Articles | Volume 21, issue 1
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 147–162, 2021
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article 08 Jan 2021
Research article | 08 Jan 2021
Direct measurements of black carbon fluxes in central Beijing using the eddy covariance method
Rutambhara Joshi et al.
No articles found.
Jingsha Xu, Di Liu, Xuefang Wu, Tuan V. Vu, Yanli Zhang, Pingqing Fu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Bo Zheng, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7321–7341,Short summary
Source apportionment of fine aerosols in an urban site of Beijing used a chemical mass balance (CMB) model. Seven primary sources (industrial/residential coal burning, biomass burning, gasoline/diesel vehicles, cooking and vegetative detritus) explained an average of 75.7 % and 56.1 % of fine OC in winter and summer, respectively. CMB was found to resolve more primary OA sources than AMS-PMF, but the latter apportioned more secondary OA sources.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Matthias Sörgel, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Biogeosciences, 18, 2809–2825,Short summary
The exchange of the gas ammonia between the atmosphere and the surface is an important biogeochemical process, but little is known of this exchange for certain ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest. This study took measurements of ammonia exchange over an Amazon rainforest site and subsequently modelled the observed deposition and emission patterns. We observed emissions of ammonia from the rainforest, which can be simulated accurately by using a canopy resistance modelling approach.
Claire E. Reeves, Graham P. Mills, Lisa K. Whalley, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, Sue Grimmond, Dwayne E. Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James R. Hopkins, Simone Kotthaus, Louisa J. Kramer, Roderic L. Jones, James D. Lee, Yanhui Liu, Bin Ouyang, Eloise Slater, Freya Squires, Xinming Wang, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6315–6330,Short summary
The impact of isoprene on atmospheric chemistry is dependent on how its oxidation products interact with other pollutants, specifically nitrogen oxides. Such interactions can lead to isoprene nitrates. We made measurements of the concentrations of individual isoprene nitrate isomers in Beijing and used a model to test current understanding of their chemistry. We highlight areas of uncertainty in understanding, in particular the chemistry following oxidation of isoprene by the nitrate radical.
Simone T. Andersen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Beth S. Nelson, Luis Neves, Katie A. Read, Chris Reed, Martyn Ward, Matthew J. Rowlinson, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3071–3085,Short summary
NOx has been measured in remote marine air via chemiluminescence detection using two different methods for NO2 to NO photolytic conversion: (a) internal diodes and a reaction chamber made of Teflon-like barium-doped material, which causes a NO2 artefact, and (b) external diodes and a quartz photolysis cell. Once corrections are made for the artefact of (a), the two converters are shown to give comparable NO2 mixing ratios, giving confidence in the quantitative measurement of NOx at low levels.
Ruili Wu, Christopher W. Tessum, Yang Zhang, Chaopeng Hong, Yixuan Zheng, and Qiang Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Reduced-complexity air quality models are less computationally intensive and easier to use. We developed a reduced-complexity air quality intervention model over China, InMAPv1.6.1-China, to rapidly predict the air quality and estimate the health impacts of emission sources in China. We believe that this work will be of great interest to a broad audience, including environmentalists in China, and scientists in relevant fields in both national and local institutes.
Jean-François Ribaud, Martial Haeffelin, Jean-Charles Dupont, Marc-Antoine Drouin, Felipe Toledo, and Simone Kotthaus
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
PARAFOG is a near-real time decision tool that aims to retrieve pre-fog alert levels minutes to hours prior to fog onset. The second version of PARAFOG allows to discriminate between radiation and stratus lowering fog situations. It is based upon the combination of visibility observations and automatic lidar and ceilometer measurements. The overall performance of the second version of PARAFOG over more than 300 fog cases at 5 different locations present a good perfomance.
Philippe Massicotte, Rainer M. W. Amon, David Antoine, Philippe Archambault, Sergio Balzano, Simon Bélanger, Ronald Benner, Dominique Boeuf, Annick Bricaud, Flavienne Bruyant, Gwenaëlle Chaillou, Malik Chami, Bruno Charrière, Jing Chen, Hervé Claustre, Pierre Coupel, Nicole Delsaut, David Doxaran, Jens Ehn, Cédric Fichot, Marie-Hélène Forget, Pingqing Fu, Jonathan Gagnon, Nicole Garcia, Beat Gasser, Jean-François Ghiglione, Gaby Gorsky, Michel Gosselin, Priscillia Gourvil, Yves Gratton, Pascal Guillot, Hermann J. Heipieper, Serge Heussner, Stanford B. Hooker, Yannick Huot, Christian Jeanthon, Wade Jeffrey, Fabien Joux, Kimitaka Kawamura, Bruno Lansard, Edouard Leymarie, Heike Link, Connie Lovejoy, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Johannie Martin, Jacobo Martín, Guillaume Massé, Atsushi Matsuoka, Vanessa McKague, Alexandre Mignot, William L. Miller, Juan-Carlos Miquel, Alfonso Mucci, Kaori Ono, Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Tim Papakyriakou, Marc Picheral, Louis Prieur, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Rick A. Reynolds, André Rochon, Jean-François Rontani, Catherine Schmechtig, Sabine Schmidt, Richard Sempéré, Yuan Shen, Guisheng Song, Dariusz Stramski, Eri Tachibana, Alexandre Thirouard, Imma Tolosa, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Mickael Vaïtilingom, Daniel Vaulot, Frédéric Vaultier, John K. Volkman, Huixiang Xie, Guangming Zheng, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1561–1592,Short summary
The MALINA oceanographic expedition was conducted in the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Sea systems. The sampling was performed across seven shelf–basin transects to capture the meridional gradient between the estuary and the open ocean. The main goal of this research program was to better understand how processes such as primary production are influencing the fate of organic matter originating from the surrounding terrestrial landscape during its transition toward the Arctic Ocean.
Steven J. Campbell, Kate Wolfer, Battist Utinger, Joe Westwood, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sarah S. Steimer, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Nicholas Straw, Steven Thomson, Atallah Elzein, Yele Sun, Di Liu, Linjie Li, Pingqing Fu, Alastair C. Lewis, Roy M. Harrison, William J. Bloss, Miranda Loh, Mark R. Miller, Zongbo Shi, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5549–5573,Short summary
In this study, we quantify PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP), a metric widely suggested as a potential measure of particle toxicity, in Beijing in summer and winter using four acellular assays. We correlate PM2.5 OP with a comprehensive range of atmospheric and particle composition measurements, demonstrating inter-assay differences and seasonal variation of PM2.5 OP. Using multivariate statistical analysis, we highlight specific particle chemical components and sources that influence OP.
Beth S. Nelson, Gareth J. Stewart, Will S. Drysdale, Mike J. Newland, Adam R. Vaughan, Rachel E. Dunmore, Pete M. Edwards, Alastair C. Lewis, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, Ülkü A. Şahin, David C. S. Beddows, William J. Bloss, Eloise Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Eiko Nemitz, Roberto Sommariva, Sam Cox, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Bhola R. Gurjar, James R. Hopkins, Andrew R. Rickard, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Ozone production at an urban site in Delhi is sensitive to volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, particularly those of the aromatic, monoterpene and alkene VOC class. The change in ozone production by varying atmospheric pollutants according to their sources, as defined in an emissions inventory, is investigated. The study suggests that reducing road transport emissions alone does not reduce reactive VOCs in the atmosphere enough to perturb an increase in ozone production.
Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Ying Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Eleni Karnezi, Spyros N. Pandis, Conghui Xie, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Jiang Zhu, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5463–5476,Short summary
Here aerosol volatility and viscosity at a rural site (Gucheng) and an urban site (Beijing) in the North China Plain (NCP) were investigated in summer and winter. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) in winter in the NCP is more volatile than that in summer due to enhanced primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. We also found that OA existed mainly as a solid in winter in Beijing but as semisolids in Beijing in summer and Gucheng in winter.
Wenhua Wang, Longyi Shao, Claudio Mazzoleni, Yaowei Li, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Janarjan Bhandari, Jiaoping Xing, Xiaolei Feng, Mengyuan Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5301–5314,Short summary
We compared the characteristics of individual particles at ground level and above the mixed-layer height. We found that the particles above the mixed-layer height during haze periods are more aged compared to ground level. More coal-combustion-related primary organic particles were found above the mixed-layer height. We suggest that the particles above the mixed-layer height are affected by the surrounding areas, and once mixed down to the ground, they might contribute to ground air pollution.
Deepchandra Srivastava, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Di Liu, Linjie Li, Pingqing Fu, Siqi Hou, Zongbo Shi, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study presents the source apportionment of PM2.5 performed by PMF at an urban and a rural site in Beijing. These factors are interpreted to be traffic emissions, biomass burning, road dust, soil dust, coal combustion, oil combustion and secondary inorganics. The PMF failed to resolve some sources identified by CMB and AMS, and appears to overestimate the dust sources. A comparison with earlier PMF studies from the Beijing area highlights inconsistent findings using this method.
Jessica Slater, Hugh Coe, Gordon McFiggans, Juha Tonttila, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This paper shows the specific impact of black carbon (BC) on the aerosol-planetary boundary layer (PBL) feedback and its influence on a Beijing haze episode. Overall, this paper shows that strong temperature inversions prevent BC heating within the PBL from significantly increasing PBL height, while BC above the PBL suppresses PBL development significantly through the day. From this we suggest a method by which both locally and regionally emitted BC may impact Beijing haze episodes.
Santosh Kumar Verma, Kimitaka Kawamura, Fei Yang, Pingqing Fu, Yugo Kanaya, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4959–4978,Short summary
We studied aerosol samples collected in autumn 2007 with day and night intervals in a rural site of Mangshan, north of Beijing, for sugar compounds (SCs) that are abundant organic aerosol components and can influence the air quality and climate. We found higher concentrations of biomass burning (BB) products at nighttime than daytime, whereas pollen tracers and other SCs showed an opposite diurnal trend, because this site is meteorologically characterized by a mountain/valley breeze.
Adam R. Vaughan, James D. Lee, Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Alastair C. Lewis, Marvin D. Shaw, Will S. Drysdale, Ruth M. Purvis, Brian Davison, and C. Nicholas Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Validating emissions estimates of atmospheric pollutants is a vital pathway towards reducing urban concentrations of air pollution and ensuring effective legislative controls are implemented. The work presented here highlights a strategy capable of quantifying and spatially disaggregating NOx emissions over challenging urban terrain. This work shows great scope as a tool for emission inventory validation and independent generation of high-resolution surface emissions on a city-wide scale.
Tabish Umar Ansari, Oliver Wild, Edmund Ryan, Ying Chen, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4471–4485,Short summary
We use novel modelling approaches to quantify the lingering effects of 1 d local and regional emission controls on subsequent days, the effects of longer continuous emission controls of individual sectors over different regions, and the effects of combined emission controls of multiple sectors and regions on air quality in Beijing under varying weather conditions to inform precise short-term emission control policies for avoiding heavy haze pollution in Beijing.
Paul T. Griffiths, Lee T. Murray, Guang Zeng, Youngsub Matthew Shin, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Ian E. Galbally, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, James Keeble, Jane Liu, Omid Moeini, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Naga Oshima, David Tarasick, Simone Tilmes, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, Paul J. Young, and Prodromos Zanis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4187–4218,Short summary
We analyse the CMIP6 Historical and future simulations for tropospheric ozone, a species which is important for many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. We show that the current generation of models agrees well with observations, being particularly successful in capturing trends in surface ozone and its vertical distribution in the troposphere. We analyse the factors that control ozone and show that they evolve over the period of the CMIP6 experiments.
Stuart K. Grange, James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Alastair C. Lewis, Christoph Hueglin, Lukas Emmenegger, and David C. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4169–4185,Short summary
The changes in mobility across Europe due to the COVID-19 lockdowns had consequences for air quality. We compare what was experienced to estimates of "what would have been" without the lockdowns. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an important vehicle-sourced pollutant, decreased by a third. However, ozone (O3) increased in response to lower NO2. Because NO2 is decreasing over time, increases in O3 can be expected in European urban areas and will require management to avoid future negative outcomes.
Roland Stirnberg, Jan Cermak, Simone Kotthaus, Martial Haeffelin, Hendrik Andersen, Julia Fuchs, Miae Kim, Jean-Eudes Petit, and Olivier Favez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3919–3948,Short summary
Air pollution endangers human health and poses a problem particularly in densely populated areas. Here, an explainable machine learning approach is used to analyse periods of high particle concentrations for a suburban site southwest of Paris to better understand its atmospheric drivers. Air pollution is particularly excaberated by low temperatures and low mixed layer heights, but processes vary substantially between and within seasons.
Shona E. Wilde, Pamela A. Dominutti, Grant Allen, Stephen J. Andrews, Prudence Bateson, Stephane J.-B. Bauguitte, Ralph R. Burton, Ioana Colfescu, James France, James R. Hopkins, Langwen Huang, Anna E. Jones, Tom Lachlan-Cope, James D. Lee, Alastair C. Lewis, Stephen D. Mobbs, Alexandra Weiss, Stuart Young, and Ruth M. Purvis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3741–3762,Short summary
We use airborne measurements to evaluate the speciation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from offshore oil and gas (O&G) installations in the North Sea. The composition of emissions varied across regions associated with either gas, condensate or oil extraction, demonstrating that VOC emissions are not uniform across the whole O&G sector. We compare our results to VOC source profiles in the UK emissions inventory, showing these emissions are not currently fully characterized.
Michael Priestley, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Stephen D. Worrall, Sungah Kang, Iida Pullinen, Sebastian Schmitt, Ralf Tillmann, Einhard Kleist, Defeng Zhao, Jürgen Wildt, Olga Garmash, Archit Mehra, Asan Bacak, Dudley E. Shallcross, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Åsa M. Hallquist, Mikael Ehn, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Mattias Hallquist, Thomas F. Mentel, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3473–3490,Short summary
A significant fraction of emissions from human activity consists of aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. benzene, which oxidise to form new compounds important for particle growth. Characterisation of benzene oxidation products highlights the range of species produced as well as their chemical properties and contextualises them within relevant frameworks, e.g. MCM. Cluster analysis of the oxidation product time series distinguishes behaviours of CHON compounds that could aid in identifying functionality.
Yingying Yan, Yue Zhou, Shaofei Kong, Jintai Lin, Jian Wu, Huang Zheng, Zexuan Zhang, Aili Song, Yongqing Bai, Zhang Ling, Dantong Liu, and Tianliang Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3143–3162,Short summary
We analyze the effectiveness of emission reduction for local and upwind regions during winter haze episodes controlled by the main potential synoptic patterns over central China, a regional pollutant transport hub with sub-basin topography. Our results provide an opportunity to effectively mitigate haze pollution via local emission control actions in coordination with regional collaborative actions according to different synoptic patterns.
Edmund Ryan and Oliver Wild
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMD
Hong Ren, Wei Hu, Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Jian Zhao, Linjie Li, Libin Wu, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Mingjie Kang, Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study presents vertical profiles of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the urban boundary layer based on a 325-m tower in Beijing in late summer. The increases in the isoprene and toluene SOA with height were found to be more related to regional transport whereas the decrease in those from monoterpenes and sesquiterpene were more subject to local emissions. Such complicated vertical distributions of SOA should be considered in future modeling work.
Gareth J. Stewart, Beth S. Nelson, W. Joe F. Acton, Adam R. Vaughan, Naomi J. Farren, James R. Hopkins, Martyn W. Ward, Stefan J. Swift, Rahul Arya, Arnab Mondal, Ritu Jangirh, Sakshi Ahlawat, Lokesh Yadav, Sudhir K. Sharma, Siti S. M. Yunus, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Eiko Nemitz, Neil Mullinger, Ranu Gadi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Nidhi Tripathi, Andrew R. Rickard, James D. Lee, Tuhin K. Mandal, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2407–2426,Short summary
Biomass burning releases many lower-molecular-weight organic species which are difficult to analyse but important for the formation of organic aerosol. This study examined a new high-resolution technique to better characterise these difficult-to-analyse organic components. Some burning sources analysed in this study, such as cow dung cake and municipal solid waste, released extremely complex mixtures containing many thousands of different lower-volatility organic compounds.
Gareth J. Stewart, W. Joe F. Acton, Beth S. Nelson, Adam R. Vaughan, James R. Hopkins, Rahul Arya, Arnab Mondal, Ritu Jangirh, Sakshi Ahlawat, Lokesh Yadav, Sudhir K. Sharma, Rachel E. Dunmore, Siti S. M. Yunus, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Eiko Nemitz, Neil Mullinger, Ranu Gadi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Nidhi Tripathi, Andrew R. Rickard, James D. Lee, Tuhin K. Mandal, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2383–2406,Short summary
Biomass burning is a major source of trace gases to the troposphere; however, the composition and quantity of emissions vary greatly between different fuel types. This work provided near-total quantitation of non-methane volatile organic compounds from combustion of biofuels from India. Emissions from cow dung cake combustion were significantly larger than conventional fuelwood combustion, potentially indicating that this source has a disproportionately large impact on regional air quality.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Jing Chen, Yuqing Dai, Siyao Yue, Hang Su, Haijie Tong, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Ying Li, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Cong-Qiang Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study investigated the role of nighttime chemistry during the Chinese New Year that enhances the formation of nitrooxy-organosulfates in the aerosol phase. Results demonstrate that anthropogenic precursors, together with biogenic ones, considerably contribute to the formation of low-volatile nitrooxy-OSs. Our study provides detailed molecular composition of firework-related aerosols, which gives new insights into the physicochemical properties and potential health effects of urban aerosols.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dantong Liu, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zongbo Shi, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2251–2265,Short summary
We found that large numbers of light-absorbing primary organic particles with high viscosity, especially tarballs, from domestic coal and biomass burning occurred in rural and even urban hazes in the winter of North China. For the first time, we characterized the atmospheric aging process of these burning-related primary organic particles by microscopic analysis and further evaluated their light absorption enhancement resulting from the “lensing effect” of secondary inorganic coatings.
Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2125–2147,Short summary
To understand how emission controls will impact ozone, an understanding of the sources and sinks of OH and the chemical cycling between peroxy radicals is needed. This paper presents measurements of OH, HO2 and total RO2 taken in central Beijing. The radical observations are compared to a detailed chemistry model, which shows that under low NO conditions, there is a missing OH source. Under high NOx conditions, the model under-predicts RO2 and impacts our ability to model ozone.
Mike J. Newland, Daniel J. Bryant, Rachel E. Dunmore, Thomas J. Bannan, W. Joe F. Acton, Ben Langford, James R. Hopkins, Freya A. Squires, William Dixon, William S. Drysdale, Peter D. Ivatt, Mathew J. Evans, Peter M. Edwards, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James D. Lee, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Xinming Wang, Alastair C. Lewis, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1613–1625,Short summary
We report the formation of secondary pollutants in the urban megacity of Beijing that are typically associated with remote regions such as rainforests. This is caused by extremely low levels of nitric oxide (NO), typically expected to be high in urban areas, observed in the afternoon. This work has significant implications for how we understand atmospheric chemistry in the urban environment and thus for how to implement effective policies to improve urban air quality.
Zhenze Liu, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, and Fiona M. O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Surface ozone (O3) has become the main cause of atmospheric pollution in the summertime in China since 2013. We find that 70 % reductions in NOx emissions are required to reduce O3 pollution in most of industrial regions of China, and controls in VOC emissions are very important. The new chemical scheme developed for a global chemistry-climate model not only captures the regional air pollution but also benefits the future studies of regional air quality-climate interactions.
Huihui Wu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Justin M. Langridge, Chenjie Yu, James D. Allan, Kate Szpek, Michael I. Cotterell, Paul I. Williams, Michael Flynn, Patrick Barker, Cathryn Fox, Grant Allen, James Lee, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Seasonal biomass burning over West Africa is a globally significant source of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere, which have important climate impacts but are poorly constrained. We conducted in-situ airborne measurements to investigate the evolution of smoke aerosol properties in this region. We observed absorption enhancement for both the black carbon and brown carbon after emission, which provide new field results and constraints on aerosol parameterisations for future climate models.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly five weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and south-eastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing tradewind clouds.
Jim M. Haywood, Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Nicolas Bellouin, Alan Blyth, Keith N. Bower, Melissa Brooks, Ken Carslaw, Haochi Che, Hugh Coe, Michael I. Cotterell, Ian Crawford, Zhiqiang Cui, Nicholas Davies, Beth Dingley, Paul Field, Paola Formenti, Hamish Gordon, Martin de Graaf, Ross Herbert, Ben Johnson, Anthony C. Jones, Justin M. Langridge, Florent Malavelle, Daniel G. Partridge, Fanny Peers, Jens Redemann, Philip Stier, Kate Szpek, Jonathan W. Taylor, Duncan Watson-Parris, Robert Wood, Huihui Wu, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1049–1084,Short summary
Every year, the seasonal cycle of biomass burning from agricultural practices in Africa creates a huge plume of smoke that travels many thousands of kilometres over the Atlantic Ocean. This study provides an overview of a measurement campaign called the cloud–aerosol–radiation interaction and forcing for year 2017 (CLARIFY-2017) and documents the rationale, deployment strategy, observations, and key results from the campaign which utilized the heavily equipped FAAM atmospheric research aircraft.
Y. Sim Tang, Chris R. Flechard, Ulrich Dämmgen, Sonja Vidic, Vesna Djuricic, Marta Mitosinkova, Hilde T. Uggerud, Maria J. Sanz, Ivan Simmons, Ulrike Dragosits, Eiko Nemitz, Marsailidh Twigg, Netty van Dijk, Yannick Fauvel, Francisco Sanz, Martin Ferm, Cinzia Perrino, Maria Catrambone, David Leaver, Christine F. Braban, J. Neil Cape, Mathew R. Heal, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 875–914,Short summary
The DELTA® approach provided speciated, monthly data on reactive gases (NH3, HNO3, SO2, HCl) and aerosols (NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, Na+) across Europe (2006–2010). Differences in spatial and temporal concentrations and patterns between geographic regions and four ecosystem types were captured. NH3 and NH4NO3 were dominant components, highlighting their growing relative importance in ecosystem impacts (acidification, eutrophication) and human health effects (NH3 as a precursor to PM2.5) in Europe.
Zixia Liu, Martin Osborne, Jim Haywood, Karen Anderson, Jamie D. Shulter, Andy Wilson, Justin Langridge, Steve H. L. Yim, Hugh Coe, Suresh Babu, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Paquita Zuidema, Tao Huang, and Jack C. H. Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
This paper shows the performance of an advanced aerosol observation instrument (POPS) on a quadcopter drone. The results suggest that the impact of the UAV rotors on the POPS does not unduly affect the performance of the POPS for wind speed less than 2.6 m/s, but when operating under higher wind speed of up to 7.6 m/s, larger discrepancies are noted. Plus, it appears that the POPS measures sub-micron aerosol particles more accurately than super-micron aerosol particles on the drone.
Shuo Ding, Dantong Liu, Kang Hu, Delong Zhao, Ping Tian, Fei Wang, Ruijie Li, Yichen Chen, Hui He, Mengyu Huang, and Deping Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 681–694,Short summary
In this study, we for the first time characterized the detailed black carbon (BC) microphysics at a mountain site located at the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) influenced by surface emission over the North China Plain. We investigated the optical and hygroscopic properties of BC at this level as influenced by microphysical properties. Such information will constrain the impacts of BC in influencing the PBL dynamics and low-level cloud formation over anthropogenically polluted regions.
Kyle B. Delwiche, Sara Helen Knox, Avni Malhotra, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Gavin McNicol, Sarah Feron, Zutao Ouyang, Dario Papale, Carlo Trotta, Eleonora Canfora, You-Wei Cheah, Danielle Christianson, M. Carmelita R. Alberto, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Dennis Baldocchi, Sheel Bansal, David P. Billesbach, Gil Bohrer, Rosvel Bracho, Nina Buchmann, David I. Campbell, Gerardo Celis, Jiquan Chen, Weinan Chen, Housen Chu, Higo J. Dalmagro, Sigrid Dengel, Ankur R. Desai, Matteo Detto, Han Dolman, Elke Eichelmann, Eugenie Euskirchen, Daniela Famulari, Thomas Friborg, Kathrin Fuchs, Mathias Goeckede, Sébastien Gogo, Mangaliso J. Gondwe, Jordan P. Goodrich, Pia Gottschalk, Scott L. Graham, Martin Heimann, Manuel Helbig, Carole Helfter, Kyle S. Hemes, Takashi Hirano, David Hollinger, Lukas Hörtnagl, Hiroki Iwata, Adrien Jacotot, Joachim Jansen, Gerald Jurasinski, Minseok Kang, Kuno Kasak, John King, Janina Klatt, Franziska Koebsch, Ken W. Krauss, Derrick Y. F. Lai, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, Luca Belelli Marchesini, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes, Trofim Maximon, Lutz Merbold, Bhaskar Mitra, Timothy H. Morin, Eiko Nemitz, Mats B. Nilsson, Shuli Niu, Walter C. Oechel, Patricia Y. Oikawa, Keisuke Ono, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Michele L. Reba, Andrew D. Richardson, William Riley, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Youngryel Ryu, Torsten Sachs, Ayaka Sakabe, Camilo Rey Sanchez, Edward A. Schuur, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Oliver Sonnentag, Jed P. Sparks, Ellen Stuart-Haëntjens, Cove Sturtevant, Ryan C. Sullivan, Daphne J. Szutu, Jonathan E. Thom, Margaret S. Torn, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Jessica Turner, Masahito Ueyama, Alex C. Valach, Rodrigo Vargas, Andrej Varlagin, Alma Vazquez-Lule, Joseph G. Verfaillie, Timo Vesala, George L. Vourlitis, Eric J. Ward, Christian Wille, Georg Wohlfahrt, Guan Xhuan Wong, Zhen Zhang, Donatella Zona, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Benjamin Poulter, and Robert B. Jackson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas, yet we lack knowledge about its global emissions and drivers. We present FLUXNET-CH4, a new global collection of methane measurements and a critical resource for the research community. We use FLUXNET-CH4 data to quantify the seasonality of methane emissions from freshwater wetlands, finding that methane seasonality varies strongly with latitude. Our new database and analysis will improve wetland model accuracy and inform greenhouse gas budgets.
Olli Peltola, Toprak Aslan, Andreas Ibrom, Eiko Nemitz, Üllar Rannik, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Gas fluxes measured by the eddy covariance (EC) technique are subject to filtering due to unideal instrumentation. For linear first-order systems this filtering causes also a time-lag between vertical wind speed and gas signal which is additional to the gas travel time in the sampling line. The effect of this additional time-lag on EC fluxes is ignored in current EC data processing routines. Here we show that this oversight biases EC fluxes and hence propose an approach to rectify this bias.
James L. France, Prudence Bateson, Pamela Dominutti, Grant Allen, Stephen Andrews, Stephane Bauguitte, Max Coleman, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Rebecca E. Fisher, Langwen Huang, Anna E. Jones, James Lee, David Lowry, Joseph Pitt, Ruth Purvis, John Pyle, Jacob Shaw, Nicola Warwick, Alexandra Weiss, Shona Wilde, Jonathan Witherstone, and Stuart Young
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 71–88,Short summary
Measuring emission rates of methane from installations is tricky, and it is even more so when those installations are located offshore. Here, we show the aircraft set-up and demonstrate an effective methodology for surveying emissions from UK and Dutch offshore oil and gas installations. We present example data collected from two campaigns to demonstrate the challenges and solutions encountered during these surveys.
Mohanan R. Manoj, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, Jamie Trembath, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Vertical distributions of atmospheric aerosols and the ability of aerosols to form clouds has been studied across the Indo-Gangetic Plain based on air-borne measurements carried out during the SWAAMI field campaign studying the Indian monsoon. The ability of the aerosols to act as cloud forming nuclei showed contrasting features, increasing with increase in altitude, prior to the onset of monsoon, reversing the trend to decrease with increase in altitude during the active phase of the monsoon.
Toprak Aslan, Olli Peltola, Andreas Ibrom, Eiko Nemitz, Üllar Rannik, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Vertical turbulent fluxes of gases measured by the eddy covariance (EC) technique are subject to high frequency losses. There are different methods used to describe this low-pass filtering effect and to correct the measured fluxes. In this study, we analyzed the systematic uncertainty related to this correction for various attenuation and signal-to-noise ratios. A new and robust transfer function method is finally proposed.
David C. Loades, Mingxi Yang, Thomas G. Bell, Adam R. Vaughan, Ryan J. Pound, Stefan Metzger, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6915–6931,Short summary
The loss of ozone to the sea surface was measured from the south coast of the UK and was found to be more rapid than previous observations over the open ocean. This is likely a consequence of different chemistry and biology in coastal environments. Strong winds appeared to speed up the loss of ozone. A better understanding of what influences ozone loss over the sea will lead to better model estimates of total ozone in the troposphere.
James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Doug P. Finch, Shona E. Wilde, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15743–15759,Short summary
Efforts to prevent the COVID-19 virus spreading across the globe have included travel restrictions and the closure of workplaces, leading to a significant drop in emissions of primary air pollutants. This provides for a unique opportunity to examine how air pollutant concentrations respond to an abrupt and prolonged reduction. We examine how NO2 and O3 have been affected at several urban measurement sites in the UK. We look at the change in NO2 compared to previous years and the effect on O3.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Matthias Sörgel, Mathew R. Heal, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Marta Sá, Christopher Pöhlker, Jost Lavric, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15551–15584,Short summary
The Amazon rainforest is a unique
laboratoryto study the processes which govern the exchange of gases and aerosols to and from the atmosphere. This study investigated these processes by measuring the atmospheric concentrations of trace gases and particles at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory. We found that the long-range transport of pollutants can affect the atmospheric composition above the Amazon rainforest and that the gases ammonia and nitrous acid can be emitted from the rainforest.
Patrick A. Barker, Grant Allen, Martin Gallagher, Joseph R. Pitt, Rebecca E. Fisher, Thomas Bannan, Euan G. Nisbet, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Dominika Pasternak, Samuel Cliff, Marina B. Schimpf, Archit Mehra, Keith N. Bower, James D. Lee, Hugh Coe, and Carl J. Percival
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15443–15459,Short summary
Africa is estimated to account for approximately 52 % of global biomass burning (BB) carbon emissions. Despite this, there has been little previous in situ study of African BB emissions. This work presents BB emission factors for various atmospheric trace gases sampled from an aircraft in two distinct areas of Africa (Senegal and Uganda). Intracontinental variability in biomass burning methane emission is identified, which is attributed to difference in the specific fuel mixtures burnt.
Qiyuan Wang, Li Li, Jiamao Zhou, Jianhuai Ye, Wenting Dai, Huikun Liu, Yong Zhang, Renjian Zhang, Jie Tian, Yang Chen, Yunfei Wu, Weikang Ran, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15427–15442,Short summary
Recently, China has promulgated a series of regulations to reduce air pollutants. The decreased black carbon (BC) and co-emitted pollutants could affect the interactions between BC and other aerosols, which in turn results in changes in BC. Herein, we re-assessed the characteristics of BC of a representative pollution site in northern China in the final year of the Chinese
Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution.
W. Joe F. Acton, Zhonghui Huang, Brian Davison, Will S. Drysdale, Pingqing Fu, Michael Hollaway, Ben Langford, James Lee, Yanhui Liu, Stefan Metzger, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Claire E. Reeves, Freya A. Squires, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Zhaoyi Wang, Oliver Wild, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, and C. Nicholas Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15101–15125,Short summary
Air quality in Beijing is of concern to both policy makers and the general public. In order to address concerns about air quality it is vital that the sources of atmospheric pollutants are understood. This work presents the first top-down measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in Beijing. These measurements are used to evaluate the emissions inventory and assess the impact of VOC emission from the city centre on atmospheric chemistry.
Eloise J. Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa Kramer, William Bloss, Tuan Vu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14847–14871,Short summary
The paper details atmospheric chemistry in a megacity (Beijing), focussing on radicals which mediate the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Highly polluted conditions were experienced, including the highest ever levels of nitric oxide (NO), with simultaneous radical measurements. Radical concentrations were large during "haze" events, demonstrating active photochemistry. Modelling showed that our understanding of the chemistry at high NOx levels is incomplete.
Douglas Morrison, Ian Crawford, Nicholas Marsden, Michael Flynn, Katie Read, Luis Neves, Virginia Foot, Paul Kaye, Warren Stanley, Hugh Coe, David Topping, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14473–14490,Short summary
We provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of bacteria within transatlantic dust clouds, originating from the African continent. We observe significant seasonal differences in the overall concentrations of particles but no seasonal variation in the ratio between bacteria and dust. With bacteria contributing to ice formation at warmer temperatures than dust, our observations should improve the accuracy of climate models.
Junjun Deng, Hao Guo, Hongliang Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Xin Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14419–14435,Short summary
One-year source apportionment of BC aerosols in a coastal city in China was conducted with the light-absorption observation-based method and source-oriented model. Source contributions identified by the two source apportionment methods were compared. Temporal variability, potential sources and transport pathways of BC from fossil fuel and biomass burning were characterized. Significant influence of biomass burning in North and East–Central China on BC in the region was highlighted.
Baozhu Ge, Danhui Xu, Oliver Wild, Xuefeng Yao, Junhua Wang, Xuechun Chen, Qixin Tan, Xiaole Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In this study, an improved sequential sampling method is developed and implemented to estimate the contribution of below-cloud and in-cloud wet deposition over the four-year measurements in Beijing. We find that the contribution of below-cloud scavenging for Ca2+, SO42− and NH4+ decreases from above 50 % in 2014 to below 40 % in 2017. This suggests that the Action Plan has mitigated PM pollution in the surface layer and hence decreased scavenging due to the washout process.
Jingsha Xu, Shaojie Song, Roy M. Harrison, Congbo Song, Lianfang Wei, Qiang Zhang, Yele Sun, Lu Lei, Chao Zhang, Xiaohong Yao, Dihui Chen, Weijun Li, Miaomiao Wu, Hezhong Tian, Lining Luo, Shengrui Tong, Weiran Li, Junling Wang, Guoliang Shi, Yanqi Huangfu, Yingze Tian, Baozhu Ge, Shaoli Su, Chao Peng, Yang Chen, Fumo Yang, Aleksandra Mihajlidi-Zelić, Dragana Đorđević, Stefan J. Swift, Imogen Andrews, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Ye Sun, Agung Kramawijaya, Jinxiu Han, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Clarissa Baldo, Siqi Hou, Feixue Zheng, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Chao Yan, Yongchun Liu, Markku Kulmala, Pingqing Fu, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6325–6341,Short summary
An interlaboratory comparison was conducted for the first time to examine differences in water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) measured by 10 labs using ion chromatography (IC) and by two online aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) methods. Major ions including SO42−, NO3− and NH4+ agreed well in 10 IC labs and correlated well with ACSM data. WSII interlab variability strongly affected aerosol acidity results based on ion balance, but aerosol pH computed by ISORROPIA II was very similar.
Junfeng Wang, Jianhuai Ye, Dantong Liu, Yangzhou Wu, Jian Zhao, Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Fuzhen Shen, Jie Zhang, Paul E. Ohno, Yiming Qin, Xiuyong Zhao, Scot T. Martin, Alex K. Y. Lee, Pingqing Fu, Daniel J. Jacob, Qi Zhang, Yele Sun, Mindong Chen, and Xinlei Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14091–14102,Short summary
We compared the organics in total submicron matter and those coated on BC cores during summertime in Beijing and found large differences between them. Traffic-related OA was associated significantly with BC, while cooking-related OA did not coat BC. In addition, a factor likely originated from primary biomass burning OA was only identified in BC-containing particles. Such a unique BBOA requires further field and laboratory studies to verify its presence and elucidate its properties and impacts.
Siqi Hou, Di Liu, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Xuefang Wu, Deepchandra Srivastava, Pingqing Fu, Linjie Li, Yele Sun, Athanasia Vlachou, Vaios Moschos, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, André S. H. Prévôt, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study provides a newly developed method which combines radiocarbon (14C) with organic tracers to enable source apportionment of primary and secondary fossil vs non-fossil sources of carbonaceous aerosols at an urban and a rural site of Beijing. The source apportionment results were compared with those by Chemical Mass Balance and AMS/ACSM-PMF methods. Correlations of WINSOC and WSOC with different sources of OC were also performed to elucidate the formation mechanisms of SOC.
Yongjoo Choi, Yugo Kanaya, Masayuki Takigawa, Chunmao Zhu, Seung-Myung Park, Atsushi Matsuki, Yasuhiro Sadanaga, Sang-Woo Kim, Xiaole Pan, and Ignacio Pisso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13655–13670,
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions are predictable and explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated to SOA in urban regions.
Mohammed S. Alam, Leigh R. Crilley, James D. Lee, Louisa J. Kramer, Christian Pfrang, Mónica Vázquez-Moreno, Milagros Ródenas, Amalia Muñoz, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5977–5991,Short summary
We report on the interference arising in measurements of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the presence of a range of alkenes in sampled air when using the most widespread air quality monitoring technique for chemiluminescence detection. Interferences of up to 11 % are reported, depending upon the alkene present and conditions used. Such interferences may be of substantial importance for the interpretation of ambient NOx data, particularly for high volatile organic compound and low NOx environments.
Huihui Wu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Kate Szpek, Justin M. Langridge, Paul I. Williams, Michael Flynn, James D. Allan, Steven J. Abel, Joseph Pitt, Michael I. Cotterell, Cathryn Fox, Nicholas W. Davies, Jim Haywood, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12697–12719,Short summary
Airborne measurements of highly aged biomass burning aerosols (BBAs) over the remote southeast Atlantic provide unique aerosol parameters for climate models. Our observations demonstrate the persistence of strongly absorbing BBAs across wide regions of the South Atlantic. We also found significant vertical variation in the single-scattering albedo of these BBAs, as a function of relative chemical composition and size. Aerosol properties in the marine BL are suggested to be separated from the FT.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, David Carruthers, Sue Grimmond, Yiqun Han, Pingqing Fu, and Simone Kotthaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Heat-related illnesses are of increasing concern in China given its rapid urbanisation and our ever-warming climate. We examine the relative impacts that land surface properties and anthropogenic heat have on the urban heat island (UHI) in Beijing using ADMS-Urban. Air temperature measurements and satellite-derived land surface temperatures provide valuable means of evaluating modelled spatiotemporal variations. This work provides critical information for urban planners and UHI mitigation.
Jiawei Li, Zhiwei Han, Pingqing Fu, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Organic aerosols of marine origin are so far poorly understood. An on-line coupled regional chemistry-climate model is developed to firstly explore and characterize the seasonality and annual feature of emission, distribution and radiative effects of marine organic aerosols specifically for the western Pacific over East Asia. This study reveals an important role of marine organic aerosols in radiation and cloud and would be valuable for climate research at both regional and global scales.
James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Chiara Di Marco, Neil Mullinger, James Allan, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ruthambara Joshi, Mathew R. Heal, W. Joe F. Acton, Nick Hewitt, Pawel Misztal, Will Drysdale, Tuhin K. Mandal, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We present the first real-time composition of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in Old Delhi using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. Seasonal analysis shows peak concentrations occur during the post-monsoon and novel-tracers reveal the largest sources are a combination of local open and regional crop residue burning. Strong links between increased chloride aerosol concentrations and burning sources of PM1 suggest burning sources are responsible for the post-monsoon chloride peak.
Jessica Slater, Juha Tonttila, Gordon McFiggans, Paul Connolly, Sami Romakkaniemi, Thomas Kühn, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11893–11906,Short summary
The feedback effect between aerosol particles, radiation and meteorology reduces turbulent motion and results in increased surface aerosol concentrations during Beijing haze. Observational analysis and regional modelling studies have examined the feedback effect but these studies are limited. In this work, we set up a high-resolution model for the Beijing environment to examine the sensitivity of the aerosol feedback effect to initial meteorological conditions and aerosol loading.
Haijie Tong, Fobang Liu, Alexander Filippi, Jake Wilson, Andrea M. Arangio, Yun Zhang, Siyao Yue, Steven Lelieveld, Fangxia Shen, Helmi-Marja K. Keskinen, Jing Li, Haoxuan Chen, Ting Zhang, Thorsten Hoffmann, Pingqing Fu, William H. Brune, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Maosheng Yao, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We measured radical yields of aqueous PM2.5 extracts and found lower yields at higher concentrations of PM2.5. Abundances of water-soluble transition metals and aromatics in PM2.5 were positively correlated with the relative fraction (RF) of •OH among detected radicals, but negatively correlated with the RF of C-centered radicals. Composition-dependent reactive species yields may explain differences in the reactivity and health effects of PM2.5 in clean versus polluted air.
Isabella Capel-Timms, Stefán Thor Smith, Ting Sun, and Sue Grimmond
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4891–4924,Short summary
Thermal emissions or anthropogenic heat fluxes (QF) from human activities impact the local- and larger-scale urban climate. DASH considers both urban form and function in simulating QF by use of an agent-based structure that includes behavioural characteristics of city populations. This allows social practices to drive the calculation of QF as occupants move, varying by day type, demographic, location, activity, and socio-economic factors and in response to environmental conditions.
Zainab Bibi, Hugh Coe, James Brooks, Paul I. Williams, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Michael Priestley, Carl Percival, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
We are presenting a new method to apportion Black Carbon/soot into multiple sources through the inclusion of fullerene and metal data into SP-AMS factorisation. While this is itself would be considered a technical development, we can present a budget of contributions to measured BC during the event studied, including the conclusion that fireworks contributed little compared to the bonfire, traffic and domestic wood burning emissions.
Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, Surendran Nair Suresh Babu, Krishnaswamy Krishnamoorthy, Sreedharan Krishnakumari Satheesh, Mukunda M. Gogoi, Vijayakumar S. Nair, Jayachandran V, Dantong Liu, Michael Flynn, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACP
Jonathan W. Taylor, Huihui Wu, Kate Szpek, Keith Bower, Ian Crawford, Michael J. Flynn, Paul I. Williams, James Dorsey, Justin M. Langridge, Michael I. Cotterell, Cathryn Fox, Nicholas W. Davies, Jim M. Haywood, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11201–11221,Short summary
Every year, huge plumes of smoke hundreds of miles wide travel over the south Atlantic Ocean from fires in central and southern Africa. These plumes absorb the sun’s energy and warm the climate. We used airborne optical instrumentation to determine how absorbing the smoke was as well as the relative importance of black and brown carbon. We also tested different ways of simulating these properties that could be used in a climate model.
Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Chinmoy Sarkar, Leah Williams, Farzaneh Khalaj, Alex Guenther, John Jayne, Hugh Coe, Douglas Worsnop, Celia Faiola, and Manjula Canagaratna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10953–10965,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Real plant emissions are much more diverse than the few proxies widely used for studies of plant SOA. Here we present the first study of SOA from Californian sage plants and the oxygenated monoterpenes representing their major emissions. We identify SOA products and show the importance of the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules and oligomers.
Wei Hu, Kotaro Murata, Chunlan Fan, Shu Huang, Hiromi Matsusaki, Pingqing Fu, and Daizhou Zhang
Biogeosciences, 17, 4477–4487,Short summary
This paper reports the first estimate of the status of bacteria in long-distance-transported Asian dust, demonstrating that airborne dust, which can carry viable and nonviable bacteria on particle surfaces, is an efficient medium for constantly spreading bacteria at regional and even global scales. Such data are essential to better model and understand the roles and activities of bioaerosols in environmental evolution and climate change and the potential risks of bioaerosols to human health.
Wanyu Zhao, Hong Ren, Kimitaka Kawamura, Huiyun Du, Xueshun Chen, Siyao Yue, Qiaorong Xie, Lianfang Wei, Ping Li, Xin Zeng, Shaofei Kong, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10331–10350,Short summary
Our observations provide detailed information on the abundance and vertical distribution of dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls in PM2.5 collected at three heights based on a 325 m meteorological tower in Beijing in summer. Our results demonstrate that organic acids at the ground surface are largely associated with local traffic emissions, while long-range atmospheric transport followed by photochemical ageing contributes more in the urban boundary layer than the ground surface.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Upasana Panda, Eoghan Darbyshire, James M. Cash, Rutambhara Joshi, Ben Langford, Chiara F. Di Marco, Neil Mullinger, W. Joe F. Acton, Will Drysdale, Eiko Nemitz, Michael Flynn, Aristeidis Voliotis, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, James Lee, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Mathew R. Heal, Sachin S. Gunthe, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Siddhartha Singh, Vijay Soni, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
The work presented in this manuscript shows the first multisite online measurements of PM1 in Delhi, India. It covers measurements over different seasons in Old and New Delhi during 2018. OA source apportionment was performed using PMF. Traffic showed to be the main primary aerosol source for both OA and BC, as seen with the PMF analysis and aethalometer model analysis. This indicates that in Delhi control of primary traffic exhaust emissions would make a significant reduction to air pollution.
David Topping, David Watts, Hugh Coe, James Evans, Thomas J. Bannan, Douglas Lowe, Caroline Jay, and Jonathan W. Taylor
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Time-series forecasting methods have often been used to mitigate some of the challenges associated with deploying chemical transport models. In this study we deploy and evaluate Facebook’s Prophetmodel v0.6 in predicting hourly concentrations of Nitrogen Dioxide [NO2]. et. Overall we find the Prophet model offers a relatively effective and simple way to make predictions about NO2 at local levels.
Archit Mehra, Yuwei Wang, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Francesca Majluf, Melissa A. Morris, Michael Priestley, Thomas J. Bannan, Daniel J. Bryant, Kelly L. Pereira, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Andrew R. Rickard, Mike J. Newland, Harald Stark, Philip Croteau, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Lin Wang, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9783–9803,Short summary
Aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from anthropogenic activity are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Here we present a detailed chemical characterisation of SOA from four C9-aromatic isomers and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). We identify and compare their oxidation products in the gas and particle phases, showing the different relative importance of oxidation pathways and proportions of highly oxygenated organic molecules.
Yuwei Wang, Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Gan Yang, Xiaoyu Hu, Yiqun Lu, Andrew Lambe, Manjula Canagaratna, Jianmin Chen, Douglas Worsnop, Hugh Coe, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9563–9579,Short summary
A series of OH-initiated oxidation experiments of trimethylbenzene were investigated in the absence and presence of NOx. Many C9 products with 1–11 oxygen atoms and C18 products presumably formed from dimerization of C9 peroxy radicals were observed, hinting at the extensive existence of autoxidation and accretion reaction pathways. The presence of NOx would suppress the formation of highly oxygenated C18 molecules and enhance the formation of organonitrates and even dinitrate compounds.
Jill S. Johnson, Leighton A. Regayre, Masaru Yoshioka, Kirsty J. Pringle, Steven T. Turnock, Jo Browse, David M. H. Sexton, John W. Rostron, Nick A. J. Schutgens, Daniel G. Partridge, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Aijun Ding, David D. Cohen, Armand Atanacio, Ville Vakkari, Eija Asmi, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9491–9524,Short summary
We use over 9000 monthly aggregated grid-box measurements of aerosol to constrain the uncertainty in the HadGEM3-UKCA climate model. Measurements of AOD, PM2.5, particle number concentrations, sulfate and organic mass concentrations are compared to 1 million
variantsof the model using an implausibility metric. Despite many compensating effects in the model, the procedure constrains the probability distributions of many parameters, and direct radiative forcing uncertainty is reduced by 34 %.
Ru-Jin Huang, Yao He, Jing Duan, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Yang Chen, Weiwei Hu, Chunshui Lin, Haiyan Ni, Wenting Dai, Junji Cao, Yunfei Wu, Renjian Zhang, Wei Xu, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Thorsten Hoffmann, and Colin D. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9101–9114,Short summary
We systematically compared the submicron particle (PM1) processes in haze days with low and high relative humidity (RH) in wintertime Beijing. Nitrate had similar daytime growth rates in low-RH and high-RH pollution. OOA had a higher growth rate in low-RH pollution than in high-RH pollution. Sulfate had a decreasing trend in low-RH pollution, while it increased significantly in high-RH pollution. This distinction may be explained by the different processes affected by meteorological conditions.
Freya A. Squires, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Oliver Wild, Will S. Drysdale, W. Joe F. Acton, Pingqing Fu, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Simone Kotthaus, James Lee, Stefan Metzger, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Marvin Shaw, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Ruili Wu, Qiang Zhang, and Yanli Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8737–8761,Short summary
Significant air quality problems exist in megacities like Beijing, China. To manage air pollution, legislators need a clear understanding of pollutant emissions. However, emissions inventories have large uncertainties, and reliable field measurements of pollutant emissions are required to constrain them. This work presents the first measurements of traffic-dominated emissions in Beijing which suggest that inventories overestimate these emissions in the region during both winter and summer.
Jiawei Li, Zhiwei Han, Yunfei Wu, Zhe Xiong, Xiangao Xia, Jie Li, Lin Liang, and Renjian Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8659–8690,Short summary
Aerosol–radiation–climate interaction is one of the least understood mechanisms in air pollution and climate change. A coupled chemistry–climate model is developed to explore the mechanisms of haze evolution and aerosol radiative feedback in north China. The feedback exerts a significant impact on haze evolution. The contributions of physical and chemical processes to the feedback-induced aerosol changes are elucidated and quantified, providing new insights into the feedback mechanism.
Hamidreza Omidvar, Ting Sun, Sue Grimmond, Dave Bilesbach, Andrew Black, Jiquan Chen, Zexia Duan, Zhiqiu Gao, Hiroki Iwata, and Joseph P. McFadden
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
This paper extends the applicability of the SUEWS to extensive pervious areas outside cities. We derived various parameters such as leaf area index, albedo, roughness parameters and surface conductance for non-urban areas. The relation between LAI and albedo is also explored. The methods and parameters discussed can be used for both online and offline simulations. Using appropriate parameters related to non-urban areas are essential for assessing urban-rural differences.
Jun Liu, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Chaopeng Hong, Meng Li, Xin Li, Fei Liu, Dan Tong, Ruili Wu, Bo Zheng, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7783–7799,Short summary
Ambient PM2.5 pollution contributed substantially to premature mortality in China. The contributions of various sectors to anthropogenic PM2.5-related premature mortality have changed substantially during 1990–2015. In 1990, the residential sector was the leading source, followed by industry, power, agriculture, and transportation, whereas in 2015, the industrial sector became the largest contributor, followed by the residential sector, agriculture, transportation, and power.
Daniel J. Bryant, William J. Dixon, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Kelly L. Pereira, Marvin Shaw, Freya A. Squires, Thomas J. Bannan, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Bin Ouyang, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Di Liu, Zongbo Shi, Roy Harrison, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Alastair C. Lewis, James D. Lee, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7531–7552,Short summary
Using the chemical composition of offline filter samples, we report that a large share of oxidized organic aerosol in Beijing during summer is due to isoprene secondary organic aerosol (iSOA). iSOA organosulfates showed a strong correlation with the product of ozone and particulate sulfate. This highlights the role of both photochemistry and the availability of particulate sulfate in heterogeneous reactions and further demonstrates that iSOA formation is controlled by anthropogenic emissions.
Kirsti Ashworth, Silvia Bucci, Peter J. Gallimore, Junghwa Lee, Beth S. Nelson, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquín, Marina B. Schimpf, Paul D. Smith, Will S. Drysdale, Jim R. Hopkins, James D. Lee, Joe R. Pitt, Piero Di Carlo, Radovan Krejci, and James B. McQuaid
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7193–7216,Short summary
In July 2017 we flew three research flights around London during European Facility for Airborne Research (EUFAR) training. We made continuous measurements of concentrations of key pollutants (ozone, NOx, aerosol particles, CO, CO2 and methane) and meteorology, and we collected periodic samples of air to analyse for volatile organic compounds. We saw evidence that plumes of pollution from the city, strong local emissions and pollution from distant sources all contribute to regional pollution.
Weiqi Xu, Yao He, Yanmei Qiu, Chun Chen, Conghui Xie, Lu Lei, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Junyao Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3205–3219,Short summary
We characterized mass spectral features of organic aerosol (OA) and water-soluble OA (WSOA) from 21 cooking, crop straw, wood, and coal burning experiments using aerosol mass spectrometers with standard and capture vaporizers, and we demonstrated the applications of source spectral profiles in improving source apportionment of ambient OA at a highly polluted rural site in the North China Plain in winter.
Jing Yang, Wanyu Zhao, Lianfang Wei, Qiang Zhang, Yue Zhao, Wei Hu, Libin Wu, Xiaodong Li, Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Cong-Qiang Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6841–6860,Short summary
Our observations provide novel detailed information on the atmospheric abundances and spatial distributions of dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, and α-dicarbonyls in marine aerosols collected from the South China Sea to the East Indian Ocean. Our results demonstrate that the continental outflow of both biogenic and anthropogenic precursors followed by photochemical aging is one of the main sources and formation processes of marine organic aerosols over the tropical oceanic regions.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Shuang Chen, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Jing Chen, Lujie Ren, Siyao Yue, Wanyu Zhao, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Haijie Tong, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Cong-Qiang Liu, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6803–6820,Short summary
Current knowledge on firework-related organic aerosols is very limited. Here the detailed molecular composition of organics in urban aerosols was characterized using ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Our findings highlight that firework emission leads to a sharp increase in CHO, CHNO, and CHOS containing high-molecular-weight species, particularly aromatic-like substances, which affect the physicochemical properties such as the light absorption and health effects of urban aerosols.
Shengzhen Zhou, Luolin Wu, Junchen Guo, Weihua Chen, Xuemei Wang, Jun Zhao, Yafang Cheng, Zuzhao Huang, Jinpu Zhang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Shiguo Jia, Jun Tao, Yanning Chen, and Junxia Kuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6435–6453,Short summary
In this work, measurements of size-segregated aerosols were conducted at three altitudes (ground level, 118 m, and 488 m) on the 610 m high Canton Tower in southern China. Vertical variations of PM and size-segregated chemical compositions were investigated. The results indicated that meteorological parameters and atmospheric aqueous and heterogeneous reactions together led to aerosol formation and haze episodes in the Pearl River Delta region during the measurement periods.
Hang Liu, Xiaole Pan, Dantong Liu, Xiaoyong Liu, Xueshun Chen, Yu Tian, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5771–5785,Short summary
The bare black carbon (BC) was in a fractal structure. With coating thickness increasing, BC changed from a fractal structure to a core–shell structure. In the ambient atmosphere, plenty of BC particles were not in a perfect core–shell structure. This study brought attention to the combined effects of morphology and coating thickness on the absorption enhancement of BC-containing particles, which is helpful for determining the climatic effects of BC.
Jian Zhang, Lei Liu, Liang Xu, Qiuhan Lin, Hujia Zhao, Zhibin Wang, Song Guo, Min Hu, Dantong Liu, Zongbo Shi, Dao Huang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5355–5372,Short summary
Northeast China faces severe air pollution in regional haze in wintertime. In this study, we revealed a contrasting formation mechanism of two typical haze events: Haze-I was induced by adverse meteorological conditions together with residential coal burning emissions; Haze-II was caused by agricultural biomass waste burning. In particular, we observed large numbers of tar balls as the primary brown carbon in northeast China.
William T. Morgan, James D. Allan, Stéphane Bauguitte, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael J. Flynn, James Lee, Dantong Liu, Ben Johnson, Jim Haywood, Karla M. Longo, Paulo E. Artaxo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5309–5326,Short summary
We flew a large atmospheric research aircraft across a number of different environments in the Amazon basin during the 2012 biomass burning season. Smoke from fires builds up and has a significant impact on weather, climate, health and natural ecosystems. Our goal was to quantify changes in the properties of the smoke emitted by fires as it is transported through the atmosphere. We found that the major control on the properties of the smoke was due to differences in the fires themselves.
Fanhao Meng, Min Qin, Ke Tang, Jun Duan, Wu Fang, Shuaixi Liang, Kaidi Ye, Pinhua Xie, Yele Sun, Conghui Xie, Chunxiang Ye, Pingqing Fu, Jianguo Liu, and Wenqing Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5071–5092,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO), a major precursor of the OH radical, plays a key role in atmospheric chemistry, but its sources are still debated. The first high-resolution vertical measurements of HONO and NO2 were conducted in Beijing to investigate the nocturnal sources of HONO at different stages of pollution. The ground surface dominated HONO production by heterogeneous conversion of NO2 during clean episodes, but the aerosol production was an important nighttime HONO source during haze episodes.
Siddika Celik, Frank Drewnick, Friederike Fachinger, James Brooks, Eoghan Darbyshire, Hugh Coe, Jean-Daniel Paris, Philipp G. Eger, Jan Schuladen, Ivan Tadic, Nils Friedrich, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Hottmann, Horst Fischer, John N. Crowley, Hartwig Harder, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4713–4734,Short summary
Analysis of 252 ship emission plumes in the Mediterranean Sea and around the Arabian Peninsula examined particulate- and gas-phase characteristics. By identifying the corresponding ships, source features and plume age were determined. Emission factors (amount of pollutant per kilogram of fuel burned) were calculated and investigated for dependencies on source characteristics, atmospheric conditions, and transport time, providing insight into the most relevant influences on ship emissions.
Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Paquita Zuidema, Jianhao Zhang, Matt Christensen, Fanny Peers, Jonathan W. Taylor, Ian Crawford, Keith N. Bower, and Michael Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4059–4084,Short summary
In situ measurements of a free-tropospheric (FT) biomass burning aerosol plume in contact with the boundary layer inversion overriding a pocket of open cells (POC) and surrounding stratiform cloud are presented. The data highlight the contrasting thermodynamic, aerosol and cloud properties in the two cloud regimes and further demonstrate that the cloud regime plays a key role in regulating the flow of FT aerosols into the boundary layer, which has implications for the aerosol indirect effect.
Oliver Wild, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Fiona O'Connor, Jean-François Lamarque, Edmund M. Ryan, and Lindsay Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4047–4058,Short summary
Global models of tropospheric chemistry and transport show a persistent diversity in results that has not been fully explained. We demonstrate the first use of global sensitivity analysis consistently across three independent models to explore these differences and reveal both clear similarities and surprising differences which have important implications for our assessment of future atmospheric composition change.
Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, Surendran Nair Suresh Babu, Sreedharan Krishnakumari Satheesh, Krishnaswamy Krishna Moorthy, Trupti Das, Ramasamy Boopathy, Dantong Liu, Eoghan Darbyshire, James D. Allan, James Brooks, Michael J. Flynn, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3965–3985,
Mohanan R. Manoj, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4031–4046,Short summary
The study reports the observation of highly absorbing aerosol layers at high altitudes (1–2.5 km) prior to monsoon and during its development over the Indian region and quantifies its climate impacts. The absorption of solar radiation in these layers perturbs the onset of monsoon through the impact on the atmospheric stability. When height-resolved values of single scattering albedo (SSA) are used in a radiative transfer model, a maximum heating ~1 K d (~twice that using SSA) is obtained.
Quan Liu, Dantong Liu, Qian Gao, Ping Tian, Fei Wang, Delong Zhao, Kai Bi, Yangzhou Wu, Shuo Ding, Kang Hu, Jiale Zhang, Deping Ding, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3931–3944,Short summary
We present a series of aircraft-based in situ measurements of aerosol chemical components and size distributions over the North China Plain, and the hygroscopicity is derived from aerosol chemical composition. These results reveal the vertical characteristics of aerosol hygroscopicity, and we investigated their impacts on optical properties and activation under different moisture and pollution conditions over this polluted region.
Gary Lloyd, Thomas Choularton, Keith Bower, Jonathan Crosier, Martin Gallagher, Michael Flynn, James Dorsey, Dantong Liu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Oliver Schlenczek, Jacob Fugal, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, Paul Field, and Alan Blyth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3895–3904,Short summary
Measurements of liquid and ice cloud particles were made using an aircraft to penetrate fresh growing convective clouds in the tropical Atlantic. We found small ice particles at surprisingly high temperatures just below freezing. At colder temperatures secondary ice processes rapidly generated high concentrations of ice crystals.
Chenjie Yu, Dantong Liu, Kurtis Broda, Rutambhara Joshi, Jason Olfert, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Hugh Coe, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3645–3661,Short summary
This study presents the first atmospheric application of a new morphology-independent measurement for the quantification of the mixing state of rBC-containing particles in urban Beijing as part of the UK–China APHH campaign. An inversion method has been applied for better quantification of rBC mixing state. The mass-resolved rBC mixing state information presented here has implications for detailed models of BC, its optical properties and its atmospheric life cycle.
Chris R. Flechard, Andreas Ibrom, Ute M. Skiba, Wim de Vries, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Nancy B. Dise, Janne F. J. Korhonen, Nina Buchmann, Arnaud Legout, David Simpson, Maria J. Sanz, Marc Aubinet, Denis Loustau, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Ivan A. Janssens, Mari Pihlatie, Ralf Kiese, Jan Siemens, André-Jean Francez, Jürgen Augustin, Andrej Varlagin, Janusz Olejnik, Radosław Juszczak, Mika Aurela, Daniel Berveiller, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Ulrich Dämmgen, Nicolas Delpierre, Vesna Djuricic, Julia Drewer, Eric Dufrêne, Werner Eugster, Yannick Fauvel, David Fowler, Arnoud Frumau, André Granier, Patrick Gross, Yannick Hamon, Carole Helfter, Arjan Hensen, László Horváth, Barbara Kitzler, Bart Kruijt, Werner L. Kutsch, Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Michal V. Marek, Giorgio Matteucci, Marta Mitosinkova, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Kim Pilegaard, Gabriel Pita, Francisco Sanz, Jan K. Schjoerring, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Y. Sim Tang, Hilde Uggerud, Marek Urbaniak, Netty van Dijk, Timo Vesala, Sonja Vidic, Caroline Vincke, Tamás Weidinger, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Eiko Nemitz, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1583–1620,Short summary
Experimental evidence from a network of 40 monitoring sites in Europe suggests that atmospheric nitrogen deposition to forests and other semi-natural vegetation impacts the carbon sequestration rates in ecosystems, as well as the net greenhouse gas balance including other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Excess nitrogen deposition in polluted areas also leads to other environmental impacts such as nitrogen leaching to groundwater and other pollutant gaseous emissions.
Chris R. Flechard, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Wim de Vries, Andreas Ibrom, Nina Buchmann, Nancy B. Dise, Ivan A. Janssens, Johan Neirynck, Leonardo Montagnani, Andrej Varlagin, Denis Loustau, Arnaud Legout, Klaudia Ziemblińska, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Julia Drewer, Werner Eugster, André-Jean Francez, Radosław Juszczak, Barbara Kitzler, Werner L. Kutsch, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Giorgio Matteucci, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Janusz Olejnik, Maria J. Sanz, Jan Siemens, Timo Vesala, Caroline Vincke, Eiko Nemitz, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Ute M. Skiba, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1621–1654,Short summary
Nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere to unfertilized terrestrial vegetation such as forests can increase carbon dioxide uptake and favour carbon sequestration by ecosystems. However the data from observational networks are difficult to interpret in terms of a carbon-to-nitrogen response, because there are a number of other confounding factors, such as climate, soil physical properties and fertility, and forest age. We propose a model-based method to untangle the different influences.
Shaofeng Xu, Lujie Ren, Yunchao Lang, Shengjie Hou, Hong Ren, Lianfang Wei, Libin Wu, Junjun Deng, Wei Hu, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3623–3644,Short summary
Current knowledge on the size distribution of biogenic primary organic aerosols in urban regions with heavy haze pollution is very limited. Here we performed a year-round study focusing on the organic molecular composition of size-segregated aerosol samples collected in urban Beijing during haze and non-haze days to elucidate the seasonal contributions of biomass burning, fungal spores, and plant debris to organic carbon as well as the influences from local emissions and long-range transport.
Alexander T. Archibald, Fiona M. O'Connor, Nathan Luke Abraham, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Fraser Dennison, Sandip S. Dhomse, Paul T. Griffiths, Catherine Hardacre, Alan J. Hewitt, Richard S. Hill, Colin E. Johnson, James Keeble, Marcus O. Köhler, Olaf Morgenstern, Jane P. Mulcahy, Carlos Ordóñez, Richard J. Pope, Steven T. Rumbold, Maria R. Russo, Nicholas H. Savage, Alistair Sellar, Marc Stringer, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1223–1266,Short summary
Here we present a description and evaluation of the UKCA stratosphere–troposphere chemistry scheme (StratTrop vn 1.0) implemented in the UK Earth System Model (UKESM1). UKCA StratTrop represents a substantial step forward compared to previous versions of UKCA. We show here that it is fully suited to the challenges of representing interactions in a coupled Earth system model and identify key areas and components for future development that will make it even better in the future.
Leigh R. Crilley, Ajit Singh, Louisa J. Kramer, Marvin D. Shaw, Mohammed S. Alam, Joshua S. Apte, William J. Bloss, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, Pingqing Fu, Weiqi Fu, Shahzad Gani, Michael Gatari, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Alastair C. Lewis, David Ng'ang'a, Yele Sun, Rachel C. W. Whitty, Siyao Yue, Stuart Young, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1181–1193,Short summary
There is considerable interest in using low-cost optical particle counters (OPCs) for particle mass measurements; however, there is no agreed upon method with respect to calibration. Here we exploit a number of datasets globally to demonstrate that particle composition and relative humidity are the key factors affecting measured concentrations from a low-cost OPC, and we present a simple correction methodology that corrects for this influence.
Lu Lei, Conghui Xie, Dawei Wang, Yao He, Qingqing Wang, Wei Zhou, Wei Hu, Pingqing Fu, Yong Chen, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2877–2890,Short summary
We characterized aerosol composition and sources near two steel plants in a coastal region in fall and spring seasons. Our results showed substantially different aerosol composition and sources between the two seasons. We observed significant impacts of steel plant emissions on aerosol chemistry nearby, and we found that aerosol particles emitted from the steel plants were dominated by ammonium sulfate/bisulfate; NOx/CO and NOx/SO2 were distinct from those in the absence of industrial plumes.
Marios Panagi, Zoë L. Fleming, Paul S. Monks, Matthew J. Ashfold, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, Qiang Zhang, Freya A. Squires, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2825–2838,Short summary
In this paper, using dispersion modelling with emission inventories it was determined that on average 45 % of the total CO pollution that affects Beijing is transported from other areas. About half of the CO comes from beyond the immediate surrounding areas. Finally three classification types of pollution were identified and used to analyse the APHH winter campaign. The results can inform targeted control measures to be implemented in Beijing and the other regions to tackle air quality problems.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, David Carruthers, Jie Li, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Freya A. Squires, James Lee, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2755–2780,Short summary
Ambient air pollution is a major cause of premature death in China. We examine the street-scale variation of pollutant levels in Beijing using air pollution dispersion and chemistry model ADMS-Urban. Campaign measurements are compared with simulated pollutant levels, providing a valuable means of evaluating the impact of key processes on urban air quality. Air quality modelling at such fine scales is essential for human exposure studies and for informing choices on future emission controls.
Sidhant J. Pai, Colette L. Heald, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Salvatore C. Farina, Eloise A. Marais, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Ann M. Middlebrook, Hugh Coe, John E. Shilling, Roya Bahreini, Justin H. Dingle, and Kennedy Vu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2637–2665,Short summary
Aerosols in the atmosphere have significant health and climate impacts. Organic aerosol (OA) accounts for a large fraction of the total aerosol burden, but models have historically struggled to accurately simulate it. This study compares two very different OA model schemes and evaluates them against a suite of globally distributed airborne measurements with the goal of providing insight into the strengths and weaknesses of each approach across different environments.
Ping Tian, Dantong Liu, Delong Zhao, Chenjie Yu, Quan Liu, Mengyu Huang, Zhaoze Deng, Liang Ran, Yunfei Wu, Shuo Ding, Kang Hu, Gang Zhao, Chunsheng Zhao, and Deping Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2603–2622,Short summary
This study paints a full picture of the evolution of vertical characteristics of aerosol optical properties and shortwave heating impacts of carbonaceous aerosols during different stages of pollution events over the Beijing region and highlights the increased contribution of brown carbon absorption, especially at higher levels, during pollution.
Ying Chen, Oliver Wild, Edmund Ryan, Saroj Kumar Sahu, Douglas Lowe, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Yu Wang, Gordon McFiggans, Tabish Ansari, Vikas Singh, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Alex Archibald, and Gufran Beig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 499–514,Short summary
PM2.5 and O3 are two major air pollutants. Some mitigation strategies focusing on reducing PM2.5 may lead to substantial increase in O3. We use statistical emulation combined with atmospheric transport model to perform thousands of sensitivity numerical studies to identify the major sources of PM2.5 and O3 and to develop strategies targeted at both pollutants. Our scientific evidence suggests that regional coordinated emission control is required to mitigate PM2.5 whilst preventing O3 increase.
Yanbing Fan, Cong-Qiang Liu, Linjie Li, Lujie Ren, Hong Ren, Zhimin Zhang, Qinkai Li, Shuang Wang, Wei Hu, Junjun Deng, Libin Wu, Shujun Zhong, Yue Zhao, Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Xiaodong Li, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Kimitaka Kawamura, Zongbo Shi, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 117–137,Short summary
This study provides useful knowledge on the abundance, sources, and formation processes of organic aerosols in the coastal megacity of Tianjin, North China, based on the investigation of the molecular composition, diurnal variation, and winter/summer differences under the influence of land/sea breezes and the Asian summer monsoon.
Yongjoo Choi, Yugo Kanaya, Seung-Myung Park, Atsushi Matsuki, Yasuhiro Sadanaga, Sang-Woo Kim, Itsushi Uno, Xiaole Pan, Meehye Lee, Hyunjae Kim, and Dong Hee Jung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 83–98,Short summary
The relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) can differ by the different structure of fuel consumption. By investigating the representativeness of the BC and CO emission inventory for real-world comparison with reliable observations, this study suggested that accurate CO emissions should be preferentially investigated to enhance the accuracy of the BC emission rate over East Asia.
Danhui Xu, Baozhu Ge, Xueshun Chen, Yele Sun, Nianliang Cheng, Mei Li, Xiaole Pan, Zhiqiang Ma, Yuepeng Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15569–15581,Short summary
Wet deposition is one of the most important and efficient removal mechanisms in the evolution of the air pollution. Due to the lack of a localized parameterization scheme and some mechanisms being neglected in theoretical estimations and modeling calculations, below-cloud wet scavenging coefficients (BWSC) have large uncertainties. We compare the BWSCs under the same conditions to perform a multi-method evaluation in order to describe their characteristics.
Sophie L. Haslett, Jonathan W. Taylor, Mathew Evans, Eleanor Morris, Bernhard Vogel, Alima Dajuma, Joel Brito, Anneke M. Batenburg, Stephan Borrmann, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Cyrielle Denjean, Thierry Bourrianne, Peter Knippertz, Régis Dupuy, Alfons Schwarzenböck, Daniel Sauer, Cyrille Flamant, James Dorsey, Ian Crawford, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15217–15234,Short summary
Three aircraft datasets from the DACCIWA campaign in summer 2016 are used here to show there is a background mass of pollution present in the lower atmosphere in southern West Africa. We suggest that this likely comes from biomass burning in central and southern Africa, which has been carried into the region over the Atlantic Ocean. This would have a negative health impact on populations living near the coast and may alter the impact of growing city emissions on cloud formation and the monsoon.
James Brean, Roy M. Harrison, Zongbo Shi, David C. S. Beddows, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Freya A. Squires, and James Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14933–14947,Short summary
Measurements of highly oxidized molecules measured during a summer campaign in Beijing are presented. These molecules represent an intermediary between gas-phase chemicals from which they are formed and airborne particles which form from them. Conclusions are drawn as to the factors affecting the formation of new particles within the Beijing atmosphere.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Bin Ouyang, Jun Duan, Wenqian Zhang, Shengrui Tong, Maofa Ge, Ke Tang, Min Qin, Pinhua Xie, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, James Allan, Carl J. Percival, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Roderic L. Jones, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6449–6463,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is key species for understanding tropospheric chemistry, yet accurate and precise measurements are challenging. Here we report an inter–comparison exercise of a number of instruments that measured HONO in a highly polluted location (Beijing). All instruments agreed on the temporal trends yet displayed divergence in absolute concentrations. The cause of this divergence was unclear, but it may in part be due to spatial variability in instrument location.
Hang Liu, Xiaole Pan, Yu Wu, Dawei Wang, Yu Tian, Xiaoyong Liu, Lu Lei, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14791–14804,Short summary
The relationship among the effective density, rBC's coating thickness, and rBC's morphology was investigated. rBC with larger effective density adopted a more regular shape due to more coating thickness. The effective density distribution of ambient rBC was also measured. From the information of effective density, the ambient rBC mainly adopts an irregular shape, which can cause large uncertainties in the rBC's optical properties.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
James Brooks, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Paul I. Williams, Jim Haywood, Ellie J. Highwood, Sobhan K. Kompalli, S. Suresh Babu, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Andrew G. Turner, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13079–13096,Short summary
Our study presents an analysis of the vertical and horizontal black carbon properties across northern India using aircraft measurements. The Indo-Gangetic Plain saw the greatest black carbon mass concentrations during the pre-monsoon season. Two black carbon modes were recorded: a small black carbon mode (traffic emissions) in the north-west and a moderately coated mode (solid-fuel emissions) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In the vertical profile, absorption properties increase with height.
Duncan Watson-Parris, Nick Schutgens, Carly Reddington, Kirsty J. Pringle, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Ken S. Carslaw, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11765–11790,Short summary
The vertical distribution of aerosol in the atmosphere affects its ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei and changes the amount of sunlight it absorbs or reflects. Common global measurements of aerosol provide no information about this vertical distribution. Using a global collection of in situ aircraft measurements to compare with an aerosol–climate model (ECHAM-HAM), we explore the key processes controlling this distribution and find that wet removal plays a key role.
Lia Chatzidiakou, Anika Krause, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Andrea Di Antonio, Mike Kellaway, Yiqun Han, Freya A. Squires, Teng Wang, Hanbin Zhang, Qi Wang, Yunfei Fan, Shiyi Chen, Min Hu, Jennifer K. Quint, Benjamin Barratt, Frank J. Kelly, Tong Zhu, and Roderic L. Jones
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4643–4657,Short summary
This study validates the performance of a personal air quality monitor that integrates miniaturised sensors that measure physical and chemical parameters. Overall, the air pollution sensors showed excellent agreement with standard instrumentation in outdoor, indoor and commuting environments across seasons and different geographical settings. Hence, novel sensing technologies like the ones demonstrated here can revolutionise health studies by providing highly resolved reliable exposure metrics.
Ruihe Lyu, Zongbo Shi, Mohammed Salim Alam, Xuefang Wu, Di Liu, Tuan V. Vu, Christopher Stark, Pingqing Fu, Yinchang Feng, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10865–10881,Short summary
Severe pollution of the Beijing atmosphere is a frequent occurrence. The airborne particles which characterize the episodes of haze contain a wide range of chemical constituents but organic compounds make up a substantial proportion. In this study individual compounds are analysed under both haze and non-haze conditions, and the measurements are compared with samples collected in London, where the air pollution climate and sources are very different.
Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Eleni Karnezi, Qi Zhang, Junfeng Wang, Spyros N. Pandis, Xinlei Ge, Jingwei Zhang, Junling An, Qingqing Wang, Jian Zhao, Wei Du, Yanmei Qiu, Wei Zhou, Yao He, Ying Li, Jie Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10205–10216,Short summary
We present the first aerosol volatility measurements in Beijing in summer using a thermodenuder coupled with aerosol mass spectrometers. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) comprised mainly semi-volatile organic compounds in summer, and the freshly oxidized secondary OA was the most volatile component. We also found quite different volatility distributions in black-carbon-containing primary and secondary OA, ambient OA, ambient secondary OA and the WRF-Chem model.
Yunfei Wu, Yunjie Xia, Rujin Huang, Zhaoze Deng, Ping Tian, Xiangao Xia, and Renjian Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4347–4359,Short summary
The morphology and effective density of externally mixed black carbon (extBC) aerosols were studied using a tandem technique coupling a DMA with a SP2. The study extended the mass–mobility relationship to large extBC with a mobility diameter larger than 350 nm, a size range seldom included in previous tandem measurements of BC aggregates. On this basis, quantities such as the mass–mobility scaling exponent were revealed for extBC in urban Beijing.
Michael Hollaway, Oliver Wild, Ting Yang, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Lisa Whalley, Eloise Slater, Dwayne Heard, and Dantong Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9699–9714,Short summary
This study, for the first time, uses combinations of aerosol and lidar data to drive an offline photolysis scheme. Absorbing species are shown to have the greatest impact on photolysis rate constants in the winter and scattering aerosol are shown to dominate responses in the summer. During haze episodes, aerosols are shown to produce a greater impact than cloud cover. The findings demonstrate the potential photochemical impacts of haze pollution in a highly polluted urban environment.
Huiyun Du, Jie Li, Xueshun Chen, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Jianjun Li, Jian Gao, and Ying Wei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9351–9370,Short summary
Regional transport and heterogeneous reactions play crucial roles in haze formation. Using a chemical transport model, we found that chemical transformation of SO2 along the transport pathway from source regions to Beijing was the major source of sulfate. Heterogeneous chemistry had a stronger effect under high humidity and high pollution levels. Aerosols underwent aging during transport which altered the aerosol size and the degree of aging.
Carly L. Reddington, William T. Morgan, Eoghan Darbyshire, Joel Brito, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, Catherine E. Scott, John Marsham, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9125–9152,Short summary
We use an aerosol model and observations to explore model representation of aerosol emissions from fires in the Amazon. We find that observed aerosol concentrations are captured by the model over deforestation fires in the western Amazon but underestimated over savanna fires in the Cerrado environment. The model underestimates observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) even when the observed aerosol vertical profile is reproduced. We suggest this may be due to uncertainties in the AOD calculation.
Joseph R. Pitt, Grant Allen, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Martin W. Gallagher, James D. Lee, Will Drysdale, Beth Nelson, Alistair J. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8931–8945,Short summary
This paper presents a new method to assess inventory estimates of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions for large cities and their surrounding regions. A case study using data sampled by a research aircraft around London was used to test the method. We found that the UK national inventory agrees with our observations for CO but needed lower emissions for CH4 to agree with the measured data. Repeated studies could help determine how these emissions vary on different timescales.
Tabish Umar Ansari, Oliver Wild, Jie Li, Ting Yang, Weiqi Xu, Yele Sun, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8651–8668,Short summary
We explore the effectiveness of short-term emission controls on haze events in Beijing in October–November 2014 with high-resolution model studies. The model captures observed hourly variation in key pollutants well, but representation of boundary layer processes remains a key constraint. The controls contributed to improved air quality in early November but would not have been sufficient had the meteorology been less favourable. We quantify the much more stringent controls needed in that case.
Ting Sun and Sue Grimmond
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2781–2795,Short summary
A Python-enhanced urban land surface model, SuPy (SUEWS in Python), is presented with its development (the SUEWS interface modification, F2PY configuration and Python frontend implementation), cross-platform deployment (PyPI, Python Package Index) and demonstration (online tutorials in Jupyter notebooks for users of different levels). SuPy represents a significant enhancement that supports existing and new model applications, reproducibility and enhanced functionality.
Jonathan W. Taylor, Sophie L. Haslett, Keith Bower, Michael Flynn, Ian Crawford, James Dorsey, Tom Choularton, Paul J. Connolly, Valerian Hahn, Christiane Voigt, Daniel Sauer, Régis Dupuy, Joel Brito, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Thierry Bourriane, Cyrielle Denjean, Phil Rosenberg, Cyrille Flamant, James D. Lee, Adam R. Vaughan, Peter G. Hill, Barbara Brooks, Valéry Catoire, Peter Knippertz, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8503–8522,Short summary
Low-level clouds cover a wide area of southern West Africa (SWA) and play an important role in the region's climate, reflecting sunlight away from the surface. We performed aircraft measurements of aerosols and clouds over SWA during the 2016 summer monsoon and found pollution, and polluted clouds, across the whole region. Smoke from biomass burning in Central Africa is transported to West Africa, causing a polluted background which limits the effect of local pollution on cloud properties.
Jun Tao, Zhisheng Zhang, Yunfei Wu, Leiming Zhang, Zhijun Wu, Peng Cheng, Mei Li, Laiguo Chen, Renjian Zhang, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8471–8490,Short summary
Mass-scattering efficiencies (MSE) of dominant chemical species in atmospheric aerosols are important parameters for building the relationships between chemical species and the particle-scattering coefficient. Particle MSE mainly depends on the mass fractions of (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and organic matter and their MSEs in the droplet mode. MSEs of (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3 and organic matter were determined by their size distributions in the droplet mode.
Xiaole Pan, Hang Liu, Yu Wu, Yu Tian, Yele Sun, Conghui Xie, Xiaoyong Liu, Tianhai Cheng, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Jamie M. Kelly, Ruth M. Doherty, Fiona M. O'Connor, Graham W. Mann, Hugh Coe, and Dantong Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2539–2569,Short summary
This study develops the representation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) within a global chemistry–climate model (UKCA). Both dry and wet deposition within the UKCA model are extended to consider precursors of SOA. The oxidation mechanism describing SOA formation is also extended by adding a reaction intermediate, with SOA yields that are dependent on oxidant concentrations.
Nicholas W. Davies, Cathryn Fox, Kate Szpek, Michael I. Cotterell, Jonathan W. Taylor, James D. Allan, Paul I. Williams, Jamie Trembath, Jim M. Haywood, and Justin M. Langridge
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3417–3434,Short summary
This research project assesses biases in traditional, filter-based, aerosol absorption measurements by comparison to state-of-the-art, non-filter-based, or in situ, measurements. We assess biases in traditional absorption measurements for three main aerosol types, including dust and fresh and aged biomass burning aerosols. The main results of this study are that the traditional and state-of-the-art absorption measurements are well correlated and that biases in the former are up to 45 %.
Weijun Li, Lei Liu, Qi Yuan, Liang Xu, Yanhong Zhu, Bingbing Wang, Hua Yu, Xiaokun Ding, Jian Zhang, Dao Huang, Dantong Liu, Wei Hu, Daizhou Zhang, Pingqing Fu, Maosheng Yao, Min Hu, Xiaoye Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The real state of individual primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) derived from natural sources is under mystery, although many studies well evaluate the morphology, mixing state, and elemental composition of anthropogenic particles. It induces that some studies mislead some anthropogenic particles into biological particles through electron microscopy. Here we firstly estimate the full database of individual PBAPs through two microscopic instruments. The database is good for research.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Yugo Kanaya, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Fumikazu Taketani, Takuma Miyakawa, Hisahiro Takashima, Yuichi Komazaki, Xiaole Pan, Saki Kato, Kengo Sudo, Takashi Sekiya, Jun Inoue, Kazutoshi Sato, and Kazuhiro Oshima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7233–7254,Short summary
Ozone and carbon monoxide levels were uniquely observed (for > 10 000 h) over oceans from 67° S to 75° N. Tropospheric chemistry reanalysis v2 reproduced the observed evolution of pollution plumes from continents but underpredicted and overpredicted ozone levels in the Arctic and in the western Pacific equatorial region, respectively. Processes to explain the gaps are proposed, including halogen-mediated destruction in the low latitudes. Our open data set will complement the TOAR data collection.
Tom V. Kokkonen, Sue Grimmond, Sonja Murto, Huizhi Liu, Anu-Maija Sundström, and Leena Järvi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7001–7017,Short summary
This is the first study to evaluate and correct the WATCH WFDEI reanalysis product in a highly polluted urban environment. It gives an important understanding of the uncertainties in reanalysis products in local-scale urban modelling in polluted environments and identifies and corrects the most important variables in hydrological modelling. This is also the first study to examine the effects of haze on the local-scale urban hydrological cycle.
Dantong Liu, Rutambhara Joshi, Junfeng Wang, Chenjie Yu, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Michael J. Flynn, Conghui Xie, James Lee, Freya Squires, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Xinlei Ge, Yele Sun, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6749–6769,Short summary
This study provides source attribution and characterization of BC in the Beijing urban environment in both winter and summer. For the first time, the physically and chemically based source apportionments are compared to evaluate the primary source contribution and secondary processing of BC-containing particles. A method is proposed to isolate the BC from the transportation sector and coal combustion sources.
Eoghan Darbyshire, William T. Morgan, James D. Allan, Dantong Liu, Michael J. Flynn, James R. Dorsey, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Douglas Lowe, Kate Szpek, Franco Marenco, Ben T. Johnson, Stephane Bauguitte, Jim M. Haywood, Joel F. Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Karla M. Longo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5771–5790,Short summary
A novel analysis of aerosol and gas-phase vertical profiles shows a marked regional pollution contrast: composition is driven by the fire regime and vertical distribution is driven by thermodynamics. These drivers ought to be well represented in simulations to ensure realistic prediction of climate and air quality impacts. The BC : CO ratio in haze and plumes increases with altitude – long-range transport or fire stage coupled to plume dynamics may be responsible. Further enquiry is advocated.
James Brooks, James D. Allan, Paul I. Williams, Dantong Liu, Cathryn Fox, Jim Haywood, Justin M. Langridge, Ellie J. Highwood, Sobhan K. Kompalli, Debbie O'Sullivan, Suresh S. Babu, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Andrew G. Turner, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5615–5634,Short summary
Our study, for the first time, presents measurements of aerosol chemical composition and physical characteristics across northern India in the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of 2016 using the FAAM BAe-146 UK research aircraft. Across northern India, an elevated aerosol layer dominated by sulfate aerosol exists that diminishes with monsoon arrival. The Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) boundary layer is dominated by organics, whereas outside the IGP sulfate dominates with increased scattering aerosol.
Huang Zheng, Shaofei Kong, Fangqi Wu, Yi Cheng, Zhenzhen Niu, Shurui Zheng, Guowei Yang, Liquan Yao, Qin Yan, Jian Wu, Mingming Zheng, Nan Chen, Ke Xu, Yingying Yan, Dantong Liu, Delong Zhao, Tianliang Zhao, Yongqing Bai, Shuanglin Li, and Shihua Qi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4499–4516,Short summary
This study simultaneously observed black carbon (BC) at five sites in central China and on the south edge of North China Plain, which have the most serious air pollution issues in China. The differences in BC properties between different air quality conditions and the property changes during transportation were studied. The main findings of this study were that during the downwind transportation of air, the BC mass concentration increased, whereas the absorption Ångström exponent decreased.
Carole Helfter, Neil Mullinger, Massimo Vieno, Simon O'Doherty, Michel Ramonet, Paul I. Palmer, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3043–3063,Short summary
We present a novel approach to estimate the annual budgets of carbon dioxide (881.0 ± 128.5 Tg) and methane (2.55 ± 0.48 Tg) of the British Isles from shipborne measurements taken over a 3-year period (2015–2017). This study brings independent verification of the emission budgets estimated using alternative products and investigates the seasonality of these emissions, which is usually not possible.
Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Michael Priestley, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Nicholas A. Marsden, Archit Mehra, Julia Hammes, Mattias Hallquist, M. Rami Alfarra, Ulrich K. Krieger, Jonathan P. Reid, John Jayne, Wade Robinson, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, and Dave Topping
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1429–1439,Short summary
The Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) is an inlet designed to be coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) and provides simultaneous molecular information relating to both the gas- and particle-phase samples. This method has been used to extract vapour pressures of compounds whilst giving quantitative concentrations in the particle phase. Here we detail an ideal set of benchmark compounds for characterization of the FIGAERO.
Kate R. Smith, Peter M. Edwards, Peter D. Ivatt, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, Chengliang Dai, Richard E. Peltier, Mat J. Evans, Yele Sun, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1325–1336,Short summary
Clusters of low-cost, low-power atmospheric gas sensors were built into a sensor instrument to monitor NO2 and O3 in Beijing, alongside reference instruments, aiming to improve the reliability of sensor measurements. Clustering identical sensors and using the median sensor signal was used to minimize drift over short and medium timescales. Three different machine learning techniques were used for all the sensor data in an attempt to correct for cross-interferences, which worked to some degree.
Nicholas A. Marsden, Romy Ullrich, Ottmar Möhler, Stine Eriksen Hammer, Konrad Kandler, Zhiqiang Cui, Paul I. Williams, Michael J. Flynn, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2259–2281,Short summary
The composition of airborne dust influences climate and ecosystems but its measurements presents a huge analytical challenge. Using online single-particle mass spectrometry, we demonstrate differences in mineralogy and mixing state can be detected in real time in both laboratory studies and ambient measurements. The results provide insights into the temporal and spatial evolution of dust properties that will be useful for aerosol–cloud interaction studies and dust cycle modelling.
Qiyuan Wang, Suixin Liu, Nan Li, Wenting Dai, Yunfei Wu, Jie Tian, Yaqing Zhou, Meng Wang, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Yang Chen, Renjian Zhang, Shuyu Zhao, Chongshu Zhu, Yongming Han, Xuexi Tie, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1881–1899,
Sophie L. Haslett, Jonathan W. Taylor, Konrad Deetz, Bernhard Vogel, Karmen Babić, Norbert Kalthoff, Andreas Wieser, Cheikh Dione, Fabienne Lohou, Joel Brito, Régis Dupuy, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Paul Zieger, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1505–1520,Short summary
As the population in West Africa grows and air pollution increases, it is becoming ever more important to understand the effects of this pollution on the climate and on health. Aerosol particles can grow by absorbing water from the air around them. This paper shows that during the monsoon season, aerosol particles in the region are likely to grow significantly because of the high moisture in the air. This means that climate effects from increasing pollution will be enhanced.
Junfeng Wang, Dantong Liu, Xinlei Ge, Yangzhou Wu, Fuzhen Shen, Mindong Chen, Jian Zhao, Conghui Xie, Qingqing Wang, Weiqi Xu, Jie Zhang, Jianlin Hu, James Allan, Rutambhara Joshi, Pingqing Fu, Hugh Coe, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 447–458,Short summary
This work is part of the UK-China APHH campaign. We used a laser-only Aerodyne soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer, for the first time, to investigate the concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions for those ambient submicron aerosol particles only with black carbon as cores. Our findings are valuable to understand the BC properties and processes in the densely populated megacities.
Qiang Huang, Jiubin Chen, Weilin Huang, John R. Reinfelder, Pingqing Fu, Shengliu Yuan, Zhongwei Wang, Wei Yuan, Hongming Cai, Hong Ren, Yele Sun, and Li He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 315–325,Short summary
Although the specific reactions and mechanisms in fine aerosols could not be explicitly determined from this field study, our results provide isotopic evidence that local daily photochemical reduction of divalent Hg is of critical importance to the fate of PM2.5-Hg in urban atmospheres and that, in addition to variation in sources, photochemical reduction appears to be an important process that affects both the particle mass-specific abundance and isotopic composition of PM2.5-Hg.
Xiaole Pan, Baozhu Ge, Zhe Wang, Yu Tian, Hang Liu, Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Itsushi Uno, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Atsushi Shimizu, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 219–232,
Conghui Xie, Weiqi Xu, Junfeng Wang, Qingqing Wang, Dantong Liu, Guiqian Tang, Ping Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Yingjie Zhang, Wei Zhou, Tingting Han, Qingyun Bian, Jie Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Xinlei Ge, James Allan, Hugh Coe, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 165–179,Short summary
We present the first simultaneous real-time online measurements of aerosol optical properties at ground level and at 260 m on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing in winter. The vertical similarities and differences in scattering and absorption coefficients were characterized. The increases in MAC of BC were mainly associated with the coating materials on rBC. Coal combustion was the dominant source contribution of brown carbon followed by biomass burning and SOA in winter in Beijing.
Roy M. Harrison, David C. S. Beddows, Mohammed S. Alam, Ajit Singh, James Brean, Ruixin Xu, Simone Kotthaus, and Sue Grimmond
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 39–55,Short summary
Particle number size distributions were measured simultaneously at five sites in London during a campaign. Observations are interpreted in terms of both evaporative shrinkage of traffic-generated particles and condensational growth, probably of traffic-generated particles under cool nocturnal conditions, as well as the influence of particles emitted from Heathrow Airport at a distance of about 22 km. The work highlights the highly dynamic behaviour of nanoparticles within the urban atmosphere.
Yu Tian, Xiaole Pan, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Itsushi Uno, Xiquan Wang, Atsushi Shimizu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18203–18217,Short summary
East Asia is characterized by severe anthropogenic pollution and dust storms due to fuel consumption and the downwind location of dust sources. We studied the mixing states of dust and pollutants using an optical particle counter equipped with a polarization detection module, providing a deeper understanding of possible mechanisms of aerosols’ morphological change. In Beijing, the heterogeneous processes in the mixture of dust and emitted pollutants have a great influence on smog formation.
Angelo Finco, Mhairi Coyle, Eiko Nemitz, Riccardo Marzuoli, Maria Chiesa, Benjamin Loubet, Silvano Fares, Eugenio Diaz-Pines, Rainer Gasche, and Giacomo Gerosa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17945–17961,Short summary
A 1-month field campaign of ozone (O3) flux measurements along a five-level vertical profile of a mature broadleaf forest highlighted that the biosphere–atmosphere exchange of this pollutant is modulated by complex diel dynamics occurring within and below the canopy. The canopy removed nearly 80 % of the O3 deposited to the forest; only a minor part was removed by the soil and the understorey (2 %), while the remaining 18.2 % was removed by chemical reactions with NO mostly emitted from soil.
Claire L. Ryder, Franco Marenco, Jennifer K. Brooke, Victor Estelles, Richard Cotton, Paola Formenti, James B. McQuaid, Hannah C. Price, Dantong Liu, Patrick Ausset, Phil D. Rosenberg, Jonathan W. Taylor, Tom Choularton, Keith Bower, Hugh Coe, Martin Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Gary Lloyd, Eleanor J. Highwood, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17225–17257,Short summary
Every year, millions of tons of Saharan dust particles are carried across the Atlantic by the wind, where they can affect weather patterns and climate. Their sizes span orders of magnitude, but the largest (over 10 microns – around the width of a human hair) are difficult to measure and few observations exist. Here we show new aircraft observations of large dust particles, finding more than we would expect, and we quantify their properties which allow them to interact with atmospheric radiation.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Marsailidh M. Twigg, Nicholas Cowan, Matthew R. Jones, Sarah R. Leeson, William J. Bloss, Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh Crilley, Matthias Sörgel, Meinrat Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16953–16978,Short summary
Understanding the impact of agricultural activities on the atmosphere requires more measurements of inorganic trace gases and associated aerosol counterparts. This research presents 1 month of measurements above agricultural grassland during a period of fertiliser application. It was found that emissions of the important trace gases ammonia and nitrous acid peaked after fertiliser use and that the velocity at which the measured aerosols were deposited was dependent upon their size.
Arlene M. Fiore, Emily V. Fischer, George P. Milly, Shubha Pandey Deolal, Oliver Wild, Daniel A. Jaffe, Johannes Staehelin, Olivia E. Clifton, Dan Bergmann, William Collins, Frank Dentener, Ruth M. Doherty, Bryan N. Duncan, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Peter G. Hess, Larry W. Horowitz, Alexandru Lupu, Ian A. MacKenzie, Rokjin Park, Ludwig Ries, Michael G. Sanderson, Martin G. Schultz, Drew T. Shindell, Martin Steinbacher, David S. Stevenson, Sophie Szopa, Christoph Zellweger, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15345–15361,Short summary
We demonstrate a proof-of-concept approach for applying northern midlatitude mountaintop peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) measurements and a multi-model ensemble during April to constrain the influence of continental-scale anthropogenic precursor emissions on PAN. Our findings imply a role for carefully coordinated multi-model ensembles in helping identify observations for discriminating among widely varying (and poorly constrained) model responses of atmospheric constituents to changes in emissions.
Yingjie Zhang, Wei Du, Yuying Wang, Qingqing Wang, Haofei Wang, Haitao Zheng, Fang Zhang, Hongrong Shi, Yuxuan Bian, Yongxiang Han, Pingqing Fu, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Tong Zhu, Pucai Wang, Zhanqing Li, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14637–14651,Short summary
We have a comprehensive characterization of aerosol chemistry and particle growth events at a downwind site of a highly polluted city in the North China Plain. Aerosol particles at the urban downwind site were highly aged and mainly from secondary formation. New particle growth events were also frequently observed on both clean and polluted days. While both sulfate and SOA played important roles in particle growth during clean periods, SOA was more important than sulfate during polluted events.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dao Huang, Jianmin Chen, Zongbo Shi, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Daizhou Zhang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14681–14693,Short summary
Using transmission electron microscopy, we studied individual cloud droplet residual and interstitial particles collected in cloud events at Mt. Tai in the polluted North China region. We found that individual cloud droplets were an extremely complicated mixture containing abundant refractory soot (i.e., black carbon), fly ash, and metals. The complicated cloud droplets have not been reported in clean continental or marine air before.
Christopher Dearden, Adrian Hill, Hugh Coe, and Tom Choularton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14253–14269,Short summary
We perform computer simulations of the life cycle of low-lying clouds over southern West Africa during the monsoon season. Such clouds tend not to produce much precipitation, but they do affect the regional climate by modifying the amount of sunlight reaching the surface. The aim of this work is to understand the factors that influence the growth and break-up of these clouds. We show that the number of water droplets contained within the clouds affects how quickly they dissipate.
Konrad Deetz, Heike Vogel, Sophie Haslett, Peter Knippertz, Hugh Coe, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14271–14295,Short summary
Water uptake can significantly increase the size and therefore alters the optical properties of aerosols. Our model study reveals that the high moisture and aerosol burden in the southern West African monsoon layer makes it favorable to quantify properties that determine the aerosol liquid water content and its impact on the aerosol optical depth and radiative transfer. Especially in moist tropical environments the relative humidity impact on AOD has to be considered in atmospheric models.
Mingjie Kang, Pingqing Fu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Fan Yang, Hongliang Zhang, Zhengchen Zang, Hong Ren, Lujie Ren, Ye Zhao, Yele Sun, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13947–13967,Short summary
Molecular characterization and spatial distribution of biogenic primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the marine atmosphere are not well known. Here, we analysed the organic molecular composition of marine aerosols collected during a marine cruise in the East China Sea during May–June 2014. Our results suggest that the Asian continent can be a natural emitter of biogenic POA and SOA, which can be transported to the downwind marine atmosphere.
Michael Priestley, Michael le Breton, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Andrew R. D. Smedley, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Archit Mehra, James Allan, Ann R. Webb, Dudley E. Shallcross, Hugh Coe, and Carl J. Percival
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13481–13493,
Fernando Santos, Karla Longo, Alex Guenther, Saewung Kim, Dasa Gu, Dave Oram, Grant Forster, James Lee, James Hopkins, Joel Brito, and Saulo Freitas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12715–12734,Short summary
We investigated the impact of biomass burning on the chemical composition of trace gases in the Amazon. The findings corroborate the influence of biomass burning activity not only on direct emissions of particulate matter but also on the oxidative capacity to produce secondary organic aerosol. The scientists plan to use this information to improve the numerical model simulation with a better representativeness of the chemical processes, which can impact on global climate prediction.
Paul I. Palmer, Simon O'Doherty, Grant Allen, Keith Bower, Hartmut Bösch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sarah Connors, Sandip Dhomse, Liang Feng, Douglas P. Finch, Martin W. Gallagher, Emanuel Gloor, Siegfried Gonzi, Neil R. P. Harris, Carole Helfter, Neil Humpage, Brian Kerridge, Diane Knappett, Roderic L. Jones, Michael Le Breton, Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Matthiesen, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Sebastian O'Shea, Robert J. Parker, Carl J. Percival, Joseph Pitt, Stuart N. Riddick, Matthew Rigby, Harjinder Sembhi, Richard Siddans, Robert L. Skelton, Paul Smith, Hannah Sonderfeld, Kieran Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Angelina Wenger, Emily White, Christopher Wilson, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11753–11777,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) experiment. GAUGE was designed to quantify nationwide GHG emissions of the UK, bringing together measurements and atmospheric transport models. This novel experiment is the first of its kind. We anticipate it will inform the blueprint for countries that are building a measurement infrastructure in preparation for global stocktakes, which are a key part of the Paris Agreement.
Wei Zhou, Jian Zhao, Bin Ouyang, Archit Mehra, Weiqi Xu, Yuying Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Qi Chen, Conghui Xie, Qingqing Wang, Junfeng Wang, Wei Du, Yingjie Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Penglin Ye, James D. Lee, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas Worsnop, Roderic Jones, Carl J. Percival, Hugh Coe, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11581–11597,Short summary
We present measurements of gas-phase N2O5 and ClNO2 by ToF-CIMS during summer in urban Beijing as part of the APHH campaign. High reactivity of N2O5 indicative of active nocturnal chemistry was observed. The lifetime of N2O5 as a function of aerosol surface area and relative humidity was characterized, and N2O5 uptake coefficients were estimated. We also found that the N2O5 loss in this study is mainly attributed to its indirect loss via reactions of NO3 with VOCs and NO.
Jian Wu, Shaofei Kong, Fangqi Wu, Yi Cheng, Shurui Zheng, Qin Yan, Huang Zheng, Guowei Yang, Mingming Zheng, Dantong Liu, Delong Zhao, and Shihua Qi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11623–11646,Short summary
In order to support regional modeling impact on air quality and policy making on controlling open biomass burning emissions, accurate open biomass burning emissions were estimated from 2003 to 2015 with high spatial and temporal resolution. Multiple satellite data, updated biomass data and survey results were all used to improve the accuracy. In addition, management policies and all influencing factors in rural areas for open biomass burning emissions were considered.
Prasad Kasibhatla, Tomás Sherwen, Mathew J. Evans, Lucy J. Carpenter, Chris Reed, Becky Alexander, Qianjie Chen, Melissa P. Sulprizio, James D. Lee, Katie A. Read, William Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, William C. Keene, Alexander A. P. Pszenny, and Alma Hodzic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11185–11203,Short summary
Recent measurements of NOx and HONO suggest that photolysis of particulate nitrate in sea-salt aerosols is important in terms of marine boundary layer oxidant chemistry. We present the first global-scale assessment of the significance of this new chemical pathway for NOx, O3, and OH in the marine boundary layer. We also present a preliminary assessment of the potential impact of photolysis of particulate nitrate associated with other aerosol types on continental boundary layer chemistry.
Kelly L. Pereira, Rachel Dunmore, James Whitehead, M. Rami Alfarra, James D. Allan, Mohammed S. Alam, Roy M. Harrison, Gordon McFiggans, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11073–11096,Short summary
Exhaust emissions from a light-duty diesel engine were introduced into an atmospheric simulation chamber which was used as a holding-cell for sampling, allowing instruments capable of providing detailed chemical speciation of exhaust gas emissions to be used. The effect of different engine conditions on the exhaust gas composition was investigated. The exhaust composition changed considerably due to two influencing factors, engine combustion and diesel oxidative catalyst efficiency.
Edmund Ryan, Oliver Wild, Apostolos Voulgarakis, and Lindsay Lee
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3131–3146,Short summary
Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) identifies which parameters of a model most affect its output. We performed GSA using statistical emulators as surrogates of two slow-running atmospheric chemistry transport models. Due to the high dimension of the model outputs, we considered two alternative methods: one that reduced the output dimension and one that did not require an emulator. The alternative methods accurately performed the GSA but were significantly faster than the emulator-only method.
Konrad Deetz, Heike Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Bianca Adler, Jonathan Taylor, Hugh Coe, Keith Bower, Sophie Haslett, Michael Flynn, James Dorsey, Ian Crawford, Christoph Kottmeier, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9767–9788,Short summary
Highly resolved process study simulations for 2–3 July are conducted with COSMO-ART to assess the aerosol direct and indirect effect on meteorological conditions over southern West Africa. The meteorological phenomena of Atlantic inflow and stratus-to-cumulus transition are identified as highly susceptible to the aerosol direct effect, leading to a spatial shift of the Atlantic inflow front and a temporal shift of the stratus-to-cumulus transition with changes in the aerosol amount.
Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, Frank J. Dentener, Yanko Davila, Louisa K. Emmons, Johannes Flemming, Gerd A. Folberth, Daven K. Henze, Jan E. Jonson, Terry J. Keating, Sudo Kengo, Meiyun Lin, Marianne Lund, Simone Tilmes, and Fiona M. O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8953–8978,Short summary
A simple parameterisation was developed in this study to provide a rapid assessment of the impacts and uncertainties associated with future emission control strategies by predicting changes to surface ozone air quality and near-term climate forcing of ozone. Future emissions scenarios based on currently implemented legislation are shown to worsen surface ozone air quality and enhance near-term climate warming, with changes in methane becoming increasingly important in the future.
Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Qi Zhang, Qi Jiang, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Jie Li, John Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8469–8489,Short summary
We present a 2–year analysis of organic aerosol (OA) from highly time–resolved measurements by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor in the megacity of Beijing. The sources of OA were analyzed with the advanced factor analysis of a multilinear engine (ME-2). Our results showed very different seasonal patterns, relative humidity and temperature dependence, and sources regions among different OA factors. The sources and processes of OA factors, and their roles in haze pollution are elucidated.
Xiao-Xiao Zhang, Brenton Sharratt, Lian-You Liu, Zi-Fa Wang, Xiao-Le Pan, Jia-Qiang Lei, Shi-Xin Wu, Shuang-Yan Huang, Yu-Hong Guo, Jie Li, Xiao Tang, Ting Yang, Yu Tian, Xue-Shun Chen, Jian-Qi Hao, Hai-Tao Zheng, Yan-Yan Yang, and Yan-Li Lyu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8353–8371,Short summary
The impact of a strong East Asian dust event during 2–7 May 2017 was quantified and assessed based upon environmental observations, lidar measurements, and satellite products along with simulation techniques. This dust storm impacted a wide area of China and other Asian nations and reached North America within 1 week. Dust storms are a significant contributor to the global dust budget. Asian dust storms such as that observed in early May 2017 may lead to wider climate forcing on a global scale.
Sekou Keita, Cathy Liousse, Véronique Yoboué, Pamela Dominutti, Benjamin Guinot, Eric-Michel Assamoi, Agnès Borbon, Sophie L. Haslett, Laetitia Bouvier, Aurélie Colomb, Hugh Coe, Aristide Akpo, Jacques Adon, Julien Bahino, Madina Doumbia, Julien Djossou, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Eric Gardrat, Sylvain Gnamien, Jean F. Léon, Money Ossohou, E. Touré N'Datchoh, and Laurent Roblou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7691–7708,Short summary
This study provides emission factor (EF) data for elemental and organic carbon, total particulate matter and 58 volatile organic compound species for combustion sources specific to Africa to establish emission inventories with less uncertainty. EFs obtained in this study are generally higher than those in the literature whose values are used in emissions inventories for Africa. This shows that particles and VOC emissions were sometimes underestimated and underlines this study's importance.
Mingming Zheng, Shaofei Kong, Jianguo Bao, Ke Xu, Shurui Zheng, Guowei Yang, Jihong Quan, Lianxin Yuan, Nan Chen, Yiping Tian, Huang Zheng, Jian Wu, Dantong Liu, Delong Zhao, Qin Yan, Tianliang Zhao, and Shihua Qi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint retractedShort summary
In this paper, we study the aerosol acidity for different time scales, pollution episodes and air mass directions in a megacity of central China with high ambient temperature and relative humidity, and the impacting factors of pH were identified. This research is the first study concerning the aerosol acidity based on one-year online monitoring dataset with high resolution in central China, which is an important supplementary for the current aerosol acidity study around the world.
Fernando Iglesias-Suarez, Douglas E. Kinnison, Alexandru Rap, Amanda C. Maycock, Oliver Wild, and Paul J. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6121–6139,Short summary
This study explores future ozone radiative forcing (RF) and the relative contribution due to different drivers. Climate-induced ozone RF is largely the result of the interplay between lightning-produced ozone and enhanced ozone destruction in a warmer and wetter atmosphere. These results demonstrate the importance of stratospheric–tropospheric interactions and the stratosphere as a key region controlling a large fraction of the tropospheric ozone RF.
Amy K. Hodgson, William T. Morgan, Sebastian O'Shea, Stéphane Bauguitte, James D. Allan, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael J. Flynn, Dantong Liu, James Lee, Ben Johnson, Jim M. Haywood, Karla M. Longo, Paulo E. Artaxo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5619–5638,Short summary
We flew a large atmospheric research aircraft across a number of different biomass burning environments in the Amazon Basin in September and October 2012. In this paper, we focus on smoke sampled very close to fresh fires (only 600–900 m above the fires and smoke that was 4–6 min old) to examine the chemical components that make up the smoke and their abundance. We found substantial differences in the emitted smoke that are due to the fuel type and combustion processes driving the fires.
Di Liu, Matthias Vonwiller, Jun Li, Junwen Liu, Sönke Szidat, Yanlin Zhang, Chongguo Tian, Yinjun Chen, Zhineng Cheng, Guangcai Zhong, Pingqing Fu, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Silvia Bucci, Paolo Cristofanelli, Stefano Decesari, Angela Marinoni, Silvia Sandrini, Johannes Größ, Alfred Wiedensohler, Chiara F. Di Marco, Eiko Nemitz, Francesco Cairo, Luca Di Liberto, and Federico Fierli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5371–5389,Short summary
This paper analyses some of the processes affecting PM levels over the Po Valley, one of the most polluted regions of Europe, during the 2012 summer campaigns. Under conditions of air transport from the Sahara, data show that desert dust can rapidly penetrate into the lower atmosphere, directly affecting the PM concentration at the ground. Processes of particles growth in high relative humidity and uplift of local soil particles, potentially affecting PM level, are also analysed.
Huang Zheng, Shaofei Kong, Xinli Xing, Yao Mao, Tianpeng Hu, Yang Ding, Gang Li, Dantong Liu, Shuanglin Li, and Shihua Qi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4567–4595,Short summary
This research is the first study concerning the 1-year online monitoring of volatile organic compounds in an oil–gas field in China. The VOC concentrations, compositions and ozone formation potential in this study are quite different from other research. The contributions of natural gas and the other four sources to total VOCs are quantified. The different timescale variations in different sources are described. This research broadens our knowledge of VOC behavior in this type of region.
Riinu Ots, Mathew R. Heal, Dominique E. Young, Leah R. Williams, James D. Allan, Eiko Nemitz, Chiara Di Marco, Anais Detournay, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Hugh Coe, Scott C. Herndon, Ian A. Mackenzie, David C. Green, Jeroen J. P. Kuenen, Stefan Reis, and Massimo Vieno
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4497–4518,Short summary
The main hypothesis of this paper is that people who live in large cities in the UK disobey the
smoke control lawas it has not been actively enforced for decades now. However, the use of wood in residential heating has increased, partly due to renewable energy targets, but also for discretionary (i.e. pleasant fireplaces) reasons. Our study is based mainly in London, but similar struggles with urban air quality due to residential wood and coal burning are seen in other major European cities.
James D. Lee, Stephen D. Mobbs, Axel Wellpott, Grant Allen, Stephane J.-B. Bauguitte, Ralph R. Burton, Richard Camilli, Hugh Coe, Rebecca E. Fisher, James L. France, Martin Gallagher, James R. Hopkins, Mathias Lanoiselle, Alastair C. Lewis, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, Ruth M. Purvis, Sebastian O'Shea, John A. Pyle, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1725–1739,Short summary
This work describes measurements, made from an aircraft platform, of the emission of methane and other organic gases from an uncontrolled leak from an oil platform in the North Sea (Total Elgin). The measurements made helped the platform operators to devise a strategy for repairing the leak and serve as a methodology for assessing future similar incidents.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Michael Priestley, Yu-Chieh Ting, Sophie Haslett, Thomas Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Paul I. Williams, Asan Bacak, Michael J. Flynn, Hugh Coe, Carl Percival, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4093–4111,Short summary
This work presents the analysis of a special event with high biomass burning emissions, named Bonfire Night. Nitrogen chemistry was observed and it was possible to study the night time chemistry. It was possible to quantify particulate organic oxides of nitrogen (PON) concentrations of 2.8 µg m−3 using 46 : 30 ratios from aerosol mass spectrometry measurements. The use of the receptor model positive matrix factorization (PMF) allowed to separate organic aerosols into different sources.
Wei Zhou, Qingqing Wang, Xiujuan Zhao, Weiqi Xu, Chen Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3951–3968,Short summary
We present a 3-month analysis of submicron aerosols that were measured at 260 m on a meteorological tower in Beijing, China. The sources of organic aerosol (OA) were analyzed by using a multi-linear engine (ME-2). Our results showed significant changes in both primary and secondary OA composition from the non-heating season to the heating season. We also observed a considerable contribution (10–13%) of cooking OA at 260 m and very different OA composition between ground level and 260 m.
Dantong Liu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Jonathan Crosier, Nicholas Marsden, Keith N. Bower, Gary Lloyd, Claire L. Ryder, Jennifer K. Brooke, Richard Cotton, Franco Marenco, Alan Blyth, Zhiqiang Cui, Victor Estelles, Martin Gallagher, Hugh Coe, and Tom W. Choularton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3817–3838,Short summary
This article presents measurements of aerosol properties off the coast of west Africa during August 2015. For the first time, an airborne laser-induced incandescence instrument was deployed to measure the hematite content of dust. The single scattering albedo of dust was found to be influenced by the hematite content, but depended on the dust source and potential dust age. This highlights the importance of size-dependent composition in determining the optical properties of dust.
Daniel Stone, Tomás Sherwen, Mathew J. Evans, Stewart Vaughan, Trevor Ingham, Lisa K. Whalley, Peter M. Edwards, Katie A. Read, James D. Lee, Sarah J. Moller, Lucy J. Carpenter, Alastair C. Lewis, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3541–3561,Short summary
Halogen chemistry in the troposphere impacts oxidising capacity, but model studies assessing the nature of these impacts can vary according to the model framework used. In this work we present simulations of OH and HO2 radicals using both box and global model frameworks, and compare to observations made at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory. We highlight, and rationalise, differences between the model frameworks.
Wanyu Zhao, Kimitaka Kawamura, Siyao Yue, Lianfang Wei, Hong Ren, Yu Yan, Mingjie Kang, Linjie Li, Lujie Ren, Senchao Lai, Jie Li, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2749–2767,Short summary
In this paper, we investigate the seasonal trends in concentrations and compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C2–C12) and related compounds in fine aerosols (PM2.5) in Beijing. Our study demonstrates that, in addition to the production via photo-oxidation, high abundances of diacids and related compounds in Beijing are largely associated with anthropogenic primary emissions such as biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion and plastic burning.
Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Rachel Dunmore, Jacqueline Hamilton, James R. Hopkins, James D. Lee, Alastair C. Lewis, Paul Williams, Jörg Kleffmann, Sebastian Laufs, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2547–2571,Short summary
This paper presents the first radical observations made in London and subsequent model comparisons. This work highlights that there are uncertainties in the degradation mechanism of complex biogenic and diesel-related VOC species under low-NOx conditions and under high-NOx conditions there is a missing source of RO2 radicals. The impact of these model uncertainties on in situ ozone production as a function of NOx is discussed.
Joel Brito, Evelyn Freney, Pamela Dominutti, Agnes Borbon, Sophie L. Haslett, Anneke M. Batenburg, Aurelie Colomb, Regis Dupuy, Cyrielle Denjean, Frederic Burnet, Thierry Bourriane, Adrien Deroubaix, Karine Sellegri, Stephan Borrmann, Hugh Coe, Cyrille Flamant, Peter Knippertz, and Alfons Schwarzenboeck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 757–772,Short summary
This work focuses on sources of submicron aerosol particles over southern West Africa (SWA). Results have shown that isoprene, a gas-phase compound of biogenic origin, is responsible for roughly 25 % of the organic aerosol (OA) loading, under most background or urban plumes alike. This fraction represents a lower estimate from the biogenic contribution in this fairly polluted region. This work sheds light upon the role of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on the pollution burden over SWA.
Huizheng Che, Bing Qi, Hujia Zhao, Xiangao Xia, Thomas F. Eck, Philippe Goloub, Oleg Dubovik, Victor Estelles, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, Luc Blarel, Yunfei Wu, Jun Zhu, Rongguang Du, Yaqiang Wang, Hong Wang, Ke Gui, Jie Yu, Yu Zheng, Tianze Sun, Quanliang Chen, Guangyu Shi, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 405–425,Short summary
Sun photometer measurements from seven sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2011 to 2015 were used to characterize the climatology of aerosol microphysical and optical properties, calculate direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) and classify aerosols based on size and absorption. This study contributes to our understanding of aerosols and regional climate/air quality, and the results will be useful for validating satellite retrievals and for improving climate models and remote sensing.
Sophie L. Haslett, J. Chris Thomas, William T. Morgan, Rory Hadden, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Paul I. Williams, Sekou Keita, Cathy Liousse, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 385–403,Short summary
Wood burning is chaotic, so the particles emitted can be difficult to study in a repeatable way. Here, we addressed this problem by carefully controlling small wood fires in the lab. We saw three burning phases, which could be told apart chemically; we also saw evidence of these in measurements of wood burning in London in 2012. Controlled experiments like this help us to understand why emissions are so variable and to recognise burning conditions just from the particles seen in the atmosphere.
Nicholas A. Marsden, Michael J. Flynn, James D. Allan, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 195–213,Short summary
Mineralogy of silicate mineral dust has a strong influence on climate and ecosystems due to variation in physiochemical properties that result from differences in composition and crystal structure (mineral phase). Traditional offline methods of analysing mineral phase are labour intensive and the temporal resolution of the data is lost. We introduce a novel technique that enables the online differentiation of mineral phase in silicate particles by single-particle mass spectrometry.
Delong Zhao, Mengyu Huang, Dantong Liu, Deping Ding, Ping Tian, Quan Liu, Wei Zhou, Jiujiang Sheng, Fei Wang, Kai Bi, Yan Yang, Xia Li, Yaqiong Hu, Xin Guo, Yang Gao, Hui He, Yunbo Chen, Shaofei Kong, and Jiayi Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
This study for the first time reports the 3D distributions of black carbon and detailed physical properties in the boundary layer over the North China Plain, using intensive aircraft measurements in both hot and cold seasons. The BC mass in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) was found to be largely influenced by meteorology which modulated the local emission and regional transport.
Santosh Kumar Verma, Kimitaka Kawamura, Jing Chen, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 81–101,Short summary
East Asia has experienced rapid economic development in the last several decades, of which activities emit bioaerosols. The atmospheric particles are transported to downwind regions in the Pacific. To understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of sugar components over Chichijima Island from 2001 to 2013. We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variation of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific.
Ben Langford, James Cash, W. Joe F. Acton, Amy C. Valach, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Silvano Fares, Ignacio Goded, Carsten Gruening, Emily House, Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Valérie Gros, Richard Schafers, Rick Thomas, Mark Broadmeadow, and Eiko Nemitz
Biogeosciences, 14, 5571–5594,Short summary
Isoprene flux measurements made above five European oak forests were reviewed to generate new emission potentials. Six variations of the Guenther algorithms were inverted to back out time series of isoprene emission potential, and then an “average” emission potential was determined using one of four commonly used approaches. Our results show that emission potentials can vary by up to a factor of 4 and highlight the need for the community to now harmonize their approach to reduce uncertainty.
Ian Crawford, Martin W. Gallagher, Keith N. Bower, Thomas W. Choularton, Michael J. Flynn, Simon Ruske, Constantino Listowski, Neil Brough, Thomas Lachlan-Cope, Zoë L. Fleming, Virginia E. Foot, and Warren R. Stanley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14291–14307,Short summary
We present the first real-time detection of bioparticles on the Antarctic continent using a novel UV-LIF technique. The high time resolution of the technique allowed us to examine the relationships between bioparticle concentrations and airmass history and local winds, which would not have been possible with conventional high-volume filter sampling techniques. We also show evidence of episodic long-range transport of pollen from coastal South America to the continent.
Ruth M. Doherty, Clara Orbe, Guang Zeng, David A. Plummer, Michael J. Prather, Oliver Wild, Meiyun Lin, Drew T. Shindell, and Ian A. Mackenzie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14219–14237,Short summary
We investigate how climate change impacts global air pollution transport. To study transport changes, we use a carbon monoxide (CO) tracer species emitted from global sources. We find robust and consistent changes in CO-tracer distributions in climate change simulations performed by four chemistry–climate models in different seasons. We highlight the importance of the co-location of emission source regions and controlling transport processes in determining future pollution transport.
Itsushi Uno, Kazuo Osada, Keiya Yumimoto, Zhe Wang, Syuichi Itahashi, Xiaole Pan, Yukari Hara, Yugo Kanaya, Shigekazu Yamamoto, and Thomas Duncan Fairlie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14181–14197,Short summary
We analyzed long-term fine- and coarse-mode nitrate and related aerosols synergetic observations at Fukuoka, Japan. GEOS Chem model including dust and sea-salt acid uptake processes was used to assess the observed seasonal variation, and the impact of long-range transport from the Asian continent. A numerical model reproduced the seasonal variations of fine aerosols. For coarse nitrate, large-scale dust-nitrate outflow from China was confirmed during all dust events between January and June.
Xiaole Pan, Yugo Kanaya, Fumikazu Taketani, Takuma Miyakawa, Satoshi Inomata, Yuichi Komazaki, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Zhe Wang, Itsushi Uno, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13001–13016,Short summary
Characteristics of refractory black carbon (rBC) from open biomass burning (OBB) have a great impact on regional pollution and climate, in particular in East Asia. However, experimental study on characteristics of rBC from agricultural residue burning in East China was limited. This study performed laboratory experiments: we found that emission of rBC is highly related to flaming burning, and non-rBC to smoldering burning. Rapid condensation of semi-volatile organics resulted in coated rBC.
Sebastian J. O'Shea, Thomas W. Choularton, Michael Flynn, Keith N. Bower, Martin Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Paul Williams, Ian Crawford, Zoë L. Fleming, Constantino Listowski, Amélie Kirchgaessner, Russell S. Ladkin, and Thomas Lachlan-Cope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13049–13070,Short summary
Few direct measurements have been made of Antarctic cloud and aerosol properties. As part of the 2015 Microphysics of Antarctic Clouds (MAC) field campaign, detailed airborne and ground-based measurements were made over the Weddell Sea and Antarctic coastal continent. This paper presents the first results from this campaign and discusses the cloud properties and processes important in this region.
Andrea Móring, Massimo Vieno, Ruth M. Doherty, Celia Milford, Eiko Nemitz, Marsailidh M. Twigg, László Horváth, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 14, 4161–4193,Short summary
This study describes and evaluates a new ammonia (NH3) exchange model for grazed fields (GAG_field). GAG_field is able to simulate the main features of the observed NH3 fluxes. A sensitivity analysis for the non-meteorological model parameters showed that the sensitivity of the NH3 fluxes to a parameter varies among urine patches. Moreover, the fluxes modelled with a dynamic soil pH are similar if a constant pH 7.5 is used, suggesting a useful simplification for regional-scale model application.
Ting Sun, Zhi-Hua Wang, Walter C. Oechel, and Sue Grimmond
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2875–2890,Short summary
The diurnal hysteresis behaviour found between the net storage heat flux and net all-wave radiation has been captured in the Objective Hysteresis Model (OHM). To facilitate use, and enhance physical interpretations of the OHM coefficients, we develop the Analytical Objective Hysteresis Model (AnOHM) using an analytical solution of the one-dimensional advection–diffusion equation of coupled heat and liquid water transport in conjunction with the surface energy balance relationship.
Yunfei Wu, Xiaojia Wang, Jun Tao, Rujin Huang, Ping Tian, Junji Cao, Leiming Zhang, Kin-Fai Ho, Zhiwei Han, and Renjian Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7965–7975,Short summary
As black carbon (BC) aerosols play an important role in the climate and environment, the size distribution of refractory BC (rBC) was investigated. On this basis, the source of rBC was further analyzed. The local traffic exhausts contributed greatly to the rBC in urban areas. However, its contribution decreased significantly in the polluted period compared to the clean period, implying the increasing contribution of other sources, e.g., coal combustion or biomass burning, in the polluted period.
David O. Topping, James Allan, M. Rami Alfarra, and Bernard Aumont
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2365–2377,Short summary
Our ability to model the chemical and thermodynamic processes that lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is thought to be hampered by the complexity of the system. In this proof of concept study, the ability to train supervised methods to predict electron impact ionisation (EI) mass spectra for the AMS is evaluated to facilitate improved model evaluation. The study demonstrates the use of a methodology that would be improved with more training data and data from simple mixed systems.
Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Yuying Wang, Yingjie Zhang, Qingqing Wang, Weiqi Xu, Chen Chen, Tingting Han, Fang Zhang, Zhanqing Li, Pingqing Fu, Jie Li, Zifa Wang, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6797–6811,Short summary
We conducted the first simultaneous measurements of size-resolved particle number concentrations at ground level and 260 m in urban Beijing. The vertical differences strongly depend on particle sizes, with accumulation-mode particles being highly correlated at the two heights. We further demonstrated that regional emission controls have a dominant impact on accumulation-mode particles, while the influences on Aitken particles were much smaller due to the enhanced NPF events.
Stephanie K. Jones, Carole Helfter, Margaret Anderson, Mhairi Coyle, Claire Campbell, Daniela Famulari, Chiara Di Marco, Netty van Dijk, Y. Sim Tang, Cairistiona F. E. Topp, Ralf Kiese, Reimo Kindler, Jan Siemens, Marion Schrumpf, Klaus Kaiser, Eiko Nemitz, Peter E. Levy, Robert M. Rees, Mark A. Sutton, and Ute M. Skiba
Biogeosciences, 14, 2069–2088,Short summary
We assessed the nitrogen (N), carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) budget from an intensively managed grassland in southern Scotland using flux budget calculations as well as changes in soil N and C pools over time. Estimates from flux budget calculations indicated that N and C were sequestered, whereas soil stock measurements indicated a smaller N storage and a loss of C from the ecosystem. The GHG sink strength of the net CO2 ecosystem exchange was strongly affected by CH4 and N2O emissions.
Chris Reed, Mathew J. Evans, Leigh R. Crilley, William J. Bloss, Tomás Sherwen, Katie A. Read, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4081–4092,Short summary
The source of ozone-depleting compounds in the remote troposphere has been thought to be long-range transport of secondary pollutants such as organic nitrates. Processing of organic nitrates to nitric acid and subsequent deposition on surfaces in the atmosphere was thought to remove these nitrates from the ozone–NOx–HOx cycle. We found through observation of NOx in the remote tropical troposphere at the Cape Verde Observatory that surface nitrates can be released back into the atmosphere.
Jian Zhao, Wei Du, Yingjie Zhang, Qingqing Wang, Chen Chen, Weiqi Xu, Tingting Han, Yuying Wang, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Zhanqing Li, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3215–3232,Short summary
We conducted aerosol particle composition measurements at ground level and 260 m with two aerosol mass spectrometers in Beijing during the 2015 China Victory Day parade. Our results showed a stronger impact of emission controls on inorganic aerosol than OA. A larger decrease in more oxidized SOA than the less oxidized one during the control period was also observed. Our results indicate that emission controls and the changes in meteorological conditions have affected SOA formation mechanisms.
Shurui Chen, Liang Xu, Yinxiao Zhang, Bing Chen, Xinfeng Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Mei Zheng, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1259–1270,Short summary
Many studies have focused on the unusually severe hazes instead of the more frequent light and moderate hazes (22–63 %) in winter in the North China Plain (NCP). The morphology, mixing state, and size of organic aerosols in the L & M hazes were characterized. We conclude that the direct emissions from residential coal stoves without any pollution controls in rural and urban outskirts contribute large amounts of primary OM particles to the regional L & M hazes in winter in the NCP.
Alexandra Tsekeri, Vassilis Amiridis, Franco Marenco, Athanasios Nenes, Eleni Marinou, Stavros Solomos, Phil Rosenberg, Jamie Trembath, Graeme J. Nott, James Allan, Michael Le Breton, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl Percival, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 83–107,Short summary
The In situ/Remote sensing aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (IRRA) provides vertical profiles of aerosol optical, microphysical and hygroscopic properties from airborne in situ and remote sensing measurements. The algorithm is highly advantageous for aerosol characterization in humid conditions, employing the ISORROPIA II model for acquiring the particle hygroscopic growth. IRRA can find valuable applications in aerosol–cloud interaction schemes and in validation of active space-borne sensors.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, David C. Green, Max Priestman, Francesco Canonaco, Hugh Coe, André S. H. Prévôt, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15545–15559,Short summary
For the first time in the UK, an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor was used to measure aerosol concentrations in London in March–December 2013, with further organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment using the ME-2 factorization tool. Five OA sources were identified: biomass burning OA, hydrocarbon-like OA, cooking OA, semivolatile oxygenated OA and low-volatility oxygenated OA. This information can be used to take future action on the respective legislation in order to improve the air quality.
Nicholas Marsden, Michael J. Flynn, Jonathan W. Taylor, James D. Allan, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 6051–6068,
Ben T. Johnson, James M. Haywood, Justin M. Langridge, Eoghan Darbyshire, William T. Morgan, Kate Szpek, Jennifer K. Brooke, Franco Marenco, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, Karla M. Longo, Jane P. Mulcahy, Graham W. Mann, Mohit Dalvi, and Nicolas Bellouin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14657–14685,Short summary
Biomass burning is a large source of carbonaceous aerosols, which scatter and absorb solar radiation, and modify cloud properties. We evaluate the simulation of biomass burning aerosol processes and properties in the HadGEM3 climate model using observations, including those from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis. We find that modelled aerosol optical depths are underestimated unless aerosol emissions (Global Fire Emission Database v3) are increased by a factor of 1.6–2.0.
Eleonora Aruffo, Fabio Biancofiore, Piero Di Carlo, Marcella Busilacchio, Marco Verdecchia, Barbara Tomassetti, Cesare Dari-Salisburgo, Franco Giammaria, Stephane Bauguitte, James Lee, Sarah Moller, James Hopkins, Shalini Punjabi, Stephen J. Andrews, Alistair C. Lewis, Paul I. Palmer, Edward Hyer, Michael Le Breton, and Carl Percival
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5591–5606,Short summary
During the BORTAS aircraft campaign, we measured NO2 and their oxidtation products (as peroxy nitrates) with a custom laser-induced fluorescence instrument. Because of the high correlation between known pyrogenic tracers (i.e., carbon monoxide) and peroxy nitrates, we provide two methods to use these species for the identification of biomass burning (BB) plumes. Using an artifical neural network, we improved the BB identification taking into account of a meteorological parameter (pressure).
Gillian Young, Hazel M. Jones, Thomas W. Choularton, Jonathan Crosier, Keith N. Bower, Martin W. Gallagher, Rhiannon S. Davies, Ian A. Renfrew, Andrew D. Elvidge, Eoghan Darbyshire, Franco Marenco, Philip R. A. Brown, Hugo M. A. Ricketts, Paul J. Connolly, Gary Lloyd, Paul I. Williams, James D. Allan, Jonathan W. Taylor, Dantong Liu, and Michael J. Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13945–13967,Short summary
Clouds are intricately coupled to the Arctic sea ice. Our inability to accurately model cloud fractions causes large uncertainties in predicted radiative interactions in this region, therefore, affecting sea ice forecasts. Here, we present measurements of cloud microphysics, aerosol properties, and thermodynamic structure over the transition from sea ice to ocean to improve our understanding of the relationship between the Arctic atmosphere and clouds which develop in this region.
Riinu Ots, Massimo Vieno, James D. Allan, Stefan Reis, Eiko Nemitz, Dominique E. Young, Hugh Coe, Chiara Di Marco, Anais Detournay, Ian A. Mackenzie, David C. Green, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13773–13789,Short summary
Emissions of cooking organic aerosol (COA; from charbroiling, frying, etc.) are currently absent in European emissions inventories yet measurements have pointed to significant COA concentrations. In this study, emissions of COA were developed for the UK by model iteration against year-long measurements at two sites in London. Modelled COA dropped rapidly outside of major urban areas, suggesting that although a notable component in UK urban air, COA does not have a significant effect on rural PM.
Qiang Huang, Jiubin Chen, Weilin Huang, Pingqing Fu, Benjamin Guinot, Xinbin Feng, Lihai Shang, Zhuhong Wang, Zhongwei Wang, Shengliu Yuan, Hongming Cai, Lianfang Wei, and Ben Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11773–11786,Short summary
Atmospheric airborne mercury is of particular concern because, once inhaled, both Hg and its vectors might have adverse effects on human beings. In this study, we attempted to identify the sources of PM2.5-Hg in Beijing, China, using Hg isotopic composition. Large range and seasonal variations in both mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionations of Hg isotopes in haze particles demonstrate the usefulness of Hg isotopes for directly tracing the sources and its vectors in the atmosphere.
Jonathan W. Taylor, Thomas W. Choularton, Alan M. Blyth, Michael J. Flynn, Paul I. Williams, Gillian Young, Keith N. Bower, Jonathan Crosier, Martin W. Gallagher, James R. Dorsey, Zixia Liu, and Philip D. Rosenberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11687–11709,Short summary
We present measurements of boundary layer aerosol concentration, size and composition from research flights performed over the southwest peninsula of the UK during the COnvective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) of summer 2013. We compare case studies of aerosol in cleaner marine air from the Atlantic with anthropogenic pollution from the UK. These measurements are then used to investigate the possible sources of CCN and IN in the region.
Marsailidh M. Twigg, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Sonya Beccaceci, David C. Green, Matthew R. Jones, Ben Langford, Sarah R. Leeson, Justin J. N. Lingard, Gloria M. Pereira, Heather Carter, Jan Poskitt, Andreas Richter, Stuart Ritchie, Ivan Simmons, Ron I. Smith, Y. Sim Tang, Netty Van Dijk, Keith Vincent, Eiko Nemitz, Massimo Vieno, and Christine F. Braban
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11415–11431,Short summary
This study integrates high and low resolution temporal measurements to assess the impact of the Holuhraun effusive eruption in 2014 across the UK. Measurements, modelling and satellite analysis provides details on the transport and chemistry of both gases and particulates during this unique event. The results of the study can be used verify existing atmospheric chemistry models of volcano plumes in order to carry improved risk assessments for future volcanic eruptions.
A. M. Yáñez-Serrano, A. C. Nölscher, E. Bourtsoukidis, B. Derstroff, N. Zannoni, V. Gros, M. Lanza, J. Brito, S. M. Noe, E. House, C. N. Hewitt, B. Langford, E. Nemitz, T. Behrendt, J. Williams, P. Artaxo, M. O. Andreae, and J. Kesselmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10965–10984,Short summary
This paper provides a general overview of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) ambient observations in different ecosystems around the world in order to provide insights into the sources, sink and role of MEK in the atmosphere.
Yugo Kanaya, Xiaole Pan, Takuma Miyakawa, Yuichi Komazaki, Fumikazu Taketani, Itsushi Uno, and Yutaka Kondo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10689–10705,Short summary
Wet removal of atmospheric black carbon particles was quantitatively characterized in terms of accumulated precipitation along a backward trajectory (APT) using long-term observations at Fukue Island, western Japan, receiving Asian continental outflow with variable degrees of influence from precipitation. The emission inventory of BC over East Asia was assessed in terms of the observed BC/CO ratios. Model simulations should be diagnosed with these improved knowledge on the emission and removal.
Carole Helfter, Anja H. Tremper, Christoforos H. Halios, Simone Kotthaus, Alex Bjorkegren, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Janet F. Barlow, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10543–10557,Short summary
There are relatively few long-term, direct measurements of pollutant emissions in urban settings. We present over 3 years of measurements of fluxes of CO, CO2 and CH4, study their respective temporal and spatial dynamics and offer an independent verification of the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory. CO and CO2 were strongly controlled by traffic and well characterised by the inventory whilst measured CH4 was two-fold larger and linked to natural gas usage and perhaps biogenic sources.
Simone Kotthaus, Ewan O'Connor, Christoph Münkel, Cristina Charlton-Perez, Martial Haeffelin, Andrew M. Gabey, and C. Sue B. Grimmond
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3769–3791,Short summary
Ceilometers lidars are useful to study clouds, aerosol layers and atmospheric boundary layer structures. As sensor optics and acquisition algorithms can strongly influence the observations, sensor specifics need to be incorporated into the physical interpretation. Here, recommendations are made for the operation and processing of profile observations from the widely deployed Vaisala CL31 ceilometer. Proposed corrections are shown to increase data quality and even data availability at times.
Giancarlo Ciarelli, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Monica Crippa, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Eriko Nemitz, Karine Sellegri, Mikko Äijälä, Samara Carbone, Claudia Mohr, Colin O'Dowd, Laurent Poulain, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10313–10332,Short summary
Recent studies based on aerosol mass spectrometer measurements revealed that the organic fraction dominates the non-refractory PM1 composition. However its representation in chemical transport models is still very challenging due to uncertainties in emission sources and formation pathways. In this study, a novel organic aerosol scheme was tested in the regional air quality model CAMx and results were compared with ambient measurements at 11 different sites in Europe.
Xiaole Pan, Itsushi Uno, Yukari Hara, Kazuo Osada, Shigekazu Yamamoto, Zhe Wang, Nobuo Sugimoto, Hiroshi Kobayashi, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9863–9873,Short summary
Polarization properties of aerosol particles at a suburban site in the western Japan was studied on the basis of long-term observation and trajectory analysis. This study provides the detailed information on the polarization characteristics of particles from different origins, and proposed a reliable criterion to classify spherical and non-spherical particles. This study introduced a new method to investigate the mixed state of dust particle with anthropogenic pollutant.
James D. Whitehead, Eoghan Darbyshire, Joel Brito, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Ian Crawford, Rafael Stern, Martin W. Gallagher, Paul H. Kaye, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9727–9743,Short summary
We present measurements of aerosols during the transition from wet to dry seasons at a pristine rainforest site in central Amazonia. By excluding pollution episodes, we focus on natural biogenic aerosols. Submicron aerosols are dominated by organic material, similar to previous wet season measurements. Larger particles are dominated by biological material, mostly fungal spores, with higher concentrations at night. This study provides important data on the nature of particles above the Amazon.
Yele Sun, Wei Du, Pingqing Fu, Qingqing Wang, Jie Li, Xinlei Ge, Qi Zhang, Chunmao Zhu, Lujie Ren, Weiqi Xu, Jian Zhao, Tingting Han, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8309–8329,Short summary
We have a comprehensive characterization of the sources, variations and processes of submicron aerosols in Beijing in winter using HR-AMS and GC/MS measurements. The primary sources including traffic, cooking, biomass burning and coal combustion emissions, and secondary components were separated and quantified with PMF. Our results elucidated the important roles of primary emissions, particularly coal combustion, and aqueous-phase processing in the formation of severe air pollution in winter.
Amy P. Sullivan, Natasha Hodas, Barbara J. Turpin, Kate Skog, Frank N. Keutsch, Stefania Gilardoni, Marco Paglione, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Eiko Nemitz, Marsailidh M. Twigg, and Jeffrey L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8095–8108,Short summary
This paper presents the results from our measurements and approach for the investigation of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation in the ambient atmosphere. When local aqSOA formation was observed, a correlation of water-soluble organic carbon with organic aerosol, aerosol liquid water, relative humidity, and aerosol nitrate was found. Key factors of local aqSOA production include air mass stagnation, formation of local nitrate overnight, and significant amounts of ammonia.
D. L. Finney, R. M. Doherty, O. Wild, and N. L. Abraham
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7507–7522,Short summary
Lightning is a source of nitric oxide (NO) and, through chemical reactions of NO, impacts ozone production. A new method for modelling global lightning markedly alters ozone concentration in the upper troposphere and frequency characteristics of ozone production compared to earlier treatments. Simulated lightning and ozone concentrations now better match observations. Reducing uncertainties associated with lightning NO is important for understanding atmospheric composition and radiative forcing.
Simon Schallhart, Pekka Rantala, Eiko Nemitz, Ditte Taipale, Ralf Tillmann, Thomas F. Mentel, Benjamin Loubet, Giacomo Gerosa, Angelo Finco, Janne Rinne, and Taina M. Ruuskanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7171–7194,