Articles | Volume 20, issue 14
Research article 30 Jul 2020
Research article | 30 Jul 2020
Temporal and spatial analysis of ozone concentrations in Europe based on timescale decomposition and a multi-clustering approach
Eirini Boleti et al.
No articles found.
Chuan Ping Lee, Mihnea Surdu, David M. Bell, Houssni Lamkaddam, Mingyi Wang, Farnoush Ataei, Victoria Hofbauer, Brandon Lopez, Neil M. Donahue, Josef Dommen, Andre S. H. Prevot, Jay G. Slowik, Dongyu Wang, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5913–5923,Short summary
Extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been deployed for high throughput online detection of particles with minimal fragmentation. Our study elucidates the extraction mechanism between the particles and electrospray (ES) droplets of different properties. The results show that the extraction rate is likely affected by the coagulation rate between the particles and ES droplets. Once coagulated, the particles undergo complete extraction within the ES droplet.
Vaios Moschos, Martin Gysel-Beer, Robin L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Dario Massabò, Camilla Costa, Silvia G. Danelli, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Sönke Szidat, Paolo Prati, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12809–12833,Short summary
This study provides a holistic approach to studying the spectrally resolved light absorption by atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) and black carbon using long time series of daily samples from filter-based measurements. The obtained results provide (1) a better understanding of the aerosol absorption profile and its dependence on BrC and on lensing from less absorbing coatings and (2) an estimation of the most important absorbers at typical European locations.
Amir Yazdani, Nikunj Dudani, Satoshi Takahama, Amelie Bertrand, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
While the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer provides high time resolution characterization of the overall extent of oxidation, the extensive fragmentation of molecules and specificity of the technique has posed challenges toward deeper understanding of molecular structures in aerosols. This work demonstrates how functional group information can be extracted from a suite of commonly-measured mass fragments using collocated infrared spectroscopy measurements.
Evelyn Freney, Karine Sellegri, Alessia Nicosia, Leah R. Williams, Matteo Rinaldi, Jonathan T. Trueblood, André S. H. Prévôt, Melilotus Thyssen, Gérald Grégori, Nils Haëntjens, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, France Van Wambeke, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Karine Desboeufs, Eija Asmi, Hilkka Timonen, and Cécile Guieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10625–10641,Short summary
In this work, we present observations of the organic aerosol content in primary sea spray aerosols (SSAs) continuously generated along a 5-week cruise in the Mediterranean. This information is combined with seawater biogeochemical properties also measured continuously along the ship track to develop a number of parametrizations that can be used in models to determine SSA organic content in oligotrophic waters that represent 60 % of the oceans from commonly measured seawater variables.
Amir Yazdani, Ann M. Dillner, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4805–4827,Short summary
We propose a spectroscopic method for estimating several mixture-averaged molecular properties (carbon number and molecular weight) in particulate matter relevant for understanding its chemical origins. This estimation is enabled by calibration models built and tested using laboratory standards containing molecules with known structure, and can be applied to filter samples of PM2.5 currently collected in existing air pollution monitoring networks and field campaigns.
Amir Yazdani, Nikunj Dudani, Satoshi Takahama, Amelie Bertrand, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10273–10293,Short summary
Functional group compositions of primary and aged aerosols from wood burning and coal combustion sources from chamber experiments are interpreted through compounds present in the fuels and known gas-phase oxidation products. Infrared spectra of aged wood burning in the chamber and ambient biomass burning samples reveal striking similarities, and a new method for identifying burning-impacted samples in monitoring network measurements is presented.
Yandong Tong, Veronika Pospisilova, Lu Qi, Jing Duan, Yifang Gu, Varun Kumar, Pragati Rai, Giulia Stefenelli, Liwei Wang, Ying Wang, Haobin Zhong, Urs Baltensperger, Junji Cao, Ru-Jin Huang, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9859–9886,Short summary
We investigate SOA sources and formation processes by a field deployment of the EESI-TOF-MS and L-TOF AMS in Beijing in late autumn and early winter. Our study shows that the sources and processes giving rise to haze events in Beijing are variable and seasonally dependent: (1) in the heating season, SOA formation is driven by oxidation of aromatics from solid fuel combustion; and (2) under high-NOx and RH conditions, aqueous-phase chemistry can be a major contributor to SOA formation.
Mária Lbadaoui-Darvas, Satoshi Takahama, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Aerosol-cloud interactions constitute the most uncertain contribution to climate change. The uptake kinetics of water by aerosol is a central process of cloud droplet formation, yet its molecular scale mechanism is unknown. We use molecular simulations to study this process for phase-separated organic particles. Our results explain the increased cloud condensation activity of such particles and can be generalised over various compositions, thus may serve as a basis for future models.
Alexandra J. Boris, Satoshi Takahama, Andrew T. Weakley, Bruno M. Debus, Stephanie L. Shaw, Eric S. Edgerton, Taekyu Joo, Nga L. Ng, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4355–4374,Short summary
Infrared spectrometry can be applied in routine monitoring of atmospheric particles to give comprehensive characterization of the organic material by bond rather than species. Using this technique, the concentrations of particle organic material were found to decrease 2011–2016 in the southeastern US, driven by a decline in highly aged material, concurrent with declining anthropogenic emissions. However, an increase was observed in the fraction of more moderately aged organic matter.
Dongyu S. Wang, Chuan Ping Lee, Jordan E. Krechmer, Francesca Majluf, Yandong Tong, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Julia Schmale, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Imad El Haddad, Jay G. Slowik, and David M. Bell
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
To understand the sources and fate of particulate matters in the atmosphere, the ability to quantitatively describe their chemical composition is essential. In this work, we developed a calibration method for a state-of-the-art measurement technique without the need for chemical standards. Statistical analyses identified for the firs time the driving factors behind instrument sensitivity variability towards individual components of particulate matters.
Siqi Hou, Di Liu, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Xuefang Wu, Deepchandra Srivastava, Pingqing Fu, Linjie Li, Yele Sun, Athanasia Vlachou, Vaios Moschos, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, André S. H. Prévôt, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8273–8292,Short summary
This study provides a newly developed method which combines radiocarbon (14C) with organic tracers to enable source apportionment of primary and secondary fossil vs. non-fossil sources of carbonaceous aerosols at an urban and a rural site of Beijing. The source apportionment results were compared with those by chemical mass balance and AMS/ACSM-PMF methods. Correlations of WINSOC and WSOC with different sources of OC were also performed to elucidate the formation mechanisms of SOC.
Karl Espen Yttri, Francesco Canonaco, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Hans Gundersen, Anne-Gunn Hjellbrekke, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, André S. H. Prévôt, David Simpson, Sverre Solberg, Jason Surratt, Kjetil Tørseth, Hilde Uggerud, Marit Vadset, Xin Wan, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7149–7170,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosol sources and trends were studied at the Birkenes Observatory. A large decrease in elemental carbon (EC; 2001–2018) and a smaller decline in levoglucosan (2008–2018) suggest that organic carbon (OC)/EC from traffic/industry is decreasing, whereas the abatement of OC/EC from biomass burning has been less successful. Positive matrix factorization apportioned 72 % of EC to fossil fuel sources and 53 % (PM2.5) and 78 % (PM10–2.5) of OC to biogenic sources.
David M. Bell, Cheng Wu, Amelie Bertrand, Emelie Graham, Janne Schoonbaert, Stamatios Giannoukos, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, Ilona Riipinen, Imad El Haddad, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
A series of studies designed to investigate the evolution of organic aerosol were performed in an atmospheric simulation chamber, using an oxidant found at night (NO3). The chemical composition steadily changed from its initial composition through different chemical reactions taking place inside of the aerosol. These results show the composition of organic aerosol is steadily changing during its lifetime in the atmosphere.
Cheng Wu, David Bell, Emelie L. Graham, Sophie Haslett, Ilona Riipinen, Urs Baltensperger, Amelie Bertrand, Stamatios Giannoukos, Janne Schoonbaert, Imad El Haddad, Andre S. H. Prevot, Wei Huang, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Night-time reactions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and nitrate radicals can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (BSOANO3). Here we study the impacts of light exposure on the BSOANO3 from three biogenic precursors. Our results suggest that photolysis causes photodegradation of a substantial fraction of BSOANO3, changes their chemical composition and bulk volatility, and might be a potentially important loss pathway of BSOANO3 during the night-to-day transition.
Wenfei Zhu, Song Guo, Min Hu, Zirui Zhang, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Zheng Chen, Ruizhe Shen, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Kefan Liu, Rongzhi Tang, Yi Liu, Shengrong Lou, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Shijin Shuai, Hongming Xu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Francesco Canonaco, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The experiments of primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from urban lifestyle sources (cooking and vehicle) were conducted. The mass spectral features of primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA were characterized by using high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. The work, for the first time, establishes the vehicle and cooking SOA source profiles, and can be further used as source constraints in the OA source apportionment in the ambient atmosphere.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Francesco Canonaco, Griša Močnik, Pragati Rai, Gang Chen, Jakub Bartyzel, Miroslaw Zimnoch, Katarzyna Styszko, Jaroslaw Nęcki, Markus Furger, Kazimierz Różański, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Krakow is among the cities with the highest particulate matter levels within Europe. We conducted long-term and highly time resolved measurements of the chemical composition of submicron particlulate matter (PM1). Combined with advanced source apportionment techniques, which allow for time-dependent factor profiles, our data elucidate key emission sources that influence the PM1 concentrations in Krakow.
Jianhui Jiang, Imad El Haddad, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giulia Stefenelli, Amelie Bertrand, Nicolas Marchand, Francesco Canonaco, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Stefania Gilardoni, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1681–1697,Short summary
We developed a box model with a volatility basis set to simulate organic aerosol (OA) from biomass burning and optimized the vapor-wall-loss-corrected OA yields with a genetic algorithm. The optimized parameterizations were then implemented in the air quality model CAMx v6.5. Comparisons with ambient measurements indicate that the vapor-wall-loss-corrected parameterization effectively improves the model performance in predicting OA, which reduced the mean fractional bias from −72.9 % to −1.6 %.
Stuart K. Grange, James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Alastair C. Lewis, Christoph Hueglin, Lukas Emmenegger, and David C. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4169–4185,Short summary
The changes in mobility across Europe due to the COVID-19 lockdowns had consequences for air quality. We compare what was experienced to estimates of "what would have been" without the lockdowns. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an important vehicle-sourced pollutant, decreased by a third. However, ozone (O3) increased in response to lower NO2. Because NO2 is decreasing over time, increases in O3 can be expected in European urban areas and will require management to avoid future negative outcomes.
Francesco Canonaco, Anna Tobler, Gang Chen, Yulia Sosedova, Jay Gates Slowik, Carlo Bozzetti, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Imad El Haddad, Monica Crippa, Ru-Jin Huang, Markus Furger, Urs Baltensperger, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 923–943,Short summary
Long-term ambient aerosol mass spectrometric data were analyzed with a statistical model (PMF) to obtain source contributions and fingerprints. The new aspects of this paper involve time-dependent source fingerprints by a rolling technique and the replacement of the full visual inspection of each run by a user-defined set of criteria to monitor the quality of each of these runs more efficiently. More reliable sources will finally provide better instruments for political mitigation strategies.
Pragati Rai, Jay G. Slowik, Markus Furger, Imad El Haddad, Suzanne Visser, Yandong Tong, Atinderpal Singh, Günther Wehrle, Varun Kumar, Anna K. Tobler, Deepika Bhattu, Liwei Wang, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Ru-Jin Huang, Jaroslaw Necki, Junji Cao, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 717–730,Short summary
We present a simple conceptual framework based on elemental size distributions and enrichment factors that allows for a characterization of major sources, site-to-site similarities, and local differences and the identification of key information required for efficient policy development. Absolute concentrations are by far the highest in Delhi, followed by Beijing, and then the European cities.
Gang Chen, Yulia Sosedova, Francesco Canonaco, Roman Fröhlich, Anna Tobler, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Carlo Bozzetti, Christoph Hueglin, Peter Graf, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We used a recently developed state-of-the-art rolling mechanism for the first time at a rural site, southern alpine valley (Magadino) to get a more realistic and detailed information of the organic aerosol sources. This work highlights the strength of this novel source apportionment technique by comparing with the results derived from conventional seasonal PMF. Overall, this detailed interpretation of chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) data could be a role model for similar analysis.
Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Jianhui Jiang, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15665–15680,Short summary
We investigated the role of ammonia in European air quality between 1990 and 2030 under varying land and ship emissions. If ship emissions will be regulated more strictly in the future, particulate nitrate will decrease in coastal areas in northern Europe, while sulfate aerosol will decrease in the Mediterranean region. We predict a shift in the sensitivity of aerosol formation from NH3 towards NOx emissions between 1990 and 2030 in most of Europe except the eastern part of the model domain.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Dongyu S. Wang, Philip Croteau, Katarzyna Styszko, Jarosław Nęcki, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5293–5301,Short summary
Some quadrupole aerosol chemical speciation monitors (Q-ACSMs) have had issues with the quantification of particulate chloride, resulting in apparent negative chloride concentrations. We can show that this is due to the different behavior of Cl+ and HCl+, and we present a correction for the more accurate quantification of chloride. The correction can be applied to measurements in environments where the particulate chloride is dominated by NH4Cl.
Liwei Wang, Jay G. Slowik, Nidhi Tripathi, Deepika Bhattu, Pragati Rai, Varun Kumar, Pawan Vats, Rangu Satish, Urs Baltensperger, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Sachchida N. Tripathi, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9753–9770,
Martin Rigler, Luka Drinovec, Gašper Lavrič, Athanasia Vlachou, André S. H. Prévôt, Jean Luc Jaffrezo, Iasonas Stavroulas, Jean Sciare, Judita Burger, Irena Kranjc, Janja Turšič, Anthony D. A. Hansen, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4333–4351,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosols are a large fraction of fine particulate matter. They are extremely diverse, and they directly impact air quality, visibility, cloud formation and public health. In this paper we present a new instrument and new method to measure carbon content in particulate matter in real time and at a high time resolution. The new method was validated in a 1-month winter field campaign in Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Andrés Alastuey, Todor Petkov Arsov, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Cédric Couret, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Harald Flentje, Markus Fiebig, Martin Gysel-Beer, Jenny L. Hand, András Hoffer, Rakesh Hooda, Christoph Hueglin, Warren Joubert, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Casper Labuschagne, Neng-Huei Lin, Yong Lin, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marco Pandolfi, Natalia Prats, Anthony J. Prenni, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Ludwig Ries, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Elvis Torres, Thomas Tuch, Rolf Weller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paul Zieger, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8867–8908,Short summary
Long-term trends of aerosol radiative properties (52 stations) prove that aerosol load has significantly decreased over the last 20 years. Scattering trends are negative in Europe (EU) and North America (NA), not ss in Asia, and show a mix of positive and negative trends at polar stations. Absorption has mainly negative trends. The single scattering albedo has positive trends in Asia and eastern EU and negative in western EU and NA, leading to a global positive median trend of 0.02 % per year.
Tuukka Petäjä, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ksenia Tabakova, Julia Schmale, Barbara Altstädter, Gerard Ancellet, Mikhail Arshinov, Yurii Balin, Urs Baltensperger, Jens Bange, Alison Beamish, Boris Belan, Antoine Berchet, Rossana Bossi, Warren R. L. Cairns, Ralf Ebinghaus, Imad El Haddad, Beatriz Ferreira-Araujo, Anna Franck, Lin Huang, Antti Hyvärinen, Angelika Humbert, Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Pavel Konstantinov, Astrid Lampert, Matthew MacLeod, Olivier Magand, Alexander Mahura, Louis Marelle, Vladimir Masloboev, Dmitri Moisseev, Vaios Moschos, Niklas Neckel, Tatsuo Onishi, Stefan Osterwalder, Aino Ovaska, Pauli Paasonen, Mikhail Panchenko, Fidel Pankratov, Jakob B. Pernov, Andreas Platis, Olga Popovicheva, Jean-Christophe Raut, Aurélie Riandet, Torsten Sachs, Rosamaria Salvatori, Roberto Salzano, Ludwig Schröder, Martin Schön, Vladimir Shevchenko, Henrik Skov, Jeroen E. Sonke, Andrea Spolaor, Vasileios K. Stathopoulos, Mikko Strahlendorff, Jennie L. Thomas, Vito Vitale, Sterios Vratolis, Carlo Barbante, Sabine Chabrillat, Aurélien Dommergue, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jyri Heilimo, Kathy S. Law, Andreas Massling, Steffen M. Noe, Jean-Daniel Paris, André S. H. Prévôt, Ilona Riipinen, Birgit Wehner, Zhiyong Xie, and Hanna K. Lappalainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8551–8592,Short summary
The role of polar regions is increasing in terms of megatrends such as globalization, new transport routes, demography, and the use of natural resources with consequent effects on regional and transported pollutant concentrations. Here we summarize initial results from our integrative project exploring the Arctic environment and pollution to deliver data products, metrics, and indicators for stakeholders.
Yunle Chen, Masayuki Takeuchi, Theodora Nah, Lu Xu, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Harald Stark, Karsten Baumann, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, L. Gregory Huey, Rodney J. Weber, and Nga L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8421–8440,Short summary
Two online mass spectrometry instruments, an aerosol mass spectrometer and a chemical ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols, were deployed at Yorkville, GA, for a comprehensive characterization of organic aerosol. We observed notable secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene and monoterpenes via different pathways during both day and night, and a series of highly oxidized acid-like compounds was found to be closely related to aged SOA.
Michael Müller, Peter Graf, Jonas Meyer, Anastasia Pentina, Dominik Brunner, Fernando Perez-Cruz, Christoph Hüglin, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3815–3834,
Lu Qi, Alexander L. Vogel, Sepideh Esmaeilirad, Liming Cao, Jing Zheng, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Paola Fermo, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Mindong Chen, Xinlei Ge, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7875–7893,Short summary
We present the first application of this online and offline strategy using the new extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), which achieves increased chemical specificity relative to other online techniques. Measurement and source apportionment of 1 year of filter samples collected in Zurich, Switzerland, show seasonal contributions from fresh and aged wood combustion in winter and biogenic emission-derived SOA in summer, as well as other sources.
Stuart K. Grange, Hanspeter Lötscher, Andrea Fischer, Lukas Emmenegger, and Christoph Hueglin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1867–1885,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is an important atmospheric pollutant and can be monitored by instruments called aethalometers. A pragmatic data processing technique called the
aethalometer modelcan be used to apportion aethalometer observations into traffic and woodburning components. We present an exploratory data analysis evaluating the aethalometer model and use the outputs for BC trend analysis across Switzerland. The aethalometer model's robustness and utility for such analyses is discussed.
Charlotte Bürki, Matteo Reggente, Ann M. Dillner, Jenny L. Hand, Stephanie L. Shaw, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1517–1538,Short summary
Infrared spectroscopy is a chemically informative method for particulate matter characterization. However, recent work has demonstrated that predictions depend heavily on the choice of calibration model parameters. We propose a means for managing parameter uncertainties by combining available data from laboratory standards, molecular databases, and collocated ambient measurements to provide useful characterization of atmospheric organic matter on a large scale.
Pragati Rai, Markus Furger, Jay G. Slowik, Francesco Canonaco, Roman Fröhlich, Christoph Hüglin, María Cruz Minguillón, Krag Petterson, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1657–1674,Short summary
A source apportionment study of hourly resolved elements in PM10 measured at a traffic-influenced site in Härkingen, Switzerland, using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and multilinear engine-2 (ME-2) offered resolution of robust and unambiguous factor profiles and contributions. We show that the rotational control available in ME-2 provides a means for treating extreme events such as fireworks within a PMF analysis.
Marco Paglione, Stefania Gilardoni, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Nicola Zanca, Silvia Sandrini, Lara Giulianelli, Dimitri Bacco, Silvia Ferrari, Vanes Poluzzi, Fabiana Scotto, Arianna Trentini, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Paola Massoli, Claudio Carbone, Maria Cristina Facchini, and Sandro Fuzzi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1233–1254,Short summary
Our multi-year observational study regarding organic aerosol (OA) in the Po Valley indicates that more than half of OA is of secondary origin (SOA) through all the year and at both urban and rural sites. Within the SOA, the measurements show the importance of biomass burning (BB) aging products during cold seasons and indicate aqueous-phase processing of BB emissions as a fundamental driver of SOA formation in wintertime, with important consequences for air quality policy at the global level.
Marco Pandolfi, Dennis Mooibroek, Philip Hopke, Dominik van Pinxteren, Xavier Querol, Hartmut Herrmann, Andrés Alastuey, Olivier Favez, Christoph Hüglin, Esperanza Perdrix, Véronique Riffault, Stéphane Sauvage, Eric van der Swaluw, Oksana Tarasova, and Augustin Colette
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 409–429,Short summary
In the last scientific assessment report from the LRTAP Convention, it is stated that because non-urban sources are often major contributors to urban pollution, many cities will be unable to meet WHO guideline levels for air pollutants through local action alone. Consequently, it is very important to estimate how much the local and non-local sources contribute to urban pollution in order to design global strategies to reduce the levels of pollutants in European cities.
Jianhui Jiang, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Imad El-Haddad, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Francesco Canonaco, Stefania Gilardoni, Marco Paglione, María Cruz Minguillón, Olivier Favez, Yunjiang Zhang, Nicolas Marchand, Liqing Hao, Annele Virtanen, Kalliopi Florou, Colin O'Dowd, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15247–15270,Short summary
We use an air quality model with a modified organic aerosol (OA) module based on chamber experiments to identify the OA sources and their contributions in Europe. Comparisons with long-term measurements at nine sites in 2011 show an improvement in OA simulation. Our results suggest that the biomass burning and biogenic emissions are the dominant sources in winter and summer, respectively. Contributions of diesel and gasoline vehicles are relatively small compared to a previous study in the US.
Giulia Stefenelli, Veronika Pospisilova, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Christoph Hüglin, Yandong Tong, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14825–14848,
Yunjiang Zhang, Olivier Favez, Jean-Eudes Petit, Francesco Canonaco, Francois Truong, Nicolas Bonnaire, Vincent Crenn, Tanguy Amodeo, Andre S. H. Prévôt, Jean Sciare, Valerie Gros, and Alexandre Albinet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14755–14776,Short summary
We present 6-year source apportionment of organic aerosol (OA) achieved with near-continuous online measurements and subsequent receptor model analysis in the Paris region, France. The OA factors presented distinct seasonal patterns, associated with different atmospheric formation processes and roles in air pollution. Limited year-round trends for two primary anthropogenic factors and a biogenic-like secondary factor were observed, while a more oxidized secondary OA showed a decreasing feature.
Jun Zhou, Miriam Elser, Ru-Jin Huang, Manuel Krapf, Roman Fröhlich, Deepika Bhattu, Giulia Stefenelli, Peter Zotter, Emily A. Bruns, Simone M. Pieber, Haiyan Ni, Qiyuan Wang, Yichen Wang, Yaqing Zhou, Chunying Chen, Mao Xiao, Jay G. Slowik, Samuel Brown, Laure-Estelle Cassagnes, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Thomas Nussbaumer, Marianne Geiser, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El-Haddad, Junji Cao, Urs Baltensperger, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14703–14720,Short summary
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to contribute to the adverse health effects of aerosols. We measured particle-bound ROS (PB-ROS) with an online instrument in two distinct environments, i.e., Beijing (China) and Bern (Switzerland). In both cities these exogenic ROS are predominantly related to secondary organic aerosol (SOA). PB-ROS content in SOA from various anthropogenic emission sources tested in the laboratory was comparable to that in the ambient measurements.
Xiaoli Shen, Heike Vogel, Bernhard Vogel, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Ramakrishna Ramisetty, Thomas Leisner, André S. H. Prévôt, and Harald Saathoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13189–13208,Short summary
This study provides good insight into the chemical nature and complex origin of aerosols by combining comprehensive field observations and transport modelling. We suggest that factors related to topography, metrological conditions, local emissions, in situ formation and growth, regional transport, and the interaction of biogenic and anthropogenic compounds need to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of aerosol processes.
Alexandra J. Boris, Satoshi Takahama, Andrew T. Weakley, Bruno M. Debus, Carley D. Fredrickson, Martin Esparza-Sanchez, Charlotte Burki, Matteo Reggente, Stephanie L. Shaw, Eric S. Edgerton, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5391–5415,Short summary
Organic species are abundant in atmospheric particle-phase (aerosol) pollution and originate from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Infrared spectrometry of filter-based atmospheric particle samples can afford a direct measurement of the particulate organic matter concentration and a characterization of its composition. This work discusses recent method improvements and compositions measured in samples from the SouthEastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network.
Giulia Stefenelli, Jianhui Jiang, Amelie Bertrand, Emily A. Bruns, Simone M. Pieber, Urs Baltensperger, Nicolas Marchand, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, André S. H. Prévôt, Jay G. Slowik, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11461–11484,Short summary
Box model simulations, based on the volatility basis set approach, of smog chamber wood combustion experiments conducted at different temperatures (−10 °C, 2 °C, 15 °C), emission loads, combustion conditions (flaming and smoldering) and residential stoves fabricated in the last 2 decades. Novel parameterization methods based on a genetic algorithm approach allowed estimation of precursor class contributions to SOA and evaluation of the effect of emission variability on SOA yield predictions.
Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Veronika Pospisilova, Wei Huang, Markus Kalberer, Claudia Mohr, Giulia Stefenelli, Joel A. Thornton, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4867–4886,Short summary
We present a novel, field-deployable extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), which provides real-time, near-molecular measurements of organic aerosol at atmospherically relevant concentrations, addressing a critical gap in existing measurement capabilities. Successful deployments of the EESI-TOF for laboratory measurements, ground-based ambient sampling, and aboard a research aircraft highlight the versatility and potential of the EESI-TOF system.
Lu Qi, Mindong Chen, Giulia Stefenelli, Veronika Pospisilova, Yandong Tong, Amelie Bertrand, Christoph Hueglin, Xinlei Ge, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8037–8062,Short summary
Current understanding of OA sources is limited by the chemical resolution of existing real-time measurement technology. We describe the first wintertime deployment of a novel extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, which provides near-molecular OA measurements with high time resolution. We show that biomass combustion strongly influences winter OA. Via factor analysis, aging-dependent signatures and time contributions of biomass-combustion-derived OA are resolved.
Athanasia Vlachou, Anna Tobler, Houssni Lamkaddam, Francesco Canonaco, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, María Cruz Minguillón, Marek Maasikmets, Erik Teinemaa, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7279–7295,Short summary
The resolution of rotational ambiguity in positive matrix factorization (PMF) models is a major challenge. Here, we developed a method based on bootstrapping and correlations to extract environmentally meaningful solutions from PMF analysis based on offline aerosol mass spectrometry data. The method has been tested on a dataset that covers 1 full year of filter samples collected at three different sites in Estonia.
Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Ivan Kourtchev, Alexander L. Vogel, Emily A. Bruns, Jianhui Jiang, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Markus Kalberer, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5973–5991,Short summary
Here we present the molecular composition of the organic aerosol (OA) at an urban site in Central Europe (Zurich, Switzerland) and compare it to smog chamber wood smoke and ambient biogenic secondary OA (SOA) (Orbitrap analyses). Accordingly, we are able to explain the strong seasonality of the molecular composition by aged wood smoke and biogenic SOA during winter and summer. Our results could also explain the predominance of non-fossil organic carbon at European locations throughout the year.
Matteo Reggente, Ann M. Dillner, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2287–2312,Short summary
We compare state-of-the-art models for predicting functional group composition in atmospheric particulate matter across urban and rural samples collected in a US monitoring network. While trends across models are consistent, absolute abundances can be sensitive to selection of calibration standards, spectral processing procedures, and calibration algorithms. Recommendations for further method development for reducing uncertainties are outlined.
Matteo Reggente, Rudolf Höhn, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2313–2329,Short summary
The infrared spectra of atmospheric particles are rich in chemical information but require sophisticated statistical methods to extract information on account of their complex absorption profiles. We present an open software suite which makes current algorithms used for analysis of such spectra available to the community, with a browser-based interface for general users and modular architecture that facilitates addition of new methods by developers.
Karl Espen Yttri, David Simpson, Robert Bergström, Gyula Kiss, Sönke Szidat, Darius Ceburnis, Sabine Eckhardt, Christoph Hueglin, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Cinzia Perrino, Ignazio Pisso, Andre Stephan Henry Prevot, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Gerald Spindler, Milan Vana, Yan-Lin Zhang, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4211–4233,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosols from natural sources were abundant regardless of season. Residential wood burning (RWB) emissions were occasionally equally as large as or larger than of fossil-fuel sources, depending on season and region. RWB emissions are poorly constrained; thus emissions inventories need improvement. Harmonizing emission factors between countries is likely the most important step to improve model calculations for biomass burning emissions and European PM2.5 concentrations in general.
Jianhui Jiang, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Emmanouil Oikonomakis, Imad El-Haddad, Francesco Canonaco, Colin O'Dowd, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, María Cruz Minguillón, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3747–3768,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from vegetation are essential inputs for air quality models but their uncertainties are very high. In this study we show the importance of BVOC emissions for modelled ozone and aerosol concentrations in Europe. Using different biogenic emissions from MEGAN and PSI models significantly affected organic aerosols (smaller effect on ozone), indicating the importance of harmonising the BVOC emissions in the model inter-comparison studies.
Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Francesco Canonaco, Liine Heikkinen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, André S. H. Prévôt, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3645–3672,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometry produces large amounts of complex data, the analysis of which necessitates chemometrics – the application of advanced statistical and mathematical tools to chemical data. Here, we perform a data-driven analysis of multiple aerosol mass spectrometric data sets, to show that the traditional separation of organics and inorganics is not necessary. The resulting 7-component aerosol speciation explains 83 % to 96 % of observed variability at our boreal forest experiment site.
Li Xing, Jiarui Wu, Miriam Elser, Shengrui Tong, Suixin Liu, Xia Li, Lang Liu, Junji Cao, Jiamao Zhou, Imad El-Haddad, Rujin Huang, Maofa Ge, Xuexi Tie, André S. H. Prévôt, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2343–2359,Short summary
We used the WRF-CHEM model to simulate wintertime secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations over Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH), China. Heterogeneous HONO sources increased the near-surface SOA by 46.3 % in BTH. Direct emissions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from residential sources contributed 25.5 % to the total SOA mass. Our study highlights the importance of heterogeneous HONO sources and primary residential emissions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal to SOA formation in winter over BTH.
Ru-Jin Huang, Yichen Wang, Junji Cao, Chunshui Lin, Jing Duan, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Yifang Gu, Jin Yan, Wei Xu, Roman Fröhlich, Francesco Canonaco, Carlo Bozzetti, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El-Haddad, André S. H. Prévôt, and Colin D. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2283–2298,Short summary
We found that in wintertime Shijiazhuang fine PM was mostly from primary emissions without sufficient atmospheric aging. In addition, secondary inorganic and organic aerosol dominated in pollution events under high-RH conditions, likely due to enhanced aqueous-phase chemistry, whereas primary organic aerosol dominated in pollution events under low-RH and stagnant conditions. Our results also highlighted the importance of meteorological conditions for PM pollution in this highly polluted city.
Satoshi Takahama, Ann M. Dillner, Andrew T. Weakley, Matteo Reggente, Charlotte Bürki, Mária Lbadaoui-Darvas, Bruno Debus, Adele Kuzmiakova, and Anthony S. Wexler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 525–567,Short summary
Mid-infrared spectra of particulate matter (PM) samples are complex but chemically informative and present an opportunity for cost-effective measurement of PM provided that quantitative calibration models can be built. We review an emerging strategy for building statistical calibration models using collocated measurements, interpreting the physical bases for such models and evaluating the suitability of existing calibration models to new samples.
Nivedita K. Kumar, Joel C. Corbin, Emily A. Bruns, Dario Massabó, Jay G. Slowik, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, Paolo Prati, Athanasia Vlachou, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17843–17861,Short summary
It is clear that considerable uncertainties still exist in understanding the magnitude of aerosol absorption on a global scale and its contribution to global warming. This manuscript provides a comprehensive assessment of the optical absorption by organic aerosols (brown carbon) from residential wood combustion as a function of atmospheric aging.
Lu Hu, Christoph A. Keller, Michael S. Long, Tomás Sherwen, Benjamin Auer, Arlindo Da Silva, Jon E. Nielsen, Steven Pawson, Matthew A. Thompson, Atanas L. Trayanov, Katherine R. Travis, Stuart K. Grange, Mat J. Evans, and Daniel J. Jacob
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4603–4620,Short summary
We present a full-year online global simulation of tropospheric chemistry at 12.5 km resolution. To the best of our knowledge, such a resolution in a state-of-the-science global simulation of tropospheric chemistry is unprecedented. This simulation will serve as the Nature Run for observing system simulation experiments to support the future geostationary satellite constellation for tropospheric chemistry, and can also be used for various air quality applications.
Yingjie Zhang, Wei Du, Yuying Wang, Qingqing Wang, Haofei Wang, Haitao Zheng, Fang Zhang, Hongrong Shi, Yuxuan Bian, Yongxiang Han, Pingqing Fu, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Tong Zhu, Pucai Wang, Zhanqing Li, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14637–14651,Short summary
We have a comprehensive characterization of aerosol chemistry and particle growth events at a downwind site of a highly polluted city in the North China Plain. Aerosol particles at the urban downwind site were highly aged and mainly from secondary formation. New particle growth events were also frequently observed on both clean and polluted days. While both sulfate and SOA played important roles in particle growth during clean periods, SOA was more important than sulfate during polluted events.
Xiao-Feng Huang, Bei-Bing Zou, Ling-Yan He, Min Hu, André S. H. Prévôt, and Yuan-Hang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11563–11580,Short summary
A novel multilinear engine (ME-2) model was applied to the PM2.5 dataset observed in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China in 2015 and identified the sources of secondary sulfate (21 %), vehicle emissions (14 %), industrial emissions (13 %), secondary nitrate (11 %), biomass burning (11 %), secondary organic aerosol (7 %), coal burning (6 %), fugitive dust (5 %), ship emissions (3 %) and aged sea salt (2 %). The central PRD area was clearly identified as the key emission area in the PRD.
Amelie Bertrand, Giulia Stefenelli, Simone M. Pieber, Emily A. Bruns, Brice Temime-Roussel, Jay G. Slowik, Henri Wortham, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10915–10930,Short summary
We model the evolution of several BBOA markers including levoglucosan during aging experiments conducted in an atmospheric Teflon chamber, in order to evaluate the influence of vapor wall loss on the determination of the rate constants of the compounds with hydroxyl radicals (OH).
Xia Li, Jiarui Wu, Miriam Elser, Tian Feng, Junji Cao, Imad El-Haddad, Rujin Huang, Xuexi Tie, André S. H. Prévôt, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10675–10691,
Simone M. Pieber, Nivedita K. Kumar, Felix Klein, Pierre Comte, Deepika Bhattu, Josef Dommen, Emily A. Bruns, Doǧuşhan Kılıç, Imad El Haddad, Alejandro Keller, Jan Czerwinski, Norbert Heeb, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9929–9954,Short summary
We studied primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles including GDIs retrofitted with gasoline particle filters (GPF). GPF retrofitting significantly decreased the primary particulate matter, particularly through removal of refractory black carbon and, to a lesser extent, of non-refractory organic particulates. SOA experiments were conducted in a batch and flow reactor. GPF retrofitting did not significantly affect precursors or yields.
Emmanouil Oikonomakis, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Martin Wild, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Urs Baltensperger, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9741–9765,Short summary
We report a model sensitivity study on the impact of aerosol–radiation interaction (ARI) changes in Europe between 1990 and 2010 on summer surface ozone via effects on photolysis rates and biogenic emissions. The overall impact of ARI changes on ozone was relatively small when compared to the total ozone concentrations, but it was more important when compared to the order of magnitude of ozone trends, indicating a potential partial damping of the effects of ozone precursor emissions' reduction.
Alessandro Bigi, Michael Mueller, Stuart K. Grange, Grazia Ghermandi, and Christoph Hueglin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3717–3735,Short summary
Low cost sensors for monitoring atmospheric pollution are growing in popularity worldwide. Nonetheless, the expectations from these devices were seldom met, thus urging for more research. This study focuses on sensor performance within the realistic framework of an initial calibration next to a reference instrument and the subsequent distant deployment. Within this framework, we assessed the uncertainty of these sensors and their suitability to map intra-urban gradients of NO/NO2.
Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Qi Zhang, Qi Jiang, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Jie Li, John Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8469–8489,Short summary
We present a 2–year analysis of organic aerosol (OA) from highly time–resolved measurements by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor in the megacity of Beijing. The sources of OA were analyzed with the advanced factor analysis of a multilinear engine (ME-2). Our results showed very different seasonal patterns, relative humidity and temperature dependence, and sources regions among different OA factors. The sources and processes of OA factors, and their roles in haze pollution are elucidated.
Amelie Bertrand, Giulia Stefenelli, Coty N. Jen, Simone M. Pieber, Emily A. Bruns, Haiyan Ni, Brice Temime-Roussel, Jay G. Slowik, Allen H. Goldstein, Imad El Haddad, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, Henri Wortham, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7607–7624,Short summary
A thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph coupled to an aerosol mass spectrometer (TAG–AMS) is connected to an atmospheric chamber. The setup serves the quantitative study of the impact of combustion conditions and atmospheric aging on the chemical fingerprint at the molecular level of biomass burning organic aerosol.
Doğuşhan Kılıç, Imad El Haddad, Benjamin T. Brem, Emily Bruns, Carlo Bozetti, Joel Corbin, Lukas Durdina, Ru-Jin Huang, Jianhui Jiang, Felix Klein, Avi Lavi, Simone M. Pieber, Theo Rindlisbacher, Yinon Rudich, Jay G. Slowik, Jing Wang, Urs Baltensperger, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7379–7391,Short summary
We study primary emissions and secondary aerosol (SA) from an aircraft turbofan. By monitoring the chemical composition of both gaseous and particulate emissions at different engine loads, we explained SA formed in an oxidation flow reactor (PAM) by the oxidation of gaseous species. At idle, more than 90 % of the secondary particle mass was organic and could be explained by the oxidation of gaseous aromatic species, while at an approximated cruise load sulfates comprised 85 % of the total SA.
Arineh Cholakian, Matthias Beekmann, Augustin Colette, Isabelle Coll, Guillaume Siour, Jean Sciare, Nicolas Marchand, Florian Couvidat, Jorge Pey, Valerie Gros, Stéphane Sauvage, Vincent Michoud, Karine Sellegri, Aurélie Colomb, Karine Sartelet, Helen Langley DeWitt, Miriam Elser, André S. H. Prévot, Sonke Szidat, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7287–7312,Short summary
In this work, four schemes for the simulation of organic aerosols in the western Mediterranean basin are added to the CHIMERE chemistry–transport model; the resulting simulations are then compared to measurements obtained from ChArMEx. It is concluded that the scheme taking into account the fragmentation and the formation of nonvolatile organic aerosols corresponds better to measurements; the major source of this aerosol in the western Mediterranean is found to be of biogenic origin.
Jun Zhou, Peter Zotter, Emily A. Bruns, Giulia Stefenelli, Deepika Bhattu, Samuel Brown, Amelie Bertrand, Nicolas Marchand, Houssni Lamkaddam, Jay G. Slowik, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, Thomas Nussbaumer, Imad El-Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6985–7000,Short summary
We thoroughly studied the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation potential of particulate wood combustion emissions, from different combustion technologies, fuel types, operation methods, combustion regimes and phases. ROS from automatically operated combustion devices under optimal conditions were much lower than those from manually operated appliances. We examined the impact of atmospheric aging on ROS content in SOA and determined the controlling parameters, by using an online ROS analyzer.
P. Morten Hundt, Michael Müller, Markus Mangold, Béla Tuzson, Philipp Scheidegger, Herbert Looser, Christoph Hüglin, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2669–2681,Short summary
NO2 is a pollutant that regularly exceeds its limit values in European cities. We developed a compact, mobile laser spectrometer that measures NO2 concentrations and installed it on a tram in Zurich. Mobile operation resulted in NO2 concentration data with high spatio-temporal resolution. The data were validated against fixed air-quality monitoring sites and provided detailed insights into the spatio-temporal concentration distribution of NO2 in an urban environment.
Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Carlo Bozzetti, Benjamin Chazeau, Gary A. Salazar, Soenke Szidat, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Christoph Hueglin, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6187–6206,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosols are related to adverse human health effects, which depend on the aerosol chemical composition and size. Here, we combine aerosol mass spectrometry and radiocarbon measurements of size-resolved samples collected over a long term to identify the origins of primary and secondary carbonaceous aerosols in the fine and coarse modes.
Stuart K. Grange, David C. Carslaw, Alastair C. Lewis, Eirini Boleti, and Christoph Hueglin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6223–6239,Short summary
Weather (meteorology) has a strong effect on air quality; if not accounted for, there is uncertainty surrounding what drives features in air quality time series. We present a machine learning approach to account for meteorology using PM10 data in Switzerland. With the exception of one site, all Swiss normalised PM10 trends were found to significantly decrease, which validates air quality management efforts. The machine learning models were interpreted to investigate interesting processes.
Yan-Lin Zhang, Imad El-Haddad, Ru-Jin Huang, Kin-Fai Ho, Jun-Ji Cao, Yongming Han, Peter Zotter, Carlo Bozzetti, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Jay G. Slowik, Gary Salazar, André S. H. Prévôt, and Sönke Szidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4005–4017,Short summary
Here we present a quantitative source apportionment of WSOC, isolated from aerosols in China using radiocarbon (14C) and offline high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer measurements. We demonstrate a dominant contribution of non-fossil emissions to WSOC aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere. However, the fossil fraction is substantially larger in aerosols from East Asia and the east Asian pollution outflow, especially during winter, due to increasing coal combustion.
Wei Zhou, Qingqing Wang, Xiujuan Zhao, Weiqi Xu, Chen Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3951–3968,Short summary
We present a 3-month analysis of submicron aerosols that were measured at 260 m on a meteorological tower in Beijing, China. The sources of organic aerosol (OA) were analyzed by using a multi-linear engine (ME-2). Our results showed significant changes in both primary and secondary OA composition from the non-heating season to the heating season. We also observed a considerable contribution (10–13%) of cooking OA at 260 m and very different OA composition between ground level and 260 m.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Qiao Zhu, Xiao-Feng Huang, Li-Ming Cao, Lin-Tong Wei, Bin Zhang, Ling-Yan He, Miriam Elser, Francesco Canonaco, Jay G. Slowik, Carlo Bozzetti, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1049–1060,Short summary
Organic aerosol constitutes one of the major components of atmospheric particulate matter globally and is emitted from various sources. Therefore, identifying and quantifying the sources of organic aerosol accurately is a key task in the field. In this study, we applied a rather novel procedure for an improved source apportionment method (ME-2) to resolve the
less meaningful or mixed factorsproblems for organic aerosol using the traditional method (PMF).
Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Imad El-Haddad, Lassi Karvonen, Athanasia Vlachou, Joel C. Corbin, Jay G. Slowik, Maarten F. Heringa, Emily A. Bruns, Samuel M. Luedin, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Sönke Szidat, Andrea Piazzalunga, Raquel Gonzalez, Paola Fermo, Valentin Pflueger, Guido Vogel, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2155–2174,Short summary
A novel offline LDI-MS method was developed to analyse particulate matter (PM) collected at multiple sites in central Europe during the entire year of 2013. PM sources were identified by positive matrix factorization. Wood burning emissions were separated according to the burning conditions; inefficient burns had a larger impact on air quality in southern Alpine valleys than in northern Switzerland. Moreover, primary tailpipe exhaust was distinguished from aged/secondary traffic emissions.
Emmanouil Oikonomakis, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Urs Baltensperger, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2175–2198,Short summary
We report a modeling study investigating the uncertainties in ozone production in Europe. Using various methods for different emission and meteorological scenarios, we searched for the possible reasons for underestimation of high ozone levels in Europe by models. Our results suggest that emissions, especially NOx, might be too low in the European inventories. Improvement of the modeled ozone production will contribute to more consistent and effective ozone mitigation strategies for the future.
Jun Zhou, Emily A. Bruns, Peter Zotter, Giulia Stefenelli, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El-Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 65–80,Short summary
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the particle phase may induce oxidative stress in the human lungs upon inhalation. Here we present and thoroughly characterize a modified online and offline ROS analyzer. Selected model organic compounds were tested and potential interferences from gas-phase and matrix effects of particulate constituents were evaluated. ROS measurements of filter samples revealed the rapid decay of a substantial ROS fraction, supporting the application of online measurements.
Naifang Bei, Jiarui Wu, Miriam Elser, Tian Feng, Junji Cao, Imad El-Haddad, Xia Li, Rujin Huang, Zhengqiang Li, Xin Long, Li Xing, Shuyu Zhao, Xuexi Tie, André S. H. Prévôt, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14579–14591,
Yunjiang Zhang, Lili Tang, Philip L. Croteau, Olivier Favez, Yele Sun, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Zhuang Wang, Florian Couvidat, Alexandre Albinet, Hongliang Zhang, Jean Sciare, André S. H. Prévôt, John T. Jayne, and Douglas R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14501–14517,Short summary
We conducted the first field measurements of non-refractory fine aerosols (NR-PM2.5) in a megacity of eastern China using a PM2.5-ACSM along with a PM1-ACSM measurement. Inter-comparisons demonstrated that the NR-PM2.5 components can be characterized. Substantial mass fractions of aerosol species were observed in the size range of 1–2.5 μm, with sulfate and SOA being the two largest contributors. The impacts of aerosol water driven by secondary inorganic aerosols on SOA formation were explored.
Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Giulia Stefenelli, Carlo Bozzetti, Athanasia Vlachou, Paola Fermo, Raquel Gonzalez, Andrea Piazzalunga, Cristina Colombi, Francesco Canonaco, Christoph Hueglin, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Federico Bianchi, Jay G. Slowik, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13265–13282,Short summary
We present offline AMS analyses for the organic aerosol (OA) in PM10 at nine sites in central Europe for 2013. Primary OA is separated into traffic, cooking, and wood-burning components. A factor explaining sulfur-containing ions, with an event-driven time series, is also separated. We observe enhanced production of secondary OA (SOA) in summer, following biogenic emissions with temperature. In winter a SOA component is dominant, which correlates with anthropogenic inorganic species.
Michael Mueller, Jonas Meyer, and Christoph Hueglin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3783–3799,Short summary
This study describes the design of a sensor unit featuring NO2 and O3 sensors for applications such as ambient air quality monitoring. The paper presents the sensor calibration, the testing procedure and the long-term deployment of the sensor units in the city of Zurich. Main conclusions are the necessity of a proper mathematical description of the sensors as well as a concept to monitor sensor performance during operation, e.g. by linking low-cost sensors to traditional infrastructure.
Laura-Hélèna Rivellini, Isabelle Chiapello, Emmanuel Tison, Marc Fourmentin, Anaïs Féron, Aboubacry Diallo, Thierno N'Diaye, Philippe Goloub, Francesco Canonaco, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, and Véronique Riffault
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10291–10314,Short summary
A 3-month field campaign was conducted in March–June 2015 in Senegal, as part of the SHADOW (SaHAran Dust Over West Africa) project. This article presents the time variability of the chemical composition of submicron particles. Organics (sulfates) were predominant for days under continental (marine) influence. Half the organic sources were identified as local, including one due to open waste-burning, and half were linked to regional air masses and enhanced photochemical processes.
Yi Ming Qin, Hao Bo Tan, Yong Jie Li, Misha I. Schurman, Fei Li, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10245–10258,Short summary
Freshly emitted HOA contributed significantly to the high concentrations of organics at night as heavy-duty vehicles enter downtown Guangzhou, while SOA contributed to the daytime high concentration. The large input of NOx, from automobile emissions, resulted in the significant formation of nitrate in both daytime and nighttime. Mitigating the PM pollution in urbanized areas such as Guangzhou can potentially benefit their peripheral cities, by reductions in traffic-related pollutants.
Prettiny K. Ma, Yunliang Zhao, Allen L. Robinson, David R. Worton, Allen H. Goldstein, Amber M. Ortega, Jose L. Jimenez, Peter Zotter, André S. H. Prévôt, Sönke Szidat, and Patrick L. Hayes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9237–9259,Short summary
Airborne particulate matter (PM) negatively impacts air quality in cities throughout the world. An important fraction of PM is organic aerosol. We have evaluated and developed several new models for secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which is formed from the chemical processing of gaseous precursors. Using our model results, we have quantified important SOA sources and precursors and also identified possible model parameterizations that could be used for air quality predictions.
Carlo Bozzetti, Imad El Haddad, Dalia Salameh, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Paola Fermo, Raquel Gonzalez, María Cruz Minguillón, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Laurent Poulain, Miriam Elser, Emanuel Müller, Jay Gates Slowik, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Urs Baltensperger, Nicolas Marchand, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8247–8268,Short summary
We present the first long-term organic aerosol source apportionment in an environment influenced by anthropogenic emissions including biomass burning and industrial processes and an active photochemistry. Online and offline aerosol mass spectrometry were used to characterize these emissions and their transformation. Measurements of organic markers provided insights into the origin of biomass smoke in this area, with different seasonal contributions from domestic heating and agricultural burning.
Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Imad El-Haddad, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7757–7773,Short summary
Sources of inorganic aerosols in Europe were investigated using a regional air quality model. Results of this study suggested that biogenic volatile organic coumpounds emitted from vegetation had a significant effect on inorganic aerosols, especially on ammonium nitrate concentrations. Sensitivity analyses showed that it is mainly terpene reactions with nitrate radical at night that lead to a decrease in ammonium nitrate.
Giancarlo Ciarelli, Imad El Haddad, Emily Bruns, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Ottmar Möhler, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2303–2320,Short summary
In Europe, residential wood-burning emissions constitute one of the main anthropogenic sources of air pollution. Novel wood-burning experiments performed in a state-of-the-art smog chamber provide valuable information on the chemical properties of wood-burning emissions and the transformation in the atmosphere. In this study, these new data were used in a box model to constrain a parameterization suitable for predicting the contribution of wood burning to air pollution with large-scale models.
Giancarlo Ciarelli, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Imad El Haddad, Emily A. Bruns, Monica Crippa, Laurent Poulain, Mikko Äijälä, Samara Carbone, Evelyn Freney, Colin O'Dowd, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7653–7669,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) comprises the main fraction of fine particulate matter (PM1). Using a new VBS parameterization, we performed model-based source apportionment studies to assess the importance of different emission sources to the total OA loads in Europe during winter periods. Our results indicate that residential wood burning emissions represent the major source of OA, followed by non-residential emission sources (i.e. traffic and industries).
Markus Furger, María Cruz Minguillón, Varun Yadav, Jay G. Slowik, Christoph Hüglin, Roman Fröhlich, Krag Petterson, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2061–2076,Short summary
An Xact 625 Ambient Metals Monitor was tested during a 3-week summer field campaign at a rural, traffic-influenced site in Switzerland. The objective was to characterize the operation of the instrument, evaluate the data quality by intercomparison with other independent measurements, and test its applicability for aerosol source quantification. The results demonstrate significant advantages compared to traditional elemental analysis methods, with some desirable improvements.
Lisa Stirnweis, Claudia Marcolli, Josef Dommen, Peter Barmet, Carla Frege, Stephen M. Platt, Emily A. Bruns, Manuel Krapf, Jay G. Slowik, Robert Wolf, Andre S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El-Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5035–5061,
Haiyan Li, Qi Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Chunrong Chen, Litao Wang, Zhe Wei, Shan Zhou, Caroline Parworth, Bo Zheng, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Ping Chen, Hongliang Zhang, Timothy J. Wallington, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4751–4768,Short summary
The sources and aerosol evolution processes of severe pollution episodes were investigated in Handan during wintertime using real-time measurements. An in-depth analysis of the data uncovered that primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning together with secondary formation of sulfate (mainly from SO2 emitted by coal combustion) are important driving factors for haze evolution. Our findings provide useful insights into air pollution control in heavily polluted regions.
Satoshi Takahama and Giulia Ruggeri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4433–4450,Short summary
We formalize a method for classifying carbon atoms in organic aerosols according to their functionalization. This conceptual approach allows estimation of carbon mass from functional group measurements, which previously required a series of assumptions that were not well constrained. We describe how the proposed strategy can lead to better comparisons among functional group measurements, chemically explicit model simulations, and other measurements.
Peter Zotter, Hanna Herich, Martin Gysel, Imad El-Haddad, Yanlin Zhang, Griša Močnik, Christoph Hüglin, Urs Baltensperger, Sönke Szidat, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4229–4249,Short summary
Most studies use a single Ångström exponent for wood burning (αWB) and traffic (αTR) emissions in the Aethalometer model, used for source apportionment of black carbon, derived from previous work. However, accurate determination of the α values is currently lacking. Comparing radiocarbon measurements (14C) with the Aehtalometer model, good agreement was found, indicating that the Aethalometer model reproduces reasonably well the 14C results using our best estimate of a single αWB and αTR.
Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Peter Zotter, Robert Wolf, Emily Anne Bruns, André S. H. Prévôt, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Jean Sciare, Ian J. Arnold, Rajan K. Chakrabarty, Hans Moosmüller, Agnes Filep, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1043–1059,Short summary
Black carbon measurements are usually conducted with absorption filter photometers, which are prone to the filter-loading effect – a saturation of the instrumental response due to the accumulation of the sample in the filter matrix. In this paper, we conducted several field campaigns to investigate the hypothesis that this filter-loading effect depends on the optical properties of particles present in the filter matrix, especially on the coating of black carbon particles.
Mikko Äijälä, Liine Heikkinen, Roman Fröhlich, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3165–3197,Short summary
Mass spectrometric measurements commonly yield data on hundreds of variables over thousands of points in time. Refining and synthesising this “raw” data into chemical information necessitates the use of advanced, statistics-based data analysis techniques. Here we present an example of combining data dimensionality reduction (factorisation) with exploratory classification (clustering) and show that the results complement and broaden our current perspectives on aerosol chemical classification.
Emily A. Bruns, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, Dogushan Kilic, Felix Klein, Josef Dommen, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 705–720,Short summary
We characterize primary and aged gaseous emissions from residential wood combustion using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This approach allows for improved characterization, particularly of oxygenated gases, which are a considerable fraction of the total gaseous mass emitted during residential wood combustion. This study is the first thorough characterization of organic gases from this source and provides a benchmark for future studies.
Carlo Bozzetti, Yuliya Sosedova, Mao Xiao, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Vadimas Dudoitis, Genrik Mordas, Steigvilė Byčenkienė, Kristina Plauškaitė, Athanasia Vlachou, Benjamin Golly, Benjamin Chazeau, Jean-Luc Besombes, Urs Baltensperger, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 117–141,Short summary
In this study we present the offline-AMS source apportionment of the submicron organic aerosol (OA) sources conducted over 1 year at three locations in the south east Baltic region, which has so far received small attention. Offline-AMS enabled broadening the AMS spatial and temporal coverage, and provided a full characterization of the OA sources. Source apportionment results revealed that biomass burning and biogenic secondary emissions were the major OA sources during winter and summer.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, David C. Green, Max Priestman, Francesco Canonaco, Hugh Coe, André S. H. Prévôt, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15545–15559,Short summary
For the first time in the UK, an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor was used to measure aerosol concentrations in London in March–December 2013, with further organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment using the ME-2 factorization tool. Five OA sources were identified: biomass burning OA, hydrocarbon-like OA, cooking OA, semivolatile oxygenated OA and low-volatility oxygenated OA. This information can be used to take future action on the respective legislation in order to improve the air quality.
Jianzhong Xu, Jinsen Shi, Qi Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Matthias Vonwiller, Sönke Szidat, Jinming Ge, Jianmin Ma, Yanqing An, Shichang Kang, and Dahe Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14937–14957,Short summary
This study deployed an AMS field study in Lanzhou, a city in northwestern China, evaluating the chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during wintertime. In comparison with the results during summer in Lanzhou, the air pollution during winter was more severe and the sources were more complex. In addition, this paper estimates the contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources of organic carbon to primary and secondary organic carbon using the carbon isotopic method.
Petri Tiitta, Ari Leskinen, Liqing Hao, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Miika Kortelainen, Julija Grigonyte, Jarkko Tissari, Heikki Lamberg, Anni Hartikainen, Kari Kuuspalo, Aki-Matti Kortelainen, Annele Virtanen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Mika Komppula, Simone Pieber, André S. H. Prévôt, Timothy B. Onasch, Douglas R. Worsnop, Hendryk Czech, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, and Olli Sippula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13251–13269,Short summary
Real-time measurements of OA aging and SOA formation from logwood combustion were conducted under dark and UV oxidation. Substantial SOA formation was observed in all experiments, leading to twice the initial OA mass emphasizing the importance of the burning conditions for the aging processes. The results prove that emissions are subject to intensive chemical processing in the atmosphere; e.g. the most of the POA was found to become oxidized after the ozone addition, forming aged POA.
Michael Bressi, Fabrizia Cavalli, Claudio A. Belis, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Roman Fröhlich, Sebastiao Martins dos Santos, Ettore Petralia, André S. H. Prévôt, Massimo Berico, Antonella Malaguti, and Francesco Canonaco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12875–12896,Short summary
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) levels and resulting impacts on human health are in the Po Valley (Italy) among the highest in Europe. This study discusses submicron PM chemical composition, sources and atmospheric processes in this region, using state-of-the-art measurement techniques and receptor models. Based on these results, effective PM abatement strategies are suggested in the upper Po Valley.
Bertrand Bessagnet, Guido Pirovano, Mihaela Mircea, Cornelius Cuvelier, Armin Aulinger, Giuseppe Calori, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Astrid Manders, Rainer Stern, Svetlana Tsyro, Marta García Vivanco, Philippe Thunis, Maria-Teresa Pay, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Frédérik Meleux, Laurence Rouïl, Anthony Ung, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, José María Baldasano, Johannes Bieser, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, Sandro Finardi, Richard Kranenburg, Camillo Silibello, Claudio Carnevale, Wenche Aas, Jean-Charles Dupont, Hilde Fagerli, Lucia Gonzalez, Laurent Menut, André S. H. Prévôt, Pete Roberts, and Les White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12667–12701,Short summary
The EURODELTA III exercise allows a very comprehensive intercomparison and evaluation of air quality models' performance. On average, the models provide a rather good picture of the particulate matter (PM) concentrations over Europe even if the highest concentrations are underestimated. The meteorology is responsible for model discrepancies, while the lack of emissions, particularly in winter, is mentioned as the main reason for the underestimations of PM.
Chao Yan, Wei Nie, Mikko Äijälä, Matti P. Rissanen, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Paola Massoli, Heikki Junninen, Tuija Jokinen, Nina Sarnela, Silja A. K. Häme, Siegfried Schobesberger, Francesco Canonaco, Lei Yao, André S. H. Prévôt, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Mikko Sipilä, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12715–12731,Short summary
Highly oxidized multifunctional compounds (HOMs) are known to have a significant contribution to secondary aerosol formation, yet their dominating formation pathways remain unclear in the atmosphere. We apply positive matrix factorization (PMF) on HOM data, and successfully retrieve factors representing different formation pathways. The results improve our understanding of HOM formation, and provide new perspectives on using PMF to study the variation of short-lived specie.
Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Karsten Baumann, Lina Hacker, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Allen H. Goldstein, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580,Short summary
IEPOX-SOA is biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol under anthropogenic influence, which has been shown to comprise a substantial fraction of OA globally. We investigated the lifetime of ambient IEPOX-SOA in the SE US and Amazonia, with an oxidation flow reactor and thermodenuder coupled with MS-based instrumentation. The low volatility and long lifetime of IEPOX-SOA against OH radicals' oxidation (> 2 weeks) was observed, which can help to constrain OA impact on air quality and climate.
Giancarlo Ciarelli, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Monica Crippa, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Eriko Nemitz, Karine Sellegri, Mikko Äijälä, Samara Carbone, Claudia Mohr, Colin O'Dowd, Laurent Poulain, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10313–10332,Short summary
Recent studies based on aerosol mass spectrometer measurements revealed that the organic fraction dominates the non-refractory PM1 composition. However its representation in chemical transport models is still very challenging due to uncertainties in emission sources and formation pathways. In this study, a novel organic aerosol scheme was tested in the regional air quality model CAMx and results were compared with ambient measurements at 11 different sites in Europe.
Rob L. Modini and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3337–3354,Short summary
Aerosol measurement techniques with high detection limits often result in poorly time-resolved measurements. We investigated sampling strategies and post-processing methods for constructing hourly resolved aerosol concentration time series from samples collected for 4 to 8 h. We show that this is an effective way to increase measurement time resolution, and that under realistic experimental conditions, simple methods can perform as well as more sophisticated methods.
Satoshi Takahama, Giulia Ruggeri, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3429–3454,Short summary
We introduce the application of statistical algorithms that allow us to associate various dimensions of aerosol composition to vibrational modes measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. We demonstrate their use on four organic functional groups for which absorption bands are known and extend the application to interpret bands associated with ambient organic carbon and elemental carbon quantified by an independent measurement technique that is widely used in aerosol monitoring networks.
Patrick Schlag, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Marcus Johannes Blom, Francesco Canonaco, Jeroen Sebastiaan Henzing, Marcel Moerman, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, and Rupert Holzinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8831–8847,Short summary
This work provides chemical composition data of atmospheric aerosols acquired during 1 year in the rural site of Cabauw, the Netherlands. In some periods, we found unexpected high particle mass concentrations exceeding the WHO limits. Using these composition data, we found that reducing ammonia emissions in this region would largely reduce the main aerosol component ammonium nitrate, whereas the local mitigation of the organics turned out to be difficult due to the lack of a designated source.
Giulia Ruggeri, Fabian A. Bernhard, Barron H. Henderson, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8729–8747,Short summary
Functional groups provide an intermediate level of chemical resolution between full molecular speciation and elemental composition for describing complex mixtures and can be a useful metric in model–measurement comparison of reaction kinetics and secondary organic aerosol formation. We introduce tools to facilitate such comparisons and demonstrate its application in study of the photooxidation of two precursor volatile organic compounds and the gas–particle partitioning of their products.
Adele Kuzmiakova, Ann M. Dillner, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2615–2631,Short summary
We describe a new method for removing Teflon substrate interference from ambient aerosol infrared spectra such that functional group quantification and spectral clustering (for source classification) can be applied. We demonstrate that this technique produces similar results to a more labor-intensive method used in many field campaigns over the past several years, but is simpler and better constrained by physical criteria that we impose, leading to the possibility of widespread adoption.
Miriam Elser, Carlo Bozzetti, Imad El-Haddad, Marek Maasikmets, Erik Teinemaa, Rene Richter, Robert Wolf, Jay G. Slowik, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7117–7134,Short summary
This work presents the first detailed in-situ measurements of major air pollutants (including NR-PM2.5, eBC, and trace gases) in the two biggest cities in Estonia. The sources of organic aerosols were investigated by means of positive matrix factorization. Highly time-resolved mobile measurements allowed for the identification of source areas and the determination of regional background concentrations as well as urban increments of the individual components.
Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Wenche Aas, Franco Lucarelli, Noemí Pérez, Teresa Moreno, Fabrizia Cavalli, Hans Areskoug, Violeta Balan, Maria Catrambone, Darius Ceburnis, José C. Cerro, Sébastien Conil, Lusine Gevorgyan, Christoph Hueglin, Kornelia Imre, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Sarah R. Leeson, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Marta Mitosinkova, Colin D. O'Dowd, Jorge Pey, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Véronique Riffault, Anna Ripoll, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Gerald Spindler, and Karl Espen Yttri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6107–6129,Short summary
Mineral dust content in PM10 was analysed at 20 regional background sites across Europe. Higher dust loadings were observed at most sites in summer, with the most elevated concentrations in the southern- and easternmost countries, due to external and regional sources. Saharan dust outbreaks impacted western and central European in summer and eastern Mediterranean sites in winter. The spatial distribution of some metals reveals the influence of specific anthropogenic sources on a regional scale.
Vidmantas Ulevicius, Steigvilė Byčenkienė, Carlo Bozzetti, Athanasia Vlachou, Kristina Plauškaitė, Genrik Mordas, Vadimas Dudoitis, Gülcin Abbaszade, Vidmantas Remeikis, Andrius Garbaras, Agne Masalaite, Jan Blees, Roman Fröhlich, Kaspar R. Dällenbach, Francesco Canonaco, Jay G. Slowik, Josef Dommen, Ralf Zimmermann, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Gary A. Salazar, Konstantinos Agrios, Sönke Szidat, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5513–5529,Short summary
In early spring the Baltic region is frequently affected by high pollution events due to biomass burning in that area. Here we present a comprehensive study to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning (BB) on the evolution and composition of aerosol in Preila, Lithuania, during springtime open fires.
Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Leonid Nichman, Thomas B. Kristensen, Claudia Fuchs, Christopher R. Hoyle, Niko Höppel, Joel C. Corbin, Jill Craven, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El Haddad, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Tuija Jokinen, Peter Kallinger, Jasper Kirkby, Alexei Kiselev, Karl-Heinz Naumann, Tuukka Petäjä, Tamara Pinterich, Andre S. H. Prevot, Harald Saathoff, Thea Schiebel, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Jay G. Slowik, Jasmin Tröstl, Annele Virtanen, Paul Vochezer, Steffen Vogt, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Paul M. Winkler, Chao Yan, Urs Baltensperger, Neil M. Donahue, Rick C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ottmar Möhler, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4423–4438,
Giulia Ruggeri and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4401–4422,Short summary
We present a set of tools for mapping molecular information to functional group composition. This allows us to reduce the complexity of representing the organic aerosol composition, as it consists of hundreds of thousands of different compounds. We describe the tools and methods for validation, and demonstrate several applications in which this tool can facilitate measurement intercomparisons and chemical modeling of aerosol chemistry.
Christos Fountoukis, Athanasios G. Megaritis, Ksakousti Skyllakou, Panagiotis E. Charalampidis, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Monica Crippa, André S. H. Prévôt, Friederike Fachinger, Alfred Wiedensohler, Christodoulos Pilinis, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3727–3741,Short summary
We use PMCAMx with high grid resolution over Paris to simulate carbonaceous aerosol during the summer and winter MEGAPOLI campaigns. PMCAMx reproduces BC observations well. Addition of cooking organic aerosol emissions of 80 mg per day per capita is needed to reproduce the corresponding observations. While the oxygenated organic aerosol predictions during the summer are encouraging a major wintertime source appears to be missing.
Miriam Elser, Ru-Jin Huang, Robert Wolf, Jay G. Slowik, Qiyuan Wang, Francesco Canonaco, Guohui Li, Carlo Bozzetti, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Yu Huang, Renjian Zhang, Zhengqiang Li, Junji Cao, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3207–3225,Short summary
This work represents the first online chemical characterization of the PM2.5 using a high-resolution time-of flight aerosol mass spectrometer during extreme haze events China. The application of novel source apportionment techniques allowed for an improved identification and quantification of the sources of organic aerosols. The main sources and processes driving the extreme haze events are assessed.
Andrea Paciga, Eleni Karnezi, Evangelia Kostenidou, Lea Hildebrandt, Magda Psichoudaki, Gabriella J. Engelhart, Byong-Hyoek Lee, Monica Crippa, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2013–2023,Short summary
We estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter field campaigns in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The OA factors (hydrocarbon like OA, cooking OA, marine OA, oxygenated OA) had a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and average oxygen to carbon of the OA components.
Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1895–1906,Short summary
As a least-regulated source, ship emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. We used an air quality model to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual and seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and dry and wet deposition of N and S compounds in Europe. The results presented in this paper suggest evolution of NOx emissions from ships and land-based NH3 emissions will play a significant role in the future European air quality.
C. R. Hoyle, C. Fuchs, E. Järvinen, H. Saathoff, A. Dias, I. El Haddad, M. Gysel, S. C. Coburn, J. Tröstl, A.-K. Bernhammer, F. Bianchi, M. Breitenlechner, J. C. Corbin, J. Craven, N. M. Donahue, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, C. Frege, H. Gordon, N. Höppel, M. Heinritzi, T. B. Kristensen, U. Molteni, L. Nichman, T. Pinterich, A. S. H. Prévôt, M. Simon, J. G. Slowik, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, A. L. Vogel, R. Volkamer, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, A. S. Wexler, C. Williamson, P. M. Winkler, C. Yan, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, M. W. Gallagher, R. C. Flagan, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, M. Kulmala, O. Möhler, F. Stratmann, D. R. Worsnop, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1693–1712,Short summary
A significant portion of sulphate, an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, is formed via the aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone. The rate of this reaction has previously only been measured over a relatively small temperature range. Here, we use the state of the art CLOUD chamber at CERN to perform the first measurements of this reaction rate in super-cooled droplets, confirming that the existing extrapolation of the reaction rate to sub-zero temperatures is accurate.
Matteo Reggente, Ann M. Dillner, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 441–454,Short summary
Organic carbon and elemental carbon are major components of atmospheric PM. Typically they are measured using destructive and relatively expensive methods (e.g., TOR). We aim to reduce the operating costs of large air quality monitoring networks using FT-IR spectra of ambient PTFE filters and PLS regression. We achieve accurate predictions for models (calibrated in 2011) that use samples collected at the same or different sites of the calibration data set and in a different year (2013).
L. Xu, L. R. Williams, D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, P. Massoli, E. Fortner, P. Chhabra, S. Herndon, W. A. Brooks, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, A. C. Aiken, S. Liu, K. Gorkowski, M. K. Dubey, Z. L. Fleming, S. Visser, A. S. H. Prévôt, and N. L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1139–1160,Short summary
We investigate the spatial distribution of submicron aerosol in the greater London area as part of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Although the concentrations of organic aerosol (OA) are similar between a rural and an urban site, the OA sources are different. We also examine the volatility of submicron aerosol at the rural site and find that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical processing as refractory black carbon.
K. R. Daellenbach, C. Bozzetti, A. Křepelová, F. Canonaco, R. Wolf, P. Zotter, P. Fermo, M. Crippa, J. G. Slowik, Y. Sosedova, Y. Zhang, R.-J. Huang, L. Poulain, S. Szidat, U. Baltensperger, I. El Haddad, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 23–39,Short summary
In this study, we developed an offline technique using the AMS for the characterization of the chemical fingerprints of aerosols collected on quartz filters, and evaluated the suitability of the organic mass spectral data for source apportionment. This technique may be used to enhance the AMS capabilities in measuring size-fractionated, spatially resolved long-term data sets.
B. R. Ayres, H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, S. S. Brown, R. J. Wild, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, P. Campuzano-Jost, W. Hu, J. de Gouw, A. Koss, R. C. Cohen, K. C. Duffey, P. Romer, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Takahama, J. A. Thornton, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, P. O. Wennberg, T. B. Nguyen, A. Teng, A. H. Goldstein, K. Olson, and J. L. Fry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13377–13392,Short summary
This paper reports atmospheric gas- and aerosol-phase field measurements from the southeastern United States in summer 2013 to demonstrate that the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by nitrate radical produces a substantial amount of secondary organic aerosol in this region. This process, driven largely by monoterpenes, results in a comparable aerosol nitrate production rate to inorganic nitrate formation by heterogeneous uptake of HNO3 onto dust particles.
V. Crenn, J. Sciare, P. L. Croteau, S. Verlhac, R. Fröhlich, C. A. Belis, W. Aas, M. Äijälä, A. Alastuey, B. Artiñano, D. Baisnée, N. Bonnaire, M. Bressi, M. Canagaratna, F. Canonaco, C. Carbone, F. Cavalli, E. Coz, M. J. Cubison, J. K. Esser-Gietl, D. C. Green, V. Gros, L. Heikkinen, H. Herrmann, C. Lunder, M. C. Minguillón, G. Močnik, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, J.-E. Petit, E. Petralia, L. Poulain, M. Priestman, V. Riffault, A. Ripoll, R. Sarda-Estève, J. G. Slowik, A. Setyan, A. Wiedensohler, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. T. Jayne, and O. Favez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5063–5087,Short summary
A large intercomparison study of 13 Q-ACSM was conducted for a 3-week period in the region of Paris to evaluate the performance of this instrument and to monitor the major NR-PM1 chemical components. Reproducibility expanded uncertainties of Q-ACSM concentration measurements were found to be 9, 15, 19, 28, and 36% for NR-PM1, NO3, OM, SO4, and NH4, respectively. Some recommendations regarding best calibration practices, standardized data processing and data treatment are also provided.
R. Fröhlich, M. J. Cubison, J. G. Slowik, N. Bukowiecki, F. Canonaco, P. L. Croteau, M. Gysel, S. Henne, E. Herrmann, J. T. Jayne, M. Steinbacher, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11373–11398,Short summary
This manuscript presents the first long-term (14-month) and highly time-resolved (10 min) measurements of NR-PM1 aerosol chemical composition at a high-altitude site (JFJ, Switzerland, 3580m a.s.l.). The elevated location allowed the investigation of free tropospheric aerosol year round. Total and relative mass loadings, diurnal variations as well as seasonal variations are discussed together with geographical origin, organic aerosol sources and the influence of the planetary boundary layer.
A. M. Dillner and S. Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4013–4023,Short summary
Elemental carbon (EC), a constituent of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), adversely affects climate, visibility and human health. EC is measured in PM monitoring networks world-wide but the method is expensive and destructive to the samples. Here, methods are presented to accurately predict EC using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis which is inexpensive and non-destructive. This method complements measurements of organic carbon and organic functional groups made using FT-IR.
H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, B. R. Ayres, A. Ault, A. Bondy, S. Takahama, R. L. Modini, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, C. Knote, A. Laskin, B. Wang, and J. L. Fry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10669–10685,Short summary
We report ion chromatographic measurements of gas- and aerosol-phase inorganic species at the SOAS 2013 field study. Our particular focus is on inorganic nitrate aerosol formation via HNO3 uptake onto coarse-mode dust and sea salt particles, which we find to be the dominant source of episodic inorganic nitrate at this site, due to the high acidity of the particles preventing formation of NH4NO3. We calculate a production rate of inorganic nitrate aerosol.
M. Beekmann, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Drewnick, J. Sciare, S. N. Pandis, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Crippa, F. Freutel, L. Poulain, V. Ghersi, E. Rodriguez, S. Beirle, P. Zotter, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Bressi, C. Fountoukis, H. Petetin, S. Szidat, J. Schneider, A. Rosso, I. El Haddad, A. Megaritis, Q. J. Zhang, V. Michoud, J. G. Slowik, S. Moukhtar, P. Kolmonen, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, A. Borbon, V. Gros, N. Marchand, J. L. Jaffrezo, A. Schwarzenboeck, A. Colomb, A. Wiedensohler, S. Borrmann, M. Lawrence, A. Baklanov, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9577–9591,Short summary
A detailed characterization of air quality in the Paris (France) agglomeration, a megacity, during two summer and winter intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations, revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported into the megacity from upwind regions. Unexpectedly, a major part of organic PM is of modern origin (woodburning and cooking activities, secondary formation from biogenic VOC).
F. Canonaco, J. G. Slowik, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6993–7002,
R. Fröhlich, V. Crenn, A. Setyan, C. A. Belis, F. Canonaco, O. Favez, V. Riffault, J. G. Slowik, W. Aas, M. Aijälä, A. Alastuey, B. Artiñano, N. Bonnaire, C. Bozzetti, M. Bressi, C. Carbone, E. Coz, P. L. Croteau, M. J. Cubison, J. K. Esser-Gietl, D. C. Green, V. Gros, L. Heikkinen, H. Herrmann, J. T. Jayne, C. R. Lunder, M. C. Minguillón, G. Močnik, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, E. Petralia, L. Poulain, M. Priestman, A. Ripoll, R. Sarda-Estève, A. Wiedensohler, U. Baltensperger, J. Sciare, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2555–2576,Short summary
Source apportionment (SA) of organic aerosol mass spectrometric data measured with the Aerodyne ACSM using PMF/ME2 is a frequently used technique in the AMS/ACSM community. ME2 uncertainties due to instrument-to-instrument variations are elucidated by performing SA on ambient data from 14 individual, co-located ACSMs, recorded during the first ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison study at SIRTA near Paris (France). The mean uncertainty was 17.2%. Recommendations for future studies using ME2 are provided.
M. C. Minguillón, A. Ripoll, N. Pérez, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Canonaco, X. Querol, and A. Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6379–6391,Short summary
The study focuses on the aerosol variations found in the regional background of the western Mediterranean basin and their relation with atmospheric conditions and scenarios. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was deployed for 1 year and the results were validated with co-located PM1 measurements. The organic sources were investigated and the local secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation was estimated.
P. L. Hayes, A. G. Carlton, K. R. Baker, R. Ahmadov, R. A. Washenfelder, S. Alvarez, B. Rappenglück, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, J. A. de Gouw, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, S. Szidat, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, P. K. Ma, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5773–5801,Short summary
(1) Four different parameterizations for the formation and chemical evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a box model representing the Los Angeles region during the CalNex campaign. (2) The SOA formed only from the oxidation of VOCs is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations. (3) The amount of SOA mass formed from diesel vehicle emissions is estimated to be 16-27%. (4) Modeled SOA depends strongly on the P-S/IVOC volatility distribution.
L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, C. Ruckstuhl, E. Coz, M. Rupakheti, J. Sciare, T. Müller, A. Wiedensohler, and A. D. A. Hansen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1965–1979,Short summary
We present a new real-time algorithm for compensation of the filter-loading effect in filter photometers, based on a two parallel spot measurement of optical absorption. This algorithm has been incorporated into the new Aethalometer AE33. Intercomparison studies show excellent reproducibility of the AE33 measurements and very good agreement with post-processed data obtained using earlier aethalometer models and other filter-based absorption photometers.
L. R. Crilley, W. J. Bloss, J. Yin, D. C. S. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, M. Flynn, P. Williams, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prevot, M. R. Heal, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, J. D. Lee, S. Szidat, and C. Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3149–3171,Short summary
Wood is a renewable fuel but its combustion for residential heating releases a number of locally acting air pollutants, most notably particulate matter known to have adverse effects on human health. This paper used chemical tracers for wood smoke to estimate the contribution that burning wood makes to concentrations of airborne particles in the atmosphere of southern England and most particularly in London.
E. A. Bruns, M. Krapf, J. Orasche, Y. Huang, R. Zimmermann, L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, I. El-Haddad, J. G. Slowik, J. Dommen, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2825–2841,Short summary
Residential wood combustion contributes significantly to the total atmospheric particulate burden; however, uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. The effects of wood loading on freshly emitted and aged emissions were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which negatively impact health, contributed more to the total organic aerosol under highly loaded burner conditions, which has significant implications for burner operation protocols.
A. M. Dillner and S. Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1097–1109,Short summary
We demonstrate the feasibility of using FT-IR spectra of aerosols and a multivariate calibration to estimate organic carbon (OC) from thermal-optical reflectance analysis. Using 800 IMPROVE samples, we establish that prediction error can be explained by differences in distributions of OC and aerosol composition between calibration and test set. This work is an initial step in proposing a non-destructive analysis method that can reduce the operating costs of large air quality monitoring networks.
J. Kaiser, G. M. Wolfe, B. Bohn, S. Broch, H. Fuchs, L. N. Ganzeveld, S. Gomm, R. Häseler, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, J. Jäger, X. Li, I. Lohse, K. Lu, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Rohrer, R. Wegener, R. Wolf, T. F. Mentel, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. Wahner, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1289–1298,Short summary
Using measurements acquired from a Zeppelin airship during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign, we show that VOC oxidation alone cannot account for the formaldehyde concentrations observed in the morning over rural Italy. Vertical profiles suggest a ground-level source of HCHO. Incorporating this additional HCHO source into a photochemical model increases calculated O3 production by as much as 12%.
Y.-L. Zhang, R.-J. Huang, I. El Haddad, K.-F. Ho, J.-J. Cao, Y. Han, P. Zotter, C. Bozzetti, K. R. Daellenbach, F. Canonaco, J. G. Slowik, G. Salazar, M. Schwikowski, J. Schnelle-Kreis, G. Abbaszade, R. Zimmermann, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, and S. Szidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1299–1312,Short summary
Source apportionment of fine carbonaceous aerosols using radiocarbon and other organic markers measurements during 2013 winter haze episodes was conducted at four megacities in China. Our results demonstrate that fossil emissions predominate EC with a mean contribution of 75±8%, whereas non-fossil sources account for 55±10% of OC; and the increment of TC on heavily polluted days was mainly driven by the increase of secondary OC from both fossil-fuel and non-fossil emissions.
Y. J. Zhang, L. L. Tang, Z. Wang, H. X. Yu, Y. L. Sun, D. Liu, W. Qin, F. Canonaco, A. S. H. Prévôt, H. L. Zhang, and H. C. Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1331–1349,Short summary
The chemical composition, sources, and evolution processes of PM1 were investigated with an Aerodyne ACSM during harvest seasons in the Yangtze River delta, China. Two biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) factors derived from PMF model were assessed. The oxidized BBOA contributes ~80% of the total BBOA loadings in the BB plumes. Evidence that BBOA may be oxidized to more aged and less volatile organics during the aging process was suggested.
P. Zotter, V. G. Ciobanu, Y. L. Zhang, I. El-Haddad, M. Macchia, K. R. Daellenbach, G. A. Salazar, R.-J. Huang, L. Wacker, C. Hueglin, A. Piazzalunga, P. Fermo, M. Schwikowski, U. Baltensperger, S. Szidat, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13551–13570,
Y. You, V. P. Kanawade, J. A. de Gouw, A. B. Guenther, S. Madronich, M. R. Sierra-Hernández, M. Lawler, J. N. Smith, S. Takahama, G. Ruggeri, A. Koss, K. Olson, K. Baumann, R. J. Weber, A. Nenes, H. Guo, E. S. Edgerton, L. Porcelli, W. H. Brune, A. H. Goldstein, and S.-H. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12181–12194,Short summary
Amiens play important roles in atmospheric secondary aerosol formation and human health, but the fast response measurements of amines are lacking. Here we show measurements in a southeastern US forest and a moderately polluted midwestern site. Our results show that gas to particle conversion is an important process that controls ambient amine concentrations and that biomass burning is an important source of amines.
W. Ait-Helal, A. Borbon, S. Sauvage, J. A. de Gouw, A. Colomb, V. Gros, F. Freutel, M. Crippa, C. Afif, U. Baltensperger, M. Beekmann, J.-F. Doussin, R. Durand-Jolibois, I. Fronval, N. Grand, T. Leonardis, M. Lopez, V. Michoud, K. Miet, S. Perrier, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. Schneider, G. Siour, P. Zapf, and N. Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10439–10464,
L. Poulain, W. Birmili, F. Canonaco, M. Crippa, Z. J. Wu, S. Nordmann, G. Spindler, A. S. H. Prévôt, A. Wiedensohler, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10145–10162,
D. Liu, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, H. Coe, D. Beddows, Z. L. Fleming, M. J. Flynn, M. W. Gallagher, R. M. Harrison, J. Lee, A. S. H. Prevot, J. W. Taylor, J. Yin, P. I. Williams, and P. Zotter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10061–10084,
S. Segura, V. Estellés, G. Titos, H. Lyamani, M. P. Utrillas, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, G. Močnik, L. Alados-Arboledas, and J. A. Martínez-Lozano
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2373–2387,
R.-J. Huang, W.-B. Li, Y.-R. Wang, Q. Y. Wang, W. T. Jia, K.-F. Ho, J. J. Cao, G. H. Wang, X. Chen, I. EI Haddad, Z. X. Zhuang, X. R. Wang, A. S. H. Prévôt, C. D. O'Dowd, and T. Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2027–2035,
R. Chirico, M. Clairotte, T. W. Adam, B. Giechaskiel, M. F. Heringa, M. Elsasser, G. Martini, U. Manfredi, T. Streibel, M. Sklorz, R. Zimmermann, P. F. DeCarlo, C. Astorga, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prevot
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
M. Crippa, F. Canonaco, V. A. Lanz, M. Äijälä, J. D. Allan, S. Carbone, G. Capes, D. Ceburnis, M. Dall'Osto, D. A. Day, P. F. DeCarlo, M. Ehn, A. Eriksson, E. Freney, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, R. Hillamo, J. L. Jimenez, H. Junninen, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A.-M. Kortelainen, M. Kulmala, A. Laaksonen, A. A. Mensah, C. Mohr, E. Nemitz, C. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, S. N. Pandis, T. Petäjä, L. Poulain, S. Saarikoski, K. Sellegri, E. Swietlicki, P. Tiitta, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6159–6176,
M. Paglione, S. Saarikoski, S. Carbone, R. Hillamo, M. C. Facchini, E. Finessi, L. Giulianelli, C. Carbone, S. Fuzzi, F. Moretti, E. Tagliavini, E. Swietlicki, K. Eriksson Stenström, A. S. H. Prévôt, P. Massoli, M. Canaragatna, D. Worsnop, and S. Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5089–5110,
E. J. Freney, K. Sellegri, F. Canonaco, A. Colomb, A. Borbon, V. Michoud, J.-F. Doussin, S. Crumeyrolle, N. Amarouche, J.-M. Pichon, T. Bourianne, L. Gomes, A. S. H. Prevot, M. Beekmann, and A. Schwarzenböeck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1397–1412,
S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, F. Drewnick, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Meleux, U. Baltensperger, M. Beekmann, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 279–299,
A. Mues, J. Kuenen, C. Hendriks, A. Manders, A. Segers, Y. Scholz, C. Hueglin, P. Builtjes, and M. Schaap
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 939–955,
A. L. Corrigan, L. M. Russell, S. Takahama, M. Äijälä, M. Ehn, H. Junninen, J. Rinne, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, A. L. Vogel, T. Hoffmann, C. J. Ebben, F. M. Geiger, P. Chhabra, J. H. Seinfeld, D. R. Worsnop, W. Song, J. Auld, and J. Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12233–12256,
R. Fröhlich, M. J. Cubison, J. G. Slowik, N. Bukowiecki, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, J. Schneider, J. R. Kimmel, M. Gonin, U. Rohner, D. R. Worsnop, and J. T. Jayne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3225–3241,
R. M. Healy, J. Sciare, L. Poulain, M. Crippa, A. Wiedensohler, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, R. Sarda-Estève, M. L. McGuire, C.-H. Jeong, E. McGillicuddy, I. P. O'Connor, J. R. Sodeau, G. J. Evans, and J. C. Wenger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9479–9496,
Q. J. Zhang, M. Beekmann, F. Drewnick, F. Freutel, J. Schneider, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prevot, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, V. Gros, A. Borbon, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J.-F. Doussin, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Haeffelin, J.-C. Dupont, G. Siour, H. Petetin, B. Bessagnet, S. N. Pandis, A. Hodzic, O. Sanchez, C. Honoré, and O. Perrussel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5767–5790,
M. Laborde, M. Crippa, T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, P. F. Decarlo, B. Temime-Roussel, N. Marchand, S. Eckhardt, A. Stohl, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and M. Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5831–5856,
H. Keskinen, A. Virtanen, J. Joutsensaari, G. Tsagkogeorgas, J. Duplissy, S. Schobesberger, M. Gysel, F. Riccobono, J. G. Slowik, F. Bianchi, T. Yli-Juuti, K. Lehtipalo, L. Rondo, M. Breitenlechner, A. Kupc, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, E. M. Dunne, A. J. Downard, S. Ehrhart, A. Franchin, M.K. Kajos, J. Kirkby, A. Kürten, T. Nieminen, V. Makhmutov, S. Mathot, P. Miettinen, A. Onnela, T. Petäjä, A. Praplan, F. D. Santos, S. Schallhart, M. Sipilä, Y. Stozhkov, A. Tomé, P. Vaattovaara, D. Wimmer, A. Prevot, J. Dommen, N. M. Donahue, R.C. Flagan, E. Weingartner, Y. Viisanen, I. Riipinen, A. Hansel, J. Curtius, M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, H. Wex, F. Stratmann, and A. Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5587–5600,
D. C. Oderbolz, S. Aksoyoglu, J. Keller, I. Barmpadimos, R. Steinbrecher, C. A. Skjøth, C. Plaß-Dülmer, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1689–1712,
F. Freutel, J. Schneider, F. Drewnick, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, R. Sarda-Estève, J. F. Burkhart, S. Eckhardt, A. Stohl, V. Gros, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J. F. Doussin, A. Borbon, M. Haeffelin, Y. Morille, M. Beekmann, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 933–959,
C. Chou, Z. A. Kanji, O. Stetzer, T. Tritscher, R. Chirico, M. F. Heringa, E. Weingartner, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, and U. Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 761–772,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Global tropospheric halogen (Cl, Br, I) chemistry and its impact on oxidantsThe role of emission reductions and the meteorological situation for air quality improvements during the COVID-19 lockdown period in central EuropeHeterogeneity and chemical reactivity of the remote troposphere defined by aircraft measurementsA mass-balance-based emission inventory of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) for solvent use in ChinaOpinion: The germicidal effect of ambient air (open-air factor) revisitedImpact of Athabasca oil sands operations on mercury levels in air and depositionStudy of different Carbon Bond 6 (CB6) mechanisms by using a concentration sensitivity analysisAccelerating methane growth rate from 2010 to 2017: leading contributions from the tropics and East AsiaObservation and modelling of ozone-destructive halogen chemistry in a passively degassing volcanic plumeModeling study of the impact of SO2 volcanic passive emissions on the tropospheric sulfur budgetThe impact of organic pollutants from Indonesian peatland fires on the tropospheric and lower stratospheric compositionComprehensive evaluations of diurnal NO2 measurements during DISCOVER-AQ 2011: effects of resolution-dependent representation of NOx emissionsDownscaling system for modeling of atmospheric composition on regional, urban and street scalesSatellite soil moisture data assimilation impacts on modeling weather variables and ozone in the southeastern US – Part 1: An overviewDevelopment of ozone reactivity scales for volatile organic compounds in a Chinese megacityMeasured and modelled air quality trends in Italy over the period 2003–2010Large and increasing methane emissions from eastern Amazonia derived from satellite data, 2010–2018Contrasting chemical environments in summertime for atmospheric ozone across major Chinese industrial regions: the effectiveness of emission control strategiesUnexpected enhancement of ozone exposure and health risks during National Day in ChinaRole of oceanic ozone deposition in explaining temporal variability in surface ozone at High Arctic sitesTechnical note: Quality assessment of ozone reanalysis products over subarctic Europe for biome modeling and ozone risk mappingOxidation of low-molecular-weight organic compounds in cloud droplets: global impact on tropospheric oxidantsBias-correcting carbon fluxes derived from land-surface satellite data for retrospective and near-real-time assimilation systemsCharacterizing model errors in chemical transport modeling of methane: using GOSAT XCH4 data with weak-constraint four-dimensional variational data assimilationEstimation of fire-induced carbon emissions from Equatorial Asia in 2015 using in situ aircraft and ship observationsInfluence of weather situation on non-CO2 aviation climate effects: the REACT4C climate change functionsImpact of international shipping emissions on ozone and PM2.5 in East Asia during summer: the important role of HONO and ClNO2Modelling the impacts of iodine chemistry on the northern Indian Ocean marine boundary layerTime-dependent 3D simulations of tropospheric ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem)Assessing and improving cloud-height-based parameterisations of global lightning flash rate, and their impact on lightning-produced NOx and tropospheric composition in a chemistry–climate modelImpact of regional Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions on local and remote tropospheric oxidantsImpact of organic molecular structure on the estimation of atmospherically relevant physicochemical parametersSpatial and temporal variability in the hydroxyl (OH) radical: understanding the role of large-scale climate features and their influence on OH through its dynamical and photochemical driversAnalysis of atmospheric ammonia over South and East Asia based on the MOZART-4 model and its comparison with satellite and surface observationsAir quality and health benefits from ultra-low emission control policy indicated by continuous emission monitoring: a case study in the Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaBackground conditions for an urban greenhouse gas network in the Washington, DC, and Baltimore metropolitan regionExplicit modeling of isoprene chemical processing in polluted air masses in suburban areas of the Yangtze River Delta region: radical cycling and formation of ozone and formaldehydeEvaluating consistency between total column CO2 retrievals from OCO-2 and the in-situ network over North America: Implications for carbon flux estimationEvaluation of the LOTOS-EUROS NO2 simulations using ground-based measurements and S5P/TROPOMI observations over GreeceReactive organic carbon emissions from volatile chemical productsA three-dimensional-model inversion of methyl chloroform to constrain the atmospheric oxidative capacityTechnical note: On comparing greenhouse gas emission metricsLate-spring and summertime tropospheric ozone and NO2 in western Siberia and the Russian Arctic: regional model evaluation and sensitivities10-year satellite-constrained fluxes of ammonia improve performance of chemistry transport modelsRevealing the sulfur dioxide emission reductions in China by assimilating surface observations in WRF-ChemTropospheric ozone in CMIP6 simulationsIdentifying forecast uncertainties for biogenic gases in the Po Valley related to model configuration in EURAD-IM during PEGASOS 2012Impact of reduced anthropogenic emissions during COVID-19 on air quality in IndiaA comparison of long-term trends in observations and emission inventories of NOxAttribution of the accelerating increase in atmospheric methane during 2010–2018 by inverse analysis of GOSAT observations
Xuan Wang, Daniel J. Jacob, William Downs, Shuting Zhai, Lei Zhu, Viral Shah, Christopher D. Holmes, Tomás Sherwen, Becky Alexander, Mathew J. Evans, Sebastian D. Eastham, J. Andrew Neuman, Patrick R. Veres, Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, L. Gregory Huey, Thomas J. Bannan, Carl J. Percival, Ben H. Lee, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13973–13996,Short summary
Halogen radicals have a broad range of implications for tropospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. We present a new mechanistic description and comprehensive simulation of tropospheric halogens in a global 3-D model and compare the model results with surface and aircraft measurements. We find that halogen chemistry decreases the global tropospheric burden of ozone by 11 %, NOx by 6 %, and OH by 4 %.
Volker Matthias, Markus Quante, Jan A. Arndt, Ronny Badeke, Lea Fink, Ronny Petrik, Josefine Feldner, Daniel Schwarzkopf, Eliza-Maria Link, Martin O. P. Ramacher, and Ralf Wedemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13931–13971,Short summary
COVID-19 lockdown measures in spring 2020 led to cleaner air in central Europe. Densely populated areas benefitted mainly from largely reduced NO2 concentrations, while rural areas experienced lower reductions in NO2 but also lower ozone concentrations. Very low particulate matter (PM) concentrations in parts of Europe were not an effect of lockdown measures. Model simulations show that modified weather conditions are more significant for ozone and PM than severe traffic emission reductions.
Hao Guo, Clare M. Flynn, Michael J. Prather, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Louisa Emmons, Forrest Lacey, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Arlene M. Fiore, Gus Correa, Lee T. Murray, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Michelle Kim, John Crounse, Glenn Diskin, Joshua DiGangi, Bruce C. Daube, Roisin Commane, Kathryn McKain, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Chelsea Thompson, Thomas F. Hanisco, Donald Blake, Nicola J. Blake, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13729–13746,Short summary
The NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission built a climatology of the chemical composition of tropospheric air parcels throughout the middle of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The level of detail allows us to reconstruct the photochemical budgets of O3 and CH4 over these vast, remote regions. We find that most of the chemical heterogeneity is captured at the resolution used in current global chemistry models and that the majority of reactivity occurs in the
hottest20 % of parcels.
Ziwei Mo, Ru Cui, Bin Yuan, Huihua Cai, Brian C. McDonald, Meng Li, Junyu Zheng, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13655–13666,Short summary
There is a lack of detailed understanding of NMVOC emissions from the use of volatile chemical products (VCPs) in China. This study used a mass balance method to compile a long-term emission inventory for solvent use (including coatings, adhesives, inks, pesticides, cleaners and personal care products) in China during 2000–2017. The striking growth and recent trend of solvent use NMVOC emissions can give important implications for air quality modeling and NMVOC control strategies in China.
R. Anthony Cox, Markus Ammann, John N. Crowley, Paul T. Griffiths, Hartmut Herrmann, Erik H. Hoffmann, Michael E. Jenkin, V. Faye McNeill, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Christopher J. Penkett, Andreas Tilgner, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13011–13018,Short summary
The term open-air factor was coined in the 1960s, establishing that rural air had powerful germicidal properties possibly resulting from immediate products of the reaction of ozone with alkenes, unsaturated compounds ubiquitously present in natural and polluted environments. We have re-evaluated those early experiments, applying the recently substantially improved knowledge, and put them into the context of the lifetime of aerosol-borne pathogens that are so important in the Covid-19 pandemic.
Ashu Dastoor, Andrei Ryjkov, Gregor Kos, Junhua Zhang, Jane Kirk, Matthew Parsons, and Alexandra Steffen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12783–12807,Short summary
An assessment of mercury levels in air and deposition in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) in Northern Alberta, Canada, was conducted to investigate the contribution of Hg emitted from oil sands activities to the surrounding landscape using a 3D process-based Hg model in 2012–2015. Oil sands Hg emissions are found to be important sources of Hg contamination to the local landscape in proximity to the processing activities, particularly in wintertime.
Le Cao, Simeng Li, and Luhang Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12687–12714,Short summary
Gas-phase chemical reaction mechanisms, e.g., CB6 mechanism, are essential parts of the atmospheric transport model. In order to better understand the changes caused by the updates between different versions of the CB6 mechanism, in this study, the behavior of three different CB6 mechanisms in simulating ozone, nitrogen oxides and formaldehyde under two different emission conditions was analyzed using a concentration sensitivity analysis, and the reasons causing the deviations were figured out.
Yi Yin, Frederic Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Philippe Bousquet, Marielle Saunois, Bo Zheng, John Worden, A. Anthony Bloom, Robert J. Parker, Daniel J. Jacob, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Christian Frankenberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12631–12647,Short summary
The growth of methane, the second-most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, has been accelerating in recent years. Using an ensemble of multi-tracer atmospheric inversions constrained by surface or satellite observations, we show that global methane emissions increased by nearly 1 % per year from 2010–2017, with leading contributions from the tropics and East Asia.
Luke Surl, Tjarda Roberts, and Slimane Bekki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12413–12441,Short summary
Many different chemical reactions happen when the gases from a volcano mix with air, but what effects do they have? We present aircraft measurements which show that there is less ozone within the plume of Etna than outside it. We have also made a computer model of this chemistry. This model can reproduce the effects seen when halogens (bromine and chlorine) are included in the volcanic emissions. We look closely at the simulation to discover how complicated halogen reactions cause ozone loss.
Claire Lamotte, Jonathan Guth, Virginie Marécal, Martin Cussac, Paul David Hamer, Nicolas Theys, and Philipp Schneider
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11379–11404,Short summary
Improvements are made in a global chemical transfer model by considering a new volcanic SO2 emissions inventory, with more volcanoes referenced and more information on the altitude of injection. Better constraining volcanic emissions with this inventory improves the global, but mostly local, tropospheric sulfur composition. The tropospheric sulfur budget shows a nonlinearity to the volcanic contribution, especially to the sulfate aerosol burden and sulfur wet deposition.
Simon Rosanka, Bruno Franco, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Andrea Pozzer, Andreas Wahner, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11257–11288,Short summary
The strong El Niño in 2015 led to a particular dry season in Indonesia and favoured severe peatland fires. The smouldering conditions of these fires and the high carbon content of peat resulted in high volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. By using a comprehensive atmospheric model, we show that these emissions have a significant impact on the tropospheric composition and oxidation capacity. These emissions are transported into to the lower stratosphere, resulting in a depletion of ozone.
Jianfeng Li, Yuhang Wang, Ruixiong Zhang, Charles Smeltzer, Andrew Weinheimer, Jay Herman, K. Folkert Boersma, Edward A. Celarier, Russell W. Long, James J. Szykman, Ruben Delgado, Anne M. Thompson, Travis N. Knepp, Lok N. Lamsal, Scott J. Janz, Matthew G. Kowalewski, Xiong Liu, and Caroline R. Nowlan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11133–11160,Short summary
Comprehensive evaluations of simulated diurnal cycles of NO2 and NOy concentrations, vertical profiles, and tropospheric vertical column densities at two different resolutions with various measurements during the DISCOVER-AQ 2011 campaign show potential distribution biases of NOx emissions in the National Emissions Inventory 2011 at both 36 and 4 km resolutions, providing another possible explanation for the overestimation of model results.
Roman Nuterman, Alexander Mahura, Alexander Baklanov, Bjarne Amstrup, and Ashraf Zakey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11099–11112,Short summary
The street air pollution is usually higher than the pollution at regional and urban scales. It mostly associated with both local emission sources and urban weather conditions. We present the downscaling system for regional, subregional-urban and street scales and evaluate it for acute air-pollution episode. Its evaluation showed a good prediction score across various spatiotemporal scales as well as feasibility of deterministic modelling approach for the operational street scale forecasting.
Min Huang, James H. Crawford, Joshua P. DiGangi, Gregory R. Carmichael, Kevin W. Bowman, Sujay V. Kumar, and Xiwu Zhan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11013–11040,Short summary
This study evaluates the impact of satellite soil moisture data assimilation on modeled weather and ozone fields at various altitudes above the southeastern US during the summer. It emphasizes the importance of soil moisture in the understanding of surface ozone pollution and upper tropospheric chemistry, as well as air pollutants’ source–receptor relationships between the US and its downwind areas.
Yingnan Zhang, Likun Xue, William P. L. Carter, Chenglei Pei, Tianshu Chen, Jiangshan Mu, Yujun Wang, Qingzhu Zhang, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11053–11068,Short summary
We developed the localized incremental reactivity (IR) for VOCs in a Chinese megacity and elucidated their applications in calculating the ozone formation potential (OFP). The IR scales showed a strong dependence on chemical mechanisms. Both emission- and observation-based inputs are suitable for the MIR calculation but not the case under mixed-limited or NOx-limited O3 formation regimes. We provide suggestions for the application of IR and OFP scales to aid in VOC control in China.
Ilaria D'Elia, Gino Briganti, Lina Vitali, Antonio Piersanti, Gaia Righini, Massimo D'Isidoro, Andrea Cappelletti, Mihaela Mircea, Mario Adani, Gabriele Zanini, and Luisella Ciancarella
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10825–10849,Short summary
We present an analysis of modelled trends of PM10, NO2, and O3 airborne concentrations over the Italian territory in 2003–2010. Our analysis shows a general downward simulated trend for all pollutants, with good agreement between observed and modelled values and the model widening both coverage and significance of air concentration trends. Due to the complex atmospheric dynamics, emission reductions do not always result in decreasing concentrations, especially for secondary pollutants.
Chris Wilson, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Manuel Gloor, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Joey McNorton, Luciana V. Gatti, John B. Miller, Luana S. Basso, and Sarah A. Monks
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10643–10669,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas emitted from wetlands like those found in the basin of the Amazon River. Using an atmospheric model and observations from GOSAT, we quantified CH4 emissions from Amazonia during the previous decade. We found that the largest emissions came from a region in the eastern basin and that emissions there were rising faster than in other areas of South America. This finding was supported by CH4 observations made on aircraft within the basin.
Zhenze Liu, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, and Fiona M. O’Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10689–10706,Short summary
Surface ozone (O3) has become the main cause of atmospheric pollution in the summertime in China since 2013. We find that 70 % reductions in NOx emissions are required to reduce O3 pollution in most of industrial regions of China, and controls in VOC emissions are very important. The new chemical scheme developed for a global chemistry–climate model not only captures the regional air pollution but also benefits the future studies of regional air-quality–climate interactions.
Peng Wang, Juanyong Shen, Men Xia, Shida Sun, Yanli Zhang, Hongliang Zhang, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10347–10356,Short summary
Ozone (O3) pollution has received extensive attention due to worsening air quality and rising health risks. The Chinese National Day holiday (CNDH), which is associated with intensive commercial and tourist activities, serves as a valuable experiment to evaluate the O3 response during the holiday. We find sharply increasing trends of observed O3 concentrations throughout China during the CNDH, leading to 33 % additional total daily deaths.
Johannes G. M. Barten, Laurens N. Ganzeveld, Gert-Jan Steeneveld, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10229–10248,Short summary
We present an evaluation of ocean and snow/ice O3 deposition in explaining observed hourly surface O3 at 25 pan-Arctic sites using an atmospheric meteorology/chemistry model. The model includes a mechanistic representation of ocean O3 deposition as a function of ocean biogeochemical and mixing conditions. The mechanistic representation agrees better with O3 observations in terms of magnitude and temporal variability especially in the High Arctic (> 70° N).
Stefanie Falk, Ane Victoria Vollsnes, Aud Eriksen, Frode Stordal, and Terje Koren Berntsen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We evaluate regional and global models for ozone modeling and damage risk mapping of vegetation over subarctic Europe. Our analysis suggests that low-resolution global models do not reproduce the observed ozone seasonal cycle at ground level underestimating ozone by 30–50 %. High-resolution regional models capture the seasonal cycle well still underestimating ozone by up to 20 %. Our proposed gap-filling method for site observations shows a 78 % accuracy compared to the regional model (73 %).
Simon Rosanka, Rolf Sander, Bruno Franco, Catherine Wespes, Andreas Wahner, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9909–9930,Short summary
In-cloud destruction of ozone depends on hydroperoxyl radicals in cloud droplets, where they are produced by oxygenated volatile organic compound (OVOC) oxygenation. Only rudimentary representations of these processes, if any, are currently available in global atmospheric models. By using a comprehensive atmospheric model that includes a complex in-cloud OVOC oxidation scheme, we show that atmospheric oxidants are reduced and models ignoring this process will underpredict clouds as ozone sinks.
Brad Weir, Lesley E. Ott, George J. Collatz, Stephan R. Kawa, Benjamin Poulter, Abhishek Chatterjee, Tomohiro Oda, and Steven Pawson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9609–9628,Short summary
We present a collection of carbon surface fluxes, the Low-order Flux Inversion (LoFI), derived from satellite observations of the Earth's surface and calibrated to match long-term inventories and atmospheric and oceanic records. Simulations using LoFI reproduce background atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements with comparable skill to the leading surface flux products. Available both retrospectively and as a forecast, LoFI enables the study of the carbon cycle as it occurs.
Ilya Stanevich, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Martin Keller, Daven K. Henze, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Debra Wunch, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Kaley A. Walker, and Feng Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9545–9572,Short summary
We explore the utility of a weak-constraint (WC) four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation scheme for mitigating systematic errors in methane simulation in the GEOS-Chem model. We use data from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and show that, compared to the traditional 4D-Var approach, the WC scheme improves the agreement between the model and independent observations. We find that the WC corrections to the model provide insight into the source of the errors.
Yosuke Niwa, Yousuke Sawa, Hideki Nara, Toshinobu Machida, Hidekazu Matsueda, Taku Umezawa, Akihiko Ito, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Hiroshi Tanimoto, and Yasunori Tohjima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9455–9473,Short summary
Fires in Equatorial Asia release a large amount of carbon into the atmosphere. Extensively using high-precision atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) data from a commercial aircraft observation project, we estimated fire carbon emissions in Equatorial Asia induced by the big El Niño event in 2015. Additional shipboard measurement data elucidated the validity of the analysis and the best estimate indicated 273 Tg C for fire emissions during September–October 2015.
Christine Frömming, Volker Grewe, Sabine Brinkop, Patrick Jöckel, Amund S. Haslerud, Simon Rosanka, Jesper van Manen, and Sigrun Matthes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9151–9172,Short summary
The influence of weather situations on non-CO2 aviation climate impact is investigated to identify systematic weather-related sensitivities. If aircraft avoid the most sensitive areas, climate impact might be reduced. Enhanced significance is found for emission in relation to high-pressure systems, jet stream, polar night, and tropopause altitude. The results represent a comprehensive data set for studies aiming at weather-dependent flight trajectory optimization to reduce total climate impact.
Jianing Dai and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8747–8759,Short summary
We used the WRF–Chem model with the latest HONO and ClNO2 processes to investigate their effects on the concentrations of ROx radicals, O3, and PM2.5 in Asia during summer. The results show that the ship-derived HONO and ClNO2 increased the ROx radical concentration by 2–3 times and subsequently increased the O3 and PM2.5 concentrations in marine areas. These findings indicate the importance of these nitrogen processes in the evaluation of the impact of ship emissions on air quality.
Anoop S. Mahajan, Qinyi Li, Swaleha Inamdar, Kirpa Ram, Alba Badia, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8437–8454,Short summary
Using a regional model, we show that iodine-catalysed reactions cause large regional changes in the chemical composition in the northern Indian Ocean, with peak changes of up to 25 % in O3, 50 % in nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), 15 % in hydroxyl radicals (OH), 25 % in hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2), and up to a 50 % change in the nitrate radical (NO3). These results show the importance of including iodine chemistry in modelling the atmosphere in this region.
Maximilian Herrmann, Holger Sihler, Udo Frieß, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Platt, and Eva Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7611–7638,Short summary
Time-dependent 3D numerical simulations of tropospheric bromine release and ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the Arctic polar spring of 2009 are compared to observations. Simulation results agree well with the observations at both Utqiaġvik, Alaska, and at Summit, Greenland. In a parameter study, different settings for the bromine release mechanism are evaluated. An enhancement of the bromine release mechanism improves the agreement regarding the occurrence of ODEs with the observations.
Ashok K. Luhar, Ian E. Galbally, Matthew T. Woodhouse, and Nathan Luke Abraham
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7053–7082,Short summary
Lightning-generated nitrogen oxides (LNOx) greatly influence tropospheric photochemistry. The most common parameterisation of lightning flash rate used to calculate LNOx in global composition models underestimates measurements over the ocean by a factor of 20–25. We formulate and validate an alternative parameterisation to remedy this problem. The new scheme causes an increase in the ozone burden by 8.5 % and the hydroxyl radical by 13 %, and these have implications for climate and air quality.
Daniel M. Westervelt, Arlene M. Fiore, Colleen B. Baublitz, and Gustavo Correa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6799–6810,Short summary
Particulate air pollution in the atmosphere can impact the availability of gas-phase chemical constituents, which can then have feedbacks on gas-phase air pollutants. We use a chemistry–climate computer model to simulate the impact of particulate pollution from three major world regions on gas-phase chemical constituents. We find that surface-level ozone air pollution decreases by up to 5 ppbv over China in response to Chinese particulate air pollution, which has implications for policy.
Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz and Bernard Aumont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6541–6563,Short summary
There are tens of thousands of different chemical compounds in the atmosphere. To tackle this complexity, there are a wide range of different methods to estimate their physical and chemical properties. We use these methods to understand how much the detailed structure of a molecule impacts its properties, and the extent to which properties can be estimated without knowing this level of detail. We find that structure matters, but methods lacking that level of detail still perform reasonably well.
Daniel C. Anderson, Bryan N. Duncan, Arlene M. Fiore, Colleen B. Baublitz, Melanie B. Follette-Cook, Julie M. Nicely, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6481–6508,Short summary
We demonstrate that large-scale climate features are the primary driver of year-to-year variability in simulated values of the hydroxyl radical, the primary atmospheric oxidant, over 1980–2018. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation is the dominant mode of hydroxyl variability, resulting in large-scale global decreases in OH during El Niño events. Other climate modes, such as the Australian monsoon and the North Atlantic Oscillation, have impacts of similar magnitude but on on more localized scales.
Pooja V. Pawar, Sachin D. Ghude, Chinmay Jena, Andrea Móring, Mark A. Sutton, Santosh Kulkarni, Deen Mani Lal, Divya Surendran, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Xuejun Liu, Gaurav Govardhan, Wen Xu, Jize Jiang, and Tapan Kumar Adhya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6389–6409,Short summary
In this study, simulations of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) with MOZART-4 and HTAP-v2 are compared with satellite (IASI) and ground-based measurements to understand the spatial and temporal variability of NH3 over two emission hotspot regions of Asia, the IGP and the NCP. Our simulations indicate that the formation of ammonium aerosols is quicker over the NCP than the IGP, leading to smaller NH3 columns over the higher NH3-emitting NCP compared to the IGP region for comparable emissions.
Yan Zhang, Yu Zhao, Meng Gao, Xin Bo, and Chris P. Nielsen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6411–6430,Short summary
We combined air quality and exposure response models to analyze the benefits for air quality and human health of China’s ultra-low emission policy in one of its most developed regions. Atmospheric observations and the air quality model were also used to demonstrate improvement of emission inventories incorporating online emission monitoring data. With implementation of the policy in both power and industrial sectors, the attributable deaths due to PM2.5 exposure are estimated to decrease 5.5 %.
Anna Karion, Israel Lopez-Coto, Sharon M. Gourdji, Kimberly Mueller, Subhomoy Ghosh, William Callahan, Michael Stock, Elizabeth DiGangi, Steve Prinzivalli, and James Whetstone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6257–6273,Short summary
Estimating city emissions based on atmospheric observations requires that the portion of observed greenhouse gases that originated in the city be separated from the portion that originated outside the city, also known as the background concentration. Here, we investigate different methods to determine background concentrations for the Washington, DC, and Baltimore, MD, region and evaluate how well those methods work and the uncertainties they involve.
Kun Zhang, Ling Huang, Qing Li, Juntao Huo, Yusen Duan, Yuhang Wang, Elly Yaluk, Yangjun Wang, Qingyan Fu, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5905–5917,Short summary
Recently, high O3 concentrations were frequently observed in rural areas of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region under stagnant conditions. Using an online measurement and observation-based model, we investigated the budget of ROx radicals and the influence of isoprene chemistry on O3 formation. Our results underline that isoprene chemistry in the rural atmosphere becomes important with the participation of anthropogenic NOx.
Bharat Rastogi, John B. Miller, Micheal Trudeau, Arlyn E. Andrews, Lei Hu, Marikate Mountain, Thomas Nehrkorn, John Mund, Kaiyu Guan, and Caroline B. Alden
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Predicting Earth's climate is difficult partly due to uncertainty in forecasting how much CO2 can be removed by oceans and plants, because we cannot measure these exchanges directly on large scales. Satellites such as NASA's OCO-2 can provide part of the needed information, but data need to be highly precise and accurate. We evaluate these data and find small biases in certain months that are similar to the signals of interest. We argue that continued improvement in these data is necessary.
Ioanna Skoulidou, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Myrto Gratsea, Dimitris Balis, Alkiviadis Bais, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Trisevgeni Stavrakou, Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, and Andreas Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5269–5288,Short summary
The performance of LOTOS-EUROS v2.2.001 regional chemical transport model NO2 simulations is investigated over Greece from June to December 2018. Comparison with in situ NO2 measurements shows a spatial correlation coefficient of 0.86, while the model underestimates the concentrations mostly during daytime (12 to 15:00 local time). Further, the simulated tropospheric NO2 columns are evaluated against ground-based MAX-DOAS NO2 measurements and S5P/TROPOMI observations for July and December 2018.
Karl M. Seltzer, Elyse Pennington, Venkatesh Rao, Benjamin N. Murphy, Madeleine Strum, Kristin K. Isaacs, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5079–5100,Short summary
Volatile chemical products (VCPs) are an increasingly important source of anthropogenic reactive organic carbon emissions. Here, we develop VCPy, a new framework to model organic emissions from VCPs throughout the United States. At the national-level, VCPy emissions are broadly consistent with the US EPA’s 2017 National Emission Inventory, however county-level and categorical estimates can differ substantially. An observational evaluation indicates high fidelity in the methods employed here.
Stijn Naus, Stephen A. Montzka, Prabir K. Patra, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4809–4824,Short summary
Following up on previous box model studies, we employ a 3D transport model to estimate variations in the hydroxyl radical (OH) from observations of methyl chloroform (MCF). We derive small interannual OH variations that are consistent with variations in the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. We also find evidence for the release of MCF from oceans in atmospheric gradients of MCF. Both findings highlight the added value of a 3D transport model since box model studies did not identify these effects.
Ian Enting and Nathan Clisby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4699–4708,Short summary
We provide a new framework for comparing short-lived greenhouse gases to long-lived greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide using methane as an example. This can clarify the differences between various proposals that have been introduced in order to overcome the use of global warming potentials as a measure of greenhouse gas equivalence.
Thomas Thorp, Stephen R. Arnold, Richard J. Pope, Dominick V. Spracklen, Luke Conibear, Christoph Knote, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Belan, Eija Asmi, Tuomas Laurila, Andrei I. Skorokhod, Tuomo Nieminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4677–4697,Short summary
We compare modelled near-surface pollutants with surface and satellite observations to better understand the controls on the regional concentrations of pollution in western Siberia for late spring and summer in 2011. We find two commonly used emission inventories underestimate human emissions when compared to observations. Transport emissions are the main source of pollutants within the region during this period, whilst fire emissions peak during June and are only significant south of 60° N.
Nikolaos Evangeliou, Yves Balkanski, Sabine Eckhardt, Anne Cozic, Martin Van Damme, Pierre-François Coheur, Lieven Clarisse, Mark W. Shephard, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, and Didier Hauglustaine
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4431–4451,Short summary
Ammonia, a substance that has played a key role in sustaining life, has been increasing in the atmosphere, affecting climate and humans. Understanding the reasons for this increase is important for the beneficial use of ammonia. The evolution of satellite products gives us the opportunity to calculate ammonia emissions easier. We calculated global ammonia emissions over the last 10 years, incorporated them into a chemistry model and recorded notable improvement in reproducing observations.
Tie Dai, Yueming Cheng, Daisuke Goto, Yingruo Li, Xiao Tang, Guangyu Shi, and Teruyuki Nakajima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4357–4379,Short summary
The anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) over China has significantly declined as a consequence of the clean air actions. We have developed a new emission inversion system to dynamically update the SO2 emission grid by grid over China by assimilating ground-based SO2 observations. The inverted SO2 emission over China in November 2016 on average had declined by 49.4 % since 2010, which is well in agreement with the bottom-up estimation of 48.0 %.
Paul T. Griffiths, Lee T. Murray, Guang Zeng, Youngsub Matthew Shin, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Ian E. Galbally, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, James Keeble, Jane Liu, Omid Moeini, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Naga Oshima, David Tarasick, Simone Tilmes, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, Paul J. Young, and Prodromos Zanis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4187–4218,Short summary
We analyse the CMIP6 Historical and future simulations for tropospheric ozone, a species which is important for many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. We show that the current generation of models agrees well with observations, being particularly successful in capturing trends in surface ozone and its vertical distribution in the troposphere. We analyse the factors that control ozone and show that they evolve over the period of the CMIP6 experiments.
Annika Vogel and Hendrik Elbern
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4039–4057,Short summary
Forecasts of biogenic trace gases highly depend on the model setup and input fields. This study identifies sources of related forecast uncertainties for biogenic gases. Exceptionally high differences in both biogenic emissions and pollutant transport in the Po Valley are identified to be caused by the representation of the land surface and boundary layer dynamics. Consequently, changes in the model configuration are shown to induce significantly different local concentrations of biogenic gases.
Mengyuan Zhang, Arpit Katiyar, Shengqiang Zhu, Juanyong Shen, Men Xia, Jinlong Ma, Sri Harsha Kota, Peng Wang, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4025–4037,Short summary
We studied changes in air quality in India induced by the COVID-19 lockdown through both surface observations and the CMAQ model. Our results show that emission reductions improved the air quality across India during the lockdown. On average, the levels of PM2.5 and O3 decreased by 28 % and 15 %, indicating positive effects of lockdown measures. We suggest that more stringent and localized emission control strategies should be implemented in India to mitigate air pollutions.
Elena Macdonald, Noelia Otero, and Tim Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4007–4023,Short summary
NO2 limit values are still regularly exceeded in many European cities despite decreasing emissions. Measurements of NOx concentrations from stations across Europe were systematically analysed to assess long-term changes observed in urban areas. We compared trends in concentration increments to trends in total and traffic emissions to find potential discrepancies. The results can help in evaluating inaccuracies in emission inventories and in improving spatial imbalances in data availability.
Yuzhong Zhang, Daniel J. Jacob, Xiao Lu, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Tia R. Scarpelli, Jian-Xiong Sheng, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jinfeng Chang, A. Anthony Bloom, Shuang Ma, John Worden, Robert J. Parker, and Hartmut Boesch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3643–3666,Short summary
We use 2010–2018 satellite observations of atmospheric methane to interpret the factors controlling atmospheric methane and its accelerating increase during the period. The 2010–2018 increase in global methane emissions is driven by tropical and boreal wetlands and tropical livestock (South Asia, Africa, Brazil), with an insignificant positive trend in emissions from the fossil fuel sector. The peak methane growth rates in 2014–2015 are also contributed by low OH and high fire emissions.
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Long-term temporal evolution of ozone concentrations between 2000 and 2015 in Europe was estimated using a signal decomposition technique. The seasonal cycles are correlated with local climate conditions and vary according to geographic region, while ozone levels are indicative of distance to emission sources. The site's environment plays a key role in ozone trends, with the most polluted environments showing the least reduction in ozone, while in less polluted areas ozone has decreased.
Long-term temporal evolution of ozone concentrations between 2000 and 2015 in Europe was...