Jud, Thomas Karl, Saewung Kim, Jesse H. Kroll, Jeong-Hoo Park, Zhe Peng, Roger Seco, James N. Smith, Jose L. Jimenez, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12433–12460,Short summary
We investigate the nucleation and growth processes that shape the aerosol size distribution inside oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) that sampled ambient air from Colorado and the Amazon rainforest. Results indicate that organics are important for both nucleation and growth, vapor uptake was limited to accumulation-mode particles, fragmentation reactions were important to limit particle growth at higher OH exposures, and an H2SO4-organics nucleation mechanism captured new particle formation well.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Igor O. Ribeiro, Glauber G. Cirino, Yingjun Liu, Ryan Thalman, Arthur Sedlacek, Aaron Funk, Courtney Schumacher, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Karena A. McKinney, Henrique Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12185–12206,Short summary
This study aimed at understanding and quantifying the changes in mass concentration and composition of submicron airborne particulate matter (PM) in Amazonia due to urban pollution. Downwind of Manaus, PM concentrations increased by up to 200 % under polluted compared with background conditions. The observed changes included contributions from both primary and secondary processes. The differences in organic PM composition suggested a shift in the pathways of secondary production with pollution.
Xiao-Feng Huang, Bei-Bing Zou, Ling-Yan He, Min Hu, André S. H. Prévôt, and Yuan-Hang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11563–11580,Short summary
A novel multilinear engine (ME-2) model was applied to the PM2.5 dataset observed in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China in 2015 and identified the sources of secondary sulfate (21 %), vehicle emissions (14 %), industrial emissions (13 %), secondary nitrate (11 %), biomass burning (11 %), secondary organic aerosol (7 %), coal burning (6 %), fugitive dust (5 %), ship emissions (3 %) and aged sea salt (2 %). The central PRD area was clearly identified as the key emission area in the PRD.
Juliane L. Fry, Steven S. Brown, Ann M. Middlebrook, Peter M. Edwards, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, José L. Jimenez, Hannah M. Allen, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilana Pollack, Martin Graus, Carsten Warneke, Joost A. de Gouw, Charles A. Brock, Jessica Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, William P. Dubé, Jin Liao, and André Welti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11663–11682,Short summary
This paper uses measurements made during research aircraft flights through power plant smokestack emissions plumes as a natural laboratory in the field experiment. We investigated a specific source of airborne particulate matter from the combination of human-produced NOx pollutant emissions (the smokestack plumes) with isoprene emitted by naturally by trees in the southeastern United States. These field-based yields appear to be higher than those typically measured in chamber studies.
Amelie Bertrand, Giulia Stefenelli, Simone M. Pieber, Emily A. Bruns, Brice Temime-Roussel, Jay G. Slowik, Henri Wortham, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10915–10930,Short summary
We model the evolution of several BBOA markers including levoglucosan during aging experiments conducted in an atmospheric Teflon chamber, in order to evaluate the influence of vapor wall loss on the determination of the rate constants of the compounds with hydroxyl radicals (OH).
Xia Li, Jiarui Wu, Miriam Elser, Tian Feng, Junji Cao, Imad El-Haddad, Rujin Huang, Xuexi Tie, André S. H. Prévôt, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10675–10691,
Lindsay D. Yee, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Rebecca A. Wernis, Meng Meng, Ventura Rivera, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Susanne V. Hering, Mads S. Bering, Marianne Glasius, Mary Alice Upshur, Ariana Gray Bé, Regan J. Thomson, Franz M. Geiger, John H. Offenberg, Michael Lewandowski, Ivan Kourtchev, Markus Kalberer, Suzane de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jose L. Jimenez, Yingjun Liu, Karena A. McKinney, Paulo Artaxo, Juarez Viegas, Antonio Manzi, Maria B. Oliveira, Rodrigo de Souza, Luiz A. T. Machado, Karla Longo, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10433–10457,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds react in the atmosphere to form secondary organic aerosol, yet the chemical pathways remain unclear. We collected filter samples and deployed a semi-volatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph in the central Amazon. We measured 30 sesquiterpenes and 4 diterpenes and find them to be important for reactive ozone loss. We estimate that sesquiterpene oxidation contributes at least 0.4–5 % (median 1 %) of observed submicron organic aerosol mass.
Simone M. Pieber, Nivedita K. Kumar, Felix Klein, Pierre Comte, Deepika Bhattu, Josef Dommen, Emily A. Bruns, Doǧuşhan Kılıç, Imad El Haddad, Alejandro Keller, Jan Czerwinski, Norbert Heeb, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9929–9954,Short summary
We studied primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles including GDIs retrofitted with gasoline particle filters (GPF). GPF retrofitting significantly decreased the primary particulate matter, particularly through removal of refractory black carbon and, to a lesser extent, of non-refractory organic particulates. SOA experiments were conducted in a batch and flow reactor. GPF retrofitting did not significantly affect precursors or yields.
Emmanouil Oikonomakis, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Martin Wild, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Urs Baltensperger, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9741–9765,Short summary
We report a model sensitivity study on the impact of aerosol–radiation interaction (ARI) changes in Europe between 1990 and 2010 on summer surface ozone via effects on photolysis rates and biogenic emissions. The overall impact of ARI changes on ozone was relatively small when compared to the total ozone concentrations, but it was more important when compared to the order of magnitude of ozone trends, indicating a potential partial damping of the effects of ozone precursor emissions' reduction.
Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Qi Zhang, Qi Jiang, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Jie Li, John Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8469–8489,Short summary
We present a 2–year analysis of organic aerosol (OA) from highly time–resolved measurements by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor in the megacity of Beijing. The sources of OA were analyzed with the advanced factor analysis of a multilinear engine (ME-2). Our results showed very different seasonal patterns, relative humidity and temperature dependence, and sources regions among different OA factors. The sources and processes of OA factors, and their roles in haze pollution are elucidated.
Amelie Bertrand, Giulia Stefenelli, Coty N. Jen, Simone M. Pieber, Emily A. Bruns, Haiyan Ni, Brice Temime-Roussel, Jay G. Slowik, Allen H. Goldstein, Imad El Haddad, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, Henri Wortham, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7607–7624,Short summary
A thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph coupled to an aerosol mass spectrometer (TAG–AMS) is connected to an atmospheric chamber. The setup serves the quantitative study of the impact of combustion conditions and atmospheric aging on the chemical fingerprint at the molecular level of biomass burning organic aerosol.
Doğuşhan Kılıç, Imad El Haddad, Benjamin T. Brem, Emily Bruns, Carlo Bozetti, Joel Corbin, Lukas Durdina, Ru-Jin Huang, Jianhui Jiang, Felix Klein, Avi Lavi, Simone M. Pieber, Theo Rindlisbacher, Yinon Rudich, Jay G. Slowik, Jing Wang, Urs Baltensperger, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7379–7391,Short summary
We study primary emissions and secondary aerosol (SA) from an aircraft turbofan. By monitoring the chemical composition of both gaseous and particulate emissions at different engine loads, we explained SA formed in an oxidation flow reactor (PAM) by the oxidation of gaseous species. At idle, more than 90 % of the secondary particle mass was organic and could be explained by the oxidation of gaseous aromatic species, while at an approximated cruise load sulfates comprised 85 % of the total SA.
Arineh Cholakian, Matthias Beekmann, Augustin Colette, Isabelle Coll, Guillaume Siour, Jean Sciare, Nicolas Marchand, Florian Couvidat, Jorge Pey, Valerie Gros, Stéphane Sauvage, Vincent Michoud, Karine Sellegri, Aurélie Colomb, Karine Sartelet, Helen Langley DeWitt, Miriam Elser, André S. H. Prévot, Sonke Szidat, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7287–7312,Short summary
In this work, four schemes for the simulation of organic aerosols in the western Mediterranean basin are added to the CHIMERE chemistry–transport model; the resulting simulations are then compared to measurements obtained from ChArMEx. It is concluded that the scheme taking into account the fragmentation and the formation of nonvolatile organic aerosols corresponds better to measurements; the major source of this aerosol in the western Mediterranean is found to be of biogenic origin.
Jun Zhou, Peter Zotter, Emily A. Bruns, Giulia Stefenelli, Deepika Bhattu, Samuel Brown, Amelie Bertrand, Nicolas Marchand, Houssni Lamkaddam, Jay G. Slowik, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, Thomas Nussbaumer, Imad El-Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6985–7000,Short summary
We thoroughly studied the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation potential of particulate wood combustion emissions, from different combustion technologies, fuel types, operation methods, combustion regimes and phases. ROS from automatically operated combustion devices under optimal conditions were much lower than those from manually operated appliances. We examined the impact of atmospheric aging on ROS content in SOA and determined the controlling parameters, by using an online ROS analyzer.
Penglin Ye, Yunliang Zhao, Wayne K. Chuang, Allen L. Robinson, and Neil M. Donahue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6171–6186,Short summary
This work describes experiments to constrain the production of secondary organic aerosol from pinanediol, a semi-volatile oxidation product of α-pinene. Our results and the implications for SOA aging are directly relevant to the atmospheric chemistry community because they connect new-particle formation experiments and SOA formation experiments. The oxidation conditions are typically different and experiments are also influenced in different ways by wall losses of condensible vapors.
Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Carlo Bozzetti, Benjamin Chazeau, Gary A. Salazar, Soenke Szidat, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Christoph Hueglin, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6187–6206,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosols are related to adverse human health effects, which depend on the aerosol chemical composition and size. Here, we combine aerosol mass spectrometry and radiocarbon measurements of size-resolved samples collected over a long term to identify the origins of primary and secondary carbonaceous aerosols in the fine and coarse modes.
Di Liu, Matthias Vonwiller, Jun Li, Junwen Liu, Sönke Szidat, Yanlin Zhang, Chongguo Tian, Yinjun Chen, Zhineng Cheng, Guangcai Zhong, Pingqing Fu, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Yan-Lin Zhang, Imad El-Haddad, Ru-Jin Huang, Kin-Fai Ho, Jun-Ji Cao, Yongming Han, Peter Zotter, Carlo Bozzetti, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Jay G. Slowik, Gary Salazar, André S. H. Prévôt, and Sönke Szidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4005–4017,Short summary
Here we present a quantitative source apportionment of WSOC, isolated from aerosols in China using radiocarbon (14C) and offline high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer measurements. We demonstrate a dominant contribution of non-fossil emissions to WSOC aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere. However, the fossil fraction is substantially larger in aerosols from East Asia and the east Asian pollution outflow, especially during winter, due to increasing coal combustion.
Wei Zhou, Qingqing Wang, Xiujuan Zhao, Weiqi Xu, Chen Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3951–3968,Short summary
We present a 3-month analysis of submicron aerosols that were measured at 260 m on a meteorological tower in Beijing, China. The sources of organic aerosol (OA) were analyzed by using a multi-linear engine (ME-2). Our results showed significant changes in both primary and secondary OA composition from the non-heating season to the heating season. We also observed a considerable contribution (10–13%) of cooking OA at 260 m and very different OA composition between ground level and 260 m.
Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Jessica B. Gilman, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew M. Coggon, Kyle J. Zarzana, Bin Yuan, Brian M. Lerner, Steven S. Brown, Jose L. Jimenez, Jordan Krechmer, James M. Roberts, Carsten Warneke, Robert J. Yokelson, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3299–3319,Short summary
Non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) were detected by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF) during an extensive laboratory characterization of wildfire emissions. Identifications for PTR-ToF ion masses are proposed and supported by a combination of techniques. Overall excellent agreement with other instrumentation is shown. Scalable emission factors and ratios are reported for many newly reported reactive species. An analysis of chemical characteristics is presented.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Qiao Zhu, Xiao-Feng Huang, Li-Ming Cao, Lin-Tong Wei, Bin Zhang, Ling-Yan He, Miriam Elser, Francesco Canonaco, Jay G. Slowik, Carlo Bozzetti, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1049–1060,Short summary
Organic aerosol constitutes one of the major components of atmospheric particulate matter globally and is emitted from various sources. Therefore, identifying and quantifying the sources of organic aerosol accurately is a key task in the field. In this study, we applied a rather novel procedure for an improved source apportionment method (ME-2) to resolve the
less meaningful or mixed factorsproblems for organic aerosol using the traditional method (PMF).
Jingqiu Mao, Annmarie Carlton, Ronald C. Cohen, William H. Brune, Steven S. Brown, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jose L. Jimenez, Havala O. T. Pye, Nga Lee Ng, Lu Xu, V. Faye McNeill, Kostas Tsigaridis, Brian C. McDonald, Carsten Warneke, Alex Guenther, Matthew J. Alvarado, Joost de Gouw, Loretta J. Mickley, Eric M. Leibensperger, Rohit Mathur, Christopher G. Nolte, Robert W. Portmann, Nadine Unger, Mika Tosca, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2615–2651,Short summary
This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing, and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models.
Paul S. Romer, Kaitlin C. Duffey, Paul J. Wooldridge, Eric Edgerton, Karsten Baumann, Philip A. Feiner, David O. Miller, William H. Brune, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Pawel K. Misztal, Allen H. Goldstein, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2601–2614,Short summary
Observations of increased ozone on hotter days are widely reported, but the mechanisms driving this relationship remain uncertain. We use measurements from the rural southeastern United States to study how temperature affects ozone production. We find that changing NOx emissions, most likely from soil microbes, can be a major driver of increased ozone with temperature in the continental background. These findings suggest that ozone will increase with temperature under a wide range of conditions.
Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Imad El-Haddad, Lassi Karvonen, Athanasia Vlachou, Joel C. Corbin, Jay G. Slowik, Maarten F. Heringa, Emily A. Bruns, Samuel M. Luedin, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Sönke Szidat, Andrea Piazzalunga, Raquel Gonzalez, Paola Fermo, Valentin Pflueger, Guido Vogel, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2155–2174,Short summary
A novel offline LDI-MS method was developed to analyse particulate matter (PM) collected at multiple sites in central Europe during the entire year of 2013. PM sources were identified by positive matrix factorization. Wood burning emissions were separated according to the burning conditions; inefficient burns had a larger impact on air quality in southern Alpine valleys than in northern Switzerland. Moreover, primary tailpipe exhaust was distinguished from aged/secondary traffic emissions.
Emmanouil Oikonomakis, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Urs Baltensperger, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2175–2198,Short summary
We report a modeling study investigating the uncertainties in ozone production in Europe. Using various methods for different emission and meteorological scenarios, we searched for the possible reasons for underestimation of high ozone levels in Europe by models. Our results suggest that emissions, especially NOx, might be too low in the European inventories. Improvement of the modeled ozone production will contribute to more consistent and effective ozone mitigation strategies for the future.
Xuan Wang, Colette L. Heald, Jiumeng Liu, Rodney J. Weber, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Joshua P. Schwarz, and Anne E. Perring
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 635–653,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) contributes significantly to uncertainty in estimating the global direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols. We develop a global model simulation of BrC and test it against BrC absorption measurements from two aircraft campaigns in the continental United States. We suggest that BrC DRE has been overestimated previously due to the lack of observational constraints from direct measurements and omission of the effects of photochemical whitening.
Brett B. Palm, Suzane S. de Sá, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Joel Brito, Florian Wurm, Paulo Artaxo, Ryan Thalman, Jian Wang, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Allen H. Goldstein, Yingjun Liu, Stephen R. Springston, Rodrigo Souza, Matt K. Newburn, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 467–493,Short summary
Ambient air was oxidized by OH or O3 in an oxidation flow reactor during both wet and dry seasons in the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated how much biogenic, urban, and biomass burning sources contributed to the ambient concentrations of SOA precursor gases and how their contributions changed diurnally and seasonally. SOA yields and hygroscopicity of organic aerosol in the oxidation flow reactor were also studied.
Naomi Zimmerman, Albert A. Presto, Sriniwasa P. N. Kumar, Jason Gu, Aliaksei Hauryliuk, Ellis S. Robinson, Allen L. Robinson, and R. Subramanian
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 291–313,Short summary
Low-cost sensors promise neighborhood-scale air quality monitoring but have been plagued by inconsistent performance for precision, accuracy, and drift. CMU and SenSevere collaborated to develop the RAMP, which uses electrochemical sensors. We present a machine learning algorithm that overcomes previous performance issues and meets US EPA's data quality recommendations for personal exposure for NO2 and tougher "supplemental monitoring" standards for CO & ozone across 19 RAMPs for several months.
Havala O. T. Pye, Andreas Zuend, Juliane L. Fry, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Shannon L. Capps, K. Wyat Appel, Hosein Foroutan, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 357–370,Short summary
Thermodynamic modeling revealed that some but not all measurements of ammonium-to-sulfate ratios are consistent with theory. The measurement diversity likely explains the previously reported range of results regarding the suitability of thermodynamic modeling. Despite particles being predominantly phase separated, organic–inorganic interactions resulted in increased aerosol pH and partitioning towards the particle phase for highly oxygenated organic compounds compared to traditional methods.
Jun Zhou, Emily A. Bruns, Peter Zotter, Giulia Stefenelli, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El-Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 65–80,Short summary
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the particle phase may induce oxidative stress in the human lungs upon inhalation. Here we present and thoroughly characterize a modified online and offline ROS analyzer. Selected model organic compounds were tested and potential interferences from gas-phase and matrix effects of particulate constituents were evaluated. ROS measurements of filter samples revealed the rapid decay of a substantial ROS fraction, supporting the application of online measurements.
Marcel Lerch, Marcel Bliedtner, Christopher-Bastian Roettig, Jan-Uwe Schmidt, Sönke Szidat, Gary Salazar, Roland Zech, Bruno Glaser, Arno Kleber, and Michael Zech
E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 66, 103–108,
Lorenz Wüthrich, Marcel Bliedtner, Imke Kathrin Schäfer, Jana Zech, Fatemeh Shajari, Dorian Gaar, Frank Preusser, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, and Roland Zech
E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 66, 91–100,
Naifang Bei, Jiarui Wu, Miriam Elser, Tian Feng, Junji Cao, Imad El-Haddad, Xia Li, Rujin Huang, Zhengqiang Li, Xin Long, Li Xing, Shuyu Zhao, Xuexi Tie, André S. H. Prévôt, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14579–14591,
Yunjiang Zhang, Lili Tang, Philip L. Croteau, Olivier Favez, Yele Sun, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Zhuang Wang, Florian Couvidat, Alexandre Albinet, Hongliang Zhang, Jean Sciare, André S. H. Prévôt, John T. Jayne, and Douglas R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14501–14517,Short summary
We conducted the first field measurements of non-refractory fine aerosols (NR-PM2.5) in a megacity of eastern China using a PM2.5-ACSM along with a PM1-ACSM measurement. Inter-comparisons demonstrated that the NR-PM2.5 components can be characterized. Substantial mass fractions of aerosol species were observed in the size range of 1–2.5 μm, with sulfate and SOA being the two largest contributors. The impacts of aerosol water driven by secondary inorganic aerosols on SOA formation were explored.
Demetrios Pagonis, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joost de Gouw, Jose L. Jimenez, and Paul J. Ziemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4687–4696,Short summary
Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate gas-wall partitioning of atmospheric organic compounds in Teflon tubing and inside an instrument used to monitor concentrations. Rapid partitioning caused time delays in instrument response that vary with tubing length and diameter, flow rate, and compound volatility. Tubing delay times of seconds to hours were described using a model that also included effects of instrument surfaces. The results can enable better design of air sampling systems.
Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Giulia Stefenelli, Carlo Bozzetti, Athanasia Vlachou, Paola Fermo, Raquel Gonzalez, Andrea Piazzalunga, Cristina Colombi, Francesco Canonaco, Christoph Hueglin, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Federico Bianchi, Jay G. Slowik, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13265–13282,Short summary
We present offline AMS analyses for the organic aerosol (OA) in PM10 at nine sites in central Europe for 2013. Primary OA is separated into traffic, cooking, and wood-burning components. A factor explaining sulfur-containing ions, with an event-driven time series, is also separated. We observe enhanced production of secondary OA (SOA) in summer, following biogenic emissions with temperature. In winter a SOA component is dominant, which correlates with anthropogenic inorganic species.
Adrian M. Maclean, Christopher L. Butenhoff, James W. Grayson, Kelley Barsanti, Jose L. Jimenez, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13037–13048,Short summary
Using laboratory data, meteorological fields and a chemical transport model, we investigated how often mixing times are < 1 h within SOA in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Based on viscosity data for alpha-pinene SOA generated using mass concentrations of ~1000 µg m −3, mixing times in biogenic SOA are < 1h most of the time.
Zhe Peng and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11991–12010,Short summary
Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) have been increasingly used to study atmospheric chemistry at high NO. We show that it is very difficult to obtain high-NO chemistry (in terms of RO2 fate) in OFRs by initial NO injection. Past OFR studies with combustion sources generally had too-high precursor and NOx concentrations that caused several types of experimental artifacts. A strong dilution (× 100 or larger) may be needed for such experiments to avoid undesired chemistry.
Ryan Thalman, Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Mira L. Pöhlker, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Castillo, Douglas A. Day, Chongai Kuang, Antonio Manzi, Nga Lee Ng, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Rodrigo Souza, Stephen Springston, Thomas Watson, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, Scot T. Martin, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11779–11801,Short summary
Particle hygroscopicity, mixing state, and the hygroscopicity of organic components were characterized in central Amazonia for 1 year; their seasonal and diel variations were driven by a combination of primary emissions, photochemical oxidation, and boundary layer development. The relationship between the hygroscopicity of organic components and their oxidation level was examined, and the results help to reconcile the differences among the relationships observed in previous studies.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Matthew C. Woody, Jose L. Jimenez, Ann Marie G. Carlton, Patrick L. Hayes, Shang Liu, Nga L. Ng, Lynn M. Russell, Ari Setyan, Lu Xu, Jeff Young, Rahul A. Zaveri, Qi Zhang, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11107–11133,Short summary
We incorporate recent findings about the behavior of organic pollutants in urban airsheds into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to refine predictions of organic particulate pollution in the United States. The new techniques, which account for the volatility and ongoing chemistry of airborne organic compounds, substantially reduce biases, particularly in the winter time and near emission sources.
Tesfaye A. Berhanu, Sönke Szidat, Dominik Brunner, Ece Satar, Rüdiger Schanda, Peter Nyfeler, Michael Battaglia, Martin Steinbacher, Samuel Hammer, and Markus Leuenberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10753–10766,Short summary
Fossil fuel CO2 is the major contributor of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere, and accurate quantification is essential to better understand the carbon cycle. Such accurate quantification can be conducted based on radiocarbon measurements. In this study, we present radiocarbon measurements from a tall tower site in Switzerland. From these measurements, we have observed seasonally varying fossil fuel CO2 contributions and a biospheric CO2 component that varies diurnally and seasonally.
Laura-Hélèna Rivellini, Isabelle Chiapello, Emmanuel Tison, Marc Fourmentin, Anaïs Féron, Aboubacry Diallo, Thierno N'Diaye, Philippe Goloub, Francesco Canonaco, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, and Véronique Riffault
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10291–10314,Short summary
A 3-month field campaign was conducted in March–June 2015 in Senegal, as part of the SHADOW (SaHAran Dust Over West Africa) project. This article presents the time variability of the chemical composition of submicron particles. Organics (sulfates) were predominant for days under continental (marine) influence. Half the organic sources were identified as local, including one due to open waste-burning, and half were linked to regional air masses and enhanced photochemical processes.
Yi Ming Qin, Hao Bo Tan, Yong Jie Li, Misha I. Schurman, Fei Li, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10245–10258,Short summary
Freshly emitted HOA contributed significantly to the high concentrations of organics at night as heavy-duty vehicles enter downtown Guangzhou, while SOA contributed to the daytime high concentration. The large input of NOx, from automobile emissions, resulted in the significant formation of nitrate in both daytime and nighttime. Mitigating the PM pollution in urbanized areas such as Guangzhou can potentially benefit their peripheral cities, by reductions in traffic-related pollutants.
Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Philip Croteau, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2897–2921,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) from ARI are used widely to measure the non-refractory species in PM1. Recently, a new capture vapourizer (CV) has been designed to reduce the need for a bounce-related CE correction in the commonly used standard vapourizer (SV) installed in AMS. To test the CV, the fragments, CE and size distributions of four pure inorganic species in the CV-AMS are investigated in various laboratory experiments. Results from the co-located SV-AMS are also shown as a comparison.
Vincent Michoud, Jean Sciare, Stéphane Sauvage, Sébastien Dusanter, Thierry Léonardis, Valérie Gros, Cerise Kalogridis, Nora Zannoni, Anaïs Féron, Jean-Eudes Petit, Vincent Crenn, Dominique Baisnée, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicolas Bonnaire, Nicolas Marchand, H. Langley DeWitt, Jorge Pey, Aurélie Colomb, François Gheusi, Sonke Szidat, Iasonas Stavroulas, Agnès Borbon, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8837–8865,Short summary
The ChArMEx SOP2 field campaign took place from 15 July to 5 August 2013 in the western Mediterranean Basin at Ersa, a remote site in Cape Corse. Exhaustive descriptions of the chemical composition of air masses in gas and aerosol phase were performed. An analysis of these measurements was performed using various source-receptor approaches. This led to the identification of several factors linked to primary sources but also to secondary processes of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin.
Mike J. Newland, Patricia Martinerie, Emmanuel Witrant, Detlev Helmig, David R. Worton, Chris Hogan, William T. Sturges, and Claire E. Reeves
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8269–8283,Short summary
We report increasing levels of alkyl nitrates in the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere between 1960 and the mid-1990s. These increases are symptomatic of large-scale changes to the chemical composition of the atmosphere, particularly with regards to the amounts of short-lived, reactive species. The observed increases are likely driven by increasing levels of nitrogen oxides. These changes have direct implications for the lifetimes of climate-relevant species in the atmosphere, such as methane.
Carlo Bozzetti, Imad El Haddad, Dalia Salameh, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Paola Fermo, Raquel Gonzalez, María Cruz Minguillón, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Laurent Poulain, Miriam Elser, Emanuel Müller, Jay Gates Slowik, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Urs Baltensperger, Nicolas Marchand, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8247–8268,Short summary
We present the first long-term organic aerosol source apportionment in an environment influenced by anthropogenic emissions including biomass burning and industrial processes and an active photochemistry. Online and offline aerosol mass spectrometry were used to characterize these emissions and their transformation. Measurements of organic markers provided insights into the origin of biomass smoke in this area, with different seasonal contributions from domestic heating and agricultural burning.
Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Imad El-Haddad, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7757–7773,Short summary
Sources of inorganic aerosols in Europe were investigated using a regional air quality model. Results of this study suggested that biogenic volatile organic coumpounds emitted from vegetation had a significant effect on inorganic aerosols, especially on ammonium nitrate concentrations. Sensitivity analyses showed that it is mainly terpene reactions with nitrate radical at night that lead to a decrease in ammonium nitrate.
Giancarlo Ciarelli, Imad El Haddad, Emily Bruns, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Ottmar Möhler, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2303–2320,Short summary
In Europe, residential wood-burning emissions constitute one of the main anthropogenic sources of air pollution. Novel wood-burning experiments performed in a state-of-the-art smog chamber provide valuable information on the chemical properties of wood-burning emissions and the transformation in the atmosphere. In this study, these new data were used in a box model to constrain a parameterization suitable for predicting the contribution of wood burning to air pollution with large-scale models.
Giancarlo Ciarelli, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Imad El Haddad, Emily A. Bruns, Monica Crippa, Laurent Poulain, Mikko Äijälä, Samara Carbone, Evelyn Freney, Colin O'Dowd, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7653–7669,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) comprises the main fraction of fine particulate matter (PM1). Using a new VBS parameterization, we performed model-based source apportionment studies to assess the importance of different emission sources to the total OA loads in Europe during winter periods. Our results indicate that residential wood burning emissions represent the major source of OA, followed by non-residential emission sources (i.e. traffic and industries).
Markus Furger, María Cruz Minguillón, Varun Yadav, Jay G. Slowik, Christoph Hüglin, Roman Fröhlich, Krag Petterson, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2061–2076,Short summary
An Xact 625 Ambient Metals Monitor was tested during a 3-week summer field campaign at a rural, traffic-influenced site in Switzerland. The objective was to characterize the operation of the instrument, evaluate the data quality by intercomparison with other independent measurements, and test its applicability for aerosol source quantification. The results demonstrate significant advantages compared to traditional elemental analysis methods, with some desirable improvements.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Matthew K. Newburn, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Ryan Thalman, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Antonio O. Manzi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Fan Mei, John E. Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Jason D. Surratt, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6611–6629,
Hongyu Guo, Jiumeng Liu, Karl D. Froyd, James M. Roberts, Patrick R. Veres, Patrick L. Hayes, Jose L. Jimenez, Athanasios Nenes, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5703–5719,Short summary
Fine particle pH is linked to many environmental impacts by affecting particle concentration and composition. Predicted Pasadena, CA (CalNex campaign), PM1 pH is 1.9 and PM2.5 pH 2.7, the latter higher due to sea salts. The model predicted gas–particle partitionings of HNO3–NO3−, NH3–NH4+, and HCl–Cl− are in good agreement, verifying the model predictions. A summary of contrasting locations in the US and eastern Mediterranean shows fine particles are generally highly acidic, with pH below 3.
Célia J. Sapart, Natalia Shakhova, Igor Semiletov, Joachim Jansen, Sönke Szidat, Denis Kosmach, Oleg Dudarev, Carina van der Veen, Matthias Egger, Valentine Sergienko, Anatoly Salyuk, Vladimir Tumskoy, Jean-Louis Tison, and Thomas Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 14, 2283–2292,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean, especially the Siberian shelves, overlays large areas of subsea permafrost that is degrading. We show that methane with a biogenic origin is emitted from this permafrost. At locations where bubble plumes have been observed, methane can escape oxidation in the surface sediment and rapidly migrate through the very shallow water column of this region to escape to the atmosphere, generating a positive radiative feedback.
Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Amber M. Ortega, Juliane L. Fry, Steven S. Brown, Kyle J. Zarzana, William Dube, Nicholas L. Wagner, Danielle C. Draper, Lisa Kaser, Werner Jud, Thomas Karl, Armin Hansel, Cándido Gutiérrez-Montes, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5331–5354,Short summary
Ambient forest air was oxidized by OH, O3, or NO3 inside an oxidation flow reactor, leading to formation of particulate matter from any gaseous precursors found in the air. Closure was achieved between the amount of particulate mass formed from O3 and NO3 oxidation and the amount predicted from speciated gaseous precursors, which was in contrast to previous results for OH oxidation (Palm et al., 2016). Elemental analysis of the particulate mass formed in the reactor is presented.
Rachel F. Silvern, Daniel J. Jacob, Patrick S. Kim, Eloise A. Marais, Jay R. Turner, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5107–5118,Short summary
We identify a fundamental discrepancy between thermodynamic equilibrium theory and observations of inorganic aerosol composition in the eastern US in summer that shows low ammonium sulfate aerosol ratios. In addition, from 2003 to 2013, while SO2 emissions have declined due to US emission controls, aerosols have become more acidic in the southeastern US. To explain these observations, we suggest that the large and increasing source of organic aerosol may be affecting thermodynamic equilibrium.
Lisa Stirnweis, Claudia Marcolli, Josef Dommen, Peter Barmet, Carla Frege, Stephen M. Platt, Emily A. Bruns, Manuel Krapf, Jay G. Slowik, Robert Wolf, Andre S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El-Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5035–5061,
Haiyan Li, Qi Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Chunrong Chen, Litao Wang, Zhe Wei, Shan Zhou, Caroline Parworth, Bo Zheng, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Ping Chen, Hongliang Zhang, Timothy J. Wallington, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4751–4768,Short summary
The sources and aerosol evolution processes of severe pollution episodes were investigated in Handan during wintertime using real-time measurements. An in-depth analysis of the data uncovered that primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning together with secondary formation of sulfate (mainly from SO2 emitted by coal combustion) are important driving factors for haze evolution. Our findings provide useful insights into air pollution control in heavily polluted regions.
Shantanu H. Jathar, Matthew Woody, Havala O. T. Pye, Kirk R. Baker, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4305–4318,Short summary
Mobile sources such as cars and trucks are large sources of pollution in cities, but it is unclear what their relative contribution to organic particle pollution is. We used a numerical model along with recent data gathered from tests performed on cars and trucks to calculate organic particle levels in southern California. We found that model calculations agreed better with measurements and gasoline cars and trucks dominated the organic particle pollution.
Peter Zotter, Hanna Herich, Martin Gysel, Imad El-Haddad, Yanlin Zhang, Griša Močnik, Christoph Hüglin, Urs Baltensperger, Sönke Szidat, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4229–4249,Short summary
Most studies use a single Ångström exponent for wood burning (αWB) and traffic (αTR) emissions in the Aethalometer model, used for source apportionment of black carbon, derived from previous work. However, accurate determination of the α values is currently lacking. Comparing radiocarbon measurements (14C) with the Aehtalometer model, good agreement was found, indicating that the Aethalometer model reproduces reasonably well the 14C results using our best estimate of a single αWB and αTR.
Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Peter Zotter, Robert Wolf, Emily Anne Bruns, André S. H. Prévôt, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Jean Sciare, Ian J. Arnold, Rajan K. Chakrabarty, Hans Moosmüller, Agnes Filep, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1043–1059,Short summary
Black carbon measurements are usually conducted with absorption filter photometers, which are prone to the filter-loading effect – a saturation of the instrumental response due to the accumulation of the sample in the filter matrix. In this paper, we conducted several field campaigns to investigate the hypothesis that this filter-loading effect depends on the optical properties of particles present in the filter matrix, especially on the coating of black carbon particles.
Ulrike Dusek, Regina Hitzenberger, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Magdalena Kistler, Harro A. J. Meijer, Sönke Szidat, Lukas Wacker, Rupert Holzinger, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3233–3251,Short summary
Measurements of the radioactive carbon isotope 14C allow to identify the sources of aerosol carbon. We report an extensive 14C source apportionment record in the Netherlands with samples covering a whole year. We discovered that long-range transport has a large influence on aerosol carbon levels. Fossil fuel carbon is least influenced by long-range transport and more regional in origin. Biomass burning seems to be a minor source of aerosol carbon in the Netherlands.
Mikko Äijälä, Liine Heikkinen, Roman Fröhlich, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3165–3197,Short summary
Mass spectrometric measurements commonly yield data on hundreds of variables over thousands of points in time. Refining and synthesising this “raw” data into chemical information necessitates the use of advanced, statistics-based data analysis techniques. Here we present an example of combining data dimensionality reduction (factorisation) with exploratory classification (clustering) and show that the results complement and broaden our current perspectives on aerosol chemical classification.
Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Herrmann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, and Rahul A. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2103–2162,Short summary
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3 is an important interaction between anthropogenic and natural emissions. This review results from a June 2015 workshop and includes the recent literature on kinetics, mechanisms, organic aerosol yields, and heterogeneous chemistry; advances in analytical instrumentation; the current state NO3-BVOC chemistry in atmospheric models; and critical needs for future research in modeling, field observations, and laboratory studies.
Adam P. Bateman, Zhaoheng Gong, Tristan H. Harder, Suzane S. de Sá, Bingbing Wang, Paulo Castillo, Swarup China, Yingjun Liu, Rachel E. O'Brien, Brett B. Palm, Hung-Wei Shiu, Glauber G. Cirino, Ryan Thalman, Kouji Adachi, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Allan K. Bertram, Peter R. Buseck, Mary K. Gilles, Jose L. Jimenez, Alexander Laskin, Antonio O. Manzi, Arthur Sedlacek, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Rahul Zaveri, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1759–1773,Short summary
The occurrence of nonliquid and liquid physical states of submicron atmospheric particulate matter (PM) downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia was investigated. Air masses representing background conditions, urban pollution, and regional- and continental-scale biomass were measured. Anthropogenic influences contributed to the presence of nonliquid PM in the atmospheric particle population, while liquid PM dominated during periods of biogenic influence.
Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Thilina Jayarathne, Karsten Baumann, Allen H. Goldstein, Joost A. de Gouw, Abigail Koss, Frank N. Keutsch, Kate Skog, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1343–1359,Short summary
Organosulfates are components of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the presence of sulfate. Herein, their abundance, identity, and potential to form as sampling artifacts were studied in Centreville, AL, USA. The 10 most abundant signals accounted for 58–78 % of the total, with at least 20–200 other species accounting for the remainder. These major species were largely associated with biogenic gases, like isoprene and monoterpenes, and are proposed targets for future standard development.
Emily A. Bruns, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, Dogushan Kilic, Felix Klein, Josef Dommen, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 705–720,Short summary
We characterize primary and aged gaseous emissions from residential wood combustion using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This approach allows for improved characterization, particularly of oxygenated gases, which are a considerable fraction of the total gaseous mass emitted during residential wood combustion. This study is the first thorough characterization of organic gases from this source and provides a benchmark for future studies.
Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin N. Murphy, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Annmarie G. Carlton, Hongyu Guo, Rodney Weber, Petros Vasilakos, K. Wyat Appel, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Athanasios Nenes, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 343–369,Short summary
We use a chemical transport model to examine how organic compounds in the atmosphere interact with water present in particles. Organic compounds themselves lead to water uptake, and organic compounds interact with water associated with inorganic compounds in the rural southeast atmosphere. Including interactions of organic compounds with water requires a treatment of nonideality to more accurately represent aerosol observations during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) 2013.
Carlo Bozzetti, Yuliya Sosedova, Mao Xiao, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Vadimas Dudoitis, Genrik Mordas, Steigvilė Byčenkienė, Kristina Plauškaitė, Athanasia Vlachou, Benjamin Golly, Benjamin Chazeau, Jean-Luc Besombes, Urs Baltensperger, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 117–141,Short summary
In this study we present the offline-AMS source apportionment of the submicron organic aerosol (OA) sources conducted over 1 year at three locations in the south east Baltic region, which has so far received small attention. Offline-AMS enabled broadening the AMS spatial and temporal coverage, and provided a full characterization of the OA sources. Source apportionment results revealed that biomass burning and biogenic secondary emissions were the major OA sources during winter and summer.
Chiara Uglietti, Alexander Zapf, Theo Manuel Jenk, Michael Sigl, Sönke Szidat, Gary Salazar, and Margit Schwikowski
The Cryosphere, 10, 3091–3105,Short summary
A meaningful interpretation of the climatic history contained in ice cores requires a precise chronology. For dating the older and deeper part of the glaciers, radiocarbon analysis can be used when organic matter such as plant or insect fragments are found in the ice. Since this happens rarely, a complementary dating tool, based on radiocarbon dating of the insoluble fraction of carbonaceous aerosols entrapped in the ice, allows for ice dating between 200 and more than 10 000 years.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, David C. Green, Max Priestman, Francesco Canonaco, Hugh Coe, André S. H. Prévôt, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15545–15559,Short summary
For the first time in the UK, an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor was used to measure aerosol concentrations in London in March–December 2013, with further organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment using the ME-2 factorization tool. Five OA sources were identified: biomass burning OA, hydrocarbon-like OA, cooking OA, semivolatile oxygenated OA and low-volatility oxygenated OA. This information can be used to take future action on the respective legislation in order to improve the air quality.
Jianzhong Xu, Jinsen Shi, Qi Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Matthias Vonwiller, Sönke Szidat, Jinming Ge, Jianmin Ma, Yanqing An, Shichang Kang, and Dahe Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14937–14957,Short summary
This study deployed an AMS field study in Lanzhou, a city in northwestern China, evaluating the chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during wintertime. In comparison with the results during summer in Lanzhou, the air pollution during winter was more severe and the sources were more complex. In addition, this paper estimates the contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources of organic carbon to primary and secondary organic carbon using the carbon isotopic method.
Yaping Zhang, Brent J. Williams, Allen H. Goldstein, Kenneth S. Docherty, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5637–5653,Short summary
The binning method provides an alternate way to process GC–MS data in a very fast manner. It only takes a very small portion of time (days versus years) compared to the traditional GC–MS data analysis method (peak identification and integration). Furthermore, the binning method can also be applied to any data set from a measurement (mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, etc.) with additional separations (volatility, polarity, size, etc.).
Omar Amador-Muñoz, Pawel K. Misztal, Robin Weber, David R. Worton, Haofei Zhang, Greg Drozd, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5315–5329,Short summary
Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to detect n-alkanes that generally have a lower proton affinity than water and therefore proton transfer (PT) by reaction with H3O+ is not an effective mechanism for their detection. In this study, we developed a method using a conventional PTR-MS to detect n-alkanes by optimizing ion source and drift tube conditions to vary the relative amounts of different primary ions (H3O+, O2+, NO+) in the reaction chamber (drift tube).
Petri Tiitta, Ari Leskinen, Liqing Hao, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Miika Kortelainen, Julija Grigonyte, Jarkko Tissari, Heikki Lamberg, Anni Hartikainen, Kari Kuuspalo, Aki-Matti Kortelainen, Annele Virtanen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Mika Komppula, Simone Pieber, André S. H. Prévôt, Timothy B. Onasch, Douglas R. Worsnop, Hendryk Czech, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, and Olli Sippula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13251–13269,Short summary
Real-time measurements of OA aging and SOA formation from logwood combustion were conducted under dark and UV oxidation. Substantial SOA formation was observed in all experiments, leading to twice the initial OA mass emphasizing the importance of the burning conditions for the aging processes. The results prove that emissions are subject to intensive chemical processing in the atmosphere; e.g. the most of the POA was found to become oxidized after the ozone addition, forming aged POA.
Xuan Zhang, Jordan E. Krechmer, Michael Groessl, Wen Xu, Stephan Graf, Michael Cubison, John T. Jayne, Jose L. Jimenez, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Manjula R. Canagaratna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12945–12959,Short summary
We develop a novel two-dimensional space to probe the molecular composition of atmospheric organic aerosols.
Michael Bressi, Fabrizia Cavalli, Claudio A. Belis, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Roman Fröhlich, Sebastiao Martins dos Santos, Ettore Petralia, André S. H. Prévôt, Massimo Berico, Antonella Malaguti, and Francesco Canonaco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12875–12896,Short summary
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) levels and resulting impacts on human health are in the Po Valley (Italy) among the highest in Europe. This study discusses submicron PM chemical composition, sources and atmospheric processes in this region, using state-of-the-art measurement techniques and receptor models. Based on these results, effective PM abatement strategies are suggested in the upper Po Valley.
Bertrand Bessagnet, Guido Pirovano, Mihaela Mircea, Cornelius Cuvelier, Armin Aulinger, Giuseppe Calori, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Astrid Manders, Rainer Stern, Svetlana Tsyro, Marta García Vivanco, Philippe Thunis, Maria-Teresa Pay, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Frédérik Meleux, Laurence Rouïl, Anthony Ung, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, José María Baldasano, Johannes Bieser, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, Sandro Finardi, Richard Kranenburg, Camillo Silibello, Claudio Carnevale, Wenche Aas, Jean-Charles Dupont, Hilde Fagerli, Lucia Gonzalez, Laurent Menut, André S. H. Prévôt, Pete Roberts, and Les White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12667–12701,Short summary
The EURODELTA III exercise allows a very comprehensive intercomparison and evaluation of air quality models' performance. On average, the models provide a rather good picture of the particulate matter (PM) concentrations over Europe even if the highest concentrations are underestimated. The meteorology is responsible for model discrepancies, while the lack of emissions, particularly in winter, is mentioned as the main reason for the underestimations of PM.
Chao Yan, Wei Nie, Mikko Äijälä, Matti P. Rissanen, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Paola Massoli, Heikki Junninen, Tuija Jokinen, Nina Sarnela, Silja A. K. Häme, Siegfried Schobesberger, Francesco Canonaco, Lei Yao, André S. H. Prévôt, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Mikko Sipilä, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12715–12731,Short summary
Highly oxidized multifunctional compounds (HOMs) are known to have a significant contribution to secondary aerosol formation, yet their dominating formation pathways remain unclear in the atmosphere. We apply positive matrix factorization (PMF) on HOM data, and successfully retrieve factors representing different formation pathways. The results improve our understanding of HOM formation, and provide new perspectives on using PMF to study the variation of short-lived specie.
Cathy M. Trudinger, Paul J. Fraser, David M. Etheridge, William T. Sturges, Martin K. Vollmer, Matt Rigby, Patricia Martinerie, Jens Mühle, David R. Worton, Paul B. Krummel, L. Paul Steele, Benjamin R. Miller, Johannes Laube, Francis S. Mani, Peter J. Rayner, Christina M. Harth, Emmanuel Witrant, Thomas Blunier, Jakob Schwander, Simon O'Doherty, and Mark Battle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11733–11754,Short summary
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are potent, long-lived and mostly man-made greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere mainly during aluminium production and semiconductor manufacture. Here we present the first continuous histories of three PFCs from 1800 to 2014, derived from measurements of these PFCs in the atmosphere and in air bubbles in polar ice. The records show how human actions have affected these important greenhouse gases over the past century.
Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Karsten Baumann, Lina Hacker, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Allen H. Goldstein, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580,Short summary
IEPOX-SOA is biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol under anthropogenic influence, which has been shown to comprise a substantial fraction of OA globally. We investigated the lifetime of ambient IEPOX-SOA in the SE US and Amazonia, with an oxidation flow reactor and thermodenuder coupled with MS-based instrumentation. The low volatility and long lifetime of IEPOX-SOA against OH radicals' oxidation (> 2 weeks) was observed, which can help to constrain OA impact on air quality and climate.
Aki Pajunoja, Weiwei Hu, Yu J. Leong, Nathan F. Taylor, Pasi Miettinen, Brett B. Palm, Santtu Mikkonen, Don R. Collins, Jose L. Jimenez, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11163–11176,Short summary
The phase state of ambient particles was inferred from bounce measurements conducted at a rural site in central Alabama during the SOAS campaign. The organic-dominated ambient particles are mostly in the liquid phase at summertime conditions but they turn semisolid when dried in the measurement setup. Bounce humidograms reveal that the hygroscopicity and oxidation of the particles decreases the liquefying RH. The effect of oxidation is emphasized by oxidation flow reactor measurements.
Giancarlo Ciarelli, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Monica Crippa, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Eriko Nemitz, Karine Sellegri, Mikko Äijälä, Samara Carbone, Claudia Mohr, Colin O'Dowd, Laurent Poulain, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10313–10332,Short summary
Recent studies based on aerosol mass spectrometer measurements revealed that the organic fraction dominates the non-refractory PM1 composition. However its representation in chemical transport models is still very challenging due to uncertainties in emission sources and formation pathways. In this study, a novel organic aerosol scheme was tested in the regional air quality model CAMx and results were compared with ambient measurements at 11 different sites in Europe.
Pawel K. Misztal, Jeremy C. Avise, Thomas Karl, Klaus Scott, Haflidi H. Jonsson, Alex B. Guenther, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9611–9628,Short summary
In this study, for the first time regional BVOC models are compared with direct regional measurements of fluxes from aircraft, allowing assessment of model accuracy at scales relevant to air quality modeling. We directly assess modeled isoprene emission inventories which are important for regional air quality simulations of ozone and secondary particle concentrations.
Matthew J. Alvarado, Chantelle R. Lonsdale, Helen L. Macintyre, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, David A. Ridley, Colette L. Heald, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Bruce E. Anderson, Michael J. Cubison, Jose L. Jimenez, Yutaka Kondo, Lokesh K. Sahu, Jack E. Dibb, and Chien Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9435–9455,Short summary
Understanding the scattering and absorption of light by aerosols is necessary for understanding air quality and climate change. We used data from the 2008 ARCTAS campaign to evaluate aerosol optical property models using a closure methodology that separates errors in these models from other errors in aerosol emissions, chemistry, or transport. We find that the models on average perform reasonably well, and make suggestions for how remaining biases could be reduced.
J. Kaiser, K. M. Skog, K. Baumann, S. B. Bertman, S. B. Brown, W. H. Brune, J. D. Crounse, J. A. de Gouw, E. S. Edgerton, P. A. Feiner, A. H. Goldstein, A. Koss, P. K. Misztal, T. B. Nguyen, K. F. Olson, J. M. St. Clair, A. P. Teng, S. Toma, P. O. Wennberg, R. J. Wild, L. Zhang, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9349–9359,Short summary
OH reactivity can be used to assess the amount of reactive carbon in an air mass. “Missing” reactivity is commonly found in forested environments and is attributed to either direct emissions of unmeasured volatile organic compounds or to unmeasured/underpredicted oxidation products. Using a box model and measurements from the 2013 SOAS campaign, we find only small discrepancies in measured and calculated reactivity. Our results suggest the discrepancies stem from unmeasured direct emissions.
Patrick Schlag, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Marcus Johannes Blom, Francesco Canonaco, Jeroen Sebastiaan Henzing, Marcel Moerman, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, and Rupert Holzinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8831–8847,Short summary
This work provides chemical composition data of atmospheric aerosols acquired during 1 year in the rural site of Cabauw, the Netherlands. In some periods, we found unexpected high particle mass concentrations exceeding the WHO limits. Using these composition data, we found that reducing ammonia emissions in this region would largely reduce the main aerosol component ammonium nitrate, whereas the local mitigation of the organics turned out to be difficult due to the lack of a designated source.
Alma Hodzic, Prasad S. Kasibhatla, Duseong S. Jo, Christopher D. Cappa, Jose L. Jimenez, Sasha Madronich, and Rokjin J. Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7917–7941,Short summary
The global budget and spatial distribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are highly uncertain in chemistry-climate models, which reflects our inability to characterize all phases of the OA lifecycle. We have performed global model simulations with the newly proposed formation and removal processes (photolysis and heterogeneous chemistry) and shown that SOA is a far more dynamic system, with 4 times stronger production rates and more efficient removal mechanisms, than assumed in models.
Luping Su, Edward G. Patton, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Alex B. Guenther, Lisa Kaser, Bin Yuan, Fulizi Xiong, Paul B. Shepson, Li Zhang, David O. Miller, William H. Brune, Karsten Baumann, Eric Edgerton, Andrew Weinheimer, Pawel K. Misztal, Jeong-Hoo Park, Allen H. Goldstein, Kate M. Skog, Frank N. Keutsch, and John E. Mak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7725–7741,
Paul S. Romer, Kaitlin C. Duffey, Paul J. Wooldridge, Hannah M. Allen, Benjamin R. Ayres, Steven S. Brown, William H. Brune, John D. Crounse, Joost de Gouw, Danielle C. Draper, Philip A. Feiner, Juliane L. Fry, Allen H. Goldstein, Abigail Koss, Pawel K. Misztal, Tran B. Nguyen, Kevin Olson, Alex P. Teng, Paul O. Wennberg, Robert J. Wild, Li Zhang, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7623–7637,Short summary
The lifetime of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is evaluated by analysis of field measurements from the southeastern United States. At warm temperatures in the daytime boundary layer, NOx interconverts rapidly with both PAN and alkyl and multifunctional nitrates (RONO2), and the relevant lifetime is the combined lifetime of these three classes. We find that the production of RONO2, followed by hydrolysis to produce nitric acid, is the dominant pathway for NOx removal in an isoprene dominated forest.
Amber M. Ortega, Patrick L. Hayes, Zhe Peng, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Douglas A. Day, Rui Li, Michael J. Cubison, William H. Brune, Martin Graus, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, William C. Kuster, Joost de Gouw, Cándido Gutiérrez-Montes, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7411–7433,Short summary
An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was deployed to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and aging of urban emissions at a wide range of OH exposures during the CalNex campaign in Pasadena, CA, in 2010. Results include linking SOA formation to short-lived reactive compounds, similar elemental composition of reactor-aged emissions to atmospheric aging, changes in OA mass due to condensation of oxidized gas-phase species and heterogeneous oxidation of particle-phase species.
Miriam Elser, Carlo Bozzetti, Imad El-Haddad, Marek Maasikmets, Erik Teinemaa, Rene Richter, Robert Wolf, Jay G. Slowik, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7117–7134,Short summary
This work presents the first detailed in-situ measurements of major air pollutants (including NR-PM2.5, eBC, and trace gases) in the two biggest cities in Estonia. The sources of organic aerosols were investigated by means of positive matrix factorization. Highly time-resolved mobile measurements allowed for the identification of source areas and the determination of regional background concentrations as well as urban increments of the individual components.
Jenny A. Fisher, Daniel J. Jacob, Katherine R. Travis, Patrick S. Kim, Eloise A. Marais, Christopher Chan Miller, Karen Yu, Lei Zhu, Robert M. Yantosca, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jingqiu Mao, Paul O. Wennberg, John D. Crounse, Alex P. Teng, Tran B. Nguyen, Jason M. St. Clair, Ronald C. Cohen, Paul Romer, Benjamin A. Nault, Paul J. Wooldridge, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Paul B. Shepson, Fulizi Xiong, Donald R. Blake, Allen H. Goldstein, Pawel K. Misztal, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas B. Ryerson, Armin Wisthaler, and Tomas Mikoviny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5969–5991,Short summary
We use new airborne and ground-based observations from two summer 2013 campaigns in the southeastern US, interpreted with a chemical transport model, to understand the impact of isoprene and monoterpene chemistry on the atmospheric NOx budget via production of organic nitrates (RONO2). We find that a diversity of species contribute to observed RONO2. Our work implies that the NOx sink to RONO2 production is only sensitive to NOx emissions in regions where they are already low.
Vidmantas Ulevicius, Steigvilė Byčenkienė, Carlo Bozzetti, Athanasia Vlachou, Kristina Plauškaitė, Genrik Mordas, Vadimas Dudoitis, Gülcin Abbaszade, Vidmantas Remeikis, Andrius Garbaras, Agne Masalaite, Jan Blees, Roman Fröhlich, Kaspar R. Dällenbach, Francesco Canonaco, Jay G. Slowik, Josef Dommen, Ralf Zimmermann, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Gary A. Salazar, Konstantinos Agrios, Sönke Szidat, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5513–5529,Short summary
In early spring the Baltic region is frequently affected by high pollution events due to biomass burning in that area. Here we present a comprehensive study to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning (BB) on the evolution and composition of aerosol in Preila, Lithuania, during springtime open fires.
Charles A. Brock, Nicholas L. Wagner, Bruce E. Anderson, Alexis R. Attwood, Andreas Beyersdorf, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Annmarie G. Carlton, Douglas A. Day, Glenn S. Diskin, Timothy D. Gordon, Jose L. Jimenez, Daniel A. Lack, Jin Liao, Milos Z. Markovic, Ann M. Middlebrook, Nga L. Ng, Anne E. Perring, Matthews S. Richardson, Joshua P. Schwarz, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Andre Welti, Lu Xu, Luke D. Ziemba, and Daniel M. Murphy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4987–5007,Short summary
Microscopic pollution particles make the atmosphere look hazy and also cool the earth by sending sunlight back to space. When the air is moist, these particles swell with water and scatter even more sunlight. We showed that particles formed from organic material – which dominates particulate pollution in the southeastern U.S. – does not take up water very effectively, toward the low end of most previous studies. We also found a better way to mathematically describe this swelling process.
Charles A. Brock, Nicholas L. Wagner, Bruce E. Anderson, Andreas Beyersdorf, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Glenn S. Diskin, Timothy D. Gordon, Jose L. Jimenez, Daniel A. Lack, Jin Liao, Milos Z. Markovic, Ann M. Middlebrook, Anne E. Perring, Matthews S. Richardson, Joshua P. Schwarz, Andre Welti, Luke D. Ziemba, and Daniel M. Murphy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5009–5019,Short summary
Two research aircraft made dozens of vertical profiles over rural areas in the southeastern US in summer 2013. These measurements show that, in addition to how much pollution was present and how moist the atmosphere was, the size of the pollutant particles affected how much sunlight was reflected back to space. These measurements will help climate modelers determine which characteristics of pollution are important to predict with accuracy.
S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. A. T. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Fan, G. Fisch, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. L. Jimenez, U. Pöschl, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785–4797,Short summary
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Leonid Nichman, Thomas B. Kristensen, Claudia Fuchs, Christopher R. Hoyle, Niko Höppel, Joel C. Corbin, Jill Craven, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El Haddad, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Tuija Jokinen, Peter Kallinger, Jasper Kirkby, Alexei Kiselev, Karl-Heinz Naumann, Tuukka Petäjä, Tamara Pinterich, Andre S. H. Prevot, Harald Saathoff, Thea Schiebel, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Jay G. Slowik, Jasmin Tröstl, Annele Virtanen, Paul Vochezer, Steffen Vogt, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Paul M. Winkler, Chao Yan, Urs Baltensperger, Neil M. Donahue, Rick C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ottmar Möhler, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4423–4438,
Brent J. Williams, Yaping Zhang, Xiaochen Zuo, Raul E. Martinez, Michael J. Walker, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Allen H. Goldstein, Kenneth S. Docherty, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1569–1586,Short summary
The thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG) has been used for in situ measurements of organic marker compounds to identify atmospheric particle sources and transformation processes. Here we identify that inorganic aerosol components (e.g., nitrate and sulfate) and highly oxygenated organic components experience thermal decomposition upon sample heating. This thermal decomposition signal in the TAG system is investigated through laboratory and field data.
Zhe Peng, Douglas A. Day, Amber M. Ortega, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Harald Stark, Rui Li, Kostas Tsigaridis, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4283–4305,Short summary
Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) are promising tools of studying atmospheric oxidation processes. Elevated concentrations of both OH and non-OH oxidants in OFRs leave room for speculation that non-OH chemistry can play a major role. Through systematic modeling, we find conditions where non-OH VOC fate is significant and show that, in most field studies of SOA using OFRs, non-OH VOC fate in OFRs was insignificant. We also provide guidelines helping OFR users avoid significant non-OH VOC oxidation.
Matthew C. Woody, Kirk R. Baker, Patrick L. Hayes, Jose L. Jimenez, Bonyoung Koo, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4081–4100,Short summary
In this work, organic aerosol (OA) predictions from the volatility basis set (VBS) module in the CMAQ photochemical transport model were evaluated against routine monitoring data and measurements collected during the 2010 CalNex field study. We found that the VBS module more accurately reproduced the observed primary/secondary OA split and secondary OA (SOA) mass at the CalNex Pasadena ground site compared to the traditional CMAQ OA module but still underpredicted observed SOA by ~ 5.2 ×.
Christos Fountoukis, Athanasios G. Megaritis, Ksakousti Skyllakou, Panagiotis E. Charalampidis, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Monica Crippa, André S. H. Prévôt, Friederike Fachinger, Alfred Wiedensohler, Christodoulos Pilinis, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3727–3741,Short summary
We use PMCAMx with high grid resolution over Paris to simulate carbonaceous aerosol during the summer and winter MEGAPOLI campaigns. PMCAMx reproduces BC observations well. Addition of cooking organic aerosol emissions of 80 mg per day per capita is needed to reproduce the corresponding observations. While the oxygenated organic aerosol predictions during the summer are encouraging a major wintertime source appears to be missing.
Miriam Elser, Ru-Jin Huang, Robert Wolf, Jay G. Slowik, Qiyuan Wang, Francesco Canonaco, Guohui Li, Carlo Bozzetti, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Yu Huang, Renjian Zhang, Zhengqiang Li, Junji Cao, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3207–3225,Short summary
This work represents the first online chemical characterization of the PM2.5 using a high-resolution time-of flight aerosol mass spectrometer during extreme haze events China. The application of novel source apportionment techniques allowed for an improved identification and quantification of the sources of organic aerosols. The main sources and processes driving the extreme haze events are assessed.
Christopher D. Cappa, Shantanu H. Jathar, Michael J. Kleeman, Kenneth S. Docherty, Jose L. Jimenez, John H. Seinfeld, and Anthony S. Wexler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3041–3059,Short summary
Losses of vapors to walls of chambers can negatively bias SOA formation measurements, consequently leading to low predicted SOA concentrations in air quality models. Here, we show that accounting for such vapor losses leads to substantial increases in the predicted amount of SOA formed from VOCs and to notable increases in the O : C atomic ratio in two US regions. Comparison with a variety of observational data suggests generally improved model performance when vapor wall losses are accounted for.
Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Amber M. Ortega, Douglas A. Day, Lisa Kaser, Werner Jud, Thomas Karl, Armin Hansel, James F. Hunter, Eben S. Cross, Jesse H. Kroll, Zhe Peng, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2943–2970,Short summary
Ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in a PAM oxidation flow reactor during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign to study secondary organic aerosol formation. Approximately 4.4 times more secondary organic aerosol was formed in the reactor than could be explained by the volatile organic gases (VOCs) measured in ambient air. The organic aerosol formation can be explained by including an SOA yield from typically unmeasured semivolatile and intermediate-volatility organic gases (S/IVOCs).
Junwen Liu, Jun Li, Di Liu, Ping Ding, Chengde Shen, Yangzhi Mo, Xinming Wang, Chunling Luo, Zhineng Cheng, Sönke Szidat, Yanlin Zhang, Yingjun Chen, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2985–2996,Short summary
Many Chinese cities now are suffering the high loadings of fine particular matters, which can bring a lot of negative impacts on air quality, human health, and the climate system. The Chinese government generally focuses on the control of the emissions from vehicles and industry. Our results evidently show that the burning of biomass materials such as wood and agricultural residues can lead to the urban air pollution in China. The characteristic of haze covering China is distinct from regions.
Andrea Paciga, Eleni Karnezi, Evangelia Kostenidou, Lea Hildebrandt, Magda Psichoudaki, Gabriella J. Engelhart, Byong-Hyoek Lee, Monica Crippa, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2013–2023,Short summary
We estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter field campaigns in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The OA factors (hydrocarbon like OA, cooking OA, marine OA, oxygenated OA) had a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and average oxygen to carbon of the OA components.
Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1895–1906,Short summary
As a least-regulated source, ship emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. We used an air quality model to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual and seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and dry and wet deposition of N and S compounds in Europe. The results presented in this paper suggest evolution of NOx emissions from ships and land-based NH3 emissions will play a significant role in the future European air quality.
C. R. Hoyle, C. Fuchs, E. Järvinen, H. Saathoff, A. Dias, I. El Haddad, M. Gysel, S. C. Coburn, J. Tröstl, A.-K. Bernhammer, F. Bianchi, M. Breitenlechner, J. C. Corbin, J. Craven, N. M. Donahue, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, C. Frege, H. Gordon, N. Höppel, M. Heinritzi, T. B. Kristensen, U. Molteni, L. Nichman, T. Pinterich, A. S. H. Prévôt, M. Simon, J. G. Slowik, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, A. L. Vogel, R. Volkamer, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, A. S. Wexler, C. Williamson, P. M. Winkler, C. Yan, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, M. W. Gallagher, R. C. Flagan, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, M. Kulmala, O. Möhler, F. Stratmann, D. R. Worsnop, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1693–1712,Short summary
A significant portion of sulphate, an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, is formed via the aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone. The rate of this reaction has previously only been measured over a relatively small temperature range. Here, we use the state of the art CLOUD chamber at CERN to perform the first measurements of this reaction rate in super-cooled droplets, confirming that the existing extrapolation of the reaction rate to sub-zero temperatures is accurate.
E. A. Marais, D. J. Jacob, J. L. Jimenez, P. Campuzano-Jost, D. A. Day, W. Hu, J. Krechmer, L. Zhu, P. S. Kim, C. C. Miller, J. A. Fisher, K. Travis, K. Yu, T. F. Hanisco, G. M. Wolfe, H. L. Arkinson, H. O. T. Pye, K. D. Froyd, J. Liao, and V. F. McNeill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1603–1618,Short summary
Isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a dominant aerosol component in the southeast US, but models routinely underestimate isoprene SOA with traditional schemes based on chamber studies operated under conditions not representative of isoprene-emitting forests. We develop a new irreversible uptake mechanism to reproduce isoprene SOA yields (3.3 %) and composition, and find a factor of 2 co-benefit of SO2 emission controls on reducing sulfate and organic aerosol in the southeast US.
A. W. H. Chan, N. M. Kreisberg, T. Hohaus, P. Campuzano-Jost, Y. Zhao, D. A. Day, L. Kaser, T. Karl, A. Hansel, A. P. Teng, C. R. Ruehl, D. T. Sueper, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, J. L. Jimenez, S. V. Hering, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1187–1205,Short summary
Using a novel instrument, we have made measurements of organic compounds that can exist as a gas or particle in the rural atmosphere. Through hourly measurements, we have identified the sources and atmospheric processes of these compounds, which are important for modeling the climate and health impact of these emissions.
L. Xu, L. R. Williams, D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, P. Massoli, E. Fortner, P. Chhabra, S. Herndon, W. A. Brooks, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, A. C. Aiken, S. Liu, K. Gorkowski, M. K. Dubey, Z. L. Fleming, S. Visser, A. S. H. Prévôt, and N. L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1139–1160,Short summary
We investigate the spatial distribution of submicron aerosol in the greater London area as part of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Although the concentrations of organic aerosol (OA) are similar between a rural and an urban site, the OA sources are different. We also examine the volatility of submicron aerosol at the rural site and find that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical processing as refractory black carbon.
L. M. Zamora, R. A. Kahn, M. J. Cubison, G. S. Diskin, J. L. Jimenez, Y. Kondo, G. M. McFarquhar, A. Nenes, K. L. Thornhill, A. Wisthaler, A. Zelenyuk, and L. D. Ziemba
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 715–738,Short summary
Based on extensive aircraft campaigns, we quantify how biomass burning smoke affects subarctic and Arctic liquid cloud microphysical properties. Enhanced cloud albedo may decrease short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 Wm2 or more in some subarctic conditions. Smoke halved average cloud droplet diameter. In one case study, it also appeared to limit droplet formation. Numerous Arctic background Aitken particles can also interact with combustion particles, perhaps affecting their properties.
K. R. Daellenbach, C. Bozzetti, A. Křepelová, F. Canonaco, R. Wolf, P. Zotter, P. Fermo, M. Crippa, J. G. Slowik, Y. Sosedova, Y. Zhang, R.-J. Huang, L. Poulain, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. El Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 23–39,Short summary
In this study, we developed an offline technique using the AMS for the characterization of the chemical fingerprints of aerosols collected on quartz filters, and evaluated the suitability of the organic mass spectral data for source apportionment. This technique may be used to enhance the AMS capabilities in measuring size-fractionated, spatially resolved long-term data sets.
J. Timkovsky, A. W. H. Chan, T. Dorst, A. H. Goldstein, B. Oyama, and R. Holzinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5177–5187,
S. J. Lawson, M. D. Keywood, I. E. Galbally, J. L. Gras, J. M. Cainey, M. E. Cope, P. B. Krummel, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, S. T. Bentley, C. P. Meyer, Z. Ristovski, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13393–13411,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) plumes were opportunistically measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Station in Tasmania, Australia. We provide a unique set of trace gas and particle emission factors for temperate Australian coastal heathland fires, and attribute a major short-lived enhancement in emission ratios to a minor rainfall event. The ability of BB particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei, and the contribution of BB emissions to observed particle growth and ozone enhancements are discussed.
B. R. Ayres, H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, S. S. Brown, R. J. Wild, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, P. Campuzano-Jost, W. Hu, J. de Gouw, A. Koss, R. C. Cohen, K. C. Duffey, P. Romer, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Takahama, J. A. Thornton, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, P. O. Wennberg, T. B. Nguyen, A. Teng, A. H. Goldstein, K. Olson, and J. L. Fry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13377–13392,Short summary
This paper reports atmospheric gas- and aerosol-phase field measurements from the southeastern United States in summer 2013 to demonstrate that the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by nitrate radical produces a substantial amount of secondary organic aerosol in this region. This process, driven largely by monoterpenes, results in a comparable aerosol nitrate production rate to inorganic nitrate formation by heterogeneous uptake of HNO3 onto dust particles.
V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. L. Croteau, S. Verlhac, R. Fröhlich, C. A. Belis, W. Aas, M. Äijälä, A. Alastuey, B. Artiñano, D. Baisnée, N. Bonnaire, M. Bressi, M. Canagaratna, F. Canonaco, C. Carbone, F. Cavalli, E. Coz, M. J. Cubison, J. K. Esser-Gietl, D. C. Green, V. Gros, L. Heikkinen, H. Herrmann, C. Lunder, M. C. Minguillón, G. Močnik, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, J.-E. Petit, E. Petralia, L. Poulain, M. Priestman, V. Riffault, A. Ripoll, R. Sarda-Estève, J. G. Slowik, A. Setyan, A. Wiedensohler, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. T. Jayne, and O. Favez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5063–5087,Short summary
A large intercomparison study of 13 Q-ACSM was conducted for a 3-week period in the region of Paris to evaluate the performance of this instrument and to monitor the major NR-PM1 chemical components. Reproducibility expanded uncertainties of Q-ACSM concentration measurements were found to be 9, 15, 19, 28, and 36% for NR-PM1, NO3, OM, SO4, and NH4, respectively. Some recommendations regarding best calibration practices, standardized data processing and data treatment are also provided.
Z. Peng, D. A. Day, H. Stark, R. Li, J. Lee-Taylor, B. B. Palm, W. H. Brune, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4863–4890,
A. Guha, D. R. Gentner, R. J. Weber, R. Provencal, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12043–12063,Short summary
We perform a positive matrix factorization (PMF)-based source apportionment by combining GHG measurements with coincident VOC measurements in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Using VOCs as source tracers, we identify dairies and livestock as major sources of CH4 and N2O in the region. Agriculture is a significant source of N2O enhancements too, while vehicle emissions are found to be a negligible source of N2O. The findings are relevant to the state’s GHG inventory verification process.
W. W. Hu, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, D. A. Day, A. M. Ortega, P. L. Hayes, J. E. Krechmer, Q. Chen, M. Kuwata, Y. J. Liu, S. S. de Sá, K. McKinney, S. T. Martin, M. Hu, S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. Riva, J. D. Surratt, J. M. St. Clair, G. Isaacman-Van Wertz, L. D. Yee, A. H. Goldstein, S. Carbone, J. Brito, P. Artaxo, J. A. de Gouw, A. Koss, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, T. Karl, L. Kaser, W. Jud, A. Hansel, K. S. Docherty, M. L. Alexander, N. H. Robinson, H. Coe, J. D. Allan, M. R. Canagaratna, F. Paulot, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11807–11833,Short summary
This work summarized all the studies reporting isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) measured globally by aerosol mass spectrometer and compare them with modeled gas-phase IEPOX, with results suggestive of the importance of IEPOX-SOA for regional and global OA budgets. A real-time tracer of IEPOX-SOA is thoroughly evaluated for the first time by combing multiple field and chamber studies. A quick and easy empirical method on IEPOX-SOA estimation is also presented.
R. Fröhlich, M. J. Cubison, J. G. Slowik, N. Bukowiecki, F. Canonaco, P. L. Croteau, M. Gysel, S. Henne, E. Herrmann, J. T. Jayne, M. Steinbacher, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11373–11398,Short summary
This manuscript presents the first long-term (14-month) and highly time-resolved (10 min) measurements of NR-PM1 aerosol chemical composition at a high-altitude site (JFJ, Switzerland, 3580m a.s.l.). The elevated location allowed the investigation of free tropospheric aerosol year round. Total and relative mass loadings, diurnal variations as well as seasonal variations are discussed together with geographical origin, organic aerosol sources and the influence of the planetary boundary layer.
F. Xiong, K. M. McAvey, K. A. Pratt, C. J. Groff, M. A. Hostetler, M. A. Lipton, T. K. Starn, J. V. Seeley, S. B. Bertman, A. P. Teng, J. D. Crounse, T. B. Nguyen, P. O. Wennberg, P. K. Misztal, A. H. Goldstein, A. B. Guenther, A. R. Koss, K. F. Olson, J. A. de Gouw, K. Baumann, E. S. Edgerton, P. A. Feiner, L. Zhang, D. O. Miller, W. H. Brune, and P. B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11257–11272,Short summary
Hydroxynitrates from isoprene oxidation were quantified both in the laboratory and through field studies. The yield of hydroxynitrates 9(+4/-3)% derived from chamber experiments was applied in a zero-dimensional model to simulate the production and loss of isoprene hydroxynitrates in an ambient environment during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). NOx was determined to be the limiting factor for the formation of isoprene hydroxynitrates during SOAS.
P. S. Kim, D. J. Jacob, J. A. Fisher, K. Travis, K. Yu, L. Zhu, R. M. Yantosca, M. P. Sulprizio, J. L. Jimenez, P. Campuzano-Jost, K. D. Froyd, J. Liao, J. W. Hair, M. A. Fenn, C. F. Butler, N. L. Wagner, T. D. Gordon, A. Welti, P. O. Wennberg, J. D. Crounse, J. M. St. Clair, A. P. Teng, D. B. Millet, J. P. Schwarz, M. Z. Markovic, and A. E. Perring
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10411–10433,
G. O. Mouteva, S. M. Fahrni, G. M. Santos, J. T. Randerson, Y.-L. Zhang, S. Szidat, and C. I. Czimczik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3729–3743,Short summary
We describe a stepwise uncertainty analysis of 14C measurements of organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon fractions of aerosols. Using the Swiss_4S thermal-optical protocol with a newly established trapping setup, we show that we can efficiently isolate and trap each carbon fraction and perform 14C analysis of ultra-small OC and EC samples with high accuracy and low 14C blanks. Our study presents a first step towards the development of a common protocol for OC and EC 14C measurements.
M. Beekmann, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Drewnick, J. Sciare, S. N. Pandis, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Crippa, F. Freutel, L. Poulain, V. Ghersi, E. Rodriguez, S. Beirle, P. Zotter, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Bressi, C. Fountoukis, H. Petetin, S. Szidat, J. Schneider, A. Rosso, I. El Haddad, A. Megaritis, Q. J. Zhang, V. Michoud, J. G. Slowik, S. Moukhtar, P. Kolmonen, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, A. Borbon, V. Gros, N. Marchand, J. L. Jaffrezo, A. Schwarzenboeck, A. Colomb, A. Wiedensohler, S. Borrmann, M. Lawrence, A. Baklanov, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9577–9591,Short summary
A detailed characterization of air quality in the Paris (France) agglomeration, a megacity, during two summer and winter intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations, revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported into the megacity from upwind regions. Unexpectedly, a major part of organic PM is of modern origin (woodburning and cooking activities, secondary formation from biogenic VOC).
A. Hodzic, S. Madronich, P. S. Kasibhatla, G. Tyndall, B. Aumont, J. L. Jimenez, J. Lee-Taylor, and J. Orlando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9253–9269,Short summary
Our study combines process and global chemistry modeling to investigate the potential effect of gas- and particle-phase organic photolysis reactions on the formation and lifetime of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Photolysis of the oxidation intermediates that partition between gas and particle phases to form SOA is not included in 3D models. Our results suggest that exposure to UV light can suppress the formation of SOA or even lead to its substantial loss (comparable to wet deposition).
J. Liu, E. Scheuer, J. Dibb, G. S. Diskin, L. D. Ziemba, K. L. Thornhill, B. E. Anderson, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, J. J. Devi, M. Bergin, A. E. Perring, M. Z. Markovic, J. P. Schwarz, P. Campuzano-Jost, D. A. Day, J. L. Jimenez, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7841–7858,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) is found throughout the US continental troposphere during a summer of extensive biomass burning and its prevalence relative to black carbon (BC) increases with altitude. A radiative transfer model based on direct measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption by BC and BrC shows BrC reduces top-of-atmosphere forcing by 20%. A method to estimate BrC radiative forcing efficiencies from surface-based measurements is provided.
G. Wohlfahrt, C. Amelynck, C. Ammann, A. Arneth, I. Bamberger, A. H. Goldstein, L. Gu, A. Guenther, A. Hansel, B. Heinesch, T. Holst, L. Hörtnagl, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, A. Neftel, K. McKinney, J. W. Munger, S. G. Pallardy, G. W. Schade, R. Seco, and N. Schoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7413–7427,Short summary
Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates. Here we present micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight sites in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial methanol exchange.
N. L. Wagner, C. A. Brock, W. M. Angevine, A. Beyersdorf, P. Campuzano-Jost, D. Day, J. A. de Gouw, G. S. Diskin, T. D. Gordon, M. G. Graus, J. S. Holloway, G. Huey, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Lack, J. Liao, X. Liu, M. Z. Markovic, A. M. Middlebrook, T. Mikoviny, J. Peischl, A. E. Perring, M. S. Richardson, T. B. Ryerson, J. P. Schwarz, C. Warneke, A. Welti, A. Wisthaler, L. D. Ziemba, and D. M. Murphy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7085–7102,Short summary
This paper investigates the summertime vertical profile of aerosol over the southeastern US using in situ measurements collected from aircraft. We use a vertical mixing model and measurements of CO to predict the vertical profile of aerosol that we would expect from vertical mixing alone and compare with the observed aerosol profile. We found a modest enhancement of aerosol in the cloudy transition layer during shallow cumulus convection and attribute the enhancement to local aerosol formation.
F. Canonaco, J. G. Slowik, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6993–7002,
M. C. Woody, J. J. West, S. H. Jathar, A. L. Robinson, and S. Arunachalam
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6929–6942,Short summary
Utilizing an aircraft-specific parameterization based on smog chamber data in a regional AQM, contributions of non-traditional secondary organic aerosols (NTSOA) from aircraft emissions of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds were assessed. NTSOA, a previously unaccounted component of PM2.5 in most AQMs, contributed up to 7.4% of aviation-attributable PM2.5 at the airport and rose to 17.9% downwind, suggesting its significance in aviation-attributed PM2.5 at all scales.
R. Fröhlich, V. Crenn, A. Setyan, C. A. Belis, F. Canonaco, O. Favez, V. Riffault, J. G. Slowik, W. Aas, M. Aijälä, A. Alastuey, B. Artiñano, N. Bonnaire, C. Bozzetti, M. Bressi, C. Carbone, E. Coz, P. L. Croteau, M. J. Cubison, J. K. Esser-Gietl, D. C. Green, V. Gros, L. Heikkinen, H. Herrmann, J. T. Jayne, C. R. Lunder, M. C. Minguillón, G. Močnik, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, E. Petralia, L. Poulain, M. Priestman, A. Ripoll, R. Sarda-Estève, A. Wiedensohler, U. Baltensperger, J. Sciare, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2555–2576,Short summary
Source apportionment (SA) of organic aerosol mass spectrometric data measured with the Aerodyne ACSM using PMF/ME2 is a frequently used technique in the AMS/ACSM community. ME2 uncertainties due to instrument-to-instrument variations are elucidated by performing SA on ambient data from 14 individual, co-located ACSMs, recorded during the first ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison study at SIRTA near Paris (France). The mean uncertainty was 17.2%. Recommendations for future studies using ME2 are provided.
M. C. Minguillón, A. Ripoll, N. Pérez, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Canonaco, X. Querol, and A. Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6379–6391,Short summary
The study focuses on the aerosol variations found in the regional background of the western Mediterranean basin and their relation with atmospheric conditions and scenarios. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was deployed for 1 year and the results were validated with co-located PM1 measurements. The organic sources were investigated and the local secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation was estimated.
M. J. Cubison and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2333–2345,
P. L. Hayes, A. G. Carlton, K. R. Baker, R. Ahmadov, R. A. Washenfelder, S. Alvarez, B. Rappenglück, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, J. A. de Gouw, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, S. Szidat, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, P. K. Ma, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5773–5801,Short summary
(1) Four different parameterizations for the formation and chemical evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a box model representing the Los Angeles region during the CalNex campaign. (2) The SOA formed only from the oxidation of VOCs is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations. (3) The amount of SOA mass formed from diesel vehicle emissions is estimated to be 16-27%. (4) Modeled SOA depends strongly on the P-S/IVOC volatility distribution.
J. P. Krüger, J. Leifeld, S. Glatzel, S. Szidat, and C. Alewell
Biogeosciences, 12, 2861–2871,Short summary
Biogeochemical soil parameters are studied to detect peatland degradation along a land use gradient (intensive, extensive, near-natural). Stable carbon isotopes, radiocarbon ages and ash content confirm peat growth in the near-natural bog but also indicate previous degradation. When the bog is managed extensively or intensively as grassland, all parameters indicate degradation and substantial C loss of the order of 18.8 to 42.9 kg C m-2.
K. R. Baker, A. G. Carlton, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, M. R. Beaver, D. R. Gentner, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, J. B. Gilman, J. A. de Gouw, M. C. Woody, H. O. T. Pye, J. T. Kelly, M. Lewandowski, M. Jaoui, P. S. Stevens, W. H. Brune, Y.-H. Lin, C. L. Rubitschun, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5243–5258,Short summary
This work details the evaluation of PM2.5 carbon, VOC precursors, and OH estimated by the CMAQ photochemical transport model using routine and special measurements from the 2010 CalNex field study. Here, CMAQ and most recent emissions inventory (2011 NEI) are used to generate model PM2.5 OC estimates that are examined in novel ways including primary vs. secondary formation, fossil vs. contemporary carbon, OH and HO2 evaluation, and the relationship between key VOC precursors and SOC tracers.
J. R. Roscioli, T. I. Yacovitch, C. Floerchinger, A. L. Mitchell, D. S. Tkacik, R. Subramanian, D. M. Martinez, T. L. Vaughn, L. Williams, D. Zimmerle, A. L. Robinson, S. C. Herndon, and A. J. Marchese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2017–2035,Short summary
This report presents an overview and detailed description of the measurement methods, analysis approach, and example data from a 10-week EDF-sponsored field campaign measuring methane emissions from natural gas gathering and processing facilities across the US. The dual-tracer ratio method was employed to quantify methane release rates and identify emission sources at a wide variety of facilities, using downwind measurements of CH4, C2H6, CO2, and CO with N2O and C2H2 as tracers.
L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, C. Ruckstuhl, E. Coz, M. Rupakheti, J. Sciare, T. Müller, A. Wiedensohler, and A. D. A. Hansen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1965–1979,Short summary
We present a new real-time algorithm for compensation of the filter-loading effect in filter photometers, based on a two parallel spot measurement of optical absorption. This algorithm has been incorporated into the new Aethalometer AE33. Intercomparison studies show excellent reproducibility of the AE33 measurements and very good agreement with post-processed data obtained using earlier aethalometer models and other filter-based absorption photometers.
Q. Chen, D. K. Farmer, L. V. Rizzo, T. Pauliquevis, M. Kuwata, T. G. Karl, A. Guenther, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, J. L. Jimenez, P. Artaxo, and S. T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3687–3701,Short summary
Submicron particle mass concentration in the Amazon during the wet season of 2008 was dominated by organic material. The PMF analysis finds a comparable importance of gas-phase (gas-to-particle condensation) and particle-phase (reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products, especially of epoxydiols to acidic haze, fog, or cloud droplets) production of secondary organic material during the study period, together accounting for >70% of the organic-particle mass concentration.
L. R. Crilley, W. J. Bloss, J. Yin, D. C. S. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, M. Flynn, P. Williams, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prevot, M. R. Heal, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, J. D. Lee, S. Szidat, and C. Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3149–3171,Short summary
Wood is a renewable fuel but its combustion for residential heating releases a number of locally acting air pollutants, most notably particulate matter known to have adverse effects on human health. This paper used chemical tracers for wood smoke to estimate the contribution that burning wood makes to concentrations of airborne particles in the atmosphere of southern England and most particularly in London.
A. Ripoll, M. C. Minguillón, J. Pey, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, Y. Sosedova, F. Canonaco, A. S. H. Prévôt, X. Querol, and A. Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2935–2951,Short summary
Real-time measurements of inorganic (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride and black carbon (BC)) and organic submicron aerosols from a continental background site (Montsec, MSC, 1570m a.s.l.) in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB) were conducted for 10 months (July 2011 - April 2012) with an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM). The ACSM was co-located with other online and offline PM1 measurements. Analyses of the hourly, diurnal, and seasonal variations are presented here.
E. A. Bruns, M. Krapf, J. Orasche, Y. Huang, R. Zimmermann, L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, I. El-Haddad, J. G. Slowik, J. Dommen, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2825–2841,Short summary
Residential wood combustion contributes significantly to the total atmospheric particulate burden; however, uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. The effects of wood loading on freshly emitted and aged emissions were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which negatively impact health, contributed more to the total organic aerosol under highly loaded burner conditions, which has significant implications for burner operation protocols.
B. Yuan, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, J. M. Roberts, J. B. Gilman, A. Koss, P. M. Edwards, M. Graus, W. C. Kuster, S.-M. Li, R. J. Wild, S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, J. E. Johnson, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, B. Lefer, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, R. J. Weber, R. Zamora, B. Ervens, D. B. Millet, B. Rappenglück, and J. A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1975–1993,Short summary
In this work, secondary formation of formic acid at an urban site and a site in an oil and gas production region is studied. We investigated various gas phase formation pathways of formic acid, including those recently proposed, using a box model. The contributions from aerosol-related processes, fog events and air-snow exchange to formic acid are also quantified.
J. Kaiser, G. M. Wolfe, B. Bohn, S. Broch, H. Fuchs, L. N. Ganzeveld, S. Gomm, R. Häseler, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, J. Jäger, X. Li, I. Lohse, K. Lu, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Rohrer, R. Wegener, R. Wolf, T. F. Mentel, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. Wahner, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1289–1298,Short summary
Using measurements acquired from a Zeppelin airship during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign, we show that VOC oxidation alone cannot account for the formaldehyde concentrations observed in the morning over rural Italy. Vertical profiles suggest a ground-level source of HCHO. Incorporating this additional HCHO source into a photochemical model increases calculated O3 production by as much as 12%.
Y.-L. Zhang, R.-J. Huang, I. El Haddad, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, P. Zotter, C. Bozzetti, K. R. Daellenbach, F. Canonaco, J. G. Slowik, G. Salazar, M. Schwikowski, J. Schnelle-Kreis, G. Abbaszade, R. Zimmermann, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, and S. Szidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1299–1312,Short summary
Source apportionment of fine carbonaceous aerosols using radiocarbon and other organic markers measurements during 2013 winter haze episodes was conducted at four megacities in China. Our results demonstrate that fossil emissions predominate EC with a mean contribution of 75±8%, whereas non-fossil sources account for 55±10% of OC; and the increment of TC on heavily polluted days was mainly driven by the increase of secondary OC from both fossil-fuel and non-fossil emissions.
Y. J. Zhang, L. L. Tang, Z. Wang, H. X. Yu, Y. L. Sun, D. Liu, W. Qin, F. Canonaco, A. S. H. Prévôt, H. L. Zhang, and H. C. Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1331–1349,Short summary
The chemical composition, sources, and evolution processes of PM1 were investigated with an Aerody