Articles | Volume 18, issue 10
Research article 28 May 2018
Research article | 28 May 2018
Identification of secondary aerosol precursors emitted by an aircraft turbofan
Doğuşhan Kılıç et al.
No articles found.
Kai Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Martin Brüggemann, Yun Zhang, Lu Yang, Haiyan Ni, Jie Guo, Meng Wang, Jiajun Han, Merete Bilde, Marianne Glasius, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9089–9104,Short summary
Here we present the detailed molecular composition of the organic aerosol collected in three eastern Chinese cities from north to south, Changchun, Shanghai and Guangzhou, by applying LC–Orbitrap analysis. Accordingly, the aromaticity degree of chemical compounds decreases from north to south, while the oxidation degree increases from north to south, which can be explained by the different anthropogenic emissions and photochemical oxidation processes.
Wei Xu, Kirsten N. Fossum, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Chunshui Lin, Ru-Jin Huang, Colin O'Dowd, and Darius Ceburnis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8655–8675,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are an important topic in atmospheric studies, especially for evaluating the climate impact of aerosol. Here in this study, CCN closure is studied by using chemical composition based on an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and hygroscopicity growth measurements based on a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) at the Mace Head atmospheric research station.
Dongyu S. Wang, Chuan Ping Lee, Jordan E. Krechmer, Francesca Majluf, Yandong Tong, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Julia Schmale, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Imad El Haddad, Jay G. Slowik, and David M. Bell
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
To understand the sources and fate of particulate matters in the atmosphere, the ability to quantitatively describe their chemical composition is essential. In this work, we developed a calibration method for a state-of-the-art measurement technique without the need for chemical standards. Statistical analyses identified for the firs time the driving factors behind instrument sensitivity variability towards individual components of particulate matters.
Dac-Loc Nguyen, Hendryk Czech, Simone M. Pieber, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Martin Steinbacher, Jürgen Orasche, Stephan Henne, Olga B. Popovicheva, Gülcin Abbaszade, Guenter Engling, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Nhat-Anh Nguyen, Xuan-Anh Nguyen, and Ralf Zimmermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8293–8312,Short summary
Southeast Asia is well-known for emission-intense and recurring wildfires and after-harvest crop residue burning during the pre-monsoon season from February to April. We describe a biomass burning (BB) plume arriving at remote Pha Din meteorological station, outline its carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) constituents based on more than 50 target compounds and discuss possible BB sources. This study adds valuable information on chemical PM composition for a region with scarce data availability.
Siqi Hou, Di Liu, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Xuefang Wu, Deepchandra Srivastava, Pingqing Fu, Linjie Li, Yele Sun, Athanasia Vlachou, Vaios Moschos, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, André S. H. Prévôt, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8273–8292,Short summary
This study provides a newly developed method which combines radiocarbon (14C) with organic tracers to enable source apportionment of primary and secondary fossil vs. non-fossil sources of carbonaceous aerosols at an urban and a rural site of Beijing. The source apportionment results were compared with those by chemical mass balance and AMS/ACSM-PMF methods. Correlations of WINSOC and WSOC with different sources of OC were also performed to elucidate the formation mechanisms of SOC.
Karl Espen Yttri, Francesco Canonaco, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Hans Gundersen, Anne-Gunn Hjellbrekke, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, André S. H. Prévôt, David Simpson, Sverre Solberg, Jason Surratt, Kjetil Tørseth, Hilde Uggerud, Marit Vadset, Xin Wan, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7149–7170,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosol sources and trends were studied at the Birkenes Observatory. A large decrease in elemental carbon (EC; 2001–2018) and a smaller decline in levoglucosan (2008–2018) suggest that organic carbon (OC)/EC from traffic/industry is decreasing, whereas the abatement of OC/EC from biomass burning has been less successful. Positive matrix factorization apportioned 72 % of EC to fossil fuel sources and 53 % (PM2.5) and 78 % (PM10–2.5) of OC to biogenic sources.
David M. Bell, Cheng Wu, Amelie Bertrand, Emelie Graham, Janne Schoonbaert, Stamatios Giannoukos, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, Ilona Riipinen, Imad El Haddad, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
A series of studies designed to investigate the evolution of organic aerosol were performed in an atmospheric simulation chamber, using an oxidant found at night (NO3). The chemical composition steadily changed from its initial composition through different chemical reactions taking place inside of the aerosol. These results show the composition of organic aerosol is steadily changing during its lifetime in the atmosphere.
Chao Peng, Patricia N. Razafindrambinina, Kotiba A. Malek, Lanxiadi Chen, Weigang Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Yuqing Zhang, Xiang Ding, Maofa Ge, Xinming Wang, Akua A. Asa-Awuku, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7135–7148,Short summary
Organosulfates are important constituents in tropospheric aerosol particles, but their hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activities are not well understood. In our work, three complementary techniques were employed to investigate the interactions of 11 organosulfates with water vapor under sub- and supersaturated conditions.
Cheng Wu, David Bell, Emelie L. Graham, Sophie Haslett, Ilona Riipinen, Urs Baltensperger, Amelie Bertrand, Stamatios Giannoukos, Janne Schoonbaert, Imad El Haddad, Andre S. H. Prevot, Wei Huang, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Night-time reactions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and nitrate radicals can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (BSOANO3). Here we study the impacts of light exposure on the BSOANO3 from three biogenic precursors. Our results suggest that photolysis causes photodegradation of a substantial fraction of BSOANO3, changes their chemical composition and bulk volatility, and might be a potentially important loss pathway of BSOANO3 during the night-to-day transition.
Wenfei Zhu, Song Guo, Min Hu, Zirui Zhang, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Zheng Chen, Ruizhe Shen, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Kefan Liu, Rongzhi Tang, Yi Liu, Shengrong Lou, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Shijin Shuai, Hongming Xu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Francesco Canonaco, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The experiments of primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from urban lifestyle sources (cooking and vehicle) were conducted. The mass spectral features of primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA were characterized by using high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. The work, for the first time, establishes the vehicle and cooking SOA source profiles, and can be further used as source constraints in the OA source apportionment in the ambient atmosphere.
Dalrin Ampritta Amaladhasan, Claudia Heyn, Christopher R. Hoyle, Imad El Haddad, Miriam Elser, Simone M. Pieber, Jay G. Slowik, Antonio Amorim, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Vladimir Makhmutov, Ugo Molteni, Matti Rissanen, Yuri Stozhkov, Robert Wagner, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Rainer Volkamer, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We employ a combination of models for gas-phase chemical reactions and equilibrium gas-particle partitioning of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) informed by dark ozonolysis experiments conducted in the CLOUD chamber. Our predictions cover high to low relative humidities (RH) and quantify how SOA mass yields are enhanced at high RH as well as the impact of inorganic seeds of distinct hygroscopicities and acidities on the coupled partitioning of water and semivolatile organics.
Chuan Ping Lee, Mihnea Surdu, David M. Bell, Houssni Lamkaddam, Mingyi Wang, Farnoush Ataei, Victoria Hofbauer, Brandon Lopez, Neil M. Donahue, Josef Dommen, Andre S. H. Prevot, Jay G. Slowik, Dongyu Wang, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
The extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been deployed for high throughput online detection of analyte particles with minimal fragmentations for decades. Our studies elucidate the extraction mechanism between analyte particles of different properties and charged electrospray droplets at different sizes. The results show that the extraction is a complete coalesce but is limited by the coalesce efficiency at different sizes, affecting the quantification accuracy.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Francesco Canonaco, Griša Močnik, Pragati Rai, Gang Chen, Jakub Bartyzel, Miroslaw Zimnoch, Katarzyna Styszko, Jaroslaw Nęcki, Markus Furger, Kazimierz Różański, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Krakow is among the cities with the highest particulate matter levels within Europe. We conducted long-term and highly time resolved measurements of the chemical composition of submicron particlulate matter (PM1). Combined with advanced source apportionment techniques, which allow for time-dependent factor profiles, our data elucidate key emission sources that influence the PM1 concentrations in Krakow.
Jianhui Jiang, Imad El Haddad, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giulia Stefenelli, Amelie Bertrand, Nicolas Marchand, Francesco Canonaco, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Stefania Gilardoni, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1681–1697,Short summary
We developed a box model with a volatility basis set to simulate organic aerosol (OA) from biomass burning and optimized the vapor-wall-loss-corrected OA yields with a genetic algorithm. The optimized parameterizations were then implemented in the air quality model CAMx v6.5. Comparisons with ambient measurements indicate that the vapor-wall-loss-corrected parameterization effectively improves the model performance in predicting OA, which reduced the mean fractional bias from −72.9 % to −1.6 %.
Wei Yuan, Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Ting Wang, Jing Duan, Jie Guo, Haiyan Ni, Yang Chen, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Ulrike Dusek, Colin O'Dowd, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3685–3697,Short summary
We characterized the seasonal variations in nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) in composition, sources, and their light absorption contribution to brown carbon (BrC) aerosol in Xi'an, Northwest China. Our results show that secondary formation and vehicular emission were dominant sources in summer (~80 %), and biomass burning and coal combustion were major sources in winter (~75 %), and they indicate that the composition and sources of NACs have a profound impact on the light absorption of BrC
Jingchuan Chen, Zhijun Wu, Jie Chen, Naama Reicher, Xin Fang, Yinon Rudich, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3491–3506,Short summary
Asian mineral dust is a crucial contributor to global ice-nucleating particles (INPs), while its size-resolved information on freezing activity is extremely rare. Here we conducted the first known INP measurements of size-resolved airborne East Asian dust particles. An explicit size dependence of both INP concentration and surface ice-active-site density was observed. The new parameterizations can be widely applied in models to better characterize and predict ice nucleation activities of dust.
Rosaria E. Pileci, Robin L. Modini, Michele Bertò, Jinfeng Yuan, Joel C. Corbin, Angela Marinoni, Bas Henzing, Marcel M. Moerman, Jean P. Putaud, Gerald Spindler, Birgit Wehner, Thomas Müller, Thomas Tuch, Arianna Trentini, Marco Zanatta, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1379–1403,Short summary
Black carbon (BC), which is an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, remains difficult to quantify due to various limitations of available methods. This study provides an extensive comparison of co-located field measurements, applying two methods based on different principles. It was shown that both methods indeed quantify the same aerosol property – BC mass concentration. The level of agreement that can be expected was quantified, and some reasons for discrepancy were identified.
Francesco Canonaco, Anna Tobler, Gang Chen, Yulia Sosedova, Jay Gates Slowik, Carlo Bozzetti, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Imad El Haddad, Monica Crippa, Ru-Jin Huang, Markus Furger, Urs Baltensperger, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 923–943,Short summary
Long-term ambient aerosol mass spectrometric data were analyzed with a statistical model (PMF) to obtain source contributions and fingerprints. The new aspects of this paper involve time-dependent source fingerprints by a rolling technique and the replacement of the full visual inspection of each run by a user-defined set of criteria to monitor the quality of each of these runs more efficiently. More reliable sources will finally provide better instruments for political mitigation strategies.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wanger, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid-base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span the four orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in the ambient. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Pragati Rai, Jay G. Slowik, Markus Furger, Imad El Haddad, Suzanne Visser, Yandong Tong, Atinderpal Singh, Günther Wehrle, Varun Kumar, Anna K. Tobler, Deepika Bhattu, Liwei Wang, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Ru-Jin Huang, Jaroslaw Necki, Junji Cao, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 717–730,Short summary
We present a simple conceptual framework based on elemental size distributions and enrichment factors that allows for a characterization of major sources, site-to-site similarities, and local differences and the identification of key information required for efficient policy development. Absolute concentrations are by far the highest in Delhi, followed by Beijing, and then the European cities.
Jinfeng Yuan, Robin Lewis Modini, Marco Zanatta, Andreas B. Herber, Thomas Müller, Birgit Wehner, Laurent Poulain, Thomas Tuch, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 635–655,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) aerosols contribute substantially to climate warming due to their unique light absorption capabilities. We performed field measurements at a central European background site in winter and found that variability in the absorption efficiency of BC particles is driven mainly by their internal mixing state. Our results suggest that, at this site, knowing the BC mixing state is sufficient to describe BC light absorption enhancements due to the lensing effect in good approximation.
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system which effects are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
Gloria Titos, María A. Burgos, Paul Zieger, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Urs Baltensperger, Anne Jefferson, James Sherman, Ernest Weingartner, Bas Henzing, Krista Luoma, Colin O'Dowd, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This manuscript investigates the impact of water uptake on the aerosol optical properties, in particular the aerosol light-scattering coefficient. Although in-situ measurements are performed at low relative humidity (typically at RH < 40 %), to address the climatic impact of aerosol particles it is necessary to take into account the effect that water uptake may have on the aerosol optical properties.
Vaios Moschos, Martin Gysel-Beer, Robin L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Dario Massabò, Camilla Costa, Silvia G. Danelli, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Sönke Szidat, Paolo Prati, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study provides a holistic approach to study the spectrally-resolved light absorption by atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) and black carbon, using long time series of biomass burning-influenced daily samples from filter-based measurements. The obtained results provide (1) a better understanding of the aerosol absorption profile and its dependence on BrC and on lensing from less-absorbing coatings, and (2) an estimation of the most important absorbers at typical European locations.
Haiyan Ni, Ru-Jin Huang, Max M. Cosijn, Lu Yang, Jie Guo, Junji Cao, and Ulrike Dusek
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16041–16053,Short summary
We investigated sources of carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing and Xi'an during severe winter haze. Elemental carbon (EC) was dominated by vehicle emissions in Xi’an and coal burning in Beijing. Organic carbon (OC) increment during haze days was driven by the increase in primary and secondary OC (SOC). SOC was more from fossil sources in Beijing than Xi’an, especially during haze days. In Xi’an, no strong day–night differences in EC or OC sources suggest a large accumulation of particles.
Gang Chen, Yulia Sosedova, Francesco Canonaco, Roman Fröhlich, Anna Tobler, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Carlo Bozzetti, Christoph Hueglin, Peter Graf, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We used a recently developed state-of-the-art rolling mechanism for the first time at a rural site, southern alpine valley (Magadino) to get a more realistic and detailed information of the organic aerosol sources. This work highlights the strength of this novel source apportionment technique by comparing with the results derived from conventional seasonal PMF. Overall, this detailed interpretation of chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) data could be a role model for similar analysis.
Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Jianhui Jiang, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15665–15680,Short summary
We investigated the role of ammonia in European air quality between 1990 and 2030 under varying land and ship emissions. If ship emissions will be regulated more strictly in the future, particulate nitrate will decrease in coastal areas in northern Europe, while sulfate aerosol will decrease in the Mediterranean region. We predict a shift in the sensitivity of aerosol formation from NH3 towards NOx emissions between 1990 and 2030 in most of Europe except the eastern part of the model domain.
Chao Peng, Yu Wang, Zhijun Wu, Lanxiadi Chen, Ru-Jin Huang, Weigang Wang, Zhe Wang, Weiwei Hu, Guohua Zhang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13877–13903,
Quanfu He, Zheng Fang, Ofir Shoshamin, Steven S. Brown, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Rayleigh scattering and absorption cross-sections for CO2, N2O, SF6, O2, and CH4 were measured between 307 and 725 nm. New dispersion relations for N2O, SF6, and CH4 in the UV-vis range were derived. This study provides improved refractive index dispersion relations, scattering, and absorption cross-sections which are highly needed for accurate instrument calibration and for improved accuracy of Rayleigh scattering parameterizations for major greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere.
Martin Heinritzi, Lubna Dada, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andrea C. Wagner, Lukas Fischer, Lauri R. Ahonen, Stavros Amanatidis, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Bernhard Baumgartner, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, Antonio Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Imad El Haddad, Xucheng He, Johanna Helm, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Juha Kangasluoma, Timo Keber, Changhyuk Kim, Andreas Kürten, Houssni Lamkaddam, Tiia M. Laurila, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna Elina Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy Lee Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Tuomo Nieminen, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Monica Passananti, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Clémence Rose, Siegfried Schobesberger, Wiebke Scholz, Kay Scholze, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Annele Virtanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Rainer Volkamer, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11809–11821,Short summary
With experiments performed at CLOUD, we show how isoprene interferes in monoterpene oxidation via RO2 termination at atmospherically relevant concentrations. This interference shifts the distribution of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) away from C20 class dimers towards C15 class dimers, which subsequently reduces both biogenic nucleation and early growth rates. Our results may help to understand the absence of new-particle formation in isoprene-rich environments.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Dongyu S. Wang, Philip Croteau, Katarzyna Styszko, Jarosław Nęcki, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5293–5301,Short summary
Some quadrupole aerosol chemical speciation monitors (Q-ACSMs) have had issues with the quantification of particulate chloride, resulting in apparent negative chloride concentrations. We can show that this is due to the different behavior of Cl+ and HCl+, and we present a correction for the more accurate quantification of chloride. The correction can be applied to measurements in environments where the particulate chloride is dominated by NH4Cl.
Amir Yazdani, Nikunj Dudani, Satoshi Takahama, Amelie Bertrand, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Functional group composition of primary and aged aerosols from wood burning and coal combustion sources from chamber experiments are interpreted through compounds present in the fuels and known gas-phase oxidation products. Infrared spectra of aged wood burning in the chamber and ambient biomass burning samples reveal striking similarities, and a new method for identifying burning-impacted samples in monitoring network measurements is presented.
Chunshui Lin, Darius Ceburnis, Wei Xu, Eimear Heffernan, Stig Hellebust, John Gallagher, Ru-Jin Huang, Colin O'Dowd, and Jurgita Ovadnevaite
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10513–10529,Short summary
Chemical composition and sources of submicron aerosols (PM1) were simultaneously investigated at a kerbside site in the Dublin city center and at a residential site in suburban Dublin (~5 km apart) during both a nonheating and a heating period in 2018. This study highlights the temporal and spatial variability of sources within the Dublin city center and the need for additional aerosol characterization studies to improve targeted mitigation solutions for a greater impact on urban air quality.
María A. Burgos, Elisabeth Andrews, Gloria Titos, Angela Benedetti, Huisheng Bian, Virginie Buchard, Gabriele Curci, Zak Kipling, Alf Kirkevåg, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, Julie Letertre-Danczak, Marianne T. Lund, Hitoshi Matsui, Gunnar Myhre, Cynthia Randles, Michael Schulz, Twan van Noije, Kai Zhang, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Urs Baltensperger, Anne Jefferson, James Sherman, Junying Sun, Ernest Weingartner, and Paul Zieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10231–10258,Short summary
We investigate how well models represent the enhancement in scattering coefficients due to particle water uptake, and perform an evaluation of several implementation schemes used in ten Earth system models. Our results show the importance of the parameterization of hygroscopicity and model chemistry as drivers of some of the observed diversity amongst model estimates. The definition of dry conditions and the phenomena taking place in this relative humidity range also impact the model evaluation.
Yandong Tong, Veronika Pospisilova, Lu Qi, Jing Duan, Yifang Gu, Varun Kumar, Pragati Rai, Giulia Stefenelli, Liwei Wang, Ying Wang, Haobin Zhong, Urs Baltensperger, Junji Cao, Ru-jin Huang, Andre Stephan Henry Prevot, and Jay Gates Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We investigate SOA sources and formation processes by a field deployment of the EESI-TOF-MS and L-TOF AMS in Beijing in late fall and early winter. Our study shows that the sources and processes giving rise to haze events in Beijing are variable and seasonally-dependent: (1) in the heating season, SOA formation is driven by oxidation of aromatics from solid fuel combustion, (2) under high NOx and RH conditions, aqueous phase chemistry can be a major contributor to SOA formation.
Liwei Wang, Jay G. Slowik, Nidhi Tripathi, Deepika Bhattu, Pragati Rai, Varun Kumar, Pawan Vats, Rangu Satish, Urs Baltensperger, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Sachchida N. Tripathi, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9753–9770,
Martin Rigler, Luka Drinovec, Gašper Lavrič, Athanasia Vlachou, André S. H. Prévôt, Jean Luc Jaffrezo, Iasonas Stavroulas, Jean Sciare, Judita Burger, Irena Kranjc, Janja Turšič, Anthony D. A. Hansen, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4333–4351,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosols are a large fraction of fine particulate matter. They are extremely diverse, and they directly impact air quality, visibility, cloud formation and public health. In this paper we present a new instrument and new method to measure carbon content in particulate matter in real time and at a high time resolution. The new method was validated in a 1-month winter field campaign in Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Mario Simon, Lubna Dada, Martin Heinritzi, Wiebke Scholz, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lukas Fischer, Andrea C. Wagner, Andreas Kürten, Birte Rörup, Xu-Cheng He, João Almeida, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, Anton Bergen, Federico Bianchi, Steffen Bräkling, Sophia Brilke, Lucia Caudillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, António Dias, Danielle C. Draper, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El-Haddad, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Loic Gonzalez-Carracedo, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Jani Hakala, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Changhyuk Kim, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Matti P. Rissanen, Simon Schallhart, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee J. Tham, António R. Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Alexander L. Vogel, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Yusheng Wu, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Xueqin Zhou, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9183–9207,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic compounds (HOMs) have been identified as key vapors involved in atmospheric new-particle formation (NPF). The molecular distribution, HOM yield, and NPF from α-pinene oxidation experiments were measured at the CLOUD chamber over a wide tropospheric-temperature range. This study shows on a molecular scale that despite the sharp reduction in HOM yield at lower temperatures, the reduced volatility counteracts this effect and leads to an overall increase in the NPF rate.
Ru-Jin Huang, Yao He, Jing Duan, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Yang Chen, Weiwei Hu, Chunshui Lin, Haiyan Ni, Wenting Dai, Junji Cao, Yunfei Wu, Renjian Zhang, Wei Xu, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Thorsten Hoffmann, and Colin D. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9101–9114,Short summary
We systematically compared the submicron particle (PM1) processes in haze days with low and high relative humidity (RH) in wintertime Beijing. Nitrate had similar daytime growth rates in low-RH and high-RH pollution. OOA had a higher growth rate in low-RH pollution than in high-RH pollution. Sulfate had a decreasing trend in low-RH pollution, while it increased significantly in high-RH pollution. This distinction may be explained by the different processes affected by meteorological conditions.
Eirini Boleti, Christoph Hueglin, Stuart K. Grange, André S. H. Prévôt, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9051–9066,Short summary
Long-term temporal evolution of ozone concentrations between 2000 and 2015 in Europe was estimated using a signal decomposition technique. The seasonal cycles are correlated with local climate conditions and vary according to geographic region, while ozone levels are indicative of distance to emission sources. The site's environment plays a key role in ozone trends, with the most polluted environments showing the least reduction in ozone, while in less polluted areas ozone has decreased.
Tuukka Petäjä, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ksenia Tabakova, Julia Schmale, Barbara Altstädter, Gerard Ancellet, Mikhail Arshinov, Yurii Balin, Urs Baltensperger, Jens Bange, Alison Beamish, Boris Belan, Antoine Berchet, Rossana Bossi, Warren R. L. Cairns, Ralf Ebinghaus, Imad El Haddad, Beatriz Ferreira-Araujo, Anna Franck, Lin Huang, Antti Hyvärinen, Angelika Humbert, Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Pavel Konstantinov, Astrid Lampert, Matthew MacLeod, Olivier Magand, Alexander Mahura, Louis Marelle, Vladimir Masloboev, Dmitri Moisseev, Vaios Moschos, Niklas Neckel, Tatsuo Onishi, Stefan Osterwalder, Aino Ovaska, Pauli Paasonen, Mikhail Panchenko, Fidel Pankratov, Jakob B. Pernov, Andreas Platis, Olga Popovicheva, Jean-Christophe Raut, Aurélie Riandet, Torsten Sachs, Rosamaria Salvatori, Roberto Salzano, Ludwig Schröder, Martin Schön, Vladimir Shevchenko, Henrik Skov, Jeroen E. Sonke, Andrea Spolaor, Vasileios K. Stathopoulos, Mikko Strahlendorff, Jennie L. Thomas, Vito Vitale, Sterios Vratolis, Carlo Barbante, Sabine Chabrillat, Aurélien Dommergue, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jyri Heilimo, Kathy S. Law, Andreas Massling, Steffen M. Noe, Jean-Daniel Paris, André S. H. Prévôt, Ilona Riipinen, Birgit Wehner, Zhiyong Xie, and Hanna K. Lappalainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8551–8592,Short summary
The role of polar regions is increasing in terms of megatrends such as globalization, new transport routes, demography, and the use of natural resources with consequent effects on regional and transported pollutant concentrations. Here we summarize initial results from our integrative project exploring the Arctic environment and pollution to deliver data products, metrics, and indicators for stakeholders.
Yunle Chen, Masayuki Takeuchi, Theodora Nah, Lu Xu, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Harald Stark, Karsten Baumann, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, L. Gregory Huey, Rodney J. Weber, and Nga L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8421–8440,Short summary
Two online mass spectrometry instruments, an aerosol mass spectrometer and a chemical ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols, were deployed at Yorkville, GA, for a comprehensive characterization of organic aerosol. We observed notable secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene and monoterpenes via different pathways during both day and night, and a series of highly oxidized acid-like compounds was found to be closely related to aged SOA.
Lu Qi, Alexander L. Vogel, Sepideh Esmaeilirad, Liming Cao, Jing Zheng, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Paola Fermo, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Mindong Chen, Xinlei Ge, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7875–7893,Short summary
We present the first application of this online and offline strategy using the new extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), which achieves increased chemical specificity relative to other online techniques. Measurement and source apportionment of 1 year of filter samples collected in Zurich, Switzerland, show seasonal contributions from fresh and aged wood combustion in winter and biogenic emission-derived SOA in summer, as well as other sources.
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Evelyn Freney, Karine Sellegri, Alessia Nicosia, Jonathan T. Trueblood, Matteo Rinaldi, Leah R. Williams, André S. H. Prévôt, Melilotus Thyssen, Gérald Grégori, Nils Haëntjens, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, France Van-Wambeke, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Karine Desboeufs, Eija Asmi, Hilka Timmonen, and Cécile Guieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this work, we present observations of the organic aerosol content in primary sea spray aerosols (SSA) continuously generated along a five-weeks cruise in the Mediterranean. This information is combined with seawater biogeochemical properties also measured continuously along the ship track to develop a number of parametrizations that can be used in models to determine SSA organic content in oligotrophic waters that represent 60 % of the oceans, from commonly measured seawater variables.
Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Keren Liao, Yaowei Li, Yong Jie Li, Ru-Jin Huang, Weiwei Hu, Ying Liu, Tong Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Qi Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2457–2472,Short summary
This paper provides important information to help researchers to understand the mass quantification and source apportionment by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers.
Wei Yuan, Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Jie Guo, Ziyi Chen, Jing Duan, Ting Wang, Haiyan Ni, Yongming Han, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Yang Chen, Thorsten Hoffmann, and Colin O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5129–5144,Short summary
We characterized light-absorbing properties, chromophore composition and sources of brown carbon (BrC) in Xi'an; identified three groups of light-absorbing organics; and quantified their contribution to overall BrC absorption. Our results showed that vehicle emissions and secondary formation are major sources of BrC in spring, coal combustion and vehicle emissions are major sources in fall, biomass burning and coal combustion become major sources in winter, and secondary BrC dominates in summer.
Jing Duan, Ru-Jin Huang, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Yang Chen, Chunshui Lin, Haiyan Ni, Meng Wang, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Chunying Chen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Thorsten Hoffmann, Colin O'Dowd, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3793–3807,Short summary
We characterized secondary aerosol formation in Beijing. Our results showed that relative humidity (RH) and Ox have opposite effects on sulfate and nitrate formation in summer and winter. The wintertime more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA) showed a good correlation with aerosol liquid water content (ALWC). Meanwhile, the dependence of less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA) and the mass ratio of LO-OOA to MO-OOA in Ox both degraded when RH > 60 %, suggesting that RH or ALWC may also affect LO-OOA formation.
Wei Xu, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Kirsten N. Fossum, Chunshui Lin, Ru-Jin Huang, Colin O'Dowd, and Darius Ceburnis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3777–3791,Short summary
A humidified tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) were simultaneously deployed during winter at Mace Head observatory to characterise the hygroscopicity of marine aerosols and their link to chemical composition. Good agreement was generally found between measured and estimated growth factors. A significant degree of external mixing was found in all air masses manifesting primary and secondary sources.
Pragati Rai, Markus Furger, Jay G. Slowik, Francesco Canonaco, Roman Fröhlich, Christoph Hüglin, María Cruz Minguillón, Krag Petterson, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1657–1674,Short summary
A source apportionment study of hourly resolved elements in PM10 measured at a traffic-influenced site in Härkingen, Switzerland, using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and multilinear engine-2 (ME-2) offered resolution of robust and unambiguous factor profiles and contributions. We show that the rotational control available in ME-2 provides a means for treating extreme events such as fireworks within a PMF analysis.
Marco Paglione, Stefania Gilardoni, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Nicola Zanca, Silvia Sandrini, Lara Giulianelli, Dimitri Bacco, Silvia Ferrari, Vanes Poluzzi, Fabiana Scotto, Arianna Trentini, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Paola Massoli, Claudio Carbone, Maria Cristina Facchini, and Sandro Fuzzi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1233–1254,Short summary
Our multi-year observational study regarding organic aerosol (OA) in the Po Valley indicates that more than half of OA is of secondary origin (SOA) through all the year and at both urban and rural sites. Within the SOA, the measurements show the importance of biomass burning (BB) aging products during cold seasons and indicate aqueous-phase processing of BB emissions as a fundamental driver of SOA formation in wintertime, with important consequences for air quality policy at the global level.
Haiyan Ni, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Jie Guo, Haoyue Deng, and Ulrike Dusek
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15609–15628,Short summary
We present a 1-year source apportionment record of carbonaceous aerosols in Xi'an, China. Biomass burning strongly increases in winter, while seasonal changes of coal and liquid fossil fuel combustion are moderate. We find strong evidence for fossil secondary OC formation during the warm period that is further enhanced in stagnant, polluted conditions due to longer atmospheric residence times. At the same time we find that water-insoluble (primary) fossil is lost due to photochemical processing.
Jianhui Jiang, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Imad El-Haddad, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Francesco Canonaco, Stefania Gilardoni, Marco Paglione, María Cruz Minguillón, Olivier Favez, Yunjiang Zhang, Nicolas Marchand, Liqing Hao, Annele Virtanen, Kalliopi Florou, Colin O'Dowd, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15247–15270,Short summary
We use an air quality model with a modified organic aerosol (OA) module based on chamber experiments to identify the OA sources and their contributions in Europe. Comparisons with long-term measurements at nine sites in 2011 show an improvement in OA simulation. Our results suggest that the biomass burning and biogenic emissions are the dominant sources in winter and summer, respectively. Contributions of diesel and gasoline vehicles are relatively small compared to a previous study in the US.
Giulia Stefenelli, Veronika Pospisilova, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Christoph Hüglin, Yandong Tong, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14825–14848,
Yunjiang Zhang, Olivier Favez, Jean-Eudes Petit, Francesco Canonaco, Francois Truong, Nicolas Bonnaire, Vincent Crenn, Tanguy Amodeo, Andre S. H. Prévôt, Jean Sciare, Valerie Gros, and Alexandre Albinet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14755–14776,Short summary
We present 6-year source apportionment of organic aerosol (OA) achieved with near-continuous online measurements and subsequent receptor model analysis in the Paris region, France. The OA factors presented distinct seasonal patterns, associated with different atmospheric formation processes and roles in air pollution. Limited year-round trends for two primary anthropogenic factors and a biogenic-like secondary factor were observed, while a more oxidized secondary OA showed a decreasing feature.
Jun Zhou, Miriam Elser, Ru-Jin Huang, Manuel Krapf, Roman Fröhlich, Deepika Bhattu, Giulia Stefenelli, Peter Zotter, Emily A. Bruns, Simone M. Pieber, Haiyan Ni, Qiyuan Wang, Yichen Wang, Yaqing Zhou, Chunying Chen, Mao Xiao, Jay G. Slowik, Samuel Brown, Laure-Estelle Cassagnes, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Thomas Nussbaumer, Marianne Geiser, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El-Haddad, Junji Cao, Urs Baltensperger, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14703–14720,Short summary
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to contribute to the adverse health effects of aerosols. We measured particle-bound ROS (PB-ROS) with an online instrument in two distinct environments, i.e., Beijing (China) and Bern (Switzerland). In both cities these exogenic ROS are predominantly related to secondary organic aerosol (SOA). PB-ROS content in SOA from various anthropogenic emission sources tested in the laboratory was comparable to that in the ambient measurements.
Chunshui Lin, Darius Ceburnis, Ru-Jin Huang, Wei Xu, Teresa Spohn, Damien Martin, Paul Buckley, John Wenger, Stig Hellebust, Matteo Rinaldi, Maria Cristina Facchini, Colin O'Dowd, and Jurgita Ovadnevaite
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14091–14106,Short summary
To gain insight into the spatial and chemical variation in submicron aerosol, a nationwide characterization of wintertime PM1 was performed at four representative sites across Ireland. This nationwide source apportionment study highlights the large contribution of residential solid fuel burning to urban air pollution and has significant implications for aerosol regional-transport models.
Xiaoli Shen, Heike Vogel, Bernhard Vogel, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Ramakrishna Ramisetty, Thomas Leisner, André S. H. Prévôt, and Harald Saathoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13189–13208,Short summary
This study provides good insight into the chemical nature and complex origin of aerosols by combining comprehensive field observations and transport modelling. We suggest that factors related to topography, metrological conditions, local emissions, in situ formation and growth, regional transport, and the interaction of biogenic and anthropogenic compounds need to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of aerosol processes.
Giulia Stefenelli, Jianhui Jiang, Amelie Bertrand, Emily A. Bruns, Simone M. Pieber, Urs Baltensperger, Nicolas Marchand, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, André S. H. Prévôt, Jay G. Slowik, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11461–11484,Short summary
Box model simulations, based on the volatility basis set approach, of smog chamber wood combustion experiments conducted at different temperatures (−10 °C, 2 °C, 15 °C), emission loads, combustion conditions (flaming and smoldering) and residential stoves fabricated in the last 2 decades. Novel parameterization methods based on a genetic algorithm approach allowed estimation of precursor class contributions to SOA and evaluation of the effect of emission variability on SOA yield predictions.
Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Veronika Pospisilova, Wei Huang, Markus Kalberer, Claudia Mohr, Giulia Stefenelli, Joel A. Thornton, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4867–4886,Short summary
We present a novel, field-deployable extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), which provides real-time, near-molecular measurements of organic aerosol at atmospherically relevant concentrations, addressing a critical gap in existing measurement capabilities. Successful deployments of the EESI-TOF for laboratory measurements, ground-based ambient sampling, and aboard a research aircraft highlight the versatility and potential of the EESI-TOF system.
Meng Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Wenting Dai, Jiamao Zhou, Chunshui Lin, Haiyan Ni, Jing Duan, Ting Wang, Yang Chen, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Imad El Haddad, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4779–4789,Short summary
The analytical performances of SE-GC-MS and TD-GC-MS for the determination of n-alkanes, PAHs and hopanes were evaluated and compared. The two methods show a good agreement with a high correlation efficient (R2 > 0.98) and a slope close to unity. The concentrations of n-alkanes, PAHs and hopanes are found to be much higher in Beijing than those in Chengdu, Shanghai and Guangzhou, most likely due to emissions from coal combustion for wintertime heating in Beijing.
Naama Reicher, Carsten Budke, Lukas Eickhoff, Shira Raveh-Rubin, Ifat Kaplan-Ashiri, Thomas Koop, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11143–11158,Short summary
We characterized size-segregated airborne ice-nucleating particles (INPs) during dust storm events in the eastern Mediterranean. We found that particle size can predict its activity, and in general, larger particles are better INPs. The activity of supermicron particles dominated by desert mineral dust was similar between the different dust events regardless of the high variability of the geographic source desert and atmospheric journey.
Haiyan Ni, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Wenting Dai, Jiamao Zhou, Haoyue Deng, Anita Aerts-Bijma, Harro A. J. Meijer, and Ulrike Dusek
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10405–10422,Short summary
We apply radiocarbon source apportionment of more volatile organic carbon (mvOC) to winter aerosol samples from six Chinese cities. We find a consistently larger contribution of fossil sources to mvOC than to secondary or total organic carbon. Fossil mvOC concentrations are strongly correlated with primary fossil OC but not with secondary fossil OC. The variability in nonfossil mvOC seems to be related to both primary and secondary biomass burning sources.
Jing Duan, Ru-Jin Huang, Chunshui Lin, Wenting Dai, Meng Wang, Yifang Gu, Ying Wang, Haobin Zhong, Yan Zheng, Haiyan Ni, Uli Dusek, Yang Chen, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Colin D. O'Dowd, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10319–10334,Short summary
We present the seasonal distinction of secondary aerosol formation in urban Beijing. Both photochemical oxidation and aqueous-phase processing played important roles in SOA (secondary organic aerosol) formation during all three seasons; while for sulfate formation, gas-phase photochemical oxidation was the major pathway in late summer, aqueous-phase reactions were more responsible during early winter, and both processes had contributions during autumn.
Yunfei Wu, Yunjie Xia, Rujin Huang, Zhaoze Deng, Ping Tian, Xiangao Xia, and Renjian Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4347–4359,Short summary
The morphology and effective density of externally mixed black carbon (extBC) aerosols were studied using a tandem technique coupling a DMA with a SP2. The study extended the mass–mobility relationship to large extBC with a mobility diameter larger than 350 nm, a size range seldom included in previous tandem measurements of BC aggregates. On this basis, quantities such as the mass–mobility scaling exponent were revealed for extBC in urban Beijing.
Lu Qi, Mindong Chen, Giulia Stefenelli, Veronika Pospisilova, Yandong Tong, Amelie Bertrand, Christoph Hueglin, Xinlei Ge, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8037–8062,Short summary
Current understanding of OA sources is limited by the chemical resolution of existing real-time measurement technology. We describe the first wintertime deployment of a novel extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, which provides near-molecular OA measurements with high time resolution. We show that biomass combustion strongly influences winter OA. Via factor analysis, aging-dependent signatures and time contributions of biomass-combustion-derived OA are resolved.
Kun Li, Junling Li, Shengrui Tong, Weigang Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8021–8036,Short summary
Wintertime volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in suburban and urban Beijing were measured. Urban VOC concentrations were much higher than suburban ones, but the emission features were similar. The photochemical processes were more active in the urban site, resulting in the high daytime formation of oxygenated VOCs. In addition, human activities during holidays can largely influence the VOC levels. These results are helpful in better understanding the atmospheric chemistry of VOCs in Beijing.
Athanasia Vlachou, Anna Tobler, Houssni Lamkaddam, Francesco Canonaco, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, María Cruz Minguillón, Marek Maasikmets, Erik Teinemaa, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7279–7295,Short summary
The resolution of rotational ambiguity in positive matrix factorization (PMF) models is a major challenge. Here, we developed a method based on bootstrapping and correlations to extract environmentally meaningful solutions from PMF analysis based on offline aerosol mass spectrometry data. The method has been tested on a dataset that covers 1 full year of filter samples collected at three different sites in Estonia.
Miriam Elser, Benjamin Tobias Brem, Lukas Durdina, David Schönenberger, Frithjof Siegerist, Andrea Fischer, and Jing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6809–6820,Short summary
This work presents the link between the chemical composition and the optical properties of the aerosol emissions of an aircraft turbofan using conventional and alternative fuels. A high organic carbon fraction at low thrusts is linked to high single scattering albedos. The optical properties at cruise conditions are used to evaluate the radiative forcing efficiency of aircraft aerosol emissions, which have a substantial warming effect when emitted over highly reflective surfaces such as snow.
Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Ivan Kourtchev, Alexander L. Vogel, Emily A. Bruns, Jianhui Jiang, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Markus Kalberer, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5973–5991,Short summary
Here we present the molecular composition of the organic aerosol (OA) at an urban site in Central Europe (Zurich, Switzerland) and compare it to smog chamber wood smoke and ambient biogenic secondary OA (SOA) (Orbitrap analyses). Accordingly, we are able to explain the strong seasonality of the molecular composition by aged wood smoke and biogenic SOA during winter and summer. Our results could also explain the predominance of non-fossil organic carbon at European locations throughout the year.
Naruki Hiranuma, Kouji Adachi, David M. Bell, Franco Belosi, Hassan Beydoun, Bhaskar Bhaduri, Heinz Bingemer, Carsten Budke, Hans-Christian Clemen, Franz Conen, Kimberly M. Cory, Joachim Curtius, Paul J. DeMott, Oliver Eppers, Sarah Grawe, Susan Hartmann, Nadine Hoffmann, Kristina Höhler, Evelyn Jantsch, Alexei Kiselev, Thomas Koop, Gourihar Kulkarni, Amelie Mayer, Masataka Murakami, Benjamin J. Murray, Alessia Nicosia, Markus D. Petters, Matteo Piazza, Michael Polen, Naama Reicher, Yinon Rudich, Atsushi Saito, Gianni Santachiara, Thea Schiebel, Gregg P. Schill, Johannes Schneider, Lior Segev, Emiliano Stopelli, Ryan C. Sullivan, Kaitlyn Suski, Miklós Szakáll, Takuya Tajiri, Hans Taylor, Yutaka Tobo, Romy Ullrich, Daniel Weber, Heike Wex, Thomas F. Whale, Craig L. Whiteside, Katsuya Yamashita, Alla Zelenyuk, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4823–4849,Short summary
A total of 20 ice nucleation measurement techniques contributed to investigate the immersion freezing behavior of cellulose particles – natural polymers. Our data showed several types of cellulose are able to nucleate ice as efficiently as some mineral dust samples and cellulose has the potential to be an important atmospheric ice-nucleating particle. Continued investigation/collaboration is necessary to obtain further insight into consistency or diversity of ice nucleation measurements.
Karl Espen Yttri, David Simpson, Robert Bergström, Gyula Kiss, Sönke Szidat, Darius Ceburnis, Sabine Eckhardt, Christoph Hueglin, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Cinzia Perrino, Ignazio Pisso, Andre Stephan Henry Prevot, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Gerald Spindler, Milan Vana, Yan-Lin Zhang, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4211–4233,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosols from natural sources were abundant regardless of season. Residential wood burning (RWB) emissions were occasionally equally as large as or larger than of fossil-fuel sources, depending on season and region. RWB emissions are poorly constrained; thus emissions inventories need improvement. Harmonizing emission factors between countries is likely the most important step to improve model calculations for biomass burning emissions and European PM2.5 concentrations in general.
Ghislain Motos, Julia Schmale, Joel C. Corbin, Rob. L. Modini, Nadine Karlen, Michele Bertò, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3833–3855,Short summary
Atmospheric black carbon (BC) particles are strong light absorbers that contribute to global warming. In situ cloud measurements performed at a high-altitude site showed that cloud supersaturation mainly drives the activation of BC to cloud droplets. It was further shown how BC particle size and mixing state modulate this nucleation scavenging in agreement with simplified theoretical predictions. These findings can inform model simulations towards a better representation of the BC life cycle.
Jianhui Jiang, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Emmanouil Oikonomakis, Imad El-Haddad, Francesco Canonaco, Colin O'Dowd, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, María Cruz Minguillón, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3747–3768,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from vegetation are essential inputs for air quality models but their uncertainties are very high. In this study we show the importance of BVOC emissions for modelled ozone and aerosol concentrations in Europe. Using different biogenic emissions from MEGAN and PSI models significantly affected organic aerosols (smaller effect on ozone), indicating the importance of harmonising the BVOC emissions in the model inter-comparison studies.
Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Francesco Canonaco, Liine Heikkinen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, André S. H. Prévôt, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3645–3672,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometry produces large amounts of complex data, the analysis of which necessitates chemometrics – the application of advanced statistical and mathematical tools to chemical data. Here, we perform a data-driven analysis of multiple aerosol mass spectrometric data sets, to show that the traditional separation of organics and inorganics is not necessary. The resulting 7-component aerosol speciation explains 83 % to 96 % of observed variability at our boreal forest experiment site.
Yang Chen, Mi Tian, Ru-Jin Huang, Guangming Shi, Huanbo Wang, Chao Peng, Junji Cao, Qiyuan Wang, Shumin Zhang, Dongmei Guo, Leiming Zhang, and Fumo Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3245–3255,Short summary
Amine-containing particles were characterized in an urban area of Chongqing during both summer and winter using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS). Amines were observed to internally mix with elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), sulfate, and nitrate. Diethylamine (DEA) was the most abundant in both number and peak area among amine-containing particles. Vegetation and traffic were the primary sources of particulate amines.
Li Xing, Jiarui Wu, Miriam Elser, Shengrui Tong, Suixin Liu, Xia Li, Lang Liu, Junji Cao, Jiamao Zhou, Imad El-Haddad, Rujin Huang, Maofa Ge, Xuexi Tie, André S. H. Prévôt, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2343–2359,Short summary
We used the WRF-CHEM model to simulate wintertime secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations over Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH), China. Heterogeneous HONO sources increased the near-surface SOA by 46.3 % in BTH. Direct emissions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from residential sources contributed 25.5 % to the total SOA mass. Our study highlights the importance of heterogeneous HONO sources and primary residential emissions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal to SOA formation in winter over BTH.
Ru-Jin Huang, Yichen Wang, Junji Cao, Chunshui Lin, Jing Duan, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Yifang Gu, Jin Yan, Wei Xu, Roman Fröhlich, Francesco Canonaco, Carlo Bozzetti, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El-Haddad, André S. H. Prévôt, and Colin D. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2283–2298,Short summary
We found that in wintertime Shijiazhuang fine PM was mostly from primary emissions without sufficient atmospheric aging. In addition, secondary inorganic and organic aerosol dominated in pollution events under high-RH conditions, likely due to enhanced aqueous-phase chemistry, whereas primary organic aerosol dominated in pollution events under low-RH and stagnant conditions. Our results also highlighted the importance of meteorological conditions for PM pollution in this highly polluted city.
Mingjin Tang, Wenjun Gu, Qingxin Ma, Yong Jie Li, Cheng Zhong, Sheng Li, Xin Yin, Ru-Jin Huang, Hong He, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2247–2258,
Ghislain Motos, Julia Schmale, Joel C. Corbin, Marco Zanatta, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2183–2207,Short summary
Clouds form by condensation of water vapour on aerosol particles. We showed that black carbon, a subset of particles responsible for a climate warming due to their strong light absorption and known to be insoluble in water, were able to form droplets when the humidity of the air is very slightly over 100 %. This is made possible by their acquisition of a
coatingmade of hydrophilic material during atmospheric aging. The predictability of this process using theory was successfully tested.
Chunlin Li, Quanfu He, Julian Schade, Johannes Passig, Ralf Zimmermann, Daphne Meidan, Alexander Laskin, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 139–163,
Nivedita K. Kumar, Joel C. Corbin, Emily A. Bruns, Dario Massabó, Jay G. Slowik, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, Paolo Prati, Athanasia Vlachou, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17843–17861,Short summary
It is clear that considerable uncertainties still exist in understanding the magnitude of aerosol absorption on a global scale and its contribution to global warming. This manuscript provides a comprehensive assessment of the optical absorption by organic aerosols (brown carbon) from residential wood combustion as a function of atmospheric aging.
Haiyan Ni, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Weiguo Liu, Ting Zhang, Meng Wang, Harro A. J. Meijer, and Ulrike Dusek
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16363–16383,Short summary
Seasonal changes in organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) sources in Xi'an, China, are investigated based on measurements of radiocarbon and the stable isotope 13C. Relative contributions to EC from biomass burning, coal combustion, and vehicle emissions change substantially between different seasons. Biomass burning contributes 60 % to the EC increment in winter. Comparing concentrations and sources of primary OC to total OC suggests non-negligible OC loss due to active photochemistry.
Paul J. DeMott, Ottmar Möhler, Daniel J. Cziczo, Naruki Hiranuma, Markus D. Petters, Sarah S. Petters, Franco Belosi, Heinz G. Bingemer, Sarah D. Brooks, Carsten Budke, Monika Burkert-Kohn, Kristen N. Collier, Anja Danielczok, Oliver Eppers, Laura Felgitsch, Sarvesh Garimella, Hinrich Grothe, Paul Herenz, Thomas C. J. Hill, Kristina Höhler, Zamin A. Kanji, Alexei Kiselev, Thomas Koop, Thomas B. Kristensen, Konstantin Krüger, Gourihar Kulkarni, Ezra J. T. Levin, Benjamin J. Murray, Alessia Nicosia, Daniel O'Sullivan, Andreas Peckhaus, Michael J. Polen, Hannah C. Price, Naama Reicher, Daniel A. Rothenberg, Yinon Rudich, Gianni Santachiara, Thea Schiebel, Jann Schrod, Teresa M. Seifried, Frank Stratmann, Ryan C. Sullivan, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Miklós Szakáll, Hans P. Taylor, Romy Ullrich, Jesus Vergara-Temprado, Robert Wagner, Thomas F. Whale, Daniel Weber, André Welti, Theodore W. Wilson, Martin J. Wolf, and Jake Zenker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6231–6257,Short summary
The ability to measure ice nucleating particles is vital to quantifying their role in affecting clouds and precipitation. Methods for measuring droplet freezing were compared while co-sampling relevant particle types. Measurement correspondence was very good for ice nucleating particles of bacterial and natural soil origin, and somewhat more disparate for those of mineral origin. Results reflect recently improved capabilities and provide direction toward addressing remaining measurement issues.
Yingjie Zhang, Wei Du, Yuying Wang, Qingqing Wang, Haofei Wang, Haitao Zheng, Fang Zhang, Hongrong Shi, Yuxuan Bian, Yongxiang Han, Pingqing Fu, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Tong Zhu, Pucai Wang, Zhanqing Li, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14637–14651,Short summary
We have a comprehensive characterization of aerosol chemistry and particle growth events at a downwind site of a highly polluted city in the North China Plain. Aerosol particles at the urban downwind site were highly aged and mainly from secondary formation. New particle growth events were also frequently observed on both clean and polluted days. While both sulfate and SOA played important roles in particle growth during clean periods, SOA was more important than sulfate during polluted events.
Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Urs Baltensperger, David C. S. Beddows, Johan Paul Beukes, Don Collins, Aijun Ding, Roy M. Harrison, Bas Henzing, Rakesh Hooda, Min Hu, Urmas Hõrrak, Niku Kivekäs, Kaupo Komsaare, Radovan Krejci, Adam Kristensson, Lauri Laakso, Ari Laaksonen, W. Richard Leaitch, Heikki Lihavainen, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Zoltán Németh, Wei Nie, Colin O'Dowd, Imre Salma, Karine Sellegri, Birgitta Svenningsson, Erik Swietlicki, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Ville Vakkari, Marko Vana, Alfred Wiedensohler, Zhijun Wu, Annele Virtanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14737–14756,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have diverse effects on air quality, human health, and global climate. One important source of aerosols is their formation via nucleation and growth in the atmosphere. We have analyzed long-term observations of regional new particle formation events around the globe and provide a comprehensive view on the characteristics of this phenomenon in diverse environments. The results are useful in developing more realistic representation of atmospheric aerosols in global models.
Marco Zanatta, Paolo Laj, Martin Gysel, Urs Baltensperger, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Yutaka Kondo, Philippe Dubuisson, Victor Winiarek, Stelios Kazadzis, Peter Tunved, and Hans-Werner Jacobi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14037–14057,Short summary
The research community aims to quantify the actual contribution of soot particles to the recent Arctic warming. We discovered that mixing of soot with other components might enhance its light absorption power by 50 %. The neglection of such amplification might lead to the underestimation of radiative forcing by 0.12 W m−2. Thus a better understanding of the optical properties of soot is a crucial step for an accurate quantification of the radiative impact of soot in the Arctic atmosphere.
Sarah Grawe, Stefanie Augustin-Bauditz, Hans-Christian Clemen, Martin Ebert, Stine Eriksen Hammer, Jasmin Lubitz, Naama Reicher, Yinon Rudich, Johannes Schneider, Robert Staacke, Frank Stratmann, André Welti, and Heike Wex
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13903–13923,Short summary
In this study, coal fly ash particles immersed in supercooled cloud droplets were analyzed concerning their freezing behavior. Additionally, physico-chemical particle properties (morphology, chemical composition, crystallography) were investigated. In combining both aspects, components that potentially contribute to the observed freezing behavior of the ash could be identified. Interactions at the particle-water interface, that depend on suspension time and influence freezing, are discussed.
Xiao-Feng Huang, Bei-Bing Zou, Ling-Yan He, Min Hu, André S. H. Prévôt, and Yuan-Hang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11563–11580,Short summary
A novel multilinear engine (ME-2) model was applied to the PM2.5 dataset observed in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China in 2015 and identified the sources of secondary sulfate (21 %), vehicle emissions (14 %), industrial emissions (13 %), secondary nitrate (11 %), biomass burning (11 %), secondary organic aerosol (7 %), coal burning (6 %), fugitive dust (5 %), ship emissions (3 %) and aged sea salt (2 %). The central PRD area was clearly identified as the key emission area in the PRD.
Amelie Bertrand, Giulia Stefenelli, Simone M. Pieber, Emily A. Bruns, Brice Temime-Roussel, Jay G. Slowik, Henri Wortham, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10915–10930,Short summary
We model the evolution of several BBOA markers including levoglucosan during aging experiments conducted in an atmospheric Teflon chamber, in order to evaluate the influence of vapor wall loss on the determination of the rate constants of the compounds with hydroxyl radicals (OH).
Xia Li, Jiarui Wu, Miriam Elser, Tian Feng, Junji Cao, Imad El-Haddad, Rujin Huang, Xuexi Tie, André S. H. Prévôt, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10675–10691,
Simone M. Pieber, Nivedita K. Kumar, Felix Klein, Pierre Comte, Deepika Bhattu, Josef Dommen, Emily A. Bruns, Doǧuşhan Kılıç, Imad El Haddad, Alejandro Keller, Jan Czerwinski, Norbert Heeb, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9929–9954,Short summary
We studied primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles including GDIs retrofitted with gasoline particle filters (GPF). GPF retrofitting significantly decreased the primary particulate matter, particularly through removal of refractory black carbon and, to a lesser extent, of non-refractory organic particulates. SOA experiments were conducted in a batch and flow reactor. GPF retrofitting did not significantly affect precursors or yields.
Emmanouil Oikonomakis, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Martin Wild, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Urs Baltensperger, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9741–9765,Short summary
We report a model sensitivity study on the impact of aerosol–radiation interaction (ARI) changes in Europe between 1990 and 2010 on summer surface ozone via effects on photolysis rates and biogenic emissions. The overall impact of ARI changes on ozone was relatively small when compared to the total ozone concentrations, but it was more important when compared to the order of magnitude of ozone trends, indicating a potential partial damping of the effects of ozone precursor emissions' reduction.
Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Qi Zhang, Qi Jiang, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Jie Li, John Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8469–8489,Short summary
We present a 2–year analysis of organic aerosol (OA) from highly time–resolved measurements by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor in the megacity of Beijing. The sources of OA were analyzed with the advanced factor analysis of a multilinear engine (ME-2). Our results showed very different seasonal patterns, relative humidity and temperature dependence, and sources regions among different OA factors. The sources and processes of OA factors, and their roles in haze pollution are elucidated.
Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Yang Chen, Lu Yang, Jincan Shen, Qihua You, Kai Wang, Chunshui Lin, Wei Xu, Bo Gao, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Thorsten Hoffmann, Colin D. O'Dowd, Merete Bilde, and Marianne Glasius
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3447–3456,
Avi Lavi, Michael P. Vermeuel, Gordon A. Novak, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3251–3262,Short summary
Chemical ionization mass spectrometry has emerged as a versatile tool for the study of reactive gases. Robust calibration is required to assess the sensitivity of these instruments and their dependence on external factors such as specific humidity. Here, we report the sensitivity of benzene cluster cation chemical ionization for an array of terpene compounds. This work permits a more universal understanding of the sensitivity of this technique to a host of isobaric compounds.
Marco Pandolfi, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Christo Angelov, Begoña Artiñano, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Paolo Bonasoni, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martine Collaud Coen, Sébastien Conil, Esther Coz, Vincent Crenn, Vadimas Dudoitis, Marina Ealo, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Patrick Ginot, Martin Gysel, Bas Henzing, Andras Hoffer, Adela Holubova Smejkalova, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Chris Lunder, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marcel Moerman, José Nicolas, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean Marc Pichon, Nina Prokopciuk, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Sergio Rodríguez, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Erik Swietlicki, Gloria Titos, Thomas Tuch, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Aditya Vaishya, Milan Vana, Aki Virkkula, Stergios Vratolis, Ernest Weingartner, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877–7911,Short summary
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle light-scattering measurements obtained over the past decade at 28 measuring atmospheric observatories which are part of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure, and most of them belong to the GAW network. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol particles optical properties in Europe.
Amelie Bertrand, Giulia Stefenelli, Coty N. Jen, Simone M. Pieber, Emily A. Bruns, Haiyan Ni, Brice Temime-Roussel, Jay G. Slowik, Allen H. Goldstein, Imad El Haddad, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, Henri Wortham, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7607–7624,Short summary
A thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph coupled to an aerosol mass spectrometer (TAG–AMS) is connected to an atmospheric chamber. The setup serves the quantitative study of the impact of combustion conditions and atmospheric aging on the chemical fingerprint at the molecular level of biomass burning organic aerosol.
Arineh Cholakian, Matthias Beekmann, Augustin Colette, Isabelle Coll, Guillaume Siour, Jean Sciare, Nicolas Marchand, Florian Couvidat, Jorge Pey, Valerie Gros, Stéphane Sauvage, Vincent Michoud, Karine Sellegri, Aurélie Colomb, Karine Sartelet, Helen Langley DeWitt, Miriam Elser, André S. H. Prévot, Sonke Szidat, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7287–7312,Short summary
In this work, four schemes for the simulation of organic aerosols in the western Mediterranean basin are added to the CHIMERE chemistry–transport model; the resulting simulations are then compared to measurements obtained from ChArMEx. It is concluded that the scheme taking into account the fragmentation and the formation of nonvolatile organic aerosols corresponds better to measurements; the major source of this aerosol in the western Mediterranean is found to be of biogenic origin.
Jun Zhou, Peter Zotter, Emily A. Bruns, Giulia Stefenelli, Deepika Bhattu, Samuel Brown, Amelie Bertrand, Nicolas Marchand, Houssni Lamkaddam, Jay G. Slowik, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, Thomas Nussbaumer, Imad El-Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6985–7000,Short summary
We thoroughly studied the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation potential of particulate wood combustion emissions, from different combustion technologies, fuel types, operation methods, combustion regimes and phases. ROS from automatically operated combustion devices under optimal conditions were much lower than those from manually operated appliances. We examined the impact of atmospheric aging on ROS content in SOA and determined the controlling parameters, by using an online ROS analyzer.
Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Carlo Bozzetti, Benjamin Chazeau, Gary A. Salazar, Soenke Szidat, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Christoph Hueglin, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6187–6206,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosols are related to adverse human health effects, which depend on the aerosol chemical composition and size. Here, we combine aerosol mass spectrometry and radiocarbon measurements of size-resolved samples collected over a long term to identify the origins of primary and secondary carbonaceous aerosols in the fine and coarse modes.
Yan-Lin Zhang, Imad El-Haddad, Ru-Jin Huang, Kin-Fai Ho, Jun-Ji Cao, Yongming Han, Peter Zotter, Carlo Bozzetti, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Jay G. Slowik, Gary Salazar, André S. H. Prévôt, and Sönke Szidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4005–4017,Short summary
Here we present a quantitative source apportionment of WSOC, isolated from aerosols in China using radiocarbon (14C) and offline high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer measurements. We demonstrate a dominant contribution of non-fossil emissions to WSOC aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere. However, the fossil fraction is substantially larger in aerosols from East Asia and the east Asian pollution outflow, especially during winter, due to increasing coal combustion.
Wei Zhou, Qingqing Wang, Xiujuan Zhao, Weiqi Xu, Chen Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3951–3968,Short summary
We present a 3-month analysis of submicron aerosols that were measured at 260 m on a meteorological tower in Beijing, China. The sources of organic aerosol (OA) were analyzed by using a multi-linear engine (ME-2). Our results showed significant changes in both primary and secondary OA composition from the non-heating season to the heating season. We also observed a considerable contribution (10–13%) of cooking OA at 260 m and very different OA composition between ground level and 260 m.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Qiao Zhu, Xiao-Feng Huang, Li-Ming Cao, Lin-Tong Wei, Bin Zhang, Ling-Yan He, Miriam Elser, Francesco Canonaco, Jay G. Slowik, Carlo Bozzetti, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1049–1060,Short summary
Organic aerosol constitutes one of the major components of atmospheric particulate matter globally and is emitted from various sources. Therefore, identifying and quantifying the sources of organic aerosol accurately is a key task in the field. In this study, we applied a rather novel procedure for an improved source apportionment method (ME-2) to resolve the
less meaningful or mixed factorsproblems for organic aerosol using the traditional method (PMF).
Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Imad El-Haddad, Lassi Karvonen, Athanasia Vlachou, Joel C. Corbin, Jay G. Slowik, Maarten F. Heringa, Emily A. Bruns, Samuel M. Luedin, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Sönke Szidat, Andrea Piazzalunga, Raquel Gonzalez, Paola Fermo, Valentin Pflueger, Guido Vogel, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2155–2174,Short summary
A novel offline LDI-MS method was developed to analyse particulate matter (PM) collected at multiple sites in central Europe during the entire year of 2013. PM sources were identified by positive matrix factorization. Wood burning emissions were separated according to the burning conditions; inefficient burns had a larger impact on air quality in southern Alpine valleys than in northern Switzerland. Moreover, primary tailpipe exhaust was distinguished from aged/secondary traffic emissions.
Emmanouil Oikonomakis, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Urs Baltensperger, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2175–2198,Short summary
We report a modeling study investigating the uncertainties in ozone production in Europe. Using various methods for different emission and meteorological scenarios, we searched for the possible reasons for underestimation of high ozone levels in Europe by models. Our results suggest that emissions, especially NOx, might be too low in the European inventories. Improvement of the modeled ozone production will contribute to more consistent and effective ozone mitigation strategies for the future.
Ugo Molteni, Federico Bianchi, Felix Klein, Imad El Haddad, Carla Frege, Michel J. Rossi, Josef Dommen, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1909–1921,Short summary
Anthropogenic volatile organic compounds often dominate the urban atmosphere and consist to a large degree of aromatics. These compounds are already known as important precursors for the formation of secondary organic aerosol. This study shows how the oxidation of aromatics with an OH radical leads to subsequent autoxidation chain reactions forming highly oxygenated molecules. We hypothesize that these may contribute substantially to new particle formation events detected in urban areas.
Naama Reicher, Lior Segev, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 233–248,Short summary
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) affect the clouds' ice properties and can influence Earth’s hydrological cycle and climate. Here we present a detailed validation of WISDOM, a setup for the study of heterogeneous ice nucleation in an array of micron-sized droplets, and a demonstration of how it can be applied for the study of ice nucleation properties of ambient particles collected during dust storm events in Israel.
Jun Zhou, Emily A. Bruns, Peter Zotter, Giulia Stefenelli, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El-Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 65–80,Short summary
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the particle phase may induce oxidative stress in the human lungs upon inhalation. Here we present and thoroughly characterize a modified online and offline ROS analyzer. Selected model organic compounds were tested and potential interferences from gas-phase and matrix effects of particulate constituents were evaluated. ROS measurements of filter samples revealed the rapid decay of a substantial ROS fraction, supporting the application of online measurements.
Carla Frege, Ismael K. Ortega, Matti P. Rissanen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Gerhard Steiner, Martin Heinritzi, Lauri Ahonen, António Amorim, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Martin Breitenlechner, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El-Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Marc Gonin, Armin Hansel, Christopher R. Hoyle, Tuija Jokinen, Heikki Junninen, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Roy Lee Mauldin, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Tuukka Petäjä, Nina Sarnela, Siegfried Schobesberger, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Dominik Stolzenburg, António Tomé, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Paul M. Winkler, Josef Dommen, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 65–79,Short summary
It was recently shown that biogenic highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) form particles in the absence of sulfuric acid and ions enhance the nucleation rate. Here we compare the molecular composition of positive and negative HOM clusters at 25, 5 and −25 °C. At lower temperatures the HOM average oxygen-to-carbon ratio decreases indicating a reduction in the rate of autoxidation due to rather high activation energy. The experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations.
Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jonathan Duplissy, Tuomo Nieminen, Juha Kangasluoma, Lauri R. Ahonen, Lubna Dada, Jenni Kontkanen, Hanna E. Manninen, Antonio Dias, Antonio Amorim, Paulus S. Bauer, Anton Bergen, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Xuemeng Chen, Danielle C. Draper, Lukas Fischer, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Jani Hakala, Liine Heikkinen, Martin Heinritzi, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Alexander N. Kvashnin, Tiia Laurila, Michael J. Lawler, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Roy L. Mauldin III, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Felix Piel, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Nina Sarnela, Simon Schallhart, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Yrjö Viisanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Mao Xiao, Penglin Ye, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, James N. Smith, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas Worsnop, Mikael Ehn, Mikko Sipilä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15181–15197,
Naifang Bei, Jiarui Wu, Miriam Elser, Tian Feng, Junji Cao, Imad El-Haddad, Xia Li, Rujin Huang, Zhengqiang Li, Xin Long, Li Xing, Shuyu Zhao, Xuexi Tie, André S. H. Prévôt, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14579–14591,
Yunjiang Zhang, Lili Tang, Philip L. Croteau, Olivier Favez, Yele Sun, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Zhuang Wang, Florian Couvidat, Alexandre Albinet, Hongliang Zhang, Jean Sciare, André S. H. Prévôt, John T. Jayne, and Douglas R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14501–14517,Short summary
We conducted the first field measurements of non-refractory fine aerosols (NR-PM2.5) in a megacity of eastern China using a PM2.5-ACSM along with a PM1-ACSM measurement. Inter-comparisons demonstrated that the NR-PM2.5 components can be characterized. Substantial mass fractions of aerosol species were observed in the size range of 1–2.5 μm, with sulfate and SOA being the two largest contributors. The impacts of aerosol water driven by secondary inorganic aerosols on SOA formation were explored.
Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Giulia Stefenelli, Carlo Bozzetti, Athanasia Vlachou, Paola Fermo, Raquel Gonzalez, Andrea Piazzalunga, Cristina Colombi, Francesco Canonaco, Christoph Hueglin, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Federico Bianchi, Jay G. Slowik, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13265–13282,Short summary
We present offline AMS analyses for the organic aerosol (OA) in PM10 at nine sites in central Europe for 2013. Primary OA is separated into traffic, cooking, and wood-burning components. A factor explaining sulfur-containing ions, with an event-driven time series, is also separated. We observe enhanced production of secondary OA (SOA) in summer, following biogenic emissions with temperature. In winter a SOA component is dominant, which correlates with anthropogenic inorganic species.
Yue Zhao, Jeremy K. Chan, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Megan A. McKeown, Emma L. D'Ambro, Jay G. Slowik, Jeffrey A. Riffell, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3609–3625,Short summary
We present a novel atmospheric pressure electrospray chemical ionization (ESCI) source that can generate intense and stable currents of several specific reagent ions using a range of salt solutions prepared in methanol. We couple the ESCI source to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HRToF-MS) and assess instrument performance through calibrations using different gas standards and measurements of organic mixtures formed by ozonolysis of α-pinene.
Yevgeny Derimian, Marie Choël, Yinon Rudich, Karine Deboudt, Oleg Dubovik, Alexander Laskin, Michel Legrand, Bahaiddin Damiri, Ilan Koren, Florin Unga, Myriam Moreau, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Arnon Karnieli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11331–11353,Short summary
We present influence of daily occurrence of the sea breeze flow from the Mediterranean Sea on physicochemical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol deep inland in the Negev Desert of Israel. Sampled airborne dust was found be internally mixed with sea-salt particles and reacted with anthropogenic pollution, which makes the dust highly hygroscopic and a liquid coating of particles appears. These physicochemical transformations are associated with a change in aerosol radiative properties.
Laura-Hélèna Rivellini, Isabelle Chiapello, Emmanuel Tison, Marc Fourmentin, Anaïs Féron, Aboubacry Diallo, Thierno N'Diaye, Philippe Goloub, Francesco Canonaco, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, and Véronique Riffault
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10291–10314,Short summary
A 3-month field campaign was conducted in March–June 2015 in Senegal, as part of the SHADOW (SaHAran Dust Over West Africa) project. This article presents the time variability of the chemical composition of submicron particles. Organics (sulfates) were predominant for days under continental (marine) influence. Half the organic sources were identified as local, including one due to open waste-burning, and half were linked to regional air masses and enhanced photochemical processes.
Yi Ming Qin, Hao Bo Tan, Yong Jie Li, Misha I. Schurman, Fei Li, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10245–10258,Short summary
Freshly emitted HOA contributed significantly to the high concentrations of organics at night as heavy-duty vehicles enter downtown Guangzhou, while SOA contributed to the daytime high concentration. The large input of NOx, from automobile emissions, resulted in the significant formation of nitrate in both daytime and nighttime. Mitigating the PM pollution in urbanized areas such as Guangzhou can potentially benefit their peripheral cities, by reductions in traffic-related pollutants.
Prettiny K. Ma, Yunliang Zhao, Allen L. Robinson, David R. Worton, Allen H. Goldstein, Amber M. Ortega, Jose L. Jimenez, Peter Zotter, André S. H. Prévôt, Sönke Szidat, and Patrick L. Hayes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9237–9259,Short summary
Airborne particulate matter (PM) negatively impacts air quality in cities throughout the world. An important fraction of PM is organic aerosol. We have evaluated and developed several new models for secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which is formed from the chemical processing of gaseous precursors. Using our model results, we have quantified important SOA sources and precursors and also identified possible model parameterizations that could be used for air quality predictions.
Georgios Tsagkogeorgas, Pontus Roldin, Jonathan Duplissy, Linda Rondo, Jasmin Tröstl, Jay G. Slowik, Sebastian Ehrhart, Alessandro Franchin, Andreas Kürten, Antonio Amorim, Federico Bianchi, Jasper Kirkby, Tuukka Petäjä, Urs Baltensperger, Michael Boy, Joachim Curtius, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Neil M. Donahue, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8923–8938,Short summary
The H2SO4 vapour pressure plays key role in Earth's and Venus' atmospheres. In regions where RH is low and stabilising bases are scarce, H2SO4 can evaporate from particles; however the H2SO4 vapour pressure at low RH is uncertain. To address this, we measured H2SO4 evaporation versus T and RH in the CLOUD chamber and constrained the equilibrium constants for dissociation and dehydration of H2SO4. This study is important for nucleation, particle growth and H2SO4 formation occurring in atmosphere.
Carlo Bozzetti, Imad El Haddad, Dalia Salameh, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Paola Fermo, Raquel Gonzalez, María Cruz Minguillón, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Laurent Poulain, Miriam Elser, Emanuel Müller, Jay Gates Slowik, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Urs Baltensperger, Nicolas Marchand, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8247–8268,Short summary
We present the first long-term organic aerosol source apportionment in an environment influenced by anthropogenic emissions including biomass burning and industrial processes and an active photochemistry. Online and offline aerosol mass spectrometry were used to characterize these emissions and their transformation. Measurements of organic markers provided insights into the origin of biomass smoke in this area, with different seasonal contributions from domestic heating and agricultural burning.
Yunfei Wu, Xiaojia Wang, Jun Tao, Rujin Huang, Ping Tian, Junji Cao, Leiming Zhang, Kin-Fai Ho, Zhiwei Han, and Renjian Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7965–7975,Short summary
As black carbon (BC) aerosols play an important role in the climate and environment, the size distribution of refractory BC (rBC) was investigated. On this basis, the source of rBC was further analyzed. The local traffic exhausts contributed greatly to the rBC in urban areas. However, its contribution decreased significantly in the polluted period compared to the clean period, implying the increasing contribution of other sources, e.g., coal combustion or biomass burning, in the polluted period.
Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Imad El-Haddad, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7757–7773,Short summary
Sources of inorganic aerosols in Europe were investigated using a regional air quality model. Results of this study suggested that biogenic volatile organic coumpounds emitted from vegetation had a significant effect on inorganic aerosols, especially on ammonium nitrate concentrations. Sensitivity analyses showed that it is mainly terpene reactions with nitrate radical at night that lead to a decrease in ammonium nitrate.
Giancarlo Ciarelli, Imad El Haddad, Emily Bruns, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Ottmar Möhler, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2303–2320,Short summary
In Europe, residential wood-burning emissions constitute one of the main anthropogenic sources of air pollution. Novel wood-burning experiments performed in a state-of-the-art smog chamber provide valuable information on the chemical properties of wood-burning emissions and the transformation in the atmosphere. In this study, these new data were used in a box model to constrain a parameterization suitable for predicting the contribution of wood burning to air pollution with large-scale models.
Giancarlo Ciarelli, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Imad El Haddad, Emily A. Bruns, Monica Crippa, Laurent Poulain, Mikko Äijälä, Samara Carbone, Evelyn Freney, Colin O'Dowd, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7653–7669,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) comprises the main fraction of fine particulate matter (PM1). Using a new VBS parameterization, we performed model-based source apportionment studies to assess the importance of different emission sources to the total OA loads in Europe during winter periods. Our results indicate that residential wood burning emissions represent the major source of OA, followed by non-residential emission sources (i.e. traffic and industries).
Markus Furger, María Cruz Minguillón, Varun Yadav, Jay G. Slowik, Christoph Hüglin, Roman Fröhlich, Krag Petterson, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2061–2076,Short summary
An Xact 625 Ambient Metals Monitor was tested during a 3-week summer field campaign at a rural, traffic-influenced site in Switzerland. The objective was to characterize the operation of the instrument, evaluate the data quality by intercomparison with other independent measurements, and test its applicability for aerosol source quantification. The results demonstrate significant advantages compared to traditional elemental analysis methods, with some desirable improvements.
Lisa Stirnweis, Claudia Marcolli, Josef Dommen, Peter Barmet, Carla Frege, Stephen M. Platt, Emily A. Bruns, Manuel Krapf, Jay G. Slowik, Robert Wolf, Andre S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El-Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5035–5061,
Haiyan Li, Qi Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Chunrong Chen, Litao Wang, Zhe Wei, Shan Zhou, Caroline Parworth, Bo Zheng, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Ping Chen, Hongliang Zhang, Timothy J. Wallington, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4751–4768,Short summary
The sources and aerosol evolution processes of severe pollution episodes were investigated in Handan during wintertime using real-time measurements. An in-depth analysis of the data uncovered that primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning together with secondary formation of sulfate (mainly from SO2 emitted by coal combustion) are important driving factors for haze evolution. Our findings provide useful insights into air pollution control in heavily polluted regions.
Peter Zotter, Hanna Herich, Martin Gysel, Imad El-Haddad, Yanlin Zhang, Griša Močnik, Christoph Hüglin, Urs Baltensperger, Sönke Szidat, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4229–4249,Short summary
Most studies use a single Ångström exponent for wood burning (αWB) and traffic (αTR) emissions in the Aethalometer model, used for source apportionment of black carbon, derived from previous work. However, accurate determination of the α values is currently lacking. Comparing radiocarbon measurements (14C) with the Aehtalometer model, good agreement was found, indicating that the Aethalometer model reproduces reasonably well the 14C results using our best estimate of a single αWB and αTR.
Nir Bluvshtein, J. Michel Flores, Quanfu He, Enrico Segre, Lior Segev, Nina Hong, Andrea Donohue, James N. Hilfiker, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1203–1213,Short summary
Accurate PAS measurements rely on accurate calibration of their signal. Ozone is often used for calibrating PAS instruments by relating the photoacoustic signal to the absorption coefficient measured by an independent method. We offer an alternative approach to calibrate photoacoustic aerosol spectrometers with aerosolized, light-absorbing organic materials. To implement this method, we first determined the complex refractive index of an organic dye, using spectroscopic ellipsometry.
Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Peter Zotter, Robert Wolf, Emily Anne Bruns, André S. H. Prévôt, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Jean Sciare, Ian J. Arnold, Rajan K. Chakrabarty, Hans Moosmüller, Agnes Filep, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1043–1059,Short summary
Black carbon measurements are usually conducted with absorption filter photometers, which are prone to the filter-loading effect – a saturation of the instrumental response due to the accumulation of the sample in the filter matrix. In this paper, we conducted several field campaigns to investigate the hypothesis that this filter-loading effect depends on the optical properties of particles present in the filter matrix, especially on the coating of black carbon particles.
Guohui Li, Naifang Bei, Junji Cao, Rujin Huang, Jiarui Wu, Tian Feng, Yichen Wang, Suixin Liu, Qiang Zhang, Xuexi Tie, and Luisa T. Molina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3301–3316,
Mikko Äijälä, Liine Heikkinen, Roman Fröhlich, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3165–3197,Short summary
Mass spectrometric measurements commonly yield data on hundreds of variables over thousands of points in time. Refining and synthesising this “raw” data into chemical information necessitates the use of advanced, statistics-based data analysis techniques. Here we present an example of combining data dimensionality reduction (factorisation) with exploratory classification (clustering) and show that the results complement and broaden our current perspectives on aerosol chemical classification.
Carla Frege, Federico Bianchi, Ugo Molteni, Jasmin Tröstl, Heikki Junninen, Stephan Henne, Mikko Sipilä, Erik Herrmann, Michel J. Rossi, Markku Kulmala, Christopher R. Hoyle, Urs Baltensperger, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2613–2629,Short summary
We present measurements of the chemical composition of atmospheric ions at high altitude (3450 m a.s.l.) during a 9-month campaign. We detected remarkably high correlation between methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and SO5−. Halogenated species were also detected frequently at this continental location. New-particle formation events occurred via the condensation of highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) at very low sulfuric acid concentration or, less frequently, due to ammonia–sulfuric acid clusters.
Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Herrmann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, and Rahul A. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2103–2162,Short summary
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3 is an important interaction between anthropogenic and natural emissions. This review results from a June 2015 workshop and includes the recent literature on kinetics, mechanisms, organic aerosol yields, and heterogeneous chemistry; advances in analytical instrumentation; the current state NO3-BVOC chemistry in atmospheric models; and critical needs for future research in modeling, field observations, and laboratory studies.
Jiarui Wu, Guohui Li, Junji Cao, Naifang Bei, Yichen Wang, Tian Feng, Rujin Huang, Suixin Liu, Qiang Zhang, and Xuexi Tie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2035–2051,
Emily A. Bruns, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, Dogushan Kilic, Felix Klein, Josef Dommen, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 705–720,Short summary
We characterize primary and aged gaseous emissions from residential wood combustion using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This approach allows for improved characterization, particularly of oxygenated gases, which are a considerable fraction of the total gaseous mass emitted during residential wood combustion. This study is the first thorough characterization of organic gases from this source and provides a benchmark for future studies.
Carlo Bozzetti, Yuliya Sosedova, Mao Xiao, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Vadimas Dudoitis, Genrik Mordas, Steigvilė Byčenkienė, Kristina Plauškaitė, Athanasia Vlachou, Benjamin Golly, Benjamin Chazeau, Jean-Luc Besombes, Urs Baltensperger, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 117–141,Short summary
In this study we present the offline-AMS source apportionment of the submicron organic aerosol (OA) sources conducted over 1 year at three locations in the south east Baltic region, which has so far received small attention. Offline-AMS enabled broadening the AMS spatial and temporal coverage, and provided a full characterization of the OA sources. Source apportionment results revealed that biomass burning and biogenic secondary emissions were the major OA sources during winter and summer.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, David C. Green, Max Priestman, Francesco Canonaco, Hugh Coe, André S. H. Prévôt, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15545–15559,Short summary
For the first time in the UK, an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor was used to measure aerosol concentrations in London in March–December 2013, with further organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment using the ME-2 factorization tool. Five OA sources were identified: biomass burning OA, hydrocarbon-like OA, cooking OA, semivolatile oxygenated OA and low-volatility oxygenated OA. This information can be used to take future action on the respective legislation in order to improve the air quality.
Jianzhong Xu, Jinsen Shi, Qi Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Matthias Vonwiller, Sönke Szidat, Jinming Ge, Jianmin Ma, Yanqing An, Shichang Kang, and Dahe Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14937–14957,Short summary
This study deployed an AMS field study in Lanzhou, a city in northwestern China, evaluating the chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during wintertime. In comparison with the results during summer in Lanzhou, the air pollution during winter was more severe and the sources were more complex. In addition, this paper estimates the contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources of organic carbon to primary and secondary organic carbon using the carbon isotopic method.
Petri Tiitta, Ari Leskinen, Liqing Hao, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Miika Kortelainen, Julija Grigonyte, Jarkko Tissari, Heikki Lamberg, Anni Hartikainen, Kari Kuuspalo, Aki-Matti Kortelainen, Annele Virtanen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Mika Komppula, Simone Pieber, André S. H. Prévôt, Timothy B. Onasch, Douglas R. Worsnop, Hendryk Czech, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, and Olli Sippula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13251–13269,Short summary
Real-time measurements of OA aging and SOA formation from logwood combustion were conducted under dark and UV oxidation. Substantial SOA formation was observed in all experiments, leading to twice the initial OA mass emphasizing the importance of the burning conditions for the aging processes. The results prove that emissions are subject to intensive chemical processing in the atmosphere; e.g. the most of the POA was found to become oxidized after the ozone addition, forming aged POA.
Michael Bressi, Fabrizia Cavalli, Claudio A. Belis, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Roman Fröhlich, Sebastiao Martins dos Santos, Ettore Petralia, André S. H. Prévôt, Massimo Berico, Antonella Malaguti, and Francesco Canonaco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12875–12896,Short summary
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) levels and resulting impacts on human health are in the Po Valley (Italy) among the highest in Europe. This study discusses submicron PM chemical composition, sources and atmospheric processes in this region, using state-of-the-art measurement techniques and receptor models. Based on these results, effective PM abatement strategies are suggested in the upper Po Valley.
Bertrand Bessagnet, Guido Pirovano, Mihaela Mircea, Cornelius Cuvelier, Armin Aulinger, Giuseppe Calori, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Astrid Manders, Rainer Stern, Svetlana Tsyro, Marta García Vivanco, Philippe Thunis, Maria-Teresa Pay, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Frédérik Meleux, Laurence Rouïl, Anthony Ung, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, José María Baldasano, Johannes Bieser, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, Sandro Finardi, Richard Kranenburg, Camillo Silibello, Claudio Carnevale, Wenche Aas, Jean-Charles Dupont, Hilde Fagerli, Lucia Gonzalez, Laurent Menut, André S. H. Prévôt, Pete Roberts, and Les White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12667–12701,Short summary
The EURODELTA III exercise allows a very comprehensive intercomparison and evaluation of air quality models' performance. On average, the models provide a rather good picture of the particulate matter (PM) concentrations over Europe even if the highest concentrations are underestimated. The meteorology is responsible for model discrepancies, while the lack of emissions, particularly in winter, is mentioned as the main reason for the underestimations of PM.
Chao Yan, Wei Nie, Mikko Äijälä, Matti P. Rissanen, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Paola Massoli, Heikki Junninen, Tuija Jokinen, Nina Sarnela, Silja A. K. Häme, Siegfried Schobesberger, Francesco Canonaco, Lei Yao, André S. H. Prévôt, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Mikko Sipilä, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12715–12731,Short summary
Highly oxidized multifunctional compounds (HOMs) are known to have a significant contribution to secondary aerosol formation, yet their dominating formation pathways remain unclear in the atmosphere. We apply positive matrix factorization (PMF) on HOM data, and successfully retrieve factors representing different formation pathways. The results improve our understanding of HOM formation, and provide new perspectives on using PMF to study the variation of short-lived specie.
Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Karsten Baumann, Lina Hacker, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Allen H. Goldstein, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580,Short summary
IEPOX-SOA is biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol under anthropogenic influence, which has been shown to comprise a substantial fraction of OA globally. We investigated the lifetime of ambient IEPOX-SOA in the SE US and Amazonia, with an oxidation flow reactor and thermodenuder coupled with MS-based instrumentation. The low volatility and long lifetime of IEPOX-SOA against OH radicals' oxidation (> 2 weeks) was observed, which can help to constrain OA impact on air quality and climate.
Giancarlo Ciarelli, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Monica Crippa, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Eriko Nemitz, Karine Sellegri, Mikko Äijälä, Samara Carbone, Claudia Mohr, Colin O'Dowd, Laurent Poulain, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10313–10332,Short summary
Recent studies based on aerosol mass spectrometer measurements revealed that the organic fraction dominates the non-refractory PM1 composition. However its representation in chemical transport models is still very challenging due to uncertainties in emission sources and formation pathways. In this study, a novel organic aerosol scheme was tested in the regional air quality model CAMx and results were compared with ambient measurements at 11 different sites in Europe.
Tian Feng, Guohui Li, Junji Cao, Naifang Bei, Zhenxing Shen, Weijian Zhou, Suixin Liu, Ting Zhang, Yichen Wang, Ru-jin Huang, Xuexi Tie, and Luisa T. Molina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10045–10061,Short summary
The springtime organic aerosol (OA) concentrations in the Guanzhong Basin, China are simulated using the WRF-Chem model with two secondary OA (SOA) modules. Model results are verified with near-surface observations. The non-traditional SOA module significantly improves SOA simulation. Oxidation and partitioning of primary OAs is the most important pathway in SOA formation. Residential emissions are the dominant anthropogenic OA source.
Graydon Snider, Crystal L. Weagle, Kalaivani K. Murdymootoo, Amanda Ring, Yvonne Ritchie, Emily Stone, Ainsley Walsh, Clement Akoshile, Nguyen Xuan Anh, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, Jeff Brook, Fatimah D. Qonitan, Jinlu Dong, Derek Griffith, Kebin He, Brent N. Holben, Ralph Kahn, Nofel Lagrosas, Puji Lestari, Zongwei Ma, Amit Misra, Leslie K. Norford, Eduardo J. Quel, Abdus Salam, Bret Schichtel, Lior Segev, Sachchida Tripathi, Chien Wang, Chao Yu, Qiang Zhang, Yuxuan Zhang, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Mark D. Gibson, Yang Liu, J. Vanderlei Martins, Yinon Rudich, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9629–9653,Short summary
We examine the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected on filters at traditionally undersampled, globally dispersed urban locations. Several PM2.5 chemical components (e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and black carbon) vary by more than an order of magnitude between sites while aerosol hygroscopicity varies by a factor of 2. Enhanced anthropogenic dust fractions in large urban areas are apparent from high Zn : Al ratios.
Xin Long, Xuexi Tie, Junji Cao, Rujin Huang, Tian Feng, Nan Li, Suyu Zhao, Jie Tian, Guohui Li, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9675–9691,Short summary
We studied the impact of crop field burning (CFB) on air pollution in North China Plain (NCP) using MODIS observations and the numerical model WRF-CHEM. The CFB plume emitted in southern NCP and went through a long-range transport to northern NCP. The long-range transport and the effect of mountains obviously enhanced the PM2.5 pollution in northern NCP. The prohibition of CFB should be strict not just in or around Beijing, but also on the ulterior crop growth areas of southern NCP.
Nir Bluvshtein, J. Michel Flores, Lior Segev, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3477–3490,Short summary
Understanding spectrally dependent optical properties of aerosols is needed to quantify the effective radiative forcing due to aerosol–radiation interactions. We describe a new approach to retrieve extensive and intensive optical properties of the aerosol population over 300 to 650 nm wavelength. This new approach was validated with retrieval simulations, laboratory and continuous ambient aerosols measurements. Results showed low errors and good agreement with expected values.
Patrick Schlag, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Marcus Johannes Blom, Francesco Canonaco, Jeroen Sebastiaan Henzing, Marcel Moerman, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, and Rupert Holzinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8831–8847,Short summary
This work provides chemical composition data of atmospheric aerosols acquired during 1 year in the rural site of Cabauw, the Netherlands. In some periods, we found unexpected high particle mass concentrations exceeding the WHO limits. Using these composition data, we found that reducing ammonia emissions in this region would largely reduce the main aerosol component ammonium nitrate, whereas the local mitigation of the organics turned out to be difficult due to the lack of a designated source.
Naifang Bei, Guohui Li, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Ning Meng, Tian Feng, Suixin Liu, Ting Zhang, Qiang Zhang, and Luisa T. Molina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7373–7387,Short summary
Rapid industrialization and urbanization have caused severe air pollution in the Guanzhong basin, northwestern China with heavy haze events occurring frequently in recent winters. Due to frequent occurrence of unfavorable synoptic situations during wintertime, mitigation of emissions is the optimum approach to mitigate the air pollution in the Guanzhong basin.
Bernadette Rosati, Martin Gysel, Florian Rubach, Thomas F. Mentel, Brigitta Goger, Laurent Poulain, Patrick Schlag, Pasi Miettinen, Aki Pajunoja, Annele Virtanen, Henk Klein Baltink, J. S. Bas Henzing, Johannes Größ, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Alfred Wiedensohler, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Ernest Weingartner, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7295–7315,Short summary
This study presents PEGASOS project data from field campaigns in the Po Valley, Italy and the Netherlands. Vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition were investigated with airborne measurements on board a Zeppelin NT airship. A special focus was on the evolution of different mixing layers within the PBL as a function of daytime. A closure study showed that variations in aerosol hygroscopicity can well be explained by the variations in chemical composition.
Miriam Elser, Carlo Bozzetti, Imad El-Haddad, Marek Maasikmets, Erik Teinemaa, Rene Richter, Robert Wolf, Jay G. Slowik, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7117–7134,Short summary
This work presents the first detailed in-situ measurements of major air pollutants (including NR-PM2.5, eBC, and trace gases) in the two biggest cities in Estonia. The sources of organic aerosols were investigated by means of positive matrix factorization. Highly time-resolved mobile measurements allowed for the identification of source areas and the determination of regional background concentrations as well as urban increments of the individual components.
Karoliina Ignatius, Thomas B. Kristensen, Emma Järvinen, Leonid Nichman, Claudia Fuchs, Hamish Gordon, Paul Herenz, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jonathan Duplissy, Sarvesh Garimella, Antonio Dias, Carla Frege, Niko Höppel, Jasmin Tröstl, Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Martin W. Gallagher, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Martin Schnaiter, Antonio Tomé, Annele Virtanen, Douglas Worsnop, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6495–6509,Short summary
Viscous solid or semi-solid secondary organic aerosol (SOA) may influence cloud properties through ice nucleation in the atmosphere. Here, we observed heterogeneous ice nucleation of viscous α-pinene SOA at temperatures between −39 °C and −37.2 °C with ice saturation ratios significantly below the homogeneous freezing limit. Global modelling suggests that viscous biogenic SOA are present in regions where cirrus formation takes place and could contribute to the global ice nuclei budget.
Vidmantas Ulevicius, Steigvilė Byčenkienė, Carlo Bozzetti, Athanasia Vlachou, Kristina Plauškaitė, Genrik Mordas, Vadimas Dudoitis, Gülcin Abbaszade, Vidmantas Remeikis, Andrius Garbaras, Agne Masalaite, Jan Blees, Roman Fröhlich, Kaspar R. Dällenbach, Francesco Canonaco, Jay G. Slowik, Josef Dommen, Ralf Zimmermann, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Gary A. Salazar, Konstantinos Agrios, Sönke Szidat, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5513–5529,Short summary
In early spring the Baltic region is frequently affected by high pollution events due to biomass burning in that area. Here we present a comprehensive study to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning (BB) on the evolution and composition of aerosol in Preila, Lithuania, during springtime open fires.
Bernadette Rosati, Erik Herrmann, Silvia Bucci, Federico Fierli, Francesco Cairo, Martin Gysel, Ralf Tillmann, Johannes Größ, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Luca Di Liberto, Guido Di Donfrancesco, Alfred Wiedensohler, Ernest Weingartner, Annele Virtanen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4539–4554,Short summary
We present vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties, which were explored within the planetary boundary layer in a case study in 2012 in the Po Valley region. A comparison of in situ measurements recorded aboard a Zeppelin NT and ground-based remote-sensing data was performed yielding good agreement. Additionally, the role of ambient relative humidity for the aerosol particles' optical properties was investigated.
Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Leonid Nichman, Thomas B. Kristensen, Claudia Fuchs, Christopher R. Hoyle, Niko Höppel, Joel C. Corbin, Jill Craven, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El Haddad, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Tuija Jokinen, Peter Kallinger, Jasper Kirkby, Alexei Kiselev, Karl-Heinz Naumann, Tuukka Petäjä, Tamara Pinterich, Andre S. H. Prevot, Harald Saathoff, Thea Schiebel, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Jay G. Slowik, Jasmin Tröstl, Annele Virtanen, Paul Vochezer, Steffen Vogt, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Paul M. Winkler, Chao Yan, Urs Baltensperger, Neil M. Donahue, Rick C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ottmar Möhler, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4423–4438,
Tian Feng, Naifang Bei, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Qiang Zhang, Weijian Zhou, Xuexi Tie, Suixin Liu, Ting Zhang, Xiaoli Su, Wenfang Lei, Luisa T. Molina, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4323–4342,Short summary
The occurrence of high O3 levels with high PM2.5 concentrations constitutes a dilemma for the design of O3 control strategies in Xi’an and surrounding areas. If the O3 mitigation approach decreases aerosols in the atmosphere directly or indirectly, the enhanced photolysis caused by aerosol reduction would compensate for the O3 loss. If only the PM2.5 control strategy is implemented, the O3 pollution will decrease.
Christopher R. Hoyle, Clare S. Webster, Harald E. Rieder, Athanasios Nenes, Emanuel Hammer, Erik Herrmann, Martin Gysel, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Ernest Weingartner, Martin Steinbacher, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4043–4061,Short summary
A simple statistical model to predict the number of aerosols which activate to form cloud droplets in warm clouds has been established, based on regression analysis of data from the high-altitude site Jungfraujoch. It is found that cloud droplet formation at the Jungfraujoch is predominantly controlled by the number concentration of aerosol particles. A statistical model based on only the number of particles larger than 80nm can explain 79 % of the observed variance in droplet numbers.
Christos Fountoukis, Athanasios G. Megaritis, Ksakousti Skyllakou, Panagiotis E. Charalampidis, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Monica Crippa, André S. H. Prévôt, Friederike Fachinger, Alfred Wiedensohler, Christodoulos Pilinis, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3727–3741,Short summary
We use PMCAMx with high grid resolution over Paris to simulate carbonaceous aerosol during the summer and winter MEGAPOLI campaigns. PMCAMx reproduces BC observations well. Addition of cooking organic aerosol emissions of 80 mg per day per capita is needed to reproduce the corresponding observations. While the oxygenated organic aerosol predictions during the summer are encouraging a major wintertime source appears to be missing.
Miriam Elser, Ru-Jin Huang, Robert Wolf, Jay G. Slowik, Qiyuan Wang, Francesco Canonaco, Guohui Li, Carlo Bozzetti, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Yu Huang, Renjian Zhang, Zhengqiang Li, Junji Cao, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3207–3225,Short summary
This work represents the first online chemical characterization of the PM2.5 using a high-resolution time-of flight aerosol mass spectrometer during extreme haze events China. The application of novel source apportionment techniques allowed for an improved identification and quantification of the sources of organic aerosols. The main sources and processes driving the extreme haze events are assessed.
Andrea Paciga, Eleni Karnezi, Evangelia Kostenidou, Lea Hildebrandt, Magda Psichoudaki, Gabriella J. Engelhart, Byong-Hyoek Lee, Monica Crippa, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2013–2023,Short summary
We estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter field campaigns in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The OA factors (hydrocarbon like OA, cooking OA, marine OA, oxygenated OA) had a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and average oxygen to carbon of the OA components.
Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1895–1906,Short summary
As a least-regulated source, ship emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. We used an air quality model to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual and seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and dry and wet deposition of N and S compounds in Europe. The results presented in this paper suggest evolution of NOx emissions from ships and land-based NH3 emissions will play a significant role in the future European air quality.
C. R. Hoyle, C. Fuchs, E. Järvinen, H. Saathoff, A. Dias, I. El Haddad, M. Gysel, S. C. Coburn, J. Tröstl, A.-K. Bernhammer, F. Bianchi, M. Breitenlechner, J. C. Corbin, J. Craven, N. M. Donahue, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, C. Frege, H. Gordon, N. Höppel, M. Heinritzi, T. B. Kristensen, U. Molteni, L. Nichman, T. Pinterich, A. S. H. Prévôt, M. Simon, J. G. Slowik, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, A. L. Vogel, R. Volkamer, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, A. S. Wexler, C. Williamson, P. M. Winkler, C. Yan, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, M. W. Gallagher, R. C. Flagan, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, M. Kulmala, O. Möhler, F. Stratmann, D. R. Worsnop, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1693–1712,Short summary
A significant portion of sulphate, an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, is formed via the aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone. The rate of this reaction has previously only been measured over a relatively small temperature range. Here, we use the state of the art CLOUD chamber at CERN to perform the first measurements of this reaction rate in super-cooled droplets, confirming that the existing extrapolation of the reaction rate to sub-zero temperatures is accurate.
L. Xu, L. R. Williams, D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, P. Massoli, E. Fortner, P. Chhabra, S. Herndon, W. A. Brooks, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, A. C. Aiken, S. Liu, K. Gorkowski, M. K. Dubey, Z. L. Fleming, S. Visser, A. S. H. Prévôt, and N. L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1139–1160,Short summary
We investigate the spatial distribution of submicron aerosol in the greater London area as part of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Although the concentrations of organic aerosol (OA) are similar between a rural and an urban site, the OA sources are different. We also examine the volatility of submicron aerosol at the rural site and find that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical processing as refractory black carbon.
D. F. Zhao, A. Buchholz, B. Kortner, P. Schlag, F. Rubach, H. Fuchs, A. Kiendler-Scharr, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, Å. K. Watne, M. Hallquist, J. M. Flores, Y. Rudich, K. Kristensen, A. M. K. Hansen, M. Glasius, I. Kourtchev, M. Kalberer, and Th. F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1105–1121,Short summary
This study investigated the cloud droplet activation behavior and hygroscopic growth of mixed anthropogenic and biogenic SOA (ABSOA) compared to pure biogenic SOA (BSOA) and pure anthropogenic SOA (ASOA). Cloud droplet activation behaviors of different types of SOA were similar. In contrast, the hygroscopicity of ASOA was higher than BSOA and ABSOA. ASOA components enhanced the hygroscopicity of the ABSOA. Yet this enhancement cannot be described by a linear mixing of pure SOA systems.
J. Kim, L. Ahlm, T. Yli-Juuti, M. Lawler, H. Keskinen, J. Tröstl, S. Schobesberger, J. Duplissy, A. Amorim, F. Bianchi, N. M. Donahue, R. C. Flagan, J. Hakala, M. Heinritzi, T. Jokinen, A. Kürten, A. Laaksonen, K. Lehtipalo, P. Miettinen, T. Petäjä, M. P. Rissanen, L. Rondo, K. Sengupta, M. Simon, A. Tomé, C. Williamson, D. Wimmer, P. M. Winkler, S. Ehrhart, P. Ye, J. Kirkby, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, K. E. J. Lehtinen, J. N. Smith, I. Riipinen, and A. Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 293–304,Short summary
The hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was measured in the presence of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid-dimethylamine, and sulfuric acid-organics derived from α-pinene oxidation during CLOUD7 at CERN in 2012. The hygroscopicity parameter κ decreased with increasing particle size, indicating decreasing acidity of particles.
K. R. Daellenbach, C. Bozzetti, A. Křepelová, F. Canonaco, R. Wolf, P. Zotter, P. Fermo, M. Crippa, J. G. Slowik, Y. Sosedova, Y. Zhang, R.-J. Huang, L. Poulain, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. El Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 23–39,Short summary
In this study, we developed an offline technique using the AMS for the characterization of the chemical fingerprints of aerosols collected on quartz filters, and evaluated the suitability of the organic mass spectral data for source apportionment. This technique may be used to enhance the AMS capabilities in measuring size-fractionated, spatially resolved long-term data sets.
R. A. Washenfelder, A. R. Attwood, J. M. Flores, K. J. Zarzana, Y. Rudich, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 41–52,Short summary
Formaldehyde is the most abundant aldehyde in the atmosphere and plays an important role in photochemistry. Broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy uses a high finesse cavity to obtain effective path lengths of kilometers. We use a diode-pumped plasma lamp and custom cavity mirrors to extend this technique further into the ultraviolet spectral region, and we achieve detection limits of hundreds of parts per trillion in 1 min for formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide.
D. M. Lienhard, A. J. Huisman, U. K. Krieger, Y. Rudich, C. Marcolli, B. P. Luo, D. L. Bones, J. P. Reid, A. T. Lambe, M. R. Canagaratna, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, D. R. Worsnop, S. S. Steimer, T. Koop, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13599–13613,Short summary
New data of water diffusivity in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material and organic/inorganic model mixtures is presented over an extensive temperature range. Our data suggest that water diffusion in SOA is sufficiently fast so that it is unlikely to have significant consequences on the direct climatic effect under tropospheric conditions. Glass formation in SOA is unlikely to restrict homogeneous ice nucleation.
V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. L. Croteau, S. Verlhac, R. Fröhlich, C. A. Belis, W. Aas, M. Äijälä, A. Alastuey, B. Artiñano, D. Baisnée, N. Bonnaire, M. Bressi, M. Canagaratna, F. Canonaco, C. Carbone, F. Cavalli, E. Coz, M. J. Cubison, J. K. Esser-Gietl, D. C. Green, V. Gros, L. Heikkinen, H. Herrmann, C. Lunder, M. C. Minguillón, G. Močnik, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, J.-E. Petit, E. Petralia, L. Poulain, M. Priestman, V. Riffault, A. Ripoll, R. Sarda-Estève, J. G. Slowik, A. Setyan, A. Wiedensohler, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. T. Jayne, and O. Favez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5063–5087,Short summary
A large intercomparison study of 13 Q-ACSM was conducted for a 3-week period in the region of Paris to evaluate the performance of this instrument and to monitor the major NR-PM1 chemical components. Reproducibility expanded uncertainties of Q-ACSM concentration measurements were found to be 9, 15, 19, 28, and 36% for NR-PM1, NO3, OM, SO4, and NH4, respectively. Some recommendations regarding best calibration practices, standardized data processing and data treatment are also provided.
Q. Y. Wang, R.-J. Huang, J. J. Cao, X. X. Tie, H. Y. Ni, Y. Q. Zhou, Y. M. Han, T. F. Hu, C. S. Zhu, T. Feng, N. Li, and J. D. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13059–13069,Short summary
An intensive campaign was conducted at the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau using a ground-based single particle soot photometer and a photoacoustic extinctiometer. Significant enhancements of rBC loadings and number fraction of coated rBC were observed during the pollution episode. Biomass burning from N. India is determined to be an important potential source influencing the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The rBC mixing state is important in determining absorption during the pollution episode.
M. Paramonov, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Gysel, P. P. Aalto, M. O. Andreae, E. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, A. Bougiatioti, D. Brus, G. P. Frank, N. Good, S. S. Gunthe, L. Hao, M. Irwin, A. Jaatinen, Z. Jurányi, S. M. King, A. Kortelainen, A. Kristensson, H. Lihavainen, M. Kulmala, U. Lohmann, S. T. Martin, G. McFiggans, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Nenes, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, T. Petäjä, U. Pöschl, G. C. Roberts, D. Rose, B. Svenningsson, E. Swietlicki, E. Weingartner, J. Whitehead, A. Wiedensohler, C. Wittbom, and B. Sierau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12211–12229,Short summary
The research paper presents the first comprehensive overview of field measurements with the CCN Counter performed at a large number of locations around the world within the EUCAARI framework. The paper sheds light on the CCN number concentrations and activated fractions around the world and their dependence on the water vapour supersaturation ratio, the dependence of aerosol hygroscopicity on particle size, and seasonal and diurnal variation of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties.
R. Fröhlich, M. J. Cubison, J. G. Slowik, N. Bukowiecki, F. Canonaco, P. L. Croteau, M. Gysel, S. Henne, E. Herrmann, J. T. Jayne, M. Steinbacher, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11373–11398,Short summary
This manuscript presents the first long-term (14-month) and highly time-resolved (10 min) measurements of NR-PM1 aerosol chemical composition at a high-altitude site (JFJ, Switzerland, 3580m a.s.l.). The elevated location allowed the investigation of free tropospheric aerosol year round. Total and relative mass loadings, diurnal variations as well as seasonal variations are discussed together with geographical origin, organic aerosol sources and the influence of the planetary boundary layer.
S. Visser, J. G. Slowik, M. Furger, P. Zotter, N. Bukowiecki, F. Canonaco, U. Flechsig, K. Appel, D. C. Green, A. H. Tremper, D. E. Young, P. I. Williams, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, L. R. Williams, C. Mohr, L. Xu, N. L. Ng, E. Nemitz, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, Z. L. Fleming, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11291–11309,Short summary
Trace element measurements in three particle size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3) were performed with 2h time resolution at kerbside, urban background and rural sites during the ClearfLo winter 2012 campaign in London. The environment-dependent variability of emissions was characterized using the Multilinear Engine implementation of the positive matrix factorization model. A total of nine different factors were resolved from local, regional and natural origin.
A. Kürten, S. Münch, L. Rondo, F. Bianchi, J. Duplissy, T. Jokinen, H. Junninen, N. Sarnela, S. Schobesberger, M. Simon, M. Sipilä, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, N. M. Donahue, E. M. Dunne, R. C. Flagan, A. Franchin, J. Kirkby, A. Kupc, V. Makhmutov, T. Petäjä, A. P. Praplan, F. Riccobono, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, G. Tsagkogeorgas, P. E. Wagner, D. Wimmer, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop, and J. Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10701–10721,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is an important atmospheric process. At cold temperatures in the upper troposphere the binary (H2SO4-H2O) and ternary (H2SO4-H2O-NH3) system are thought to be important for NPF. Sulfuric acid monomer (H2SO4) and sulfuric acid dimer ((H2SO4)2) concentrations were measured between 208 and 248K for these systems and dimer evaporation rates were derived. These data will help to better understand and predict binary and ternary nucleation at low temperatures.
E. Hammer, N. Bukowiecki, B. P. Luo, U. Lohmann, C. Marcolli, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, and C. R. Hoyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10309–10323,Short summary
An important quantity which determines aerosol activation and cloud formation is the effective peak supersaturation. The box model ZOMM was used to simulate the effective peak supersaturation experienced by an air parcel approaching a high-alpine research station in Switzerland. With the box model the sensitivity of the effective peak supersaturation to key aerosol and dynamical parameters was investigated.
M. Pikridas, J. Sciare, F. Freutel, S. Crumeyrolle, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, A. Borbon, A. Schwarzenboeck, M. Merkel, M. Crippa, E. Kostenidou, M. Psichoudaki, L. Hildebrandt, G. J. Engelhart, T. Petäjä, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Drewnick, U. Baltensperger, A. Wiedensohler, M. Kulmala, M. Beekmann, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10219–10237,Short summary
Aerosol size distribution measurements from three ground sites, two mobile laboratories, and one airplane are combined to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of ultrafine particles in and around Paris during the summer and winter MEGAPOLI campaigns. The role of nucleation as a particle source and the influence of Paris emissions on their surroundings are examined.
M. Beekmann, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Drewnick, J. Sciare, S. N. Pandis, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Crippa, F. Freutel, L. Poulain, V. Ghersi, E. Rodriguez, S. Beirle, P. Zotter, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Bressi, C. Fountoukis, H. Petetin, S. Szidat, J. Schneider, A. Rosso, I. El Haddad, A. Megaritis, Q. J. Zhang, V. Michoud, J. G. Slowik, S. Moukhtar, P. Kolmonen, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, A. Borbon, V. Gros, N. Marchand, J. L. Jaffrezo, A. Schwarzenboeck, A. Colomb, A. Wiedensohler, S. Borrmann, M. Lawrence, A. Baklanov, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9577–9591,Short summary
A detailed characterization of air quality in the Paris (France) agglomeration, a megacity, during two summer and winter intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations, revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported into the megacity from upwind regions. Unexpectedly, a major part of organic PM is of modern origin (woodburning and cooking activities, secondary formation from biogenic VOC).
P. Kupiszewski, E. Weingartner, P. Vochezer, M. Schnaiter, A. Bigi, M. Gysel, B. Rosati, E. Toprak, S. Mertes, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3087–3106,
S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8217–8299,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and climate change policies. This paper reviews the most recent scientific results on the issue and the policy needs that have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-PM interactions and the effects of PM on human health and the environment.
A. Franchin, S. Ehrhart, J. Leppä, T. Nieminen, S. Gagné, S. Schobesberger, D. Wimmer, J. Duplissy, F. Riccobono, E. M. Dunne, L. Rondo, A. Downard, F. Bianchi, A. Kupc, G. Tsagkogeorgas, K. Lehtipalo, H. E. Manninen, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, P. E. Wagner, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, A. Kürten, N. M. Donahue, V. Makhmutov, S. Mathot, A. Metzger, T. Petäjä, R. Schnitzhofer, M. Sipilä, Y. Stozhkov, A. Tomé, V.-M. Kerminen, K. Carslaw, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7203–7216,Short summary
The ion-ion recombination coefficient was measured at different temperatures, relative humidities and concentrations of ozone and sulfur dioxide. The experiments were carried out using the CLOUD chamber at CERN. We observed a strong dependency on temperature and on relative humidity, which has not been reported previously. No dependency of the ion-ion recombination coefficient on ozone concentration was observed and a weak variation with sulfur dioxide concentration was also observed.
F. Canonaco, J. G. Slowik, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6993–7002,
R. Fröhlich, V. Crenn, A. Setyan, C. A. Belis, F. Canonaco, O. Favez, V. Riffault, J. G. Slowik, W. Aas, M. Aijälä, A. Alastuey, B. Artiñano, N. Bonnaire, C. Bozzetti, M. Bressi, C. Carbone, E. Coz, P. L. Croteau, M. J. Cubison, J. K. Esser-Gietl, D. C. Green, V. Gros, L. Heikkinen, H. Herrmann, J. T. Jayne, C. R. Lunder, M. C. Minguillón, G. Močnik, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, E. Petralia, L. Poulain, M. Priestman, A. Ripoll, R. Sarda-Estève, A. Wiedensohler, U. Baltensperger, J. Sciare, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2555–2576,Short summary
Source apportionment (SA) of organic aerosol mass spectrometric data measured with the Aerodyne ACSM using PMF/ME2 is a frequently used technique in the AMS/ACSM community. ME2 uncertainties due to instrument-to-instrument variations are elucidated by performing SA on ambient data from 14 individual, co-located ACSMs, recorded during the first ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison study at SIRTA near Paris (France). The mean uncertainty was 17.2%. Recommendations for future studies using ME2 are provided.
M. C. Minguillón, A. Ripoll, N. Pérez, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Canonaco, X. Querol, and A. Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6379–6391,Short summary
The study focuses on the aerosol variations found in the regional background of the western Mediterranean basin and their relation with atmospheric conditions and scenarios. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was deployed for 1 year and the results were validated with co-located PM1 measurements. The organic sources were investigated and the local secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation was estimated.
E. A. Bruns, I. El Haddad, A. Keller, F. Klein, N. K. Kumar, S. M. Pieber, J. C. Corbin, J. G. Slowik, W. H. Brune, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2315–2332,
P. L. Hayes, A. G. Carlton, K. R. Baker, R. Ahmadov, R. A. Washenfelder, S. Alvarez, B. Rappenglück, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, J. A. de Gouw, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, S. Szidat, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, P. K. Ma, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5773–5801,Short summary
(1) Four different parameterizations for the formation and chemical evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a box model representing the Los Angeles region during the CalNex campaign. (2) The SOA formed only from the oxidation of VOCs is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations. (3) The amount of SOA mass formed from diesel vehicle emissions is estimated to be 16-27%. (4) Modeled SOA depends strongly on the P-S/IVOC volatility distribution.
L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, C. Ruckstuhl, E. Coz, M. Rupakheti, J. Sciare, T. Müller, A. Wiedensohler, and A. D. A. Hansen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1965–1979,Short summary
We present a new real-time algorithm for compensation of the filter-loading effect in filter photometers, based on a two parallel spot measurement of optical absorption. This algorithm has been incorporated into the new Aethalometer AE33. Intercomparison studies show excellent reproducibility of the AE33 measurements and very good agreement with post-processed data obtained using earlier aethalometer models and other filter-based absorption photometers.
A. P. Praplan, S. Schobesberger, F. Bianchi, M. P. Rissanen, M. Ehn, T. Jokinen, H. Junninen, A. Adamov, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Duplissy, J. Hakala, A. Hansel, M. Heinritzi, J. Kangasluoma, J. Kirkby, M. Krapf, A. Kürten, K. Lehtipalo, F. Riccobono, L. Rondo, N. Sarnela, M. Simon, A. Tomé, J. Tröstl, P. M. Winkler, C. Williamson, P. Ye, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, N. M. Donahue, M. Kulmala, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4145–4159,Short summary
Our study shows, based on data from three atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometers measuring in parallel charged and neutral molecules and molecular clusters, how oxidised organic compounds bind to inorganic ions (e.g. bisulfate, nitrate, ammonium). This ionisation is selective for compounds with lower molar mass due to their limited amount and variety of functional groups. We also found that extremely low volatile organic compounds (ELVOCs) can be formed immediately.
L. R. Crilley, W. J. Bloss, J. Yin, D. C. S. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, M. Flynn, P. Williams, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prevot, M. R. Heal, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, J. D. Lee, S. Szidat, and C. Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3149–3171,Short summary
Wood is a renewable fuel but its combustion for residential heating releases a number of locally acting air pollutants, most notably particulate matter known to have adverse effects on human health. This paper used chemical tracers for wood smoke to estimate the contribution that burning wood makes to concentrations of airborne particles in the atmosphere of southern England and most particularly in London.
K. F. Ho, R.-J. Huang, K. Kawamura, E. Tachibana, S. C. Lee, S. S. H. Ho, T. Zhu, and L. Tian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3111–3123,Short summary
The objective of this study is to identify the influence of traffic emissions and regional transport to the atmosphere in Beijing during the CAREBeijing-2007 in summer. This study demonstrates that even when primary exhaust was controlled by traffic restrictions, the contribution of secondary organic species formed from photochemical processes was critical with long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants.
E. A. Bruns, M. Krapf, J. Orasche, Y. Huang, R. Zimmermann, L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, I. El-Haddad, J. G. Slowik, J. Dommen, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2825–2841,Short summary
Residential wood combustion contributes significantly to the total atmospheric particulate burden; however, uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. The effects of wood loading on freshly emitted and aged emissions were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which negatively impact health, contributed more to the total organic aerosol under highly loaded burner conditions, which has significant implications for burner operation protocols.
S. Visser, J. G. Slowik, M. Furger, P. Zotter, N. Bukowiecki, R. Dressler, U. Flechsig, K. Appel, D. C. Green, A. H. Tremper, D. E. Young, P. I. Williams, J. D. Allan, S. C. Herndon, L. R. Williams, C. Mohr, L. Xu, N. L. Ng, A. Detournay, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, Z. L. Fleming, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2367–2386,Short summary
Ambient concentrations of trace elements with 2h time resolution were measured in three size ranges (PM10–2.5, PM2.5–1.0, PM1.0–0.3) at kerbside, urban background and rural sites in London during the ClearfLo (Clean Air for London) field campaign. Quantification of kerb and urban increments, and assessment of diurnal and weekly variability provided insight into sources governing urban air quality and the effects of urban micro-environments on human exposure.
B. Rosati, G. Wehrle, M. Gysel, P. Zieger, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 921–939,Short summary
Only few measurements focused on vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopic and optical properties in airborne studies. For this purpose the white-light optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS) was developed. It allows a relatively fast measurement of the particles hygroscopicity, mixing state and index of refraction of particles in the optically relevant size range. This paper presents a detailed technical description and characterization of the WHOPS and first results from the field.
J. Kaiser, G. M. Wolfe, B. Bohn, S. Broch, H. Fuchs, L. N. Ganzeveld, S. Gomm, R. Häseler, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, J. Jäger, X. Li, I. Lohse, K. Lu, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Rohrer, R. Wegener, R. Wolf, T. F. Mentel, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. Wahner, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1289–1298,Short summary
Using measurements acquired from a Zeppelin airship during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign, we show that VOC oxidation alone cannot account for the formaldehyde concentrations observed in the morning over rural Italy. Vertical profiles suggest a ground-level source of HCHO. Incorporating this additional HCHO source into a photochemical model increases calculated O3 production by as much as 12%.
Y.-L. Zhang, R.-J. Huang, I. El Haddad, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, P. Zotter, C. Bozzetti, K. R. Daellenbach, F. Canonaco, J. G. Slowik, G. Salazar, M. Schwikowski, J. Schnelle-Kreis, G. Abbaszade, R. Zimmermann, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, and S. Szidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1299–1312,Short summary
Source apportionment of fine carbonaceous aerosols using radiocarbon and other organic markers measurements during 2013 winter haze episodes was conducted at four megacities in China. Our results demonstrate that fossil emissions predominate EC with a mean contribution of 75±8%, whereas non-fossil sources account for 55±10% of OC; and the increment of TC on heavily polluted days was mainly driven by the increase of secondary OC from both fossil-fuel and non-fossil emissions.
Y. J. Zhang, L. L. Tang, Z. Wang, H. X. Yu, Y. L. Sun, D. Liu, W. Qin, F. Canonaco, A. S. H. Prévôt, H. L. Zhang, and H. C. Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1331–1349,Short summary
The chemical composition, sources, and evolution processes of PM1 were investigated with an Aerodyne ACSM during harvest seasons in the Yangtze River delta, China. Two biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) factors derived from PMF model were assessed. The oxidized BBOA contributes ~80% of the total BBOA loadings in the BB plumes. Evidence that BBOA may be oxidized to more aged and less volatile organics during the aging process was suggested.
G. Snider, C. L. Weagle, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, K. Conrad, D. Cunningham, C. Gordon, M. Zwicker, C. Akoshile, P. Artaxo, N. X. Anh, J. Brook, J. Dong, R. M. Garland, R. Greenwald, D. Griffith, K. He, B. N. Holben, R. Kahn, I. Koren, N. Lagrosas, P. Lestari, Z. Ma, J. Vanderlei Martins, E. J. Quel, Y. Rudich, A. Salam, S. N. Tripathi, C. Yu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Brauer, A. Cohen, M. D. Gibson, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 505–521,Short summary
We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations to measure concentrations of fine aerosols in urban environments. Our findings include major ions species, total mass, and total scatter at three wavelengths. Results will be used to further evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates.
S. Schobesberger, A. Franchin, F. Bianchi, L. Rondo, J. Duplissy, A. Kürten, I. K. Ortega, A. Metzger, R. Schnitzhofer, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, E. M. Dunne, M. Ehn, S. Gagné, L. Ickes, H. Junninen, A. Hansel, V.-M. Kerminen, J. Kirkby, A. Kupc, A. Laaksonen, K. Lehtipalo, S. Mathot, A. Onnela, T. Petäjä, F. Riccobono, F. D. Santos, M. Sipilä, A. Tomé, G. Tsagkogeorgas, Y. Viisanen, P. E. Wagner, D. Wimmer, J. Curtius, N. M. Donahue, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 55–78,Short summary
We used an ion mass spectrometer at CERN's CLOUD chamber to investigate the detailed composition of ammonia--sulfuric acid ion clusters (of both polarities) as they initially form and then grow into aerosol particles, at atmospherically relevant conditions. We found that these clusters’ composition is mainly determined by the ratio of the precursor vapors and ranges from ammonia-free clusters to clusters containing > 1 ammonia per sulfuric acid. Acid--base bindings are a key formation mechanism.
P. Zotter, V. G. Ciobanu, Y. L. Zhang, I. El-Haddad, M. Macchia, K. R. Daellenbach, G. A. Salazar, R.-J. Huang, L. Wacker, C. Hueglin, A. Piazzalunga, P. Fermo, M. Schwikowski, U. Baltensperger, S. Szidat, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13551–13570,
U. R. Thorenz, L. J. Carpenter, R.-J. Huang, M. Kundel, J. Bosle, and T. Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13327–13335,Short summary
Phytoplankton suspensions were treated with high and low ozone levels, and volatile iodine (I2)-containing compounds were measured. Iodocarbon emissions were independent of the ozone level. I2 emission showed a strong dependency on the ozone level in the air as well as on the iodide concentration in the sample suspension. The experiments show that microalgae suspensions are capable of emitting I2 by the reaction of ozone with dissolved iodide at the air-water interface under natural conditions.
S. Aksoyoglu, J. Keller, G. Ciarelli, A. S. H. Prévôt, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13081–13095,Short summary
We report a study of changes in the European air quality due to emission reductions, using the chemical transport model CAMx. The model simulations were performed with emissions for 1990, 2005, 2006 and 2020 using three emission scenarios prepared by IIASA/GAINS. Model evaluation was carried out for 2006. We calculated the changes between 1990 and 2005, and between 2005 and 2020. Changes in ozone, particulate matter and nitrogen deposition are the central theme of this study.
S. G. Gonser, F. Klein, W. Birmili, J. Größ, M. Kulmala, H. E. Manninen, A. Wiedensohler, and A. Held
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10547–10563,
E. Hammer, M. Gysel, G. C. Roberts, T. Elias, J. Hofer, C. R. Hoyle, N. Bukowiecki, J.-C. Dupont, F. Burnet, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10517–10533,
W. Ait-Helal, A. Borbon, S. Sauvage, J. A. de Gouw, A. Colomb, V. Gros, F. Freutel, M. Crippa, C. Afif, U. Baltensperger, M. Beekmann, J.-F. Doussin, R. Durand-Jolibois, I. Fronval, N. Grand, T. Leonardis, M. Lopez, V. Michoud, K. Miet, S. Perrier, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. Schneider, G. Siour, P. Zapf, and N. Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10439–10464,
L. Poulain, W. Birmili, F. Canonaco, M. Crippa, Z. J. Wu, S. Nordmann, G. Spindler, A. S. H. Prévôt, A. Wiedensohler, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10145–10162,
D. Liu, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, H. Coe, D. Beddows, Z. L. Fleming, M. J. Flynn, M. W. Gallagher, R. M. Harrison, J. Lee, A. S. H. Prevot, J. W. Taylor, J. Yin, P. I. Williams, and P. Zotter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10061–10084,
A. P. Praplan, K. Hegyi-Gaeggeler, P. Barmet, L. Pfaffenberger, J. Dommen, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8665–8677,
M. L. McGuire, R. Y.-W. Chang, J. G. Slowik, C.-H. Jeong, R. M. Healy, G. Lu, C. Mihele, J. P. D. Abbatt, J. R. Brook, and G. J. Evans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8017–8042,
S. Segura, V. Estellés, G. Titos, H. Lyamani, M. P. Utrillas, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, G. Močnik, L. Alados-Arboledas, and J. A. Martínez-Lozano
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2373–2387,
A. K. Mishra, K. Klingmueller, E. Fredj, J. Lelieveld, Y. Rudich, and I. Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7213–7231,
R.-J. Huang, W.-B. Li, Y.-R. Wang, Q. Y. Wang, W. T. Jia, K.-F. Ho, J. J. Cao, G. H. Wang, X. Chen, I. EI Haddad, Z. X. Zhuang, X. R. Wang, A. S. H. Prévôt, C. D. O'Dowd, and T. Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2027–2035,
R. Chirico, M. Clairotte, T. W. Adam, B. Giechaskiel, M. F. Heringa, M. Elsasser, G. Martini, U. Manfredi, T. Streibel, M. Sklorz, R. Zimmermann, P. F. DeCarlo, C. Astorga, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prevot
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
M. Crippa, F. Canonaco, V. A. Lanz, M. Äijälä, J. D. Allan, S. Carbone, G. Capes, D. Ceburnis, M. Dall'Osto, D. A. Day, P. F. DeCarlo, M. Ehn, A. Eriksson, E. Freney, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, R. Hillamo, J. L. Jimenez, H. Junninen, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A.-M. Kortelainen, M. Kulmala, A. Laaksonen, A. A. Mensah, C. Mohr, E. Nemitz, C. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, S. N. Pandis, T. Petäjä, L. Poulain, S. Saarikoski, K. Sellegri, E. Swietlicki, P. Tiitta, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6159–6176,
J. M. Flores, D. F. Zhao, L. Segev, P. Schlag, A. Kiendler-Scharr, H. Fuchs, Å. K. Watne, N. Bluvshtein, Th. F. Mentel, M. Hallquist, and Y. Rudich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5793–5806,
M. Paglione, S. Saarikoski, S. Carbone, R. Hillamo, M. C. Facchini, E. Finessi, L. Giulianelli, C. Carbone, S. Fuzzi, F. Moretti, E. Tagliavini, E. Swietlicki, K. Eriksson Stenström, A. S. H. Prévôt, P. Massoli, M. Canaragatna, D. Worsnop, and S. Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5089–5110,
G. W. Mann, K. S. Carslaw, C. L. Reddington, K. J. Pringle, M. Schulz, A. Asmi, D. V. Spracklen, D. A. Ridley, M. T. Woodhouse, L. A. Lee, K. Zhang, S. J. Ghan, R. C. Easter, X. Liu, P. Stier, Y. H. Lee, P. J. Adams, H. Tost, J. Lelieveld, S. E. Bauer, K. Tsigaridis, T. P. C. van Noije, A. Strunk, E. Vignati, N. Bellouin, M. Dalvi, C. E. Johnson, T. Bergman, H. Kokkola, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, G. Luo, A. Petzold, J. Heintzenberg, A. Clarke, J. A. Ogren, J. Gras, U. Baltensperger, U. Kaminski, S. G. Jennings, C. D. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, D. C. S. Beddows, M. Kulmala, Y. Viisanen, V. Ulevicius, N. Mihalopoulos, V. Zdimal, M. Fiebig, H.-C. Hansson, E. Swietlicki, and J. S. Henzing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4679–4713,
D. C. S. Beddows, M. Dall'Osto, R. M. Harrison, M. Kulmala, A. Asmi, A. Wiedensohler, P. Laj, A.M. Fjaeraa, K. Sellegri, W. Birmili, N. Bukowiecki, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, V. Zdimal, N. Zikova, J.-P. Putaud, A. Marinoni, P. Tunved, H.-C. Hansson, M. Fiebig, N. Kivekäs, E. Swietlicki, H. Lihavainen, E. Asmi, V. Ulevicius, P. P. Aalto, N. Mihalopoulos, N. Kalivitis, I. Kalapov, G. Kiss, G. de Leeuw, B. Henzing, C. O'Dowd, S. G. Jennings, H. Flentje, F. Meinhardt, L. Ries, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, and A. J. H. Visschedijk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4327–4348,
J. Wildt, T. F. Mentel, A. Kiendler-Scharr, T. Hoffmann, S. Andres, M. Ehn, E. Kleist, P. Müsgen, F. Rohrer, Y. Rudich, M. Springer, R. Tillmann, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2789–2804,
E. J. Freney, K. Sellegri, F. Canonaco, A. Colomb, A. Borbon, V. Michoud, J.-F. Doussin, S. Crumeyrolle, N. Amarouche, J.-M. Pichon, T. Bourianne, L. Gomes, A. S. H. Prevot, M. Beekmann, and A. Schwarzenböeck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1397–1412,
E. Hammer, N. Bukowiecki, M. Gysel, Z. Jurányi, C. R. Hoyle, R. Vogt, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1123–1139,
S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, F. Drewnick, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Meleux, U. Baltensperger, M. Beekmann, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 279–299,
F. Canonaco, M. Crippa, J. G. Slowik, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3649–3661,
R. Fröhlich, M. J. Cubison, J. G. Slowik, N. Bukowiecki, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Schneider, J. R. Kimmel, M. Gonin, U. Rohner, D. R. Worsnop, and J. T. Jayne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3225–3241,
P. Zieger, R. Fierz-Schmidhauser, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10609–10631,
R. M. Healy, J. Sciare, L. Poulain, M. Crippa, A. Wiedensohler, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, R. Sarda-Estève, M. L. McGuire, C.-H. Jeong, E. McGillicuddy, I. P. O'Connor, J. R. Sodeau, G. J. Evans, and J. C. Wenger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9479–9496,
S. M. Platt, I. El Haddad, A. A. Zardini, M. Clairotte, C. Astorga, R. Wolf, J. G. Slowik, B. Temime-Roussel, N. Marchand, I. Ježek, L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, O. Möhler, R. Richter, P. Barmet, F. Bianchi, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9141–9158,
Th. F. Mentel, E. Kleist, S. Andres, M. Dal Maso, T. Hohaus, A. Kiendler-Scharr, Y. Rudich, M. Springer, R. Tillmann, R. Uerlings, A. Wahner, and J. Wildt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8755–8770,
M. Crippa, F. Canonaco, J. G. Slowik, I. El Haddad, P. F. DeCarlo, C. Mohr, M. F. Heringa, R. Chirico, N. Marchand, B. Temime-Roussel, E. Abidi, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8411–8426,
A. Petzold, J. A. Ogren, M. Fiebig, P. Laj, S.-M. Li, U. Baltensperger, T. Holzer-Popp, S. Kinne, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, C. Wehrli, A. Wiedensohler, and X.-Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8365–8379,
I. El Haddad, B. D'Anna, B. Temime-Roussel, M. Nicolas, A. Boreave, O. Favez, D. Voisin, J. Sciare, C. George, J.-L. Jaffrezo, H. Wortham, and N. Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7875–7894,
Z. Jurányi, T. Tritscher, M. Gysel, M. Laborde, L. Gomes, G. Roberts, U. Baltensperger, and E. Weingartner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6431–6446,
L. Pfaffenberger, P. Barmet, J. G. Slowik, A. P. Praplan, J. Dommen, A. S. H. Prévôt, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6493–6506,
Q. J. Zhang, M. Beekmann, F. Drewnick, F. Freutel, J. Schneider, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prevot, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, V. Gros, A. Borbon, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J.-F. Doussin, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Haeffelin, J.-C. Dupont, G. Siour, H. Petetin, B. Bessagnet, S. N. Pandis, A. Hodzic, O. Sanchez, C. Honoré, and O. Perrussel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5767–5790,
M. Laborde, M. Crippa, T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, P. F. Decarlo, B. Temime-Roussel, N. Marchand, S. Eckhardt, A. Stohl, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and M. Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5831–5856,
H. Keskinen, A. Virtanen, J. Joutsensaari, G. Tsagkogeorgas, J. Duplissy, S. Schobesberger, M. Gysel, F. Riccobono, J. G. Slowik, F. Bianchi, T. Yli-Juuti, K. Lehtipalo, L. Rondo, M. Breitenlechner, A. Kupc, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, E. M. Dunne, A. J. Downard, S. Ehrhart, A. Franchin, M.K. Kajos, J. Kirkby, A. Kürten, T. Nieminen, V. Makhmutov, S. Mathot, P. Miettinen, A. Onnela, T. Petäjä, A. Praplan, F. D. Santos, S. Schallhart, M. Sipilä, Y. Stozhkov, A. Tomé, P. Vaattovaara, D. Wimmer, A. Prevot, J. Dommen, N. M. Donahue, R.C. Flagan, E. Weingartner, Y. Viisanen, I. Riipinen, A. Hansel, J. Curtius, M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, H. Wex, F. Stratmann, and A. Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5587–5600,
R.-J. Huang, U. R. Thorenz, M. Kundel, D. S. Venables, D. Ceburnis, K. F. Ho, J. Chen, A. L. Vogel, F. C. Küpper, P. P. A. Smyth, U. Nitschke, D. B. Stengel, H. Berresheim, C. D. O'Dowd, and T. Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5255–5264,
R. A. Washenfelder, J. M. Flores, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and Y. Rudich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 861–877,
M. Frosch, M. Bilde, A. Nenes, A. P. Praplan, Z. Jurányi, J. Dommen, M. Gysel, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2283–2297,
D. C. Oderbolz, S. Aksoyoglu, J. Keller, I. Barmpadimos, R. Steinbrecher, C. A. Skjøth, C. Plaß-Dülmer, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1689–1712,
F. Freutel, J. Schneider, F. Drewnick, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, R. Sarda-Estève, J. F. Burkhart, S. Eckhardt, A. Stohl, V. Gros, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J. F. Doussin, A. Borbon, M. Haeffelin, Y. Morille, M. Beekmann, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 933–959,
M. Crippa, P. F. DeCarlo, J. G. Slowik, C. Mohr, M. F. Heringa, R. Chirico, L. Poulain, F. Freutel, J. Sciare, J. Cozic, C. F. Di Marco, M. Elsasser, J. B. Nicolas, N. Marchand, E. Abidi, A. Wiedensohler, F. Drewnick, J. Schneider, S. Borrmann, E. Nemitz, R. Zimmermann, J.-L. Jaffrezo, A. S. H. Prévôt, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 961–981,
C. Chou, Z. A. Kanji, O. Stetzer, T. Tritscher, R. Chirico, M. F. Heringa, E. Weingartner, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, and U. Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 761–772,
M. Collaud Coen, E. Andrews, A. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, N. Bukowiecki, D. Day, M. Fiebig, A. M. Fjaeraa, H. Flentje, A. Hyvärinen, A. Jefferson, S. G. Jennings, G. Kouvarakis, H. Lihavainen, C. Lund Myhre, W. C. Malm, N. Mihapopoulos, J. V. Molenar, C. O'Dowd, J. A. Ogren, B. A. Schichtel, P. Sheridan, A. Virkkula, E. Weingartner, R. Weller, and P. Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 869–894,
A. Asmi, M. Collaud Coen, J. A. Ogren, E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, A. Jefferson, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, N. Bukowiecki, H. Lihavainen, N. Kivekäs, E. Asmi, P. P. Aalto, M. Kulmala, A. Wiedensohler, W. Birmili, A. Hamed, C. O'Dowd, S. G Jennings, R. Weller, H. Flentje, A. M. Fjaeraa, M. Fiebig, C. L. Myhre, A. G. Hallar, E. Swietlicki, A. Kristensson, and P. Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 895–916,
E. Kleist, T. F. Mentel, S. Andres, A. Bohne, A. Folkers, A. Kiendler-Scharr, Y. Rudich, M. Springer, R. Tillmann, and J. Wildt
Biogeosciences, 9, 5111–5123,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Revisiting the reaction of dicarbonyls in aerosol proxy solutions containing ammonia: the case of butenedialImportance of secondary organic aerosol formation of α-pinene, limonene, and m-cresol comparing day- and nighttime radical chemistrySource apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing with radiocarbon and organic tracers: insight into the differences between urban and rural sitesSO2 and NH3 emissions enhance organosulfur compounds and fine particle formation from the photooxidation of a typical aromatic hydrocarbonOn the similarities and differences between the products of oxidation of hydrocarbons under simulated atmospheric conditions and cool flamesEnhanced secondary organic aerosol formation from the photo-oxidation of mixed anthropogenic volatile organic compoundsFormation kinetics and mechanisms of ozone and secondary organic aerosols from photochemical oxidation of different aromatic hydrocarbons: dependence on NOx and organic substituentsIncreased primary and secondary H2SO4 showing the opposing roles in secondary organic aerosol formation from ethyl methacrylate ozonolysisWater uptake of subpollen aerosol particles: hygroscopic growth, cloud condensation nuclei activation, and liquid–liquid phase separationLaboratory study of the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets – Part II: Influence of electric chargesHeterogeneous interactions between SO2 and organic peroxides in submicron aerosolTemperature and acidity dependence of secondary organic aerosol formation from α-pinene ozonolysis with a compact chamber systemProduction of HONO from NO2 uptake on illuminated TiO2 aerosol particles and following the illumination of mixed TiO2∕ammonium nitrate particlesCharacterization of secondary organic aerosol from heated-cooking-oil emissions: evolution in composition and volatilityMeasurement report: Diurnal and temporal variations of sugar compounds in suburban aerosols from the northern vicinity of Beijing, China – an influence of biogenic and anthropogenic sourcesPre-deliquescent water uptake in deposited nanoparticles observed with in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopyTechnical note: Emission factors, chemical composition, and morphology of particles emitted from Euro 5 diesel and gasoline light-duty vehicles during transient cyclesMeasurement report: Distinct emissions and volatility distribution of intermediate-volatility organic compounds from on-road Chinese gasoline vehicles: implication of high secondary organic aerosol formation potentialEmissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from domestic fuels used in Delhi, IndiaEffects of liquid–liquid phase separation and relative humidity on the heterogeneous OH oxidation of inorganic–organic aerosols: insights from methylglutaric acid and ammonium sulfate particlesMeasurement report: Sulfuric acid nucleation and experimental conditions in a photolytic flow reactorOzonolysis of fatty acid monolayers at the air–water interface: organic films may persist at the surface of atmospheric aerosolsQuantification of the role of stabilized Criegee intermediates in the formation of aerosols in limonene ozonolysisTracer-based source apportioning of atmospheric organic carbon and the influence of anthropogenic emissions on secondary organic aerosol formation in Hong KongPhotochemical degradation of iron(III) citrate/citric acid aerosol quantified with the combination of three complementary experimental techniques and a kinetic process modelThe production and hydrolysis of organic nitrates from OH radical oxidation of β-ocimene
Jack C. Hensley, Adam W. Birdsall, Gregory Valtierra, Joshua L. Cox, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8809–8821,Short summary
We measured reactions of butenedial, an atmospheric dicarbonyl, in aqueous mixtures that mimic the conditions of aerosol particles. Major reaction products and rates were determined to assess their atmospheric relevance and to compare against other well-studied dicarbonyls. We suggest that the structure of the carbon backbone, not just the dominant functional group, plays a major role in dicarbonyl reactivity, influencing the fate and ability of dicarbonyls to produce brown carbon.
Anke Mutzel, Yanli Zhang, Olaf Böge, Maria Rodigast, Agata Kolodziejczyk, Xinming Wang, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8479–8498,Short summary
This study investigates secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and particle growth from α-pinene, limonene, and m-cresol oxidation through NO3 and OH radicals and the effect of relative humidity. The formed SOA is comprehensively characterized with respect to the content of OC / EC, WSOC, SOA-bound peroxides, and SOA marker compounds. The findings present new insights and implications of nighttime chemistry, which can form SOA more efficiently than OH radical reaction during daytime.
Siqi Hou, Di Liu, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Xuefang Wu, Deepchandra Srivastava, Pingqing Fu, Linjie Li, Yele Sun, Athanasia Vlachou, Vaios Moschos, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, André S. H. Prévôt, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8273–8292,Short summary
This study provides a newly developed method which combines radiocarbon (14C) with organic tracers to enable source apportionment of primary and secondary fossil vs. non-fossil sources of carbonaceous aerosols at an urban and a rural site of Beijing. The source apportionment results were compared with those by chemical mass balance and AMS/ACSM-PMF methods. Correlations of WINSOC and WSOC with different sources of OC were also performed to elucidate the formation mechanisms of SOC.
Zhaomin Yang, Li Xu, Narcisse T. Tsona, Jianlong Li, Xin Luo, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7963–7981,Short summary
The promotion effects of SO2 and NH3 on particle and organosulfur compound formation from 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (TMB) photooxidation were observed for the first time. The enhanced organosulfur compounds included hitherto unidentified aromatic sulfonates and organosulfates (OSs). OSs were produced via acid-driven heterogeneous chemistry of hydroperoxides. The production of organosulfur compounds might provide a new pathway for the fate of TMB in regions with considerable SO2 emissions.
Roland Benoit, Nesrine Belhadj, Maxence Lailliau, and Philippe Dagaut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7845–7862,Short summary
This study compares different modes of limonene oxidation (ozonolysis, photooxidation, and cool flame) on the basis of review articles and experimental results. Although the oxidation conditions are totally different, the results obtained present great similarities in the nature of the products but also specificities related to autooxidation such as the presence of keto-hydroperoxides.
Junling Li, Hong Li, Kun Li, Yan Chen, Hao Zhang, Xin Zhang, Zhenhai Wu, Yongchun Liu, Xuezhong Wang, Weigang Wang, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7773–7789,Short summary
SOA formation from the mixed anthropogenic volatile organic compounds was enhanced compared to the predicted SOA mass concentration based on the SOA yield of single species; interaction occurred between intermediate products from the two precursors. Interactions between the intermediate products from the mixtures and the effect on SOA formation give us a further understanding of the SOA formed in the atmosphere.
Hao Luo, Jiangyao Chen, Guiying Li, and Taicheng An
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7567–7578,Short summary
The formation kinetics and mechanism of O3 and SOA from different AHs are still unclear. Thus the photochemical oxidation mechanism of nine AHs with NO2 is studied. Increased formation rate and yield of O3 and SOA are observed via promoting AH content. Raising the number of AH substituents enhances O3 formation but decreases SOA yield, which is promoted by increasing the methyl group number of AHs. Results help show conversion of AHs to secondary pollutants in the real atmospheric environment.
Peng Zhang, Tianzeng Chen, Jun Liu, Guangyan Xu, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, Wanqi Sun, and Hong He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7099–7112,Short summary
This work highlights the opposing effects of primary and secondary H2SO4 on both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and constitutes. Our findings revealed that a substantial increase in secondary H2SO4 particles promoted the SOA formation of ethyl methacrylate with increasing SO2 in the absence of seed particles. However, increased primary H2SO4 with seed acidity enhanced ethyl methacrylate uptake but reduced its SOA formation in the presence of seed particles.
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Mira L. Pöhlker, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Sergey S. Vlasenko, Ovid O. Krüger, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Christopher Pöhlker, Olga A. Ivanova, Alexey A. Kiselev, Leslie A. Kremper, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6999–7022,Short summary
Subpollen particles are a relatively new subset of atmospheric aerosol particles. When pollen grains rupture, they release cytoplasmic fragments known as subpollen particles (SPPs). We found that SPPs, containing a broad spectrum of biopolymers and hydrocarbons, exhibit abnormally high water uptake. This effect may influence the life cycle of SPPs and the related direct and indirect impacts on radiation budget as well as reinforce their allergic potential.
Alexis Dépée, Pascal Lemaitre, Thomas Gelain, Marie Monier, and Andrea Flossmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6963–6984,Short summary
The present article describes a new In-Cloud Aerosol Scavenging Experiment (In-CASE) that has been conceived to measure the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets. The present article focuses on the influence of electrostatic effects on the collection efficiency.
Shunyao Wang, Tengyu Liu, Jinmyung Jang, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6647–6661,Short summary
Discrepancies between atmospheric modeling and field observations, especially in highly polluted cities, have highlighted the lack of understanding of sulfate formation mechanisms and kinetics. Here, we directly quantify the reactive uptake coefficient of SO2 onto organic peroxides and study the important governing factors. The SO2 uptake rate was observed to depend on RH, peroxide amount and reactivity, pH, and ionic strength, which provides a framework to better predict sulfate formation.
Yange Deng, Satoshi Inomata, Kei Sato, Sathiyamurthi Ramasamy, Yu Morino, Shinichi Enami, and Hiroshi Tanimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5983–6003,Short summary
The temperature and acidity dependence of yields and chemical compositions of the α-pinene ozonolysis SOA were systematically investigated using a newly developed compact chamber system. Increases in SOA yields were observed with the decrease in temperature and under acidic seed conditions. The differences in chemical compositions between acidic and neutral seed conditions were characterized and explained from the viewpoints of acid-catalyzed reactions. Some organosulfates were newly detected.
Joanna E. Dyson, Graham A. Boustead, Lauren T. Fleming, Mark Blitz, Daniel Stone, Stephen R. Arnold, Lisa K. Whalley, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5755–5775,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) dominates the removal of atmospheric pollutants, with nitrous acid (HONO) recognised as a major OH source. For remote regions HONO production through the action of sunlight on aerosol surfaces can provide a source of nitrogen oxides. In this study, HONO production rates at illuminated aerosol surfaces are measured under atmospheric conditions, a model consistent with the data is developed and aerosol production of HONO in the atmosphere is shown to be significant.
Manpreet Takhar, Yunchun Li, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5137–5149,Short summary
Our study highlights the importance of molecular composition in constraining the chemical properties of cooking SOA as well as understanding the contribution of aldehydes in formation of SOA from cooking emissions. We show that fragmentation reactions are key in atmospheric processing of cooking SOA, and aldehydes emitted from cooking emissions contribute substantially to SOA formation. Our study provides a framework to better predict SOA formation in and downwind of urban atmospheres.
Santosh Kumar Verma, Kimitaka Kawamura, Fei Yang, Pingqing Fu, Yugo Kanaya, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4959–4978,Short summary
We studied aerosol samples collected in autumn 2007 with day and night intervals in a rural site of Mangshan, north of Beijing, for sugar compounds (SCs) that are abundant organic aerosol components and can influence the air quality and climate. We found higher concentrations of biomass burning (BB) products at nighttime than daytime, whereas pollen tracers and other SCs showed an opposite diurnal trend, because this site is meteorologically characterized by a mountain/valley breeze.
Jack J. Lin, Kamal Raj R, Stella Wang, Esko Kokkonen, Mikko-Heikki Mikkelä, Samuli Urpelainen, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4709–4727,Short summary
We used surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study laboratory-generated nanoparticles of atmospheric interest at 0–16 % relative humidity. XPS gives direct information about changes in the chemical state from the binding energies of probed elements. Our results indicate water adsorption and associated chemical changes at the particle surfaces well below deliquescence, with distinct features for different particle components and implications for atmospheric chemistry.
Evangelia Kostenidou, Alvaro Martinez-Valiente, Badr R'Mili, Baptiste Marques, Brice Temime-Roussel, Amandine Durand, Michel André, Yao Liu, Cédric Louis, Boris Vansevenant, Daniel Ferry, Carine Laffon, Philippe Parent, and Barbara D'Anna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4779–4796,Short summary
Passenger vehicle emissions can be a significant source of particulate matter in urban areas. In this study the particle-phase emissions of seven Euro 5 passenger vehicles were characterized. Changes in engine technologies and after-treatment devices can alter the chemical composition and the size of the emitted particulate matter. The condition of the diesel particle filter (DPF) plays an important role in the emitted pollutants.
Rongzhi Tang, Quanyang Lu, Song Guo, Hui Wang, Kai Song, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kefan Liu, Ruizhe Shen, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Spiro D. Jorga, Zhou Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Shijin Shuai, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2569–2583,Short summary
We performed chassis dynamometer experiments to investigate the emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from an on-road Chinese gasoline vehicle. High IVOC emission factors (EFs) and distinct volatility distribution were recognized. Our results indicate that vehicular IVOCs contribute significantly to SOA, implying the importance of reducing IVOCs when making air pollution control policies in urban areas of China.
Gareth J. Stewart, Beth S. Nelson, W. Joe F. Acton, Adam R. Vaughan, Naomi J. Farren, James R. Hopkins, Martyn W. Ward, Stefan J. Swift, Rahul Arya, Arnab Mondal, Ritu Jangirh, Sakshi Ahlawat, Lokesh Yadav, Sudhir K. Sharma, Siti S. M. Yunus, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Eiko Nemitz, Neil Mullinger, Ranu Gadi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Nidhi Tripathi, Andrew R. Rickard, James D. Lee, Tuhin K. Mandal, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2407–2426,Short summary
Biomass burning releases many lower-molecular-weight organic species which are difficult to analyse but important for the formation of organic aerosol. This study examined a new high-resolution technique to better characterise these difficult-to-analyse organic components. Some burning sources analysed in this study, such as cow dung cake and municipal solid waste, released extremely complex mixtures containing many thousands of different lower-volatility organic compounds.
Hoi Ki Lam, Rongshuang Xu, Jack Choczynski, James F. Davies, Dongwan Ham, Mijung Song, Andreas Zuend, Wentao Li, Ying-Lung Steve Tse, and Man Nin Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2053–2066,Short summary
This work demonstrates that organic compounds present at or near the surface of aerosols can be subjected to oxidation initiated by gas-phase oxidants, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH). The heterogeneous reactivity is sensitive to their surface concentrations, which are determined by the phase separation behavior. This results of this work emphasize the effects of phase separation and potentially distinct aerosol morphologies on the chemical transformation of atmospheric aerosols.
David R. Hanson, Seakh Menheer, Michael Wentzel, and Joan Kunz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1987–2001,Short summary
We report experimental measurements of particle formation in a flow reactor that extend the results from this experiment to a total of more than 270 runs over a time period of ~3 years. This has allowed us to detect a general increase in the cleanliness of the system and improve our knowledge of its chemistry. In-house simulations allowed us to construct phenomenological free energies of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia that are appropriate for application to the atmosphere.
Benjamin Woden, Maximilian W. A. Skoda, Adam Milsom, Curtis Gubb, Armando Maestro, James Tellam, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1325–1340,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols contain a large amount of organic compounds, whose oxidation affects their physical properties through a process known as ageing. We have simulated atmospheric ageing experimentally to elucidate the nature and behaviour of residual surface films. Our results show an increasing amount of residue at near-zero temperatures, demonstrating that an inert product film may build up during droplet ageing, even if only ordinarily short-lived reactive species are initially emitted.
Yiwei Gong and Zhongming Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 813–829,Short summary
Stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs) are important factors in estimating aerosol formation in the atmosphere. Here the results show that SCIs account for more than 60 % of aerosol formation in limonene ozonolysis and water is an uncertainty in SCI performances. The aerosol formation potential of SCIs under high-humidity conditions is double that under dry and low-humidity conditions, suggesting SCI reactions are still important in contributing to aerosols at high relative humidity.
Yubo Cheng, Yiqiu Ma, and Di Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We conducted comprehensive chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 samples collected in Hong Kong. Secondary formation was the leading contributor to OC throughout the year, and monoterpenes were the most significant SOA precursors in the region. Isoprene SOA was mainly formed from the aerosol phase reaction of isoprene epoxydiols. NOx processing played a key role in both daytime and nighttime SOA production, especially the nighttime NO3 oxidation of biogenic VOCs.
Jing Dou, Peter A. Alpert, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Beiping Luo, Frederic Schneider, Jacinta Xto, Thomas Huthwelker, Camelia N. Borca, Katja D. Henzler, Jörg Raabe, Benjamin Watts, Hartmut Herrmann, Thomas Peter, Markus Ammann, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 315–338,Short summary
Photochemistry of iron(III) complexes plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in the lower troposphere. Ensuing radical chemistry leads to decarboxylation, and the production of peroxides, and oxygenated volatile compounds, resulting in particle mass loss due to release of the volatile products to the gas phase. We investigated kinetic transport limitations due to high particle viscosity under low relative humidity conditions. For quantification a numerical model was developed.
Ana C. Morales, Thilina Jayarathne, Jonathan H. Slade, Alexander Laskin, and Paul B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 129–145,Short summary
Organic nitrates formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds impact both ozone and particulate matter as they remove nitrogen oxides, but they represent important aerosol precursors. We conducted a series of reaction chamber experiments that quantified the total organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol yield from the OH-radical-initiated oxidation of ocimene, and also measured their hydrolysis lifetimes in the aqueous phase, as a function of pH.