Articles | Volume 20, issue 12
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7271–7290, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-7271-2020
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7271–7290, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-7271-2020

Research article 23 Jun 2020

Research article | 23 Jun 2020

The increasing atmospheric burden of the greenhouse gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)

Peter G. Simmonds et al.

Related authors

Evidence of a recent decline in UK emissions of hydrofluorocarbons determined by the InTEM inverse model and atmospheric measurements
Alistair J. Manning, Alison L. Redington, Daniel Say, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Peter G. Simmonds, Martin K. Vollmer, Jens Mühle, Jgor Arduini, Gerard Spain, Adam Wisher, Michela Maione, Tanja J. Schuck, Kieran Stanley, Stefan Reimann, Andreas Engel, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Ray F. Weiss, Ray Gluckman, Peter N. Brown, John D. Watterson, and Tim Arnold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12739–12755, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-12739-2021,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-12739-2021, 2021
Short summary
Perfluorocyclobutane (PFC-318, c-C4F8) in the global atmosphere
Jens Mühle, Cathy M. Trudinger, Luke M. Western, Matthew Rigby, Martin K. Vollmer, Sunyoung Park, Alistair J. Manning, Daniel Say, Anita Ganesan, L. Paul Steele, Diane J. Ivy, Tim Arnold, Shanlan Li, Andreas Stohl, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Archie McCulloch, Simon O'Doherty, Mi-Kyung Park, Chun Ok Jo, Dickon Young, Kieran M. Stanley, Paul B. Krummel, Blagoj Mitrevski, Ove Hermansen, Chris Lunder, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Bo Yao, Jooil Kim, Benjamin Hmiel, Christo Buizert, Vasilii V. Petrenko, Jgor Arduini, Michela Maione, David M. Etheridge, Eleni Michalopoulou, Mike Czerniak, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Stefan Reimann, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul J. Fraser, Ronald G. Prinn, and Ray F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10335–10359, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-10335-2019,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-10335-2019, 2019
Short summary
Flexible approach for quantifying average long-term changes and seasonal cycles of tropospheric trace species
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Simon O'Doherty, and Peter G. Simmonds
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3383–3394, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-3383-2019,https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-12-3383-2019, 2019
Short summary
History of chemically and radiatively important atmospheric gases from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE)
Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Jgor Arduini, Tim Arnold, H. Langley DeWitt, Paul J. Fraser, Anita L. Ganesan, Jimmy Gasore, Christina M. Harth, Ove Hermansen, Jooil Kim, Paul B. Krummel, Shanlan Li, Zoë M. Loh, Chris R. Lunder, Michela Maione, Alistair J. Manning, Ben R. Miller, Blagoj Mitrevski, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Sunyoung Park, Stefan Reimann, Matt Rigby, Takuya Saito, Peter K. Salameh, Roland Schmidt, Peter G. Simmonds, L. Paul Steele, Martin K. Vollmer, Ray H. Wang, Bo Yao, Yoko Yokouchi, Dickon Young, and Lingxi Zhou
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 985–1018, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-985-2018,https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-985-2018, 2018
Short summary
Recent increases in the atmospheric growth rate and emissions of HFC-23 (CHF3) and the link to HCFC-22 (CHClF2) production
Peter G. Simmonds, Matthew Rigby, Archie McCulloch, Martin K. Vollmer, Stephan Henne, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Alistair J. Manning, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Dickon Young, Ray F. Weiss, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Stefan Reimann, Cathy M. Trudinger, L. Paul Steele, Ray H. J. Wang, Diane J. Ivy, Ronald G. Prinn, Blagoj Mitrevski, and David M. Etheridge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4153–4169, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-4153-2018,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-4153-2018, 2018
Short summary

Related subject area

Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)
Positive and negative influences of typhoons on tropospheric ozone over southern China
Zhixiong Chen, Jane Liu, Xugeng Cheng, Mengmiao Yang, and Hong Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16911–16923, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-16911-2021,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-16911-2021, 2021
Short summary
Limitations of the Radon Tracer Method (RTM) to estimate regional Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions – a case study for methane in Heidelberg
Ingeborg Levin, Ute Karstens, Samuel Hammer, Julian DellaColetta, Fabian Maier, and Maksym Gachkivskyi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-661,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-661, 2021
Revised manuscript accepted for ACP
Short summary
Spatial and temporal variations of CO2 mole fractions observed at Beijing, Xianghe, and Xinglong in North China
Yang Yang, Minqiang Zhou, Ting Wang, Bo Yao, Pengfei Han, Denghui Ji, Wei Zhou, Yele Sun, Gengchen Wang, and Pucai Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11741–11757, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-11741-2021,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-11741-2021, 2021
Short summary
The CO2 integral emission by the megacity of St Petersburg as quantified from ground-based FTIR measurements combined with dispersion modelling
Dmitry V. Ionov, Maria V. Makarova, Frank Hase, Stefani C. Foka, Vladimir S. Kostsov, Carlos Alberti, Thomas Blumenstock, Thorsten Warneke, and Yana A. Virolainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10939–10963, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-10939-2021,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-10939-2021, 2021
Short summary
Anthropogenic and natural controls on atmospheric δ13C-CO2 variations in the Yangtze River delta: insights from a carbon isotope modeling framework
Cheng Hu, Jiaping Xu, Cheng Liu, Yan Chen, Dong Yang, Wenjing Huang, Lichen Deng, Shoudong Liu, Timothy J. Griffis, and Xuhui Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10015–10037, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-10015-2021,https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-10015-2021, 2021
Short summary

Cited articles

AGAGE: The guidelines for use of AGAGE data, available at: http://agage.mit.edu/data (last access: 2 December 2019), 2020. 
Arnold, T., Mühle, J., Salameh, P. K., Harth, C. M., Ivy, D. J., and Weiss, R. F.: Automated Measurement of Nitrogen Trifluoride in Ambient Air, Anal. Chem., 84, 4798–4804, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac300373e, 2012. 
Arnold, T., Manning, A. J., Kim, J., Li, S., Webster, H., Thomson, D., Mühle, J., Weiss, R. F., Park, S., and O'Doherty, S.: Inverse modelling of CF4 and NF3 emissions in East Asia, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13305–13320, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-13305-2018, 2018. 
Bakwin, P. S., Hurst, D. F., Tans, P. P., and Elkins, J. W.: Anthropogenic sources of halocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, carbon monoxide and methane in the southeastern United States, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 15915–15925, 1997. 
Biasse, J. M.: What will Medium Voltage switchgear look like in the future?, Schneider Electric, available at: https://blog.se.com/smart-grid/2014/11/26/will-mv-switchgear-look-like-future/ (last access: 3 February 2020), 2014. 
Download
Short summary
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a potent greenhouse gas which is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. From a 40-year record of measurements, collected at five global monitoring sites and archived air samples, we show that its concentration in the atmosphere has steadily increased. Using modelling techniques, we estimate that global emissions have increased by about 24 % over the past decade. We find that this increase is driven by the demand for SF6-insulated switchgear in developing countries.
Altmetrics
Final-revised paper
Preprint