Articles | Volume 14, issue 14
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Radiative signature of absorbing aerosol over the eastern Mediterranean basin
A. K. Mishra
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
The Cyprus Institute, P.O. Box 27456, 1645 Nicosia, Cyprus
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
No articles found.
Imran A. Girach, Narendra Ojha, Prabha R. Nair, Kandula V. Subrahmanyam, Neelakantan Koushik, Mohammed M. Nazeer, Nadimpally Kiran Kumar, Surendran Nair Suresh Babu, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
We investigated surface ozone variability at East Antarctica based on the measurements and EMAC global model simulations during austral summer. Nearly half of the surface ozone is found to be of stratospheric origin. The east coast of Antarctica acts as a stronger sink of ozone than surrounding regions. Photochemical loss of ozone is counterbalanced by downward transport of ozone. Study highlights intertwined role of chemistry and dynamics in governing the ozone variations over East Antarctica.
Seyed Omid Nabavi, Theodoros Christoudias, Yiannis Proestos, Christos Fountoukis, Huda Al-Sulaiti, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7719–7739,Short summary
The objective of our study is to comprehensively assess the timing of radioactive material transportation and deposition, along with the associated population exposure in the designated region. We employed diverse meteorological inputs, emission specifics, and simulation codes, aiming to quantify the level of uncertainty.
Huan Liu, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, and Mickaël D. Chekroun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6559–6569,Short summary
Clouds' responses to global warming contribute the largest uncertainty in climate prediction. Here, we analyze 42 years of global cloud cover in reanalysis data and show a decreasing trend over most continents and an increasing trend over the tropical and subtropical oceans. A reduction in near-surface relative humidity can explain the decreasing trend in cloud cover over land. Our results suggest potential stress on the terrestrial water cycle, associated with global warming.
Zaneta Hamryszczak, Antonia Hartmann, Dirk Dienhart, Sascha Hafermann, Bettina Brendel, Rainer Königstedt, Uwe Parchatka, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Hydroperoxide measurements improve the understanding of atmospheric oxidation processes. We introduce an instrumental setup for airborne measurements. Main goal of the work is the characterization of the measurement method with emphasis on interferences impacting instrumental uncertainty. Technical and physical challenges do not critically impact the instrumental performance. The instrument resolves well dynamic processes such as convective transport as shown based on the CAFE-Brazil campaign.
Klaus Klingmüller and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3013–3028,Short summary
Desert dust has significant impacts on climate, public health, infrastructure and ecosystems. An impact assessment requires numerical predictions, which are challenging because the dust emissions are not well known. We present a novel approach using satellite observations and machine learning to more accurately estimate the emissions and to improve the model simulations.
Zaneta Hamryszczak, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Brendel, Roland Rohloff, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Hartwig Harder, Andrea Pozzer, Birger Bohn, Martin Zöger, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5929–5943,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide is a key contributor to the oxidative chemistry of the atmosphere through its link to the most prominent oxidants controlling its self-cleansing capacity, HOx. During the CAFE-Africa campaign, H2O2 was measured over the Atlantic Ocean and western Africa in August/September 2018. The study gives an overview of the distribution of H2O2 in the upper tropical troposphere and investigates the impact of convective processes in the Intertropical Convergence Zone on the budget of H2O2.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Ozone is a greenhouse gas and contributes to the earth’s radiative energy budget and therefore to global warming. This effect is largest in the upper troposphere. In this study, we investigate the processes controlling ozone formation and the sensitivity to its precursors in the upper tropical troposphere based on model simulations by the ECHAM5/MESSy2 Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. We find that NOx emissions from lightning most importantly affect ozone chemistry at these altitudes.
Ryan Vella, Andrea Pozzer, Matthew Forrest, Jos Lelieveld, Thomas Hickler, and Holger Tost
We investigated the effect of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plants. ENSO events can cause a significant increase in these emissions, which have a long-term impact on the Earth's atmosphere. Persistent ENSO conditions can cause long-term changes in vegetation, resulting in even higher BVOC emissions. We link ENSO-induced emission anomalies with driving atmospheric and vegetational variables.
Lenard L. Röder, Patrick Dewald, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Jan Schuladen, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1167–1178,Short summary
Field experiments in atmospheric chemistry provide insights into chemical interactions of our atmosphere. However, high data coverage and accuracy are needed to enable further analysis. In this study, we explore a statistical method that combines knowledge about the chemical reactions with information from measurements to increase the quality of field experiment datasets. We test the algorithm for several applications and discuss limitations that depend on the specific variable and the dynamics.
Matthias Kohl, Jos Lelieveld, Sourangsu Chowdhury, Sebastian Ehrhart, Disha Sharma, Yafang Cheng, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, Mathew Sebastian, Govindan Pandithurai, Hongli Wang, and Andrea Pozzer
Knowledge on atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFP) with a diameter smaller than 100 nm is crucial for public health and the hydrological cycle. We present a new global dataset of UFP concentrations at the Earth's surface derived with a comprehensive chemistry climate model, and evaluated with ground-based observations. The evaluation results are combined with high-resolution primary emissions to downscale UFP concentrations to an unprecedented horizontal resolution of 0.1° x 0.1°.
Ryan Vella, Matthew Forrest, Jos Lelieveld, and Holger Tost
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 885–906,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are released by vegetation and have a major impact on atmospheric chemistry and aerosol formation. Non-interacting vegetation constrains the majority of numerical models used to estimate global BVOC emissions, and thus, the effects of changing vegetation on emissions are not addressed. In this work, we replace the offline vegetation with dynamic vegetation states by linking a chemistry–climate model with a global dynamic vegetation model.
Jennifer Schallock, Christoph Brühl, Christine Bingen, Michael Höpfner, Landon Rieger, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1169–1207,Short summary
We characterized the inﬂuence of volcanic aerosols for the period 1990–2019 and established a volcanic SO2 emission inventory that includes more than 500 eruptions. From limb-based satellite observations of SO2 and extinction, we derive 3D plumes of SO2 perturbations and injected mass by a novel method. We calculate instantaneous radiative forcing with a comprehensive chemisty climate model. Our results show that smaller eruptions can also contribute to the stratospheric aerosol forcing.
Mohamed Abdelkader, Georgiy Stenchikov, Andrea Pozzer, Holger Tost, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 471–500,Short summary
We study the effect of injected volcanic ash, water vapor, and SO2 on the development of the volcanic cloud and the stratospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD). Both are sensitive to the initial injection height and to the aging of the volcanic ash shaped by heterogeneous chemistry coupled with the ozone cycle. The paper explains the large differences in AOD for different injection scenarios, which could improve the estimate of the radiative forcing of volcanic eruptions.
Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Brendel, John N. Crowley, Philipp G. Eger, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Sebastian Tauer, David Walter, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 119–142,Short summary
Formaldehyde and hydroperoxide measurements were performed in the marine boundary layer around the Arabian Peninsula and highlight the Suez Canal and Arabian (Persian) Gulf as a hotspot of photochemical air pollution. A comparison with the EMAC model shows that the formaldehyde results match within a factor of 2, while hydrogen peroxide was overestimated by more than a factor of 5, which revealed enhanced HOx (OH+HO2) radicals in the simulation and an underestimation of dry deposition velocites.
Lukas Eickhoff, Maddalena Bayer-Giraldi, Naama Reicher, Yinon Rudich, and Thomas Koop
Biogeosciences, 20, 1–14,Short summary
The formation of ice is an important process in Earth’s atmosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere, in particular in polar regions. Our research focuses on the influence of the sea ice diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus and of molecules produced by it upon heterogenous ice nucleation. For that purpose, we studied the freezing of tiny droplets containing the diatoms in a microfluidic device. Together with previous studies, our results suggest a common freezing behaviour of various sea ice diatoms.
Elisa T. Sena, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, and Alexander B. Kostinski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16111–16122,Short summary
We used record-breaking statistics together with spatial information to create record-breaking SST maps. The maps reveal warming patterns in the overwhelming majority of the ocean and coherent islands of cooling, where low records occur more frequently than high ones. Some of these cooling spots are well known; however, a surprising elliptical area in the Southern Ocean is observed as well. Similar analyses can be performed on other key climatological variables to explore their trend patterns.
Laura Tomsche, Andreas Marsing, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Johannes Lucke, Stefan Kaufmann, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Monika Scheibe, Hans Schlager, Lenard Röder, Horst Fischer, Florian Obersteiner, Andreas Zahn, Martin Zöger, Jos Lelieveld, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15135–15151,Short summary
The detection of sulfur compounds in the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) is a challenge. In-flight measurements of SO2 and sulfate aerosol were performed during the BLUESKY mission in spring 2020 under exceptional atmospheric conditions. Reduced sinks in the dry UTLS and lower but still significant air traffic influenced the enhanced SO2 in the UT, and aged volcanic plumes enhanced the LS sulfate aerosol impacting the atmospheric radiation budget and global climate.
Caroline C. Womack, Steven S. Brown, Steven J. Ciciora, Ru-Shan Gao, Richard J. McLaughlin, Michael A. Robinson, Yinon Rudich, and Rebecca A. Washenfelder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6643–6652,Short summary
We present a new miniature instrument to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. NO2 contributes to the formation of pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, and its concentration can vary widely near sources. We developed this lightweight (3.05 kg) low-power (<35 W) instrument to measure NO2 on uncrewed aircraft vehicles (UAVs) and demonstrate that it has the accuracy and precision needed for atmospheric field measurements.
Charlotte M. Beall, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Tobias Köneman, Michael Pikridas, Frank Drewnick, Hartwig Harder, Christopher Pöhlker, Jos Lelieveld, Bettina Weber, Minas Iakovides, Roman Prokeš, Jean Sciare, Meinrat O. Andreae, M. Dale Stokes, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12607–12627,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are rare aerosols that can trigger ice formation in clouds and affect climate-relevant cloud properties such as phase, reflectivity and lifetime. Dust is the dominant INP source, yet few measurements have been reported near major dust sources. We report INP observations within hundreds of kilometers of the biggest dust source regions globally: the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula. Results show that at temperatures > −15 °C, INPs are dominated by organics.
Mengze Li, Andrea Pozzer, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4351–4364,Short summary
We present a northern hemispheric airborne measurement dataset of atmospheric ethane, propane and methane and temporal trends for the time period 2006–2016 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The growth rates of ethane, methane, and propane in the upper troposphere are -2.24, 0.33, and -0.78 % yr-1, respectively, and in the lower stratosphere they are -3.27, 0.26, and -4.91 % yr-1, respectively, in 2006–2016.
Simon F. Reifenberg, Anna Martin, Matthias Kohl, Sara Bacer, Zaneta Hamryszczak, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Daniel J. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Raphael Dörich, John N. Crowley, Laura Tomsche, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Zahn, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira Pöhlker, Patrick Jöckel, Marcel Dorf, Ulrich Schumann, Jonathan Williams, Birger Bohn, Joachim Curtius, Hardwig Harder, Hans Schlager, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10901–10917,Short summary
In this work we use a combination of observational data from an aircraft campaign and model results to investigate the effect of the European lockdown due to COVID-19 in spring 2020. Using model results, we show that the largest relative changes to the atmospheric composition caused by the reduced emissions are located in the upper troposphere around aircraft cruise altitude, while the largest absolute changes are present at the surface.
Zaneta T. Hamryszczak, Andrea Pozzer, Florian Obersteiner, Birger Bohn, Benedikt Steil, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9483–9497,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide plays a pivotal role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Together with organic hydroperoxides, it forms a reservoir for peroxy radicals, which are known to be the key contributors to the self-cleaning processes of the atmosphere. Hydroperoxides were measured over Europe during the BLUESKY campaign in May–June 2020. The paper gives an overview of the distribution of the species in the troposphere and investigates the impact of wet scavenging and deposition on the budget of H2O2.
Marco Wietzoreck, Marios Kyprianou, Benjamin A. Musa Bandowe, Siddika Celik, John N. Crowley, Frank Drewnick, Philipp Eger, Nils Friedrich, Minas Iakovides, Petr Kukučka, Jan Kuta, Barbora Nežiková, Petra Pokorná, Petra Přibylová, Roman Prokeš, Roland Rohloff, Ivan Tadic, Sebastian Tauer, Jake Wilson, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, Ulrich Pöschl, Euripides G. Stephanou, and Gerhard Lammel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8739–8766,Short summary
A unique dataset of concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated, oxygenated and nitrated derivatives, in total 74 individual species, in the marine atmosphere is presented. Exposure to these substances poses a major health risk. We found very low concentrations over the Arabian Sea, while both local and long-range-transported pollution caused elevated levels over the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Gulf.
Ovid O. Krüger, Bruna A. Holanda, Sourangsu Chowdhury, Andrea Pozzer, David Walter, Christopher Pöhlker, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, John P. Burrows, Christiane Voigt, Jos Lelieveld, Johannes Quaas, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8683–8699,Short summary
The abrupt reduction in human activities during the first COVID-19 lockdown created unprecedented atmospheric conditions. We took the opportunity to quantify changes in black carbon (BC) as a major anthropogenic air pollutant. Therefore, we measured BC on board a research aircraft over Europe during the lockdown and compared the results to measurements from 2017. With model simulations we account for different weather conditions and find a lockdown-related decrease in BC of 41 %.
Patrick Dewald, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Jan Schuladen, Akima Ringsdorf, Achim Edtbauer, Horst Fischer, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7051–7069,Short summary
We measured the gas-phase reactivity of the NO3 radical on the summit (825 m a.s.l.) of a semi-rural mountain in southwestern Germany in July 2021. The impact of VOC-induced NO3 losses (mostly monoterpenes) competing with a loss by reaction with NO and photolysis throughout the diel cycle was estimated. Besides chemistry, boundary layer dynamics and plant-physiological processes presumably have a great impact on our observations, which were compared to previous NO3 measurements at the same site.
George K. Georgiou, Theodoros Christoudias, Yiannis Proestos, Jonilda Kushta, Michael Pikridas, Jean Sciare, Chrysanthos Savvides, and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4129–4146,Short summary
We evaluate the skill of the WRF-Chem model to perform high-resolution air quality forecasts (including ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and fine particulate matter) over the Eastern Mediterranean, during winter and summer. We compare the forecast output to observational data from background and urban locations and the forecast output from CAMS. WRF-Chem was found to forecast the concentrations and diurnal profiles of gas-phase pollutants in urban areas with higher accuracy.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Andrea Pozzer, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Florian Obersteiner, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6151–6165,Short summary
The European COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced the emission of primary pollutants such as NOx, which impacts the tropospheric photochemical processes and the abundance of O3. In this study, we present how the lockdowns have affected tropospheric trace gases and ozone production based on in situ observations and modeling simulations. We additionally show that the chemical regime shifted from a transition point to a NOx limitation in the upper troposphere.
Wenyu Sun, Matias Berasategui, Andrea Pozzer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4969–4984,Short summary
The reaction between OH and SO2 is a termolecular process that in the atmosphere results in the formation of H2SO4 and thus aerosols. We present the first temperature- and pressure-dependent measurements of the rate coefficients in N2. This is also the first study to examine the effects of water vapour on the kinetics of this reaction. Our results indicate the rate coefficient is larger than that recommended by evaluation panels, with deviations of up to 30 % in some parts of the atmosphere.
Zhi-Hui Zhang, Elena Hartner, Battist Utinger, Benjamin Gfeller, Andreas Paul, Martin Sklorz, Hendryk Czech, Bin Xia Yang, Xin Yi Su, Gert Jakobi, Jürgen Orasche, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Seongho Jeong, Thomas Gröger, Michal Pardo, Thorsten Hohaus, Thomas Adam, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Yinon Rudich, Ralf Zimmermann, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1793–1809,Short summary
Using a novel setup, we comprehensively characterized the formation of particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) in anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). We found that more than 90 % of all ROS components in both SOA types have a short lifetime. Our results also show that photochemical aging promotes particle-bound ROS production and enhances the oxidative potential of the aerosols. We found consistent results between chemical-based and biological-based ROS analyses.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, John N. Crowley, Jan Schuladen, Jonathan Williams, Sascha Hafermann, Andreas Reiffs, Raoul Axinte, Hartwig Harder, Cheryl Ernest, Anna Novelli, Katrin Sala, Monica Martinez, Chinmay Mallik, Laura Tomsche, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Birger Bohn, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18413–18432,Short summary
HCHO is an important atmospheric trace gas influencing the photochemical processes in the Earth’s atmosphere, including the budget of HOx and the abundance of tropospheric O3. This research presents the photochemical calculations of HCHO and O3 based on three field campaigns across Europe. We show that HCHO production via the oxidation of only four volatile organic compound precursors, i.e., CH4, CH3CHO, C5H8 and CH3OH, can balance the observed loss at all sites well.
Dirk Dienhart, John N. Crowley, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Achim Edtbauer, Philipp G. Eger, Lisa Ernle, Hartwig Harder, Bettina Hottmann, Monica Martinez, Uwe Parchatka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Christof Stönner, Ivan Tadic, Sebastian Tauer, Nijing Wang, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17373–17388,Short summary
We present the first ship-based in situ measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO), hydroxyl radicals (OH) and the OH reactivity around the Arabian Peninsula. Regression analysis of the HCHO production rate and the related OH chemistry revealed the regional HCHO yield αeff, which represents the different chemical regimes encountered. Highest values were found for the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf), which highlights this region as a hotspot of photochemical air pollution.
Eshkol Eytan, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, Mark Pinsky, and Alexander Khain
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16203–16217,Short summary
Describing cloud mixing processes is among the most challenging fronts in cloud physics. Therefore, the adiabatic fraction (AF) that serves as a mixing measure is a valuable metric. We use high-resolution (10 m) simulations of single clouds with a passive tracer to test the skill of different methods used to derive AF. We highlight a method that is insensitive to the available cloud samples and allows considering microphysical effects on AF estimations in different environmental conditions.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Uwe Parchatka, Ivan Tadic, Birger Bohn, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Hartwig Harder, Flora Kluge, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Florian Obersteiner, Martin Zöger, Raphael Doerich, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6759–6776,Short summary
NO2 plays a central role in atmospheric photochemical processes and requires accurate measurements. This research presents NO2 data obtained via chemiluminescence using a photolytic converter from airborne studies around Cabo Verde and laboratory investigations. We show the limits and error-proneness of a conventional blue light converter in aircraft measurements affected by humidity and NO levels and suggest the use of an alternative quartz converter for more reliable results.
Vlassis A. Karydis, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Andrea Pozzer, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14983–15001,Short summary
Aerosol particle pH is well-buffered by alkaline compounds, notably NH3 and crustal elements. NH3 is found to supply remarkable buffering capacity on a global scale, from the polluted continents to the remote oceans. Potential future changes in agricultural NH3 must be accompanied by strong reductions of SO2 and NOx to avoid particles becoming highly acidic, with implications for human health (aerosol toxicity), ecosystems (acid deposition), clouds, and climate (aerosol hygroscopicity).
Quanfu He, Zheng Fang, Ofir Shoshanim, Steven S. Brown, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14927–14940,Short summary
Rayleigh scattering and absorption cross sections for CO2, N2O, SF6, O2, and CH4 were measured between 307 and 725 nm. New dispersion relations for N2O, SF6, and CH4 in the UV–vis range were derived. This study provides refractive index dispersion relations, scattering, and absorption cross sections which are highly needed for accurate instrument calibration and for improved accuracy of Rayleigh scattering parameterizations for major greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere.
Philipp G. Eger, Luc Vereecken, Rolf Sander, Jan Schuladen, Nicolas Sobanski, Horst Fischer, Einar Karu, Jonathan Williams, Ville Vakkari, Tuukka Petäjä, Jos Lelieveld, Andrea Pozzer, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14333–14349,Short summary
We determine the impact of pyruvic acid photolysis on the formation of acetaldehyde and peroxy radicals during summer and autumn in the Finnish boreal forest using a data-constrained box model. Our results are dependent on the chosen scenario in which the overall quantum yield and the photolysis products are varied. We highlight that pyruvic acid photolysis can be an important contributor to acetaldehyde and peroxy radical formation in remote, forested regions.
Jean-Daniel Paris, Aurélie Riandet, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Marc Delmotte, Antoine Berchet, Jonathan Williams, Lisa Ernle, Ivan Tadic, Hartwig Harder, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12443–12462,Short summary
We measured atmospheric methane and CO2 by ship in the Middle East. We probe the origin of methane with a combination of light alkane measurements and modeling. We find strong influence from nearby oil and gas production over the Arabian Gulf. Comparing our data to inventories indicates that inventories overestimate sources from the upstream gas industry but underestimate emissions from oil extraction and processing. The Red Sea was under a complex mixture of sources due to human activity.
Tom Dror, Mickaël D. Chekroun, Orit Altaratz, and Ilan Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12261–12272,Short summary
A part of continental shallow convective cumulus (Cu) was shown to share properties such as organization and formation over vegetated areas, thus named green Cu. Mechanisms behind the formed patterns are not understood. We use different metrics and an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) to decompose the dataset and quantify organization factors (cloud streets and gravity waves). We show that clouds form a highly organized grid structure over hundreds of kilometers at the field lifetime.
Patrick Dewald, Raphael Dörich, Jan Schuladen, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5501–5519,Short summary
Organic nitrates generated from the reaction between isoprene and the nitrate radical (ISOP-NITs) were detected via their thermal dissociation in heated quartz inlets to nitrogen dioxide monitored by cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The temperature-dependent dissociation profiles of ISOP-NITs in the presence of ozone (O3) are broad in contrast to narrow profiles of common reference compounds. We demonstrate that this broadening is caused by O3-assisted reactions of ISOP-NITs on quartz surfaces.
Raphael Dörich, Philipp Eger, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5319–5332,Short summary
We demonstrate in laboratory experiments that the formation of IOx anions (formed in reactions of I− with O3) or acetate anions (formed e.g. by the reaction of I− with peracetic acid) results in unexpected sensitivity of an iodide chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (I-CIMS) to HNO3 at a mass-to-charge ratio of 62. This helps explain observations of apparent high daytime levels of N2O5. Airborne measurements using I-CIMS confirm these conclusions.
Vinod Kumar, Julia Remmers, Steffen Beirle, Joachim Fallmann, Astrid Kerkweg, Jos Lelieveld, Mariano Mertens, Andrea Pozzer, Benedikt Steil, Marc Barra, Holger Tost, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5241–5269,Short summary
We present high-resolution regional atmospheric chemistry model simulations focused around Germany. We highlight the importance of spatial resolution of the model itself as well as the input emissions inventory and short-scale temporal variability of emissions for simulations. We propose a consistent approach for evaluating the simulated vertical distribution of NO2 using MAX-DOAS measurements while also considering its spatial sensitivity volume and change in sensitivity within this volume.
Klaus Klingmüller and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4429–4441,Short summary
Soil moisture is of great importance for weather and climate. We present a machine learning model that produces accurate predictions of satellite-observed surface soil moisture, based on meteorological data from a climate model. It can be used as soil moisture parametrisation in climate models and to produce comprehensive global soil moisture datasets. Moreover, it may motivate similar applications of machine learning in climate science.
Ivan Tadic, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Birger Bohn, Hartwig Harder, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Florian Obersteiner, Uwe Parchatka, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Martin Zöger, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8195–8211,Short summary
Although mechanisms of tropospheric ozone (O3) formation are well understood, studies reporting on ozone formation derived from field measurements are challenging and remain sparse in number. We use airborne measurements to quantify nitric oxide (NO) and O3 distributions in the upper troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean and western Africa and compare our measurements to model simulations. Our results show that NO and ozone formation are greatest over the tropical areas of western Africa.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Ivan Tadic, Dirk Dienhart, Nijing Wang, Achim Edtbauer, Lisa Ernle, Jonathan Williams, Florian Obersteiner, Isidoro Gutiérrez-Álvarez, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7933–7945,Short summary
Lightning over continental and coastal areas is frequent and accompanied by deep convection, while lightning over marine areas and particularly in tropical cyclones is rare. This research presents in situ observations of the tropical storm Florence 2018 near Cabo Verde. We show the absence of lightning in the tropical storm despite the occurrence of deep convective processes by atmospheric trace gas measurements of O3, NO, CO, H2O2, DMS and CH2I.
Nils Friedrich, Philipp Eger, Justin Shenolikar, Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Hottmann, Ivan Tadic, Horst Fischer, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Sebastian Tauer, Hartwig Harder, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Nijing Wang, Jonathan Williams, James Brooks, Frank Drewnick, Hang Su, Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7473–7498,Short summary
This paper uses NOx and NOz measurements from the 2017 AQABA ship campaign in the Mediterranean Sea and around the Arabian Peninsula to examine the influence e.g. of emissions from shipping and oil and gas production. Night-time losses of NOx dominated in the Arabian Gulf and in the Red Sea, whereas daytime losses were more important in the Mediterranean Sea. Nitric acid and organic nitrates were the most prevalent components of NOz.
Jingchuan Chen, Zhijun Wu, Jie Chen, Naama Reicher, Xin Fang, Yinon Rudich, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3491–3506,Short summary
Asian mineral dust is a crucial contributor to global ice-nucleating particles (INPs), while its size-resolved information on freezing activity is extremely rare. Here we conducted the first known INP measurements of size-resolved airborne East Asian dust particles. An explicit size dependence of both INP concentration and surface ice-active-site density was observed. The new parameterizations can be widely applied in models to better characterize and predict ice nucleation activities of dust.
Einar Karu, Mengze Li, Lisa Ernle, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1817–1831,Short summary
A gas measurement device was developed to measure trace gases (ppt level) in the air based on an atomic emission detector. It combines a cryogenic pre-concentrator (CryoTrap), a gas chromatograph (GC), and a new high-resolution atomic emission detector (AED). The CryoTrap–GC–AED instrumental setup, limits of detection, and elemental performance are presented and discussed. Two measurement case studies are reported: one in a Finnish boreal forest and the other based on an aircraft campaign.
Domenico Taraborrelli, David Cabrera-Perez, Sara Bacer, Sergey Gromov, Jos Lelieveld, Rolf Sander, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2615–2636,Short summary
Atmospheric pollutants from anthropogenic activities and biomass burning are usually regarded as ozone precursors. Monocyclic aromatics are no exception. Calculations with a comprehensive atmospheric model are consistent with this view but only for air masses close to pollution source regions. However, the same model predicts that aromatics, when transported to remote areas, may effectively destroy ozone. This loss of tropospheric ozone rivals the one attributed to bromine.
Sara Bacer, Sylvia C. Sullivan, Odran Sourdeval, Holger Tost, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1485–1505,Short summary
We investigate the relative importance of the rates of both microphysical processes and unphysical correction terms that act as sources or sinks of ice crystals in cold clouds. By means of numerical simulations performed with a global chemistry–climate model, we assess the relevance of these rates at global and regional scales. This estimation is of fundamental importance to assign priority to the development of microphysics parameterizations and compare model output with observations.
Tom Dror, J. Michel Flores, Orit Altaratz, Guy Dagan, Zev Levin, Assaf Vardi, and Ilan Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15297–15306,Short summary
We used in situ aerosol measurements over the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Pacific to initialize a cloud model and study the impact of aerosol concentration and sizes on warm clouds. We show that high aerosol concentration increases cloud mass and reduces surface rain when giant particles (diameter > 9 µm) are present. The large aerosols changed the timing and magnitude of internal cloud processes and resulted in an enhanced evaporation below cloud base and dramatically reduced surface rain.
Klaus Klingmüller, Vlassis A. Karydis, Sara Bacer, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15285–15295,Short summary
Particulate air pollution cools the climate and partially masks the greenhouse warming by reflecting sunlight and enhancing the reflection by clouds. The intensity of this cooling depends on interactions between pollution and desert dust within the atmosphere. Our simulations with a global atmospheric chemistry-climate model indicate that these interactions significantly weaken the cooling.
Matias Berasategui, Damien Amedro, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13541–13555,Short summary
Peracetic acid is one of the most abundant organic peroxides in the atmosphere. We combine experiments and theory to show that peracetic acid reacts orders of magnitude more slowly with OH than presently accepted, which results in a significant extension of its atmospheric lifetime.
Bettina Hottmann, Sascha Hafermann, Laura Tomsche, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Hartwig Harder, Andrea Pozzer, Marco Neumaier, Andreas Zahn, Birger Bohn, Greta Stratmann, Helmut Ziereis, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12655–12673,Short summary
During OMO we observed enhanced mixing ratios of hydroperoxides (ROOH) in the Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA) relative to the background. The observed mixing ratios are higher than steady-state calculations and EMAC simulations, especially in the AMA, indicating atmospheric transport of ROOH. Uncertainties in the scavenging efficiencies likely cause deviations from EMAC. Longitudinal gradients indicate a pool of ROOH towards the center of the AMA associated with upwind convection over India.
Nils Friedrich, Ivan Tadic, Jan Schuladen, James Brooks, Eoghan Darbyshire, Frank Drewnick, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5739–5761,Short summary
We present a new instrument for the measurement of NOx and NOy based on a combination of the thermal dissociation of NOy to NOx and cavity ring-down spectroscopic detection of NO2. It features a denuder to separate the contributions of gas-phase and particulate nitrates to NOy. We provide a detailed characterization of the instrument and briefly outline results from first deployments.
Nijing Wang, Achim Edtbauer, Christof Stönner, Andrea Pozzer, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Lisa Ernle, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Hottmann, Horst Fischer, Jan Schuladen, John N. Crowley, Jean-Daniel Paris, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10807–10829,Short summary
Carbonyl compounds were measured on a ship travelling around the Arabian Peninsula in summer 2017, crossing both highly polluted and extremely clean regions of the marine boundary layer. We investigated the sources and sinks of carbonyls. The results from a global model showed a significant model underestimation for acetaldehyde, a molecule that can influence regional air chemistry. By adding a diurnal oceanic source, the model estimation was highly improved.
Patrick Dewald, Jonathan M. Liebmann, Nils Friedrich, Justin Shenolikar, Jan Schuladen, Franz Rohrer, David Reimer, Ralf Tillmann, Anna Novelli, Changmin Cho, Kangming Xu, Rupert Holzinger, François Bernard, Li Zhou, Wahid Mellouki, Steven S. Brown, Hendrik Fuchs, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10459–10475,Short summary
We present direct measurements of NO3 reactivity resulting from the oxidation of isoprene by NO3 during an intensive simulation chamber study. Measurements were in excellent agreement with values calculated from measured isoprene amounts and the rate coefficient for the reaction of NO3 with isoprene. Comparison of the measurement with NO3 reactivities from non-steady-state and model calculations suggests that isoprene-derived RO2 and HO2 radicals account to ~ 50 % of overall NO3 losses.
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Ivan Tadic, John N. Crowley, Dirk Dienhart, Philipp Eger, Hartwig Harder, Bettina Hottmann, Monica Martinez, Uwe Parchatka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Justin Shenolikar, Sebastian Tauer, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6769–6787,Short summary
We present shipborne observations of NO, NO2, O3, HCHO, OH, HO2, H2O and the actinic flux obtained in the marine boundary layer (MBL) around the Arabian Peninsula during the summer 2017 AQABA ship campaign. NOx (NO+NO2) and O3 observations clearly showed anthropogenic influence in the MBL around the Arabian Peninsula. The observations were also used to calculate net O3 production in the MBL around the Arabian Peninsula, which was greatest over the northern Red Sea, Oman Gulf and Arabian Gulf.
Daniel Marno, Cheryl Ernest, Korbinian Hens, Umar Javed, Thomas Klimach, Monica Martinez, Markus Rudolf, Jos Lelieveld, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2711–2731,Short summary
In this study, a calibration device for OH and HO2 instruments is characterized at pressures of 275 to 1000 mbar, allowing instrument pressure sensitivity to be quantified to an accuracy of 22 % (1σ). Computational fluid dynamic simulations supporting the understanding of interactions between generated HOx and the instrument inlet led to enhanced determination of factors affecting instrument sensitivity.
Achim Edtbauer, Christof Stönner, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Matias Berasategui, David Walter, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6081–6094,Short summary
Marine regions where deep nutrient-rich water is pushed towards the surface are called upwelling regions. In these nutrient-rich waters large algal blooms form which are the basis of the marine food web. We measured methane sulfonamide, a molecule containing sulfur and nitrogen, for the first time in ambient air and could show that the origin of this emission is an algal bloom near the Somalia upwelling. Sulfur-containing compounds from algae can promote particle formation over the oceans.
Peter H. Zimmermann, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andrea Pozzer, Patrick Jöckel, Franziska Winterstein, Andreas Zahn, Sander Houweling, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5787–5809,Short summary
The atmospheric abundance of the greenhouse gas methane is determined by interacting emission sources and sinks in a dynamic global environment. In this study, its global budget from 1997 to 2016 is simulated with a general circulation model using emission estimates of 11 source categories. The model results are evaluated against 17 ground station and 320 intercontinental flight observation series. Deviations are used to re-scale the emission quantities with the aim of matching observations.
Philipp G. Eger, Jan Schuladen, Nicolas Sobanski, Horst Fischer, Einar Karu, Jonathan Williams, Matthieu Riva, Qiaozhi Zha, Mikael Ehn, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Simon Schallhart, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3697–3711,Short summary
Pyruvic acid, CH3C(O)C(O)OH, is an organic acid of biogenic origin that plays a crucial role in plant metabolism, is present in tropospheric air in both gas-phase and aerosol-phase, and is implicated in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. From the first gas-phase measurements of pyruvic acid in the Finnish boreal forest in September 2016 we derive its source strength and discuss potential sources and sinks, with a focus on the relevance of gas-phase pyruvic acid for radical chemistry.
Matthew Forrest, Holger Tost, Jos Lelieveld, and Thomas Hickler
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1285–1309,Short summary
We have integrated the LPJ-GUESS dynamic global vegetation model into the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-enabled GCM (general circulation model). This combined framework will enable the investigation of many land–atmosphere interactions and feedbacks with state-of-the-art simulation models. Initial results show that using the climate produced by EMAC together with LPJ-GUESS produces an acceptable representation of the global vegetation.
Matias Berasategui, Damien Amedro, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2695–2707,Short summary
We have determined the rate coefficient and mechanism for the reaction of the OH radical with methane sulphonamide, a trace gas which has recently been found in the atmosphere. The rate coefficient is 1.4 × 10−13 cm3 molec.−1 s−1, which indicates a tropospheric lifetime of > 2 months. The observation of CO, CO2, SO2, HNO3, HCOOH, and N2O products enabled us to derive a detailed reaction mechanism for the reaction, which proceeds predominantly by H abstraction from the CH3 group.
Ying Chen, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Chao Wei, Liang Ran, Ralf Wolke, Johannes Größ, Qiaoqiao Wang, Andrea Pozzer, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Gerald Spindler, Jos Lelieveld, Ina Tegen, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 771–786,Short summary
Particulate nitrate is one of the most important climate cooling agents. Our results show that interaction with sea-salt aerosol can shift nitrate to larger sized particles (redistribution effect), weakening its direct cooling effect. The modelling results indicate strong redistribution over coastal and offshore regions worldwide as well as continental Europe. Improving the consideration of the redistribution effect in global models fosters a better understanding of climate change.
Philipp G. Eger, Nils Friedrich, Jan Schuladen, Justin Shenolikar, Horst Fischer, Ivan Tadic, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Sebastian Tauer, Frank Drewnick, Friederike Fachinger, James Brooks, Eoghan Darbyshire, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12121–12140,Short summary
Shipborne measurements of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) were made during the AQABA (Air Quality and climate change in the Arabian BAsin) ship campaign in summer 2017. The dataset includes measurements over the Mediterranean Sea and around the Arabian Peninsula with observed mixing ratios ranging from the limit of detection to 600 pptv. We examined the regional variability in the generation of ClNO2 and its importance for Cl atom generation in a marine boundary layer influenced by ships and industry.
Horst Fischer, Raoul Axinte, Heiko Bozem, John N. Crowley, Cheryl Ernest, Stefan Gilge, Sascha Hafermann, Hartwig Harder, Korbinian Hens, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Rainer Königstedt, Dagmar Kubistin, Chinmay Mallik, Monica Martinez, Anna Novelli, Uwe Parchatka, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Andrea Pozzer, Eric Regelin, Andreas Reiffs, Torsten Schmidt, Jan Schuladen, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11953–11968,Short summary
We use in situ observations of H2O2 to study the interplay between photochemistry, transport and deposition processes. The data were obtained during five ground-based field campaigns across Europe. A budget calculation indicates that the photochemical production rate was much larger than photochemical loss and that dry deposition is the dominant loss process. To reproduce the change in H2O2 mixing ratios after sunrise, a variable contribution of entrainment from the residual layer is required.
Matthias Kippenberger, Gerhard Schuster, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11939–11951,Short summary
We investigated the uptake of several trace gases to growing ice surfaces at temperatures relevant to cirrus clouds. HCl, a strong inorganic acid that ionises at the surface, was efficiently trapped in the growing ice, whereas oxidised organic trace gases, which attach to ice by hydrogen bonding, were not. HCl can be efficiently and rapidly removed from the gas phase in supersaturated ice clouds.
Jianzhong Ma, Christoph Brühl, Qianshan He, Benedikt Steil, Vlassis A. Karydis, Klaus Klingmüller, Holger Tost, Bin Chen, Yufang Jin, Ningwei Liu, Xiangde Xu, Peng Yan, Xiuji Zhou, Kamal Abdelrahman, Andrea Pozzer, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11587–11612,Short summary
We find a pronounced maximum in aerosol extinction in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau during the Asian summer monsoon, caused mainly by mineral dust emitted from the northern Tibetan Plateau and slope area, lofted to and accumulating within the anticyclonic circulation. Mineral dust, water-soluble compounds, such as nitrate and sulfate, and associated liquid water dominate aerosol extinction around the tropopause within the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone.
Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Nijing Wang, Achim Edtbauer, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, John N. Crowley, Dirk Dienhart, Philipp G. Eger, Lisa Ernle, Horst Fischer, Bettina Hottmann, Jean-Daniel Paris, Christof Stönner, Ivan Tadic, David Walter, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11501–11523,Short summary
The Arabian Peninsula is a global hot spot of ozone pollution. Our measurements, made on a ship in summer 2017, indicate underlying reasons. Despite being at sea, we observed ozone-forming reactive trace gases (measured as so-called total OH reactivity) comparable to highly populated urban regions in amount and composition. This is due to strong emissions from oil extraction and ship traffic. These emissions were quickly converted to ozone due to intense solar irradiation and high temperatures.
Naama Reicher, Carsten Budke, Lukas Eickhoff, Shira Raveh-Rubin, Ifat Kaplan-Ashiri, Thomas Koop, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11143–11158,Short summary
We characterized size-segregated airborne ice-nucleating particles (INPs) during dust storm events in the eastern Mediterranean. We found that particle size can predict its activity, and in general, larger particles are better INPs. The activity of supermicron particles dominated by desert mineral dust was similar between the different dust events regardless of the high variability of the geographic source desert and atmospheric journey.
Reuven H. Heiblum, Lital Pinto, Orit Altaratz, Guy Dagan, and Ilan Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10717–10738,Short summary
It is useful to divide a cloud into two regions: core and margin. Three parameters used to define a core are compared: buoyancy (B), relative humidity (RH), and vertical velocity (W). Using theoretical arguments and simulations, we show that during most of a cloud's lifetime, the cores are subsets of one another: Bcore ⊆ RHcore ⊆ Wcore. Moreover, the core–shell cloud model applies to all core definitions. Our findings can serve as a benchmark in the partition the core and margin.
Reuven H. Heiblum, Lital Pinto, Orit Altaratz, Guy Dagan, and Ilan Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10739–10755,Short summary
The effects of aerosol concentration on a cloud's partition to core and margin are examined. The main finding from Part I (i.e. Bcore ⊆ RHcore ⊆ Wcore) is seen for all aerosol concentrations. Clouds can produce positive buoyancy due to both saturated updrafts or unsaturated downdrafts; the latter are dependent on low aerosol concentrations. We show that a cloud's mass is mainly dependent on core processes (condensation), while its volume is mainly dependent on margin processes (evaporation).
Jonathan Liebmann, Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Einar Karu, Heidi Hellén, Hannele Hakola, Qiaozhi Zha, Mikael Ehn, Matthieu Riva, Liine Heikkinen, Jonathan Williams, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10391–10403,Short summary
The formation of alkyl nitrates in the boreal forest was dominated by reactions of the NO3 radical with terpenes, both during the day and the night, with fewer contributions from OH and ozone. The alkyl nitrates formed had lifetimes on the order of 2 h, reflecting efficient loss via uptake to aerosol and deposition.
Erin Evoy, Adrian M. Maclean, Grazia Rovelli, Ying Li, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Vlassis A. Karydis, Saeid Kamal, Jos Lelieveld, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jonathan P. Reid, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10073–10085,Short summary
We measured the diffusion rates of organic molecules in a number of proxies for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and compared measured diffusion with predictions from two relations: the Stokes–Einstein relation and a fractional Stokes–Einstein relation. The fractional relation does a better job of predicting diffusion rates in this case. Output from an atmospheric model shows that mixing times predicted using the two relations differ by up to 1 order of magnitude at an altitude of ~ 3 km.
Klaus Klingmüller, Jos Lelieveld, Vlassis A. Karydis, and Georgiy L. Stenchikov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7397–7408,Short summary
Within the atmosphere, desert dust and anthropogenic pollution are mixed and interact, which affects the abundance and optical properties of the particulate matter. This results in an anthropogenic climate forcing associated with mineral dust notwithstanding the natural origin of most aeolian dust. With a global chemistry–climate model, we estimate this forcing to represent a considerable fraction of the total dust forcing.
Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Lisa Ernle, John N. Crowley, Jos Lelieveld, Jean-Daniel Paris, Andrea Pozzer, David Walter, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7209–7232,Short summary
We report on results that demonstrate the utility of non-methane hydrocarbons as source/sink identification tracers while providing their mixing ratios around the Arabian Peninsula. By introducing novel data-analysis approaches, we establish a new method for separating associated and non-associated (with liquids) gases. We formulate a relationship between hydrocarbon oxidative pairs that can be used to evaluate the relative abundance of the hydroxyl and chlorine radicals in the troposphere.
Meryem Tanarhte, Sara Bacer, Susannah M. Burrows, J. Alex Huffman, Kyle M. Pierce, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicole J. Savage, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
Bioaerosols have been an important topic in atmospheric science in the last two decades. This paper compares different emission parametrizations used in fungal spores modeling and compare their results to two sets of new observational datasets. It emphasises their uncertainties in order to improve their modeling in the future. This comparison is addressed primarily to the scientific community (publishing in ACP) interested in this type of modeling and the related experimental work in this field.
Naruki Hiranuma, Kouji Adachi, David M. Bell, Franco Belosi, Hassan Beydoun, Bhaskar Bhaduri, Heinz Bingemer, Carsten Budke, Hans-Christian Clemen, Franz Conen, Kimberly M. Cory, Joachim Curtius, Paul J. DeMott, Oliver Eppers, Sarah Grawe, Susan Hartmann, Nadine Hoffmann, Kristina Höhler, Evelyn Jantsch, Alexei Kiselev, Thomas Koop, Gourihar Kulkarni, Amelie Mayer, Masataka Murakami, Benjamin J. Murray, Alessia Nicosia, Markus D. Petters, Matteo Piazza, Michael Polen, Naama Reicher, Yinon Rudich, Atsushi Saito, Gianni Santachiara, Thea Schiebel, Gregg P. Schill, Johannes Schneider, Lior Segev, Emiliano Stopelli, Ryan C. Sullivan, Kaitlyn Suski, Miklós Szakáll, Takuya Tajiri, Hans Taylor, Yutaka Tobo, Romy Ullrich, Daniel Weber, Heike Wex, Thomas F. Whale, Craig L. Whiteside, Katsuya Yamashita, Alla Zelenyuk, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4823–4849,Short summary
A total of 20 ice nucleation measurement techniques contributed to investigate the immersion freezing behavior of cellulose particles – natural polymers. Our data showed several types of cellulose are able to nucleate ice as efficiently as some mineral dust samples and cellulose has the potential to be an important atmospheric ice-nucleating particle. Continued investigation/collaboration is necessary to obtain further insight into consistency or diversity of ice nucleation measurements.
Philipp G. Eger, Frank Helleis, Gerhard Schuster, Gavin J. Phillips, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1935–1954,Short summary
We present a chemical ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer (CI-QMS) with a novel discharge ion source. In addition to the expected detection of PAN, peracetic acid and ClNO2, the instrument is also sensitive to SO2, HCl and acetic acid through ion chemistry unique for our ion source. We present ionization schemes along with illustrative datasets from field campaigns underlining the potential of the CI-QMS as an alternative to polonium, especially for application in the marine boundary layer.
Laura Tomsche, Andrea Pozzer, Narendra Ojha, Uwe Parchatka, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1915–1939,Short summary
The Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA) is an annual phenomenon in the northern hemispheric upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere. We performed in situ measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) in the monsoon outflow region and in background air in the UT (Mediterranean, Arabian Peninsula, Arabian Sea) using airborne optical absorption spectroscopy during the Oxidation Mechanism Observations mission (summer 2015). The trace gases increased within the AMA, particularly CH4.
Yingying Yan, David Cabrera-Perez, Jintai Lin, Andrea Pozzer, Lu Hu, Dylan B. Millet, William C. Porter, and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 111–130,Short summary
The GEOS-Chem model has been updated with the SAPRC-11 aromatics chemical mechanism to evaluate global and regional effects of aromatics on tropospheric oxidation capacity. Our results reveal relatively slight changes in ozone, hydroxyl radical, and nitrogen oxides on a global mean basis (1–4 %), although remarkable regional differences (5–20 %) exist near the source regions. Improved representation of aromatics is important to simulate the tropospheric oxidation.
Chunlin Li, Quanfu He, Julian Schade, Johannes Passig, Ralf Zimmermann, Daphne Meidan, Alexander Laskin, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 139–163,
Sebastian Ehrhart, Eimear M. Dunne, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4987–5001,
Swen Metzger, Mohamed Abdelkader, Benedikt Steil, and Klaus Klingmüller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16747–16774,Short summary
This paper discusses the importance of aerosol water for aerosol optical depth calculations using a long-term evaluation of the global chemistry climate and Earth system model EMAC through a comparison of EQSAM4clim and ISORROPIA II with observations at climate timescales. Sensitivity studies with different levels of chemical aging and associated water uptake demonstrate the importance of aerosol water for climate modeling studies.
Paul J. DeMott, Ottmar Möhler, Daniel J. Cziczo, Naruki Hiranuma, Markus D. Petters, Sarah S. Petters, Franco Belosi, Heinz G. Bingemer, Sarah D. Brooks, Carsten Budke, Monika Burkert-Kohn, Kristen N. Collier, Anja Danielczok, Oliver Eppers, Laura Felgitsch, Sarvesh Garimella, Hinrich Grothe, Paul Herenz, Thomas C. J. Hill, Kristina Höhler, Zamin A. Kanji, Alexei Kiselev, Thomas Koop, Thomas B. Kristensen, Konstantin Krüger, Gourihar Kulkarni, Ezra J. T. Levin, Benjamin J. Murray, Alessia Nicosia, Daniel O'Sullivan, Andreas Peckhaus, Michael J. Polen, Hannah C. Price, Naama Reicher, Daniel A. Rothenberg, Yinon Rudich, Gianni Santachiara, Thea Schiebel, Jann Schrod, Teresa M. Seifried, Frank Stratmann, Ryan C. Sullivan, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Miklós Szakáll, Hans P. Taylor, Romy Ullrich, Jesus Vergara-Temprado, Robert Wagner, Thomas F. Whale, Daniel Weber, André Welti, Theodore W. Wilson, Martin J. Wolf, and Jake Zenker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6231–6257,Short summary
The ability to measure ice nucleating particles is vital to quantifying their role in affecting clouds and precipitation. Methods for measuring droplet freezing were compared while co-sampling relevant particle types. Measurement correspondence was very good for ice nucleating particles of bacterial and natural soil origin, and somewhat more disparate for those of mineral origin. Results reflect recently improved capabilities and provide direction toward addressing remaining measurement issues.
Sara Bacer, Sylvia C. Sullivan, Vlassis A. Karydis, Donifan Barahona, Martina Krämer, Athanasios Nenes, Holger Tost, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4021–4041,Short summary
The complexity of ice nucleation mechanisms and aerosol--ice interactions makes their representation still challenging in atmospheric models. We have implemented a comprehensive ice crystal formation parameterization in the global chemistry-climate model EMAC to improve the representation of ice crystal number concentrations. The newly implemented parameterization takes into account processes which were previously neglected by the standard version of the model.
Sarah Grawe, Stefanie Augustin-Bauditz, Hans-Christian Clemen, Martin Ebert, Stine Eriksen Hammer, Jasmin Lubitz, Naama Reicher, Yinon Rudich, Johannes Schneider, Robert Staacke, Frank Stratmann, André Welti, and Heike Wex
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13903–13923,Short summary
In this study, coal fly ash particles immersed in supercooled cloud droplets were analyzed concerning their freezing behavior. Additionally, physico-chemical particle properties (morphology, chemical composition, crystallography) were investigated. In combining both aspects, components that potentially contribute to the observed freezing behavior of the ash could be identified. Interactions at the particle-water interface, that depend on suspension time and influence freezing, are discussed.
John N. Crowley, Nicolas Pouvesle, Gavin J. Phillips, Raoul Axinte, Horst Fischer, Tuukka Petäjä, Anke Nölscher, Jonathan Williams, Korbinian Hens, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez-Harder, Anna Novelli, Dagmar Kubistin, Birger Bohn, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13457–13479,Short summary
Simultaneous observations of PAA, PAN and H2O2 are used to provide insight into processes influencing the HOx chemistry of the boreal forest, including two biomass-burning-impacted periods. A significant contribution from photolytic HOx sources was included in a box model analysis to align model predictions with measurements. The model predicts high levels of organic peroxy radicals, also at night-time.
Christoph Brühl, Jennifer Schallock, Klaus Klingmüller, Charles Robert, Christine Bingen, Lieven Clarisse, Andreas Heckel, Peter North, and Landon Rieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12845–12857,Short summary
Use of multi-instrument satellite data is important to get consistent simulations of aerosol radiative forcing by a complex chemistry climate model, here with a main focus on the lower stratosphere. The satellite data at different wavelengths together with the patterns in the simulated size distribution point to a significant contribution from moist mineral dust lifted to the tropopause region by the Asian summer monsoon.
Jonathan M. Liebmann, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Dagmar Kubistin, Anja Claude, Robert Holla, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12045–12059,Short summary
We present direct measurements of the summertime total reactivity (inverse lifetime) of NO3 towards organic trace gases at a rural mountain site. High daytime and low night-time values were found. The reactivity was dominated by reaction with monoterpenes and sufficiently high to compete with photolysis and reaction with NO during daytime. NO3 radical measurements from one night are presented. For the first time, direct measurements of OH and NO3 reactivity are compared.
Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Vlassis A. Karydis, Andrea Pozzer, Spyros N. Pandis, and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3369–3389,Short summary
A new module, ORACLE 2-D, that calculates the concentrations of surrogate organic species in two-dimensional space defined by volatility and oxygen-to-carbon ratio has been developed and evaluated. ORACLE 2-D uses a simple photochemical aging scheme that efficiently simulates the net effects of fragmentation and functionalization. ORACLE 2-D can be used to compute the ability of organic particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei and serves as a tool to quantify their climatic impact.
Zacharias Marinou Nikolaou, Jyh-Yuan Chen, Yiannis Proestos, Jos Lelieveld, and Rolf Sander
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3391–3407,Short summary
Chemistry is an important component of the atmosphere that describes many important physical processes. However, atmospheric chemical mechanisms include hundreds of species and reactions, posing a significant computational load. In this work, we use a powerful reduction method in order to develop a computationally faster chemical mechanism from a detailed mechanism. This enables accelerated simulations, which can be used to examine a wider range of processes in increased detail.
Chinmay Mallik, Laura Tomsche, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, John N. Crowley, Bettina Derstroff, Horst Fischer, Sascha Hafermann, Imke Hüser, Umar Javed, Stephan Keßel, Jos Lelieveld, Monica Martinez, Hannah Meusel, Anna Novelli, Gavin J. Phillips, Andrea Pozzer, Andreas Reiffs, Rolf Sander, Domenico Taraborrelli, Carina Sauvage, Jan Schuladen, Hang Su, Jonathan Williams, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10825–10847,Short summary
OH and HO2 control the transformation of air pollutants and O3 formation. Their implication for air quality over the climatically sensitive Mediterranean region was studied during a field campaign in Cyprus. Production of OH, HO2, and recycled OH was lower in aged marine air masses. Box model simulations of OH and HO2 agreed with measurements except at high terpene concentrations when model RO2 due to terpenes caused large HO2 loss. Autoxidation schemes for RO2 improved the agreement.
Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Athanasios Tsikerdekis, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Angela Benedetti, Prodromos Zanis, Georgia Alexandri, Lucia Mona, Konstantinos A. Kourtidis, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8601–8620,Short summary
In this work, the MACC reanalysis dust product is evaluated over Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East using the EARLINET-optimized CALIOP/CALIPSO pure dust satellite-based product LIVAS (2007–2012). As dust plays a determinant role in processes related to weather and climate, human healt, and the economy, it is obvious that adequately simulating the amount of dust and its optical properties is essential. Our results could be used as a reference in future climate model evaluations.
Doğuşhan Kılıç, Imad El Haddad, Benjamin T. Brem, Emily Bruns, Carlo Bozetti, Joel Corbin, Lukas Durdina, Ru-Jin Huang, Jianhui Jiang, Felix Klein, Avi Lavi, Simone M. Pieber, Theo Rindlisbacher, Yinon Rudich, Jay G. Slowik, Jing Wang, Urs Baltensperger, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7379–7391,Short summary
We study primary emissions and secondary aerosol (SA) from an aircraft turbofan. By monitoring the chemical composition of both gaseous and particulate emissions at different engine loads, we explained SA formed in an oxidation flow reactor (PAM) by the oxidation of gaseous species. At idle, more than 90 % of the secondary particle mass was organic and could be explained by the oxidation of gaseous aromatic species, while at an approximated cruise load sulfates comprised 85 % of the total SA.
Guy Dagan, Ilan Koren, and Orit Altaratz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6761–6769,Short summary
In this paper we distill the problem of aerosol–cloud interactions to an interplay between the system's two characteristic vertical velocities, i.e., the air vertical velocity and the collective droplets fall velocity. We show using theoretical considerations and cloud-resolving models that the relations between the two velocities are extremely sensitive to the cloud field's thermodynamics and microphysical properties.
Meryem Tanarhte, Sara Bacer, Susannah M. Burrows, J. Alex Huffman, Kyle M. Pierce, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicole J. Savage, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Yingying Yan, Andrea Pozzer, Narendra Ojha, Jintai Lin, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5589–5605,Short summary
Surface-based measurements from the EMEP network and EMAC model simulations are used to estimate the European surface ozone changes over 1995–2014. It shows a significantly decreasing trend in the 95th percentile ozone concentrations, while increasing in the 5th percentile ozone. Sensitivity simulations and statistical analysis show that a decrease in European anthropogenic emissions had contrasting effects on surface ozone trends between the 95th and 5th percentile levels.
Klaus Klingmüller, Swen Metzger, Mohamed Abdelkader, Vlassis A. Karydis, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, Andrea Pozzer, and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 989–1008,Short summary
More than 1 billion tons of mineral dust particles are raised into the atmosphere every year, which has a significant impact on climate, society and ecosystems. The location, time and amount of dust emissions depend on surface and wind conditions. In the atmospheric chemistry–climate model EMAC, we have updated the relevant surface data and equations. Our validation shows that the updates substantially improve the agreement of model results and observations.
Jonathan Liebmann, Einar Karu, Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Mikael Ehn, Simon Schallhart, Lauriane Quéléver, Heidi Hellen, Hannele Hakola, Thorsten Hoffmann, Jonathan Williams, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3799–3815,Short summary
Using a newly developed experimental setup, we have made the first direct measurements (during autumn 2016) of NO3 reactivity in the Finnish boreal forest. The NO3 reactivity was generally very high (maximum value of 0.94/s) so that daytime reaction with organics was a substantial fraction of the NO3 loss. Observations of biogenic hydrocarbons (BVOCs) suggested a dominant role for monoterpenes in determining the NO3 reactivity, which displayed a strong vertical gradient between 8.5 and 25 m.
George K. Georgiou, Theodoros Christoudias, Yiannis Proestos, Jonilda Kushta, Panos Hadjinicolaou, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1555–1571,Short summary
We investigate the impact of the choice of gas-phase and aerosol mechanisms, on the simulated summertime concentrations of several pollutants over the eastern Mediterranean, using the WRF-Chem model. The selection of mechanisms significantly affects ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations, and to a lesser extent other gaseous pollutants (NOx, CO). Meteorological components are also affected by the choice of mechanisms due to the interaction of aerosols with radiation.
Hannah Meusel, Alexandra Tamm, Uwe Kuhn, Dianming Wu, Anna Lena Leifke, Sabine Fiedler, Nina Ruckteschler, Petya Yordanova, Naama Lang-Yona, Mira Pöhlker, Jos Lelieveld, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Bettina Weber, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 799–813,Short summary
The photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) forms the OH radical. However, not all sources are known. Recent studies showed that HONO can be emitted from soil but they did not evaluate the importance to the HONO budget. In this work HONO emissions from 43 soil and biological soil crust samples from Cyprus were measured in a dynamic chamber and extrapolated to the real atmosphere. A large fraction of the local missing source (published earlier; Meusel et al., 2016) could be assigned to soil emissions.
Naama Reicher, Lior Segev, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 233–248,Short summary
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) affect the clouds' ice properties and can influence Earth’s hydrological cycle and climate. Here we present a detailed validation of WISDOM, a setup for the study of heterogeneous ice nucleation in an array of micron-sized droplets, and a demonstration of how it can be applied for the study of ice nucleation properties of ambient particles collected during dust storm events in Israel.
Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Frank Helleis, Laura Tomsche, Horst Fischer, Rolf Hofmann, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 5089–5105,
Amit Sharma, Narendra Ojha, Andrea Pozzer, Kathleen A. Mar, Gufran Beig, Jos Lelieveld, and Sachin S. Gunthe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14393–14413,Short summary
We evaluate the numerical simulations of surface ozone during pre-monsoon season against a network of stations including clean, rural and polluted urban environments in the south Asian region. Significant effects of the employed emission inventory and chemical mechanism on the simulated ozone are found during the noon hours of intense photochemistry. The presented evaluation on the diurnal timescale would have implications for assessing ozone buildup and impacts on human health and crop yields.
Andrea Pozzer, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Vlassis A. Karydis, Alexander de Meij, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12813–12826,Short summary
This study shows that agricultural emissions are important for air quality and their reduction can effectively reduce the concentration of fine particles and their associated premature mortality. Therefore, emission control policies, especially in North America and Europe, should also involve strong ammonia emission decreases to optimally reduce fine-particle concentration.
David Cabrera-Perez, Domenico Taraborrelli, Jos Lelieveld, Thorsten Hoffmann, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Aromatic compounds are present in rural and urban atmospheres. The aim of this work is to disentangle the impacts of these compounds in different important atmospheric chemical species with the help of a numerical model. Aromatics have low impact OH, NOx and Ozone concentrations in the global scale (below 4 %). The impact however is larger in the regional scale (up to 10 %). The largest impact is in glyoxal and NO3 concentrations, with changes up to 10 % globally and 40 % regionally.
Heiko Bozem, Andrea Pozzer, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11835–11848,Short summary
We present a case study of deep convection over Germany in July 2007 within the framework of the HOOVER II project. Airborne in situ measurements within the in- and outflow regions of an isolated thunderstorm provide a unique data set to study the influence of deep convection on the transport efficiency of soluble and insoluble trace gases. Despite their high solubility HCHO and H2O2 show enhanced concentrations in the outflow presumably due to degassing from cloud droplets during freezing.
Hannah Meusel, Yasin Elshorbany, Uwe Kuhn, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Christopher J. Kampf, Guo Li, Xiaoxiang Wang, Jos Lelieveld, Ulrich Pöschl, Thorsten Hoffmann, Hang Su, Markus Ammann, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11819–11833,Short summary
In this study we investigated protein nitration and decomposition by light in the presence of NO2 via flow tube measurements. Nitrated proteins have an enhanced allergenic potential but so far nitration was only studied in dark conditions. Under irradiated conditions we found that proteins predominantly decompose while forming nitrous acid (HONO) an important precursor of the OH radical. Unlike other studies on heterogeneous NO2 conversion we found a stable HONO formation over a long period.
Yevgeny Derimian, Marie Choël, Yinon Rudich, Karine Deboudt, Oleg Dubovik, Alexander Laskin, Michel Legrand, Bahaiddin Damiri, Ilan Koren, Florin Unga, Myriam Moreau, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Arnon Karnieli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11331–11353,Short summary
We present influence of daily occurrence of the sea breeze flow from the Mediterranean Sea on physicochemical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol deep inland in the Negev Desert of Israel. Sampled airborne dust was found be internally mixed with sea-salt particles and reacted with anthropogenic pollution, which makes the dust highly hygroscopic and a liquid coating of particles appears. These physicochemical transformations are associated with a change in aerosol radiative properties.
Heiko Bozem, Tim M. Butler, Mark G. Lawrence, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Dagmar Kubistin, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10565–10582,Short summary
We present airborne measurements and model simulations in the tropics and mid-latitudes during GABRIEL and HOOVER, respectively. Based only on in situ data net ozone formation/destruction tendencies (NOPR) are calculated and compared to a 3-D chemistry transport model. The NOPR is positive in the continental boundary layer and the upper troposphere above 6 km. In the marine boundary layer and the middle troposphere ozone destruction prevails. Fresh convection shows strong net ozone formation.
Bettina Derstroff, Imke Hüser, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, John N. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Sergey Gromov, Hartwig Harder, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Jos Lelieveld, Chinmay Mallik, Monica Martinez, Anna Novelli, Uwe Parchatka, Gavin J. Phillips, Rolf Sander, Carina Sauvage, Jan Schuladen, Christof Stönner, Laura Tomsche, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9547–9566,Short summary
The aim of the study was to examine aged air masses being transported from the European continent towards Cyprus. Longer-lived oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as methanol were mainly impacted by long-distance transport and showed higher values in air masses from eastern Europe than in a flow regime from the west. The impact of the transport through the marine boundary layer as well as the influence of the residual layer/free troposphere on OVOCs were studied.
Qian Chen, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, Reuven H. Heiblum, Guy Dagan, and Lital Pinto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9585–9598,
Stephan Keßel, David Cabrera-Perez, Abraham Horowitz, Patrick R. Veres, Rolf Sander, Domenico Taraborrelli, Maria Tucceri, John N. Crowley, Andrea Pozzer, Christof Stönner, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8789–8804,Short summary
In this study we identify an often overlooked stable oxide of carbon, namely carbon suboxide (C3O2), in ambient air. We have made C3O2 and in the laboratory determined its absorption cross section data and the rate of reaction with two important atmospheric oxidants, OH and O3. By incorporating known sources and sinks in a global model we have generated a first global picture of the distribution of this species in the atmosphere.
Anna Novelli, Korbinian Hens, Cheryl Tatum Ernest, Monica Martinez, Anke C. Nölscher, Vinayak Sinha, Pauli Paasonen, Tuukka Petäjä, Mikko Sipilä, Thomas Elste, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Gavin J. Phillips, Dagmar Kubistin, Jonathan Williams, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7807–7826,Short summary
The ambient concentration of stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs) was estimated for two environments using field data. The low concentrations predicted indicate that SCIs are unlikely to have a large impact on atmospheric chemistry. Concurrent measurements of an OH background signal using the Mainz IPI-LIF-FAGE instrument were found to be consistent with the chemistry of SCIs during the measurement campaigns.
Guy Dagan, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, and Reuven H. Heiblum
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7435–7444,Short summary
Large eddy simulations with bin microphysics are used to study cloud fields' sensitivity to changes in aerosol loading and the time evolution of this response. We show that the mean field properties change with a non-monotonic trend, with an optimum aerosol concentration for which the field reaches its maximal water mass or rain yield. The evolution of the mean thermodynamic properties is studied and shown to cause the migration of the optimal aerosol concentration toward higher values.
Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Vlassis A. Karydis, Spyros N. Pandis, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7345–7364,Short summary
We analyzed the sensitivity of model-predicted global-scale OA to parameters and assumptions that control primary emissions, photochemical aging, and the scavenging efficiency of LVOCs, SVOCs, and IVOCs. The simulated OA concentrations were evaluated against a global dataset of AMS measurements. According to our analysis, a combination of increased IVOCs and decreased hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted IVOCs can help reduce discrepancies between simulated SOA and observed OOA concentrations.
Narendra Ojha, Andrea Pozzer, Dimitris Akritidis, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6743–6757,Short summary
We investigate the processes, frequency of occurrence and seasonality, and effects of strongly enhanced ozone layers in the middle–upper troposphere (SOPs) over the Himalayas using a global model (EMAC). Rapid transport of stratospheric air masses is found as a key underlying process. Model predicts more frequent SOP events during the pre-monsoon. SOPs are found to significantly enhance the tropospheric ozone column over the Himalayas.
Vlassis A. Karydis, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Sara Bacer, Andrea Pozzer, Athanasios Nenes, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5601–5621,Short summary
The importance of mineral dust for cloud droplet formation is studied by considering the adsorption activation of insoluble dust particles and the thermodynamic interactions between mineral cations and inorganic anions. This study demonstrates that a comprehensive treatment of the CCN activity of mineral dust and its chemical and thermodynamic interactions with inorganic species by chemistry climate models is important to realistically account for aerosol–chemistry–cloud–climate interaction.
Yaniv Tubul, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, and Reuven H. Heiblum
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Chandan Sarangi, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, Vijay P. Kanawade, Ilan Koren, and D. Sivanand Pai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5185–5204,Short summary
Aerosol-induced perturbations in cloud systems and rainfall are very uncertain. This study provides observational evidence of a robust positive association between aerosol–cloud–rainfall properties over the Indian summer monsoon region. Observed and modeled aerosol–cloud microphysical changes illustrate that cloud invigoration under a high AOD scenario can explain most of the aerosol-associated changes in cloud fraction, cloud top pressure, and surface rainfall over this region.
Jonathan M. Liebmann, Gerhard Schuster, Jan B. Schuladen, Nicolas Sobanski, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1241–1258,Short summary
We describe the first instrument for measurement of the rate constant for reactive loss (i.e. the total reactivity) of NO3 in ambient air. This is essentially a measureement of the lifetime of NO3 and will help assess the role of NO3 and N2O5 in conversion of reactive nitrogen oxides to reservoir species in the troposphere.
Nir Bluvshtein, J. Michel Flores, Quanfu He, Enrico Segre, Lior Segev, Nina Hong, Andrea Donohue, James N. Hilfiker, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1203–1213,Short summary
Accurate PAS measurements rely on accurate calibration of their signal. Ozone is often used for calibrating PAS instruments by relating the photoacoustic signal to the absorption coefficient measured by an independent method. We offer an alternative approach to calibrate photoacoustic aerosol spectrometers with aerosolized, light-absorbing organic materials. To implement this method, we first determined the complex refractive index of an organic dye, using spectroscopic ellipsometry.
Nicolas Sobanski, Jim Thieser, Jan Schuladen, Carina Sauvage, Wei Song, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4115–4130,Short summary
We investigated the formation of gas-phase organic nitrates at a forested semi-urban site. This work constitutes the first detailed analysis of the sum of organic nitrate mixing ratios measured by thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy in continental Europe. Day (OH-initiated) and night-time (NO3-initiated) production of alkyl nitrates proceed at similar rates.
Mohamed Abdelkader, Swen Metzger, Benedikt Steil, Klaus Klingmüller, Holger Tost, Andrea Pozzer, Georgiy Stenchikov, Leonard Barrie, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3799–3821,Short summary
We present a modeling study on the impacts of the key processes (dust emission flux, convection and dust aging parameterizations) that control the transatlantic dust transport using an advanced version of the EMAC atmospheric chemistry general circulation model. We define the
direct effect of dust agingas an increase in the AOD as a result of hygroscopic growth. We define the
indirect effectas a reduction in the dust AOD due to the higher removal of the aged dust particles.
Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Herrmann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, and Rahul A. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2103–2162,Short summary
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3 is an important interaction between anthropogenic and natural emissions. This review results from a June 2015 workshop and includes the recent literature on kinetics, mechanisms, organic aerosol yields, and heterogeneous chemistry; advances in analytical instrumentation; the current state NO3-BVOC chemistry in atmospheric models; and critical needs for future research in modeling, field observations, and laboratory studies.
Imran A. Girach, Narendra Ojha, Prabha R. Nair, Andrea Pozzer, Yogesh K. Tiwari, K. Ravi Kumar, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 257–275,Short summary
This study presents first ship-borne measurements of trace gases over the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon. The observed variations in trace gases are shown to be due to dynamics/transport and en route photochemistry. Analysis of meteorological and chemical fields shows that significantly lower ozone during rainfall is associated with the downdrafts. A regional model reproduces the observed variations and revealed the rapid transport of ozone across the Bay of Bengal during an event.
Hannah Meusel, Uwe Kuhn, Andreas Reiffs, Chinmay Mallik, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Jan Schuladen, Birger Bohn, Uwe Parchatka, John N. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Laura Tomsche, Anna Novelli, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Oscar Hartogensis, Michael Pikridas, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Bettina Weber, Jos Lelieveld, Jonathan Williams, Ulrich Pöschl, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14475–14493,Short summary
There are many studies which show discrepancies between modeled and measured nitrous acid (HONO, precursor of OH radical) in the troposphere but with no satisfactory explanation. Ideal conditions to study the unknown sources of HONO were found on Cyprus, a remote Mediterranean island. Budget analysis of trace gas measurements indicates a common source of NO and HONO, which is not related to anthropogenic activity and is most likely derived from biologic activity in soils and subsequent emission.
Dimitris Akritidis, Andrea Pozzer, Prodromos Zanis, Evangelos Tyrlis, Bojan Škerlak, Michael Sprenger, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14025–14039,Short summary
We investigate the contribution of tropopause folds in the summertime tropospheric ozone pool over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. For this purpose we use the EMAC atmospheric chemistry–climate model and a fold identification algorithm. A clear increase of ozone is found in the middle troposphere due to fold activity. The interannual variability of near-surface ozone over the eastern Mediterranean is related to that of both tropopause folds and ozone in the free troposphere.
Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Georgia Alexandri, Konstantinos A. Kourtidis, Jos Lelieveld, Prodromos Zanis, Ulrich Pöschl, Robert Levy, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, and Athanasios Tsikerdekis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13853–13884,Short summary
In this work, single pixel observations from MODIS Terra and Aqua are analyzed together with data from other satellite sensors, reanalysis projects and a chemistry–aerosol-transport model to study the spatiotemporal variability of different aerosol types. The results are in accordance with previous works and are a good reference for future studies in the area focusing on aerosols, clouds, radiation and the effects of particle pollution on human health.
Gavin J. Phillips, Jim Thieser, Mingjin Tang, Nicolas Sobanski, Gerhard Schuster, Johannes Fachinger, Frank Drewnick, Stephan Borrmann, Heinz Bingemer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13231–13249,Short summary
We use trace gas measurements (N2O5, ClNO2, NO3) and particle properties (surface area, nitrate content etc.) to derive uptake coefficients (the probability of removal from the gas-phase on a per-collision basis) for the interaction of N2O5 with ambient aerosol and also the efficiency of formation of ClNO2. The uptake coefficients show high variability but are reasonably well captured by parameterisations based on laboratory measurements.
Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Gerhard Schuster, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5103–5118,Short summary
We report the characteristics and performances of a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) designed for field measurements that uses light absorption at 662 and 405 nm to detect different reactive nitrogen species or group of species in the gas phase, either directly or after thermal decomposition. We report improvements compared to currently existing instruments, and describe the corrections applied to the raw data to account for chemical and optical interferences.
Jos Lelieveld, Sergey Gromov, Andrea Pozzer, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12477–12493,Short summary
The self-cleaning capacity of the atmosphere is controlled by hydroxyl (OH) radicals in the troposphere. There are primary and secondary OH sources, the former through the photodissociation of ozone, the latter through OH recycling. We used a global model, showing that secondary sources are larger than assumed previously, which buffers OH. Complementary OH formation mechanisms in pristine and polluted environments, connected through transport of ozone, can maintain stable global OH levels.
Graydon Snider, Crystal L. Weagle, Kalaivani K. Murdymootoo, Amanda Ring, Yvonne Ritchie, Emily Stone, Ainsley Walsh, Clement Akoshile, Nguyen Xuan Anh, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, Jeff Brook, Fatimah D. Qonitan, Jinlu Dong, Derek Griffith, Kebin He, Brent N. Holben, Ralph Kahn, Nofel Lagrosas, Puji Lestari, Zongwei Ma, Amit Misra, Leslie K. Norford, Eduardo J. Quel, Abdus Salam, Bret Schichtel, Lior Segev, Sachchida Tripathi, Chien Wang, Chao Yu, Qiang Zhang, Yuxuan Zhang, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Mark D. Gibson, Yang Liu, J. Vanderlei Martins, Yinon Rudich, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9629–9653,Short summary
We examine the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected on filters at traditionally undersampled, globally dispersed urban locations. Several PM2.5 chemical components (e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and black carbon) vary by more than an order of magnitude between sites while aerosol hygroscopicity varies by a factor of 2. Enhanced anthropogenic dust fractions in large urban areas are apparent from high Zn : Al ratios.
Nir Bluvshtein, J. Michel Flores, Lior Segev, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3477–3490,Short summary
Understanding spectrally dependent optical properties of aerosols is needed to quantify the effective radiative forcing due to aerosol–radiation interactions. We describe a new approach to retrieve extensive and intensive optical properties of the aerosol population over 300 to 650 nm wavelength. This new approach was validated with retrieval simulations, laboratory and continuous ambient aerosols measurements. Results showed low errors and good agreement with expected values.
Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Vlassis A. Karydis, Spyros N. Pandis, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8939–8962,Short summary
In this work we use a global chemistry climate model together with a comprehensive global AMS data set in order to provide valuable insights into the temporal and geographical variability of the contribution of the emitted particles and the chemically processed organic material from combustion sources to total OA. This study reveals the high importance of SOA from anthropogenic sources on global OA concentrations and identifies plausible sources of discrepancy between models and measurements.
Swen Metzger, Benedikt Steil, Mohamed Abdelkader, Klaus Klingmüller, Li Xu, Joyce E. Penner, Christos Fountoukis, Athanasios Nenes, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7213–7237,Short summary
We introduce an unique single parameter framework to efficiently parameterize the aerosol water uptake for mixtures of semi-volatile and non-volatile compounds, being entirely based on the single solute specific coefficient introduced in Metzger et al. (2012).
Klaus Klingmüller, Andrea Pozzer, Swen Metzger, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5063–5073,Short summary
During the last decade, the Middle East experienced the strongest increase in atmospheric aerosol concentrations worldwide. Based on satellite observations, the present study corroborates this trend and reveals correlations with soil moisture and precipitation in and surrounding the Fertile Crescent. This suggests that the increasing drought conditions in this region have enhanced dust emissions, a tendency which is expected to be intensified by climate change.
N. Sobanski, M. J. Tang, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, D. Pöhler, H. Fischer, W. Song, C. Sauvage, J. Williams, J. Fachinger, F. Berkes, P. Hoor, U. Platt, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4867–4883,Short summary
The nitrate radical (NO3) is an important nocturnal oxidant. By measuring NO3, its precursors (nitrogen dioxide and ozone) and several trace gases with which it reacts, we examined the chemical and meteorological factors influencing the lifetime of NO3 at a semi-rural mountain site. Unexpectedly long lifetimes, approaching 1 h, were observed on several nights and were associated with a low-lying residual layer. We discuss the role of other reactions that convert NO2 to NO3.
Armin Rauthe-Schöch, Angela K. Baker, Tanja J. Schuck, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andreas Zahn, Markus Hermann, Greta Stratmann, Helmut Ziereis, Peter F. J. van Velthoven, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3609–3629,Short summary
The flying laboratory CARIBIC onboard a passenger aircraft measured trace gases and aerosol particles in the upper tropospheric Indian summer monsoon anticyclone in summer 2008. We used the measurements together with meteorological analyses to investigate the chemical signature of the northern and southern part of the monsoon, the source regions from where the air was entrained into the monsoon and which parts of the world received polluted air that had been chemically processed in the monsoon.
Narendra Ojha, Andrea Pozzer, Armin Rauthe-Schöch, Angela K. Baker, Jongmin Yoon, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3013–3032,Short summary
We compare simulations of ozone and carbon monoxide using a regional chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) with aircraft observations from CARIBIC program over India during monsoon period. Sensitivity simulations are conducted to assess the influences of regional emissions and long-range transport.
J. Thieser, G. Schuster, J. Schuladen, G. J. Phillips, A. Reiffs, U. Parchatka, D. Pöhler, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 553–576,Short summary
We report on the use of thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy to detect NO2, peroxy nitrates and alkyl nitrates. We present both laboratory studies that characterise the chemical formation and loss of NO2 in the heated inlets and also result from a first field deployment.
V. A. Karydis, A. P. Tsimpidi, A. Pozzer, M. Astitha, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1491–1509,Short summary
We provide an assessment of the chemical composition and global aerosol load of aerosol nitrate and determine the effect of mineral dust on its formation due to thermodynamical interactions. For this purpose we used an explicit geographical representation of the emitted soil particle size distribution and chemical composition. We conclude mineral dust aerosol chemistry is important for nitrate aerosol formation and significantly affects its global distribution, especially in the coarse mode.
D. F. Zhao, A. Buchholz, B. Kortner, P. Schlag, F. Rubach, H. Fuchs, A. Kiendler-Scharr, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, Å. K. Watne, M. Hallquist, J. M. Flores, Y. Rudich, K. Kristensen, A. M. K. Hansen, M. Glasius, I. Kourtchev, M. Kalberer, and Th. F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1105–1121,Short summary
This study investigated the cloud droplet activation behavior and hygroscopic growth of mixed anthropogenic and biogenic SOA (ABSOA) compared to pure biogenic SOA (BSOA) and pure anthropogenic SOA (ASOA). Cloud droplet activation behaviors of different types of SOA were similar. In contrast, the hygroscopicity of ASOA was higher than BSOA and ABSOA. ASOA components enhanced the hygroscopicity of the ABSOA. Yet this enhancement cannot be described by a linear mixing of pure SOA systems.
R. A. Washenfelder, A. R. Attwood, J. M. Flores, K. J. Zarzana, Y. Rudich, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 41–52,Short summary
Formaldehyde is the most abundant aldehyde in the atmosphere and plays an important role in photochemistry. Broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy uses a high finesse cavity to obtain effective path lengths of kilometers. We use a diode-pumped plasma lamp and custom cavity mirrors to extend this technique further into the ultraviolet spectral region, and we achieve detection limits of hundreds of parts per trillion in 1 min for formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide.
Y. Tubul, I. Koren, and O. Altaratz
Earth Syst. Dynam., 6, 781–788,
D. M. Lienhard, A. J. Huisman, U. K. Krieger, Y. Rudich, C. Marcolli, B. P. Luo, D. L. Bones, J. P. Reid, A. T. Lambe, M. R. Canagaratna, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, D. R. Worsnop, S. S. Steimer, T. Koop, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13599–13613,Short summary
New data of water diffusivity in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material and organic/inorganic model mixtures is presented over an extensive temperature range. Our data suggest that water diffusion in SOA is sufficiently fast so that it is unlikely to have significant consequences on the direct climatic effect under tropospheric conditions. Glass formation in SOA is unlikely to restrict homogeneous ice nucleation.
Y. Ben Ami, O. Altaratz, Y. Yair, and I. Koren
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2449–2459,
M. Abdelkader, S. Metzger, R. E. Mamouri, M. Astitha, L. Barrie, Z. Levin, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9173–9189,
H. G. Ouwersloot, A. Pozzer, B. Steil, H. Tost, and J. Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2435–2445,
S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8217–8299,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and climate change policies. This paper reviews the most recent scientific results on the issue and the policy needs that have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-PM interactions and the effects of PM on human health and the environment.
G. Feingold, I. Koren, T. Yamaguchi, and J. Kazil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7351–7367,Short summary
Most research on the relationship between aerosol and closed/open cell transitions tends to focus on the closed to open transition. Here we address the two-way transition between closed and open cellular states using a cloud resolving model. We find inherent asymmetry in the transitions and explain the source of the asymmetry. Results are supported by a dynamical system analogue to the full system.
H. Fischer, A. Pozzer, T. Schmitt, P. Jöckel, T. Klippel, D. Taraborrelli, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6971–6980,
S. Zheng, A. Pozzer, C. X. Cao, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5715–5725,Short summary
The present study uses aerosol optical depth as proxy to estimate 12 years of PM2.5 data for the Beijing central area and calculate the yearly premature mortality by different diseases attributable to PM2.5. The estimated average total mortality due to PM2.5 is about 5100 individuals/year for the period 2001--2012 in the Beijing central area, and the per capita mortality for all ages due to PM2.5 is around 15 per 10,000 person-years for the period 2010--2012.
G. Dagan, I. Koren, and O. Altaratz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2749–2760,
E. Tas, A. Teller, O. Altaratz, D. Axisa, R. Bruintjes, Z. Levin, and I. Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2009–2017,
G. Snider, C. L. Weagle, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, K. Conrad, D. Cunningham, C. Gordon, M. Zwicker, C. Akoshile, P. Artaxo, N. X. Anh, J. Brook, J. Dong, R. M. Garland, R. Greenwald, D. Griffith, K. He, B. N. Holben, R. Kahn, I. Koren, N. Lagrosas, P. Lestari, Z. Ma, J. Vanderlei Martins, E. J. Quel, Y. Rudich, A. Salam, S. N. Tripathi, C. Yu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Brauer, A. Cohen, M. D. Gibson, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 505–521,Short summary
We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations to measure concentrations of fine aerosols in urban environments. Our findings include major ions species, total mass, and total scatter at three wavelengths. Results will be used to further evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates.
A. P. Tsimpidi, V. A. Karydis, A. Pozzer, S. N. Pandis, and J. Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 3153–3172,Short summary
A computationally efficient module for the description of OA composition and evolution in the atmosphere has been developed. This module subdivides OA into several compounds based on their source of origin and volatility, allowing the quantification of POA vs. SOA as well as biogenic vs. anthropogenic contributions to OA concentrations. Such fundamental information can shed light on long-term changes in OA abundance, and hence project the effects of OA on future air quality and climate.
K. Klingmüller, B. Steil, C. Brühl, H. Tost, and J. Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2503–2516,
A. Novelli, K. Hens, C. Tatum Ernest, D. Kubistin, E. Regelin, T. Elste, C. Plass-Dülmer, M. Martinez, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3413–3430,
E. Hirsch, I. Koren, Z. Levin, O. Altaratz, and E. Agassi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9001–9012,
H. Bozem, H. Fischer, C. Gurk, C. L. Schiller, U. Parchatka, R. Koenigstedt, A. Stickler, M. Martinez, H. Harder, D. Kubistin, J. Williams, G. Eerdekens, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8917–8931,
D. Y. Chang, H. Tost, B. Steil, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
K. Hens, A. Novelli, M. Martinez, J. Auld, R. Axinte, B. Bohn, H. Fischer, P. Keronen, D. Kubistin, A. C. Nölscher, R. Oswald, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, E. Regelin, R. Sander, V. Sinha, M. Sipilä, D. Taraborrelli, C. Tatum Ernest, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and H. Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8723–8747,
R. H. Heiblum, I. Koren, and G. Feingold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6063–6074,
J. M. Flores, D. F. Zhao, L. Segev, P. Schlag, A. Kiendler-Scharr, H. Fuchs, Å. K. Watne, N. Bluvshtein, Th. F. Mentel, M. Hallquist, and Y. Rudich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5793–5806,
T. Christoudias, Y. Proestos, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4607–4616,
G. W. Mann, K. S. Carslaw, C. L. Reddington, K. J. Pringle, M. Schulz, A. Asmi, D. V. Spracklen, D. A. Ridley, M. T. Woodhouse, L. A. Lee, K. Zhang, S. J. Ghan, R. C. Easter, X. Liu, P. Stier, Y. H. Lee, P. J. Adams, H. Tost, J. Lelieveld, S. E. Bauer, K. Tsigaridis, T. P. C. van Noije, A. Strunk, E. Vignati, N. Bellouin, M. Dalvi, C. E. Johnson, T. Bergman, H. Kokkola, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, G. Luo, A. Petzold, J. Heintzenberg, A. Clarke, J. A. Ogren, J. Gras, U. Baltensperger, U. Kaminski, S. G. Jennings, C. D. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, D. C. S. Beddows, M. Kulmala, Y. Viisanen, V. Ulevicius, N. Mihalopoulos, V. Zdimal, M. Fiebig, H.-C. Hansson, E. Swietlicki, and J. S. Henzing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4679–4713,
J. Wildt, T. F. Mentel, A. Kiendler-Scharr, T. Hoffmann, S. Andres, M. Ehn, E. Kleist, P. Müsgen, F. Rohrer, Y. Rudich, M. Springer, R. Tillmann, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2789–2804,
J. A. Adame, M. Martínez, M. Sorribas, P. J. Hidalgo, H. Harder, J.-M. Diesch, F. Drewnick, W. Song, J. Williams, V. Sinha, M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, R. Sander, Z. Hosaynali-Beygi, H. Fischer, J. Lelieveld, and B. De la Morena
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2325–2342,
C. Liu, S. Beirle, T. Butler, P. Hoor, C. Frankenberg, P. Jöckel, M. Penning de Vries, U. Platt, A. Pozzer, M. G. Lawrence, J. Lelieveld, H. Tost, and T. Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1717–1732,
Y. F. Elshorbany, P. J. Crutzen, B. Steil, A. Pozzer, H. Tost, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1167–1184,
D. Giannadaki, A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 957–968,
P. Zanis, P. Hadjinicolaou, A. Pozzer, E. Tyrlis, S. Dafka, N. Mihalopoulos, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 115–132,
G. Feingold and I. Koren
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 20, 1011–1021,
J. Yoon, A. Pozzer, P. Hoor, D. Y. Chang, S. Beirle, T. Wagner, S. Schloegl, J. Lelieveld, and H. M. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11307–11316,
E. Regelin, H. Harder, M. Martinez, D. Kubistin, C. Tatum Ernest, H. Bozem, T. Klippel, Z. Hosaynali-Beygi, H. Fischer, R. Sander, P. Jöckel, R. Königstedt, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10703–10720,
E. Hirsch, I. Koren, O. Altaratz, Z. Levin, and E. Agassi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Th. F. Mentel, E. Kleist, S. Andres, M. Dal Maso, T. Hohaus, A. Kiendler-Scharr, Y. Rudich, M. Springer, R. Tillmann, R. Uerlings, A. Wahner, and J. Wildt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8755–8770,
J. Lelieveld, C. Barlas, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7023–7037,
A.C. Nölscher, E. Bourtsoukidis, B. Bonn, J. Kesselmeier, J. Lelieveld, and J. Williams
Biogeosciences, 10, 4241–4257,
C. Brühl, J. Lelieveld, M. Höpfner, and H. Tost
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
R. A. Washenfelder, J. M. Flores, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and Y. Rudich
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 861–877,
G. J. Phillips, N. Pouvesle, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, R. Axinte, H. Fischer, J. Williams, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1129–1139,
J. Lelieveld, M. G. Lawrence, and D. Kunkel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 31–34,
A. Jugold, F. Althoff, M. Hurkuck, M. Greule, K. Lenhart, J. Lelieveld, and F. Keppler
Biogeosciences, 9, 5291–5301,
E. Kleist, T. F. Mentel, S. Andres, A. Bohne, A. Folkers, A. Kiendler-Scharr, Y. Rudich, M. Springer, R. Tillmann, and J. Wildt
Biogeosciences, 9, 5111–5123,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Impact of assimilating NOAA VIIRS aerosol optical depth (AOD) observations on global AOD analysis from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS)Spectral dependence of birch and pine pollen optical properties using a synergy of lidar instrumentsValidation activities of Aeolus wind products on the southeastern Iberian PeninsulaThermal infrared dust optical depth and coarse-mode effective diameter over oceans retrieved from collocated MODIS and CALIOP observationsA comprehensive reappraisal of long-term aerosol characteristics, trends, and variability in AsiaSatellite (GOSAT-2 CAI-2) retrieval and surface (ARFINET) observations of aerosol black carbon over IndiaSpatiotemporal variation characteristics of global fires and their emissionsAerosol optical depth climatology from the high–resolution MAIAC product over Europe: differences between major European cities and their surrounding environmentsThe (mis)identification of high-latitude dust events using remote sensing methods in the Yukon, Canada: a sub-daily variability analysisClimatological assessment of the vertically resolved optical and microphysical aerosol properties by lidar measurements, sunphotometer, and in-situ observations over 17 years at UPC BarcelonaComparison of dust optical depth from multi-sensor products and MONARCH (Multiscale Online Non-hydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry) dust reanalysis over North Africa, the Middle East, and EuropeUnderstanding day–night differences in dust aerosols over the dust belt of North Africa, the Middle East, and AsiaSatellite observations of smoke–cloud–radiation interactions over the Amazon rainforestSingle-scattering properties of ellipsoidal dust aerosols constrained by measured dust shape distributionsValidation of the TROPOMI/S5P aerosol layer height using EARLINET lidarsVertical characterization of fine and coarse dust particles during an intense Saharan dust outbreak over the Iberian Peninsula in springtime 2021Aerosol optical depth regime over megacities of the worldSouth American 2020 regional smoke plume: intercomparison with previous years, impact on solar radiation, and the role of Pantanal biomass burning seasonCircular polarization in atmospheric aerosolsSpatiotemporal continuous estimates of daily 1 km PM2.5 from 2000 to present under the Tracking Air Pollution in China (TAP) frameworkRobust evidence for reversal of the trend in aerosol effective climate forcingSimultaneous retrievals of biomass burning aerosols and trace gases from the ultraviolet to near-infrared over northern Thailand during the 2019 pre-monsoon seasonA decadal assessment of the climatology of aerosol and cloud properties over South AfricaAerosol characterisation in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic region using long-term AERONET measurementsLong-range transport of Asian dust to the Arctic: identification of transport pathways, evolution of aerosol optical properties, and impact assessment on surface albedo changesCanadian and Alaskan wildfire smoke particle properties, their evolution, and controlling factors, from satellite observationsEvaluation of aerosol optical depths and clear-sky radiative fluxes of the CERES Edition 4.1 SYN1deg data productArctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth baseline from long-term observations and model reanalyses – Part 1: Climatology and trendVertical structure of biomass burning aerosol transported over the southeast Atlantic OceanArctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth baseline from long-term observations and model reanalyses – Part 2: Statistics of extreme AOD events, and implications for the impact of regional biomass burning processesAerosol atmospheric rivers: climatology, event characteristics, and detection algorithm sensitivitiesDust transport and advection measurement with spaceborne lidars ALADIN and CALIOP and model reanalysis dataRecord-breaking dust loading during two mega dust storm events over northern China in March 2021: aerosol optical and radiative properties and meteorological driversWintertime Saharan dust transport towards the Caribbean: an airborne lidar case study during EUREC4AEvaluation of aerosol number concentrations from CALIPSO with ATom airborne in situ measurementsZonal variations in the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols over the Indian region and the consequent radiative effectsGlobal maps of aerosol single scattering albedo using combined CERES-MODIS retrievalThe characterization of long-range transported North American biomass burning plumes: what can a multi-wavelength Mie–Raman-polarization-fluorescence lidar provide?Fluorescence lidar observations of wildfire smoke inside cirrus: a contribution to smoke–cirrus interaction researchA novel method of identifying and analysing oil smoke plumes based on MODIS and CALIPSO satellite dataPollen observations at four EARLINET stations during the ACTRIS-COVID-19 campaignIdentifying chemical aerosol signatures using optical suborbital observations: how much can optical properties tell us about aerosol composition?Quantification of the dust optical depth across spatiotemporal scales with the MIDAS global dataset (2003–2017)Aerosol radiative impact during the summer 2019 heatwave produced partly by an inter-continental Saharan dust outbreak – Part 2: Long-wave and net dust direct radiative effectComment on “Short-cut transport path for Asian dust directly to the Arctic: a case Study” by Huang et al. (2015) in Environ. Res. Lett.Statistical validation of Aeolus L2A particle backscatter coefficient retrievals over ACTRIS/EARLINET stations on the Iberian PeninsulaInferring iron-oxide species content in atmospheric mineral dust from DSCOVR EPIC observationsMesoscale spatio-temporal variability of airborne lidar-derived aerosol properties in the Barbados region during EUREC4ALong-term characterisation of the vertical structure of the Saharan Air Layer over the Canary Islands using lidar and radiosonde profiles: implications for radiative and cloud processes over the subtropical Atlantic OceanObserved slump of sea land breeze in Brisbane under the effect of aerosols from remote transport during 2019 Australian mega fire events
Sebastien Garrigues, Melanie Ades, Samuel Remy, Johannes Flemming, Zak Kipling, Istvan Laszlo, Mark Parrington, Antje Inness, Roberto Ribas, Luke Jones, Richard Engelen, and Vincent-Henri Peuch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10473–10487,Short summary
The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) provides global monitoring of aerosols using the ECMWF forecast model constrained by the assimilation of satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD). This work aims at evaluating the assimilation of the NOAA VIIRS AOD product in the ECMWF model. It shows that the introduction of VIIRS in the CAMS data assimilation system enhances the accuracy of the aerosol analysis, particularly over Europe and desert and maritime sites.
Maria Filioglou, Ari Leskinen, Ville Vakkari, Ewan O'Connor, Minttu Tuononen, Pekko Tuominen, Samuli Laukkanen, Linnea Toiviainen, Annika Saarto, Xiaoxia Shang, Petri Tiitta, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9009–9021,Short summary
Pollen impacts climate and public health, and it can be detected in the atmosphere by lidars which measure the linear particle depolarization ratio (PDR), a shape-relevant optical parameter. As aerosols also cause depolarization, surface aerosol and pollen observations were combined with measurements from ground-based lidars operating at different wavelengths to determine the optical properties of birch and pine pollen and quantify their relative contribution to the PDR.
Jesús Abril-Gago, Pablo Ortiz-Amezcua, Diego Bermejo-Pantaleón, Juana Andújar-Maqueda, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, María José Granados-Muñoz, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Inmaculada Foyo-Moreno, and Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8453–8471,Short summary
Validation activities of Aeolus wind products were performed in Granada with different upward-probing instrumentation (Doppler lidar system and radiosondes) and spatiotemporal collocation criteria. Specific advantages and disadvantages of each instrument were identified, and an optimal comparison criterion is proposed. Aeolus was proven to provide reliable wind products, and the upward-probing instruments were proven to be useful for Aeolus wind product validation activities.
Jianyu Zheng, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Anne Garnier, Qianqian Song, Chenxi Wang, Claudia Di Biagio, Jasper F. Kok, Yevgeny Derimian, and Claire Ryder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8271–8304,Short summary
We developed a multi-year satellite-based retrieval of dust optical depth at 10 µm and the coarse-mode dust effective diameter over global oceans. It reveals climatological coarse-mode dust transport patterns and regional differences over the North Atlantic, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific.
Shikuan Jin, Yingying Ma, Zhongwei Huang, Jianping Huang, Wei Gong, Boming Liu, Weiyan Wang, Ruonan Fan, and Hui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8187–8210,Short summary
To better understand the Asian aerosol environment, we studied distributions and trends of aerosol with different sizes and types. Over the past 2 decades, dust, sulfate, and sea salt aerosol decreased by 5.51 %, 3.07 %, and 9.80 %, whereas organic carbon and black carbon aerosol increased by 17.09 % and 6.23 %, respectively. The increase in carbonaceous aerosols was a feature of Asia. An exception is found in East Asia, where the carbonaceous aerosols reduced, owing largely to China's efforts.
Mukunda M. Gogoi, S. Suresh Babu, Ryoichi Imasu, and Makiko Hashimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8059–8079,Short summary
Considering the climate warming potential of atmospheric black carbon (BC), satellite-based retrieval is a novel idea. This study highlights the regional distribution of BC based on observations by the Cloud and Aerosol Imager-2 on board the GOSAT-2 satellite and near-surface measurements of BC in ARFINET. The satellite retrieval fairly depicts the regional and seasonal features of BC over the Indian region, which are similar to those recorded by surface observations.
Hao Fan, Xingchuan Yang, Chuanfeng Zhao, Yikun Yang, and Zhenyao Shen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7781–7798,Short summary
Using 20-year multi-source data, this study shows pronounced regional and seasonal variations in fire activities and emissions. Seasonal variability of fires is larger with increasing latitude. The increase in temperature in the Northern Hemisphere's middle- and high-latitude forest regions was primarily responsible for the increase in fires and emissions, while the changes in fire occurrence in tropical regions were more influenced by the decrease in precipitation and relative humidity.
Ludovico Di Antonio, Claudia Di Biagio, Gilles Foret, Paola Formenti, Guillaume Siour, Jean-François Doussin, and Matthias Beekmann
Long–term (2000–2021) 1 km resolution satellite data have been used to investigate the climatological AOD variability and trends at different scales in Europe and evaluate the contribution of cities to regional AOD at 550 nm. Average enhancements of the local with respect to regional AOD of 57 %, 55 %, 39 % and 32 % are found for large metropolitan centers such as Barcelona, Lisbon, Paris and Athens respectively, suggesting a non–negligible enhancement to the aerosol burden through local emissions.
Rosemary Huck, Robert G. Bryant, and James King
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6299–6318,Short summary
This study shows that mineral aerosol (dust) emission events in high-latitude areas are under-represented in both ground- and space-based detecting methods. This is done through a suite of ground-based data to prove that dust emissions from the proglacial area, Lhù’ààn Mân, occur almost daily but are not always recorded at different timescales. Dust has multiple effects on atmospheric processes; therefore, accurate quantification is important in the calibration and validation of climate models.
Simone Lolli, Michaël Sicard, Francesco Amato, Adolfo Comeron, Cristina Gíl-Diaz, Tony C. Landi, Constantino Munoz-Porcar, Daniel Oliveira, Federico Dios Otin, Francesc Rocadenbosch, Alejandro Rodriguez-Gomez, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, and Cristina Reche
We evaluated the long-term trends and seasonal variability of the vertically resolved aerosol properties over the past 17 years in Barcelona. Results shows that air quality is improved, with a consistent drop in PM concentrations at surface, as well as the column aerosol optical depth. The results also show that natural dust outbreaks are more likely in summer, with aerosols reaching an altitude of 5 km, while in winter aerosols decay as an exponential with a scale height of 600 m.
Michail Mytilinaios, Sara Basart, Sergio Ciamprone, Juan Cuesta, Claudio Dema, Enza Di Tomaso, Paola Formenti, Antonis Gkikas, Oriol Jorba, Ralph Kahn, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Serena Trippetta, and Lucia Mona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5487–5516,Short summary
Multiscale Online Non-hydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry model (MONARCH) dust reanalysis provides a high-resolution 3D reconstruction of past dust conditions, allowing better quantification of climate and socioeconomic dust impacts. We assess the performance of the reanalysis needed to reproduce dust optical depth using dust-related products retrieved from satellite and ground-based observations and show that it reproduces the spatial distribution and seasonal variability of atmospheric dust well.
Jacob Z. Tindan, Qinjian Jin, and Bing Pu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5435–5466,Short summary
We use the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) retrievals of dust variables (dust optical depth and dust layer height) and surface observations to understand the day- and nighttime variations in dust aerosols over the dust belt. Our results show that daytime dust aerosols are significantly different from nighttime, and such day–night variations are influenced by meteorological factors such as wind speed, precipitation, and turbulent motions within the atmospheric boundary layer.
Ross Herbert and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4595–4616,Short summary
We provide robust evidence from multiple sources showing that smoke from fires in the Amazon rainforest significantly modifies the diurnal cycle of convection and cools the climate. Low to moderate amounts of smoke increase deep convective clouds and rain, whilst beyond a threshold amount, the smoke starts to suppress the convection and rain. We are currently at this threshold, suggesting increases in fires from agricultural practices or droughts will reduce cloudiness and rain over the region.
Yue Huang, Jasper F. Kok, Masanori Saito, and Olga Muñoz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2557–2577,Short summary
Global aerosol models and remote sensing retrievals use dust optical models with inconsistent and inaccurate dust shape approximations. Here, we present a new dust optical model constrained by measured dust shape distributions. This new dust optical model is an improvement on the current dust optical models used in models and retrieval algorithms, as quantified by comparisons against laboratory and field observations of dust optics.
Konstantinos Michailidis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Dimitris Balis, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Martin de Graaf, Lucia Mona, Nikolaos Papagianopoulos, Gesolmina Pappalardo, Ioanna Tsikoudi, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Anna Gialitaki, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, Argyro Nisantzi, Daniele Bortoli, Maria João Costa, Vanda Salgueiro, Alexandros Papayannis, Maria Mylonaki, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Salvatore Romano, Maria Rita Perrone, and Holger Baars
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1919–1940,Short summary
Comparisons with ground-based correlative lidar measurements constitute a key component in the validation of satellite aerosol products. This paper presents the validation of the TROPOMI aerosol layer height (ALH) product, using archived quality assured ground-based data from lidar stations that belong to the EARLINET network. Comparisons between the TROPOMI ALH and co-located EARLINET measurements show good agreement over the ocean.
María Ángeles López-Cayuela, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, Diego Bermejo-Pantaleón, Michaël Sicard, Vanda Salgueiro, Francisco Molero, Clara Violeta Carvajal-Pérez, María José Granados-Muñoz, Adolfo Comerón, Flavio T. Couto, Rubén Barragán, María-Paz Zorzano, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, María João Costa, Begoña Artíñano, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, Daniele Bortoli, Manuel Pujadas, Jesús Abril-Gago, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, and Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 143–161,Short summary
An intense Saharan dust outbreak crossing the Iberian Peninsula in springtime was monitored to determinine the specific contribution of fine and coarse dust particles at five lidar stations, strategically covering its SW–central–NE pathway. Expected dust ageing along the transport started unappreciated. A different fine-dust impact on optical (~30 %) and mass (~10 %) properties was found. Use of polarized lidar measurements (mainly in elastic systems) for fine/coarse dust separation is crucial.
Kyriakoula Papachristopoulou, Ioannis-Panagiotis Raptis, Antonis Gkikas, Ilias Fountoulakis, Akriti Masoom, and Stelios Kazadzis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15703–15727,Short summary
Megacities' air quality is determined by atmospheric aerosols. We focus on changes over the last two decades in the 81 largest cities, using satellite data. European and American cities have lower aerosol compared to African and Asian cities. For European, North American and East Asian cities, aerosols are decreasing over time, especially in China and the US. In the remaining cities, aerosol loads are increasing, particularly in India.
Nilton Évora do Rosário, Elisa Thomé Sena, and Marcia Akemi Yamasoe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15021–15033,Short summary
The 2020 burning season in Brazil was marked by an atypically high number of fire spots across Pantanal, leading to high amounts of smoke within the biome. This study shows that smoke over Pantanal, usually a fraction of that over Amazonia, was higher and resulted mainly from fires in conservation and indigenous areas. It also contributes to highlighting Pantanal's 2020 burning season as the worst combination of a climate extreme scenario and inadequately enforced environmental regulations.
Santiago Gassó and Kirk D. Knobelspiesse
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13581–13605,Short summary
Atmospheric particles interact with light resulting in observable optical polarization. Thus, we can learn about their composition from space. New satellite sensor technology measures full polarization of reflected sunlight. This paper considers circular polarization, an overlooked category of polarization with distinctive features that could bring new insights. We review existing literature and make novel computations to consider this previously underappreciated category of polarization.
Qingyang Xiao, Guannan Geng, Shigan Liu, Jiajun Liu, Xia Meng, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13229–13242,Short summary
We provided complete coverage PM2.5 concentrations at a 1-km resolution from 2000 to the present, carefully considering the significant changes in land use characteristics in China. This high-resolution PM2.5 data successfully revealed the local-scale PM2.5 variations. We noticed changes in PM2.5 spatial patterns in association with the clean air policies, with the pollution hotspots having transferred from urban centers to rural regions with limited air quality monitoring.
Johannes Quaas, Hailing Jia, Chris Smith, Anna Lea Albright, Wenche Aas, Nicolas Bellouin, Olivier Boucher, Marie Doutriaux-Boucher, Piers M. Forster, Daniel Grosvenor, Stuart Jenkins, Zbigniew Klimont, Norman G. Loeb, Xiaoyan Ma, Vaishali Naik, Fabien Paulot, Philip Stier, Martin Wild, Gunnar Myhre, and Michael Schulz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12221–12239,Short summary
Pollution particles cool climate and offset part of the global warming. However, they are washed out by rain and thus their effect responds quickly to changes in emissions. We show multiple datasets to demonstrate that aerosol emissions and their concentrations declined in many regions influenced by human emissions, as did the effects on clouds. Consequently, the cooling impact on the Earth energy budget became smaller. This change in trend implies a relative warming.
Ukkyo Jeong, Si-Chee Tsay, N. Christina Hsu, David M. Giles, John W. Cooper, Jaehwa Lee, Robert J. Swap, Brent N. Holben, James J. Butler, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Somporn Chantara, Hyunkee Hong, Donghee Kim, and Jhoon Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11957–11986,Short summary
Ultraviolet (UV) measurements from satellite and ground are important for deriving information on several atmospheric trace and aerosol characteristics. Simultaneous retrievals of aerosol and trace gases in this study suggest that water uptake by aerosols is one of the important phenomena affecting aerosol properties over northern Thailand, which is important for regional air quality and climate. Obtained aerosol properties covering the UV are also important for various satellite algorithms.
Abdulaziz Tunde Yakubu and Naven Chetty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11065–11087,Short summary
This study examined the source of atmospheric aerosols and their role in forming clouds and rainfall over South Africa. The research provided answers to the cause of low precipitation, mainly linked to drought and water shortages experienced over the region. Further insight into the cause of occasional flooding that occurs in other parts of the area is provided. Finally, the study described the relationship between aerosol–cloud precipitation based on observation over the region.
África Barreto, Rosa D. García, Carmen Guirado-Fuentes, Emilio Cuevas, A. Fernando Almansa, Celia Milford, Carlos Toledano, Francisco J. Expósito, Juan P. Díaz, and Sergio F. León-Luis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11105–11124,Short summary
A comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic has been carried out in this paper using long-term ground AERONET photometric observations over the period 2005–2020 from a unique network made up of four stations strategically located from sea level to 3555 m height on the island of Tenerife. This is a region that can be considered a key location to study the seasonal dependence of dust transport from the Sahel-Sahara.
Xiaoxi Zhao, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, and Sabur F. Abdullaev
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10389–10407,Short summary
Long-range transport of Asian dust to the Arctic was considered an important source of Arctic air pollution. Different transport routes to the Arctic had divergent effects on the evolution of aerosol properties. Depositions of long-range-transported dust particles can reduce the Arctic surface albedo considerably. This study implied that the ubiquitous long-transport dust from China exerted considerable aerosol indirect effects on the Arctic and may have potential biogeochemical significance.
Katherine T. Junghenn Noyes, Ralph A. Kahn, James A. Limbacher, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10267–10290,Short summary
We compare retrievals of wildfire smoke particle size, shape, and light absorption from the MISR satellite instrument to modeling and other satellite data on land cover type, drought conditions, meteorology, and estimates of fire intensity (fire radiative power – FRP). We find statistically significant differences in the particle properties based on burning conditions and land cover type, and we interpret how changes in these properties point to specific aerosol aging mechanisms.
David W. Fillmore, David A. Rutan, Seiji Kato, Fred G. Rose, and Thomas E. Caldwell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10115–10137,Short summary
This paper presents an evaluation of the aerosol analysis incorporated into the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data products as well as the aerosols' impact on solar radiation reaching the surface. CERES is a NASA Earth observation mission with instruments flying on various polar-orbiting satellites. Its primary objective is the study of the radiative energy balance of the climate system as well as examination of the influence of clouds and aerosols on this balance.
Peng Xian, Jianglong Zhang, Norm T. O'Neill, Travis D. Toth, Blake Sorenson, Peter R. Colarco, Zak Kipling, Edward J. Hyer, James R. Campbell, Jeffrey S. Reid, and Keyvan Ranjbar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9915–9947,Short summary
The study provides baseline Arctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth climatology, trend, and extreme event statistics from 2003 to 2019 using a combination of aerosol reanalyses, remote sensing, and ground observations. Biomass burning smoke has an overwhelming contribution to black carbon (an efficient climate forcer) compared to anthropogenic sources. Burning's large interannual variability and increasing summer trend have important implications for the Arctic climate.
Harshvardhan Harshvardhan, Richard Ferrare, Sharon Burton, Johnathan Hair, Chris Hostetler, David Harper, Anthony Cook, Marta Fenn, Amy Jo Scarino, Eduard Chemyakin, and Detlef Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9859–9876,Short summary
The evolution of aerosol in biomass burning smoke plumes that travel over marine clouds off the Atlantic coast of central Africa was studied using measurements made by a lidar deployed on a high-altitude aircraft. The main finding was that the physical properties of aerosol do not change appreciably once the plume has left land and travels over the ocean over a timescale of 1 to 2 d. Almost all particles in the plume are of radius less than 1 micrometer and spherical in shape.
Peng Xian, Jianglong Zhang, Norm T. O'Neill, Jeffrey S. Reid, Travis D. Toth, Blake Sorenson, Edward J. Hyer, James R. Campbell, and Keyvan Ranjbar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9949–9967,Short summary
The study provides a baseline Arctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth climatology, trend, and extreme event statistics from 2003 to 2019 using a combination of aerosol reanalyses, remote sensing, and ground observations. Biomass burning smoke has an overwhelming contribution to black carbon (an efficient climate forcer) compared to anthropogenic sources. Burning's large interannual variability and increasing summer trend have important implications for the Arctic climate.
Sudip Chakraborty, Bin Guan, Duane E. Waliser, and Arlindo M. da Silva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8175–8195,Short summary
This study explores extreme aerosol transport events by aerosol atmospheric rivers (AARs) and shows the characteristics of individual AARs such as length, width, length-to-width ratio, transport strength, and dominant transport direction, the seasonal variations, the relationship to the spatial distribution of surface emissions, the vertical profiles of wind, aerosol mixing ratio, and aerosol mass fluxes, and the major planetary-scale aerosol transport pathways.
Guangyao Dai, Kangwen Sun, Xiaoye Wang, Songhua Wu, Xiangying E, Qi Liu, and Bingyi Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7975–7993,Short summary
In this paper, a Sahara dust event is tracked with the spaceborne lidars ALADIN and CALIOP and the models ECMWF and HYSPLIT. The performance of ALADIN and CALIOP on tracking the dust event and on the observations of dust optical properties and wind fields during the dust transport is evaluated. The dust mass advection is defined, which is calculated with the combination of data from ALADIN and CALIOP coupled with the products from models to describe the dust transport quantitatively.
Ke Gui, Wenrui Yao, Huizheng Che, Linchang An, Yu Zheng, Lei Li, Hujia Zhao, Lei Zhang, Junting Zhong, Yaqiang Wang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7905–7932,Short summary
This study investigates the aerosol optical and radiative properties and meteorological drivers during two mega SDS events over Northern China in March 2021. The MODIS-retrieved DOD data registered these two events as the most intense episode in the same period in history over the past 20 years. These two extreme SDS events were associated with both atmospheric circulation extremes and local meteorological anomalies that favor enhanced dust emissions in the Gobi Desert.
Manuel Gutleben, Silke Groß, Christian Heske, and Martin Wirth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7319–7330,Short summary
The main transportation route of Saharan mineral dust particles leads over the subtropical Atlantic Ocean and is subject to a seasonal variation. This study investigates the characteristics of wintertime transatlantic dust transport towards the Caribbean by means of airborne lidar measurements. It is found that dust particles are transported at low atmospheric altitudes (<3.5 km) embedded in a relatively moist mixture with two other particle types, namely marine and biomass-burning particles.
Goutam Choudhury, Albert Ansmann, and Matthias Tesche
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7143–7161,Short summary
Lidars provide height-resolved type-specific aerosol properties and are key in studying vertically collocated aerosols and clouds. In this study, we compare the aerosol number concentrations derived from spaceborne lidar with the in situ flight measurements. Our results show a reasonable agreement between both datasets. Such an agreement has not been achieved yet. It shows the potential of spaceborne lidar in studying aerosol–cloud interactions, which is needed to improve our climate forecasts.
Nair K. Kala, Narayana Sarma Anand, Mohanan R. Manoj, Harshavardhana S. Pathak, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, and Sreedharan K. Satheesh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6067–6085,Short summary
We present the 3-D distribution of atmospheric aerosols and highlight its variation with respect to longitudes over the Indian mainland and the surrounding oceans using long-term satellite observations and realistic synthesised data. The atmospheric heating due to the 3-D distribution of aerosols is estimated using radiative transfer calculations. We believe that our findings will have strong implications for aerosol–radiation interactions in regional climate simulations.
Archana Devi and Sreedharan K. Satheesh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5365–5376,Short summary
Global maps of aerosol absorption were generated using a multi-satellite retrieval algorithm. The retrieved values were validated with available aircraft-based measurements and compared with other global datasets. Seasonal and spatial distributions of aerosol absorption over various regions are also presented. The global maps of single scattering albedo with improved accuracy provide important input to climate models for assessing the climatic impact of aerosols on regional and global scales.
Qiaoyun Hu, Philippe Goloub, Igor Veselovskii, and Thierry Podvin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5399–5414,Short summary
Our lidar observations show that the optical properties of wildfire smoke particles are highly varied after long-range transport. The variabilities are probably relevant to vegetation type, combustion condition and the aging process, which alter the smoke particle properties, as well as their impact on cloud processes and properties. The lidar fluorescence channel provides a good opportunity for smoke characterization and heterogenous ice crystal formation.
Igor Veselovskii, Qiaoyun Hu, Albert Ansmann, Philippe Goloub, Thierry Podvin, and Mikhail Korenskiy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5209–5221,Short summary
A remote sensing method based on fluorescence lidar measurements can detect and quantify the smoke content in the upper troposphere and inside cirrus clouds. Based on two case studies, we demonstrate that the fluorescence lidar technique provides the possibility to estimate the smoke surface area concentration within freshly formed cirrus layers. This value was used in a smoke ice nucleating particle parameterization scheme to predict ice crystal number concentrations in cirrus generation cells.
Alexandru Mereuţă, Nicolae Ajtai, Andrei T. Radovici, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Lucia T. Deaconu, Camelia S. Botezan, Horaţiu I. Ştefănie, Doina Nicolae, and Alexandru Ozunu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5071–5098,Short summary
In this study we analysed oil smoke plumes from 30 major industrial events within a 12-year timeframe. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind that uses a synergetic approach based on satellite remote sensing techniques. Satellite data offer access to these events, which are mainly located in war-prone or hazardous areas. Our study highlights the need for improved aerosol models and algorithms for these types of aerosols with implications on air quality and climate change.
Xiaoxia Shang, Holger Baars, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Ina Mattis, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3931–3944,Short summary
This study reports pollen observations at four lidar stations (Hohenpeißenberg, Germany; Kuopio, Finland; Leipzig, Germany; and Warsaw, Poland) during the intensive observation campaign organized in May 2020. A novel simple method for the characterization of the pure pollen is proposed, based on lidar measurements. It was applied to evaluate the pollen depolarization ratio and for the aerosol classifications.
Meloë S. F. Kacenelenbogen, Qian Tan, Sharon P. Burton, Otto P. Hasekamp, Karl D. Froyd, Yohei Shinozuka, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Luke Ziemba, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jack E. Dibb, Taylor Shingler, Armin Sorooshian, Reed W. Espinosa, Vanderlei Martins, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Joshua P. Schwarz, Matthew S. Johnson, Jens Redemann, and Gregory L. Schuster
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3713–3742,Short summary
The impact of aerosols on Earth's radiation budget and human health is important and strongly depends on their composition. One desire of our scientific community is to derive the composition of the aerosol from satellite sensors. However, satellites observe aerosol optical properties (and not aerosol composition) based on remote sensing instrumentation. This study assesses how much aerosol optical properties can tell us about aerosol composition.
Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Vassilis Amiridis, Stelios Kazadzis, Enza Di Tomaso, Eleni Marinou, Nikos Hatzianastassiou, Jasper F. Kok, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3553–3578,Short summary
We present a comprehensive climatological analysis of dust optical depth (DOD) relying on the MIDAS dataset. MIDAS provides columnar mid-visible (550 nm) DOD at fine spatial resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) over a 15-year period (2003–2017). In the current study, the analysis is performed at various spatial (from regional to global) and temporal (from months to years) scales. More specifically, focus is given to specific regions hosting the major dust sources as well as downwind areas of the planet.
Michaël Sicard, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, María-Ángeles López-Cayuela, Albert Ansmann, Adolfo Comerón, María-Paz Zorzano, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, and Constantino Muñoz-Porcar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1921–1937,Short summary
This paper completes the companion paper of Córdoba-Jabonero et al. (2021). We estimate the total direct radiative effect produced by mineral dust particles during the June 2019 mega-heatwave at two sites in Spain and Germany. The results show that the dust particles in the atmosphere contribute to cooling the surface (less radiation reaches the surface) and that the heatwave (parametrized by high surface and air temperatures) contributes to reducing this cooling.
Keyvan Ranjbar, Norm T. O'Neill, and Yasmin Aboel-Fetouh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1757–1760,Short summary
We argue that the illustration employed by Huang et al. (2015) to demonstrate the transport of Asian dust to the high Arctic was, in fact, largely a cloud event and that the actual impact of Asian dust was measurable but much weaker than what they proposed and had occurred a day earlier (in agreement with the transport model they had employed to predict the transport path to the high Arctic).
Jesús Abril-Gago, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Maria João Costa, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Michaël Sicard, Diego Bermejo-Pantaleón, Daniele Bortoli, María José Granados-Muñoz, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, Adolfo Comerón, Pablo Ortiz-Amezcua, Vanda Salgueiro, Marta María Jiménez-Martín, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1425–1451,Short summary
A validation of Aeolus reprocessed optical products is carried out via an intercomparison with ground-based measurements taken at several ACTRIS/EARLINET stations in western Europe. Case studies and a statistical analysis are presented. The stations are located in a hot spot between Africa and the rest of Europe, which guarantees a variety of aerosol types, from mineral dust layers to continental/anthropogenic aerosol, and allows us to test Aeolus performance under different scenarios.
Sujung Go, Alexei Lyapustin, Gregory L. Schuster, Myungje Choi, Paul Ginoux, Mian Chin, Olga Kalashnikova, Oleg Dubovik, Jhoon Kim, Arlindo da Silva, Brent Holben, and Jeffrey S. Reid
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1395–1423,Short summary
This paper presents a retrieval algorithm of iron-oxide species (hematite, goethite) content in the atmosphere from DSCOVR EPIC observations. Our results display variations within the published range of hematite and goethite over the main dust-source regions but show significant seasonal and spatial variability. This implies a single-viewing satellite instrument with UV–visible channels may provide essential information on shortwave dust direct radiative effects for climate modeling.
Patrick Chazette, Alexandre Baron, and Cyrille Flamant
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1271–1292,Short summary
Within the framework of the international EUREC4A project, horizontal lidar measurements were carried out over Barbados from the French research aircraft ATR-42. These measurements highlighted the strong heterogeneity of the aerosol field (mainly dust and biomass burning aerosols) and therefore of the associated optical properties. This heterogeneity varies according to meteorological conditions and could significantly modulate the climatic impact of aerosols trapped over the tropical Atlantic.
África Barreto, Emilio Cuevas, Rosa D. García, Judit Carrillo, Joseph M. Prospero, Luka Ilić, Sara Basart, Alberto J. Berjón, Carlos L. Marrero, Yballa Hernández, Juan José Bustos, Slobodan Ničković, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 739–763,Short summary
In this study, we categorise the different patterns of dust transport over the subtropical North Atlantic and for the first time robustly describe the dust vertical distribution in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) over this region. Our results revealed the important role that both dust and water vapour play in the radiative balance in summer and winter and confirm the role of the SAL in the formation of mid-level clouds as a result of the activation of heterogeneous ice nucleation processes.
Lixing Shen, Chuanfeng Zhao, Xingchuan Yang, Yikun Yang, and Ping Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 419–439,Short summary
Using multi-year data, this study reveals the slump of sea land breeze (SLB) at Brisbane during mega fires and investigates the impact of fire-induced aerosols on SLB. Different aerosols have different impacts on sea wind (SW) and land wind (LW). Aerosols cause the decrease of SW, partially offset by the warming effect of black carbon (BC). The large-scale cooling effect of aerosols on sea surface temperature (SST) and the burst of BC contribute to the slump of LW.
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Basart, S., Pérez, C., Cuevas, E., Baldasano, J. M., and Gobbi, G. P.: Aerosol characterization in Northern Africa, Northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Basin and Middle East from direct-sun AERONET observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 8265–8282, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-8265-2009, 2009.
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