Articles | Volume 15, issue 5
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2269–2293, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 03 Mar 2015
Research article | 03 Mar 2015
Copernicus stratospheric ozone service, 2009–2012: validation, system intercomparison and roles of input data sets
K. Lefever et al.
A. Inness, F. Baier, A. Benedetti, I. Bouarar, S. Chabrillat, H. Clark, C. Clerbaux, P. Coheur, R. J. Engelen, Q. Errera, J. Flemming, M. George, C. Granier, J. Hadji-Lazaro, V. Huijnen, D. Hurtmans, L. Jones, J. W. Kaiser, J. Kapsomenakis, K. Lefever, J. Leitão, M. Razinger, A. Richter, M. G. Schultz, A. J. Simmons, M. Suttie, O. Stein, J.-N. Thépaut, V. Thouret, M. Vrekoussis, C. Zerefos, and the MACC team
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4073–4109,
Samuel Rémy, Zak Kipling, Vincent Huijnen, Johannes Flemming, Pierre Nabat, Martine Michou, Melanie Ades, Richard Engelen, and Vincent-Henri Peuch
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
This article describes a new version of IFS-AER, the tropospheric aerosol scheme that is used to provide global aerosol products within the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Several components of the model have been updated such as the dynamical dust and sea-salt aerosol emission schemes. New deposition schemes have also been incorporated, but are not yet used operationally. This new version of IFS-AER have been evaluated and shown to have a greater skill than previous versions.
Antje Inness, Melanie Ades, Dimitris Balis, Dmitry Efremenko, Johannes Flemming, Pascal Hedelt, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Diego Loyola, and Roberto Ribas
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
This paper describes the way the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) produces forecasts of volcanic SO2. These forecast are provided routinely every day. They are cerated by blending SO2 data from satellite instruments (TROPOMI and GOME-2) with the CAMS model. We show that the quality of the CAMS SO2 forecasts can be improved if additional information about the height of volcanic plumes is provided in the satellite data.
Pieternel F. Levelt, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Ilse Aben, Maite Bauwens, Tobias Borsdorff, Isabelle De Smedt, Henk J. Eskes, Christophe Lerot, Diego G. Loyola, Fabian Romahn, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Nicolas Theys, Michel Van Roozendael, J. Pepijn Veefkind, and Tijl Verhoelst
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Using the COVID-19 lockdown periods as an example, we show how the Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI trace gas data (NO2, SO2, CO, HCHO and CHOCHO) can be used to understand impacts on air quality for regions and cities around the globe. We also provide information for both experienced and inexperienced users about how we created the data using state-of-the-art algorithms, where to get the data, methods taking meteorological and seaonal variability into consideration, and insights for future studies.
Vitali Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Nickolay Krotkov, Fei Liu, and Henk Eskes
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The COVID-19 lockdown had a large impact on anthropogenic emissions and particularly on nitrogen dioxide (NO2). A new method of isolation of background, urban, and industrial components in NO2 is applied to estimate the lockdown impact on each of them. During March 16–June 15, 2020, the urban NO2 declined by 18–28 % in most regions, while background NO2 remained almost unchanged. Emissions from large industrial sources varies largely from region to region from +5 % for China to −40 % for India.
Clara Betancourt, Timo Stomberg, Ribana Roscher, Martin G. Schultz, and Scarlet Stadtler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3013–3033,Short summary
With the AQ-Bench dataset, we contribute to shared data usage and machine learning methods in the field of environmental science. The AQ-Bench dataset contains air quality data and metadata from more than 5500 air quality observation stations all over the world. The dataset offers a low-threshold entrance to machine learning on a real-world environmental dataset. AQ-Bench thus provides a blueprint for environmental benchmark datasets.
Steffen Beirle, Christian Borger, Steffen Dörner, Henk Eskes, Vinod Kumar, Adrianus de Laat, and Thomas Wagner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2995–3012,Short summary
A catalog of point sources of nitrogen oxides was created using satellite observations of NO2. Key for the identification of point sources was the divergence, i.e., the difference between upwind and downwind levels of NO2. The catalog lists 451 locations, of which 242 could be automatically matched to power plants. Other point sources are metal smelters, cement plants, or industrial areas. The catalog thus allows checking and improving of existing emission inventories.
Cheng Fan, Zhengqiang Li, Ying Li, Jiantao Dong, Ronald van der A, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7723–7748,Short summary
Emission control policy in China has resulted in the decrease of nitrogen dioxide concentrations, which however leveled off and stabilized in recent years, as shown from satellite data. The effects of the further emission reduction during the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 resulted in an initial improvement of air quality, which, however, was offset by chemical and meteorological effects. The study shows the regional dependence over east China, and results have a wider application than China only.
Jérôme Barré, Hervé Petetin, Augustin Colette, Marc Guevara, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Laurence Rouil, Richard Engelen, Antje Inness, Johannes Flemming, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Dene Bowdalo, Frederik Meleux, Camilla Geels, Jesper H. Christensen, Michael Gauss, Anna Benedictow, Svetlana Tsyro, Elmar Friese, Joanna Struzewska, Jacek W. Kaminski, John Douros, Renske Timmermans, Lennart Robertson, Mario Adani, Oriol Jorba, Mathieu Joly, and Rostislav Kouznetsov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7373–7394,Short summary
This study provides a comprehensive assessment of air quality changes across the main European urban areas induced by the COVID-19 lockdown using satellite observations, surface site measurements, and the forecasting system from the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for weather and seasonal variability when calculating such estimates.
Nicolas Theys, Vitali Fioletov, Can Li, Isabelle De Smedt, Christophe Lerot, Chris McLinden, Nickolay Krotkov, Debora Griffin, Lieven Clarisse, Pascal Hedelt, Diego Loyola, Thomas Wagner, Vinod Kumar, Antje Innes, Roberto Ribas, François Hendrick, Jonas Vlietinck, Hugues Brenot, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
We present a new algorithm to retrieve sulfur dioxide from space UV measurements. We apply the technique to TROPOMI high resolution measurements and demonstrate the high sensitivity of the approach to weak SO2 emissions worldwide with an unprecedented limit of detection of 8 kt yr-1. This result has broad implications for atmospheric science studies dealing with improving emission inventories, identifying and quantifying missing sources, in the context of air quality and climate.
Wannan Wang, Ronald van der A, Jieying Ding, Michiel van Weele, and Tianhai Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7253–7269,Short summary
We developed a method to determine the type of photochemical regime of ozone formation by using only satellite observations of formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide as well as ozone measurements on the ground. It was found that many cities in China, because of their high level of air pollution, are in the so-called VOC-limited photochemical regime. This means that the current reductions of nitrogen dioxide resulted in higher levels of photochemical smog in these cities.
Ioanna Skoulidou, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Myrto Gratsea, Dimitris Balis, Alkiviadis Bais, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Trisevgeni Stavrakou, Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, and Andreas Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5269–5288,Short summary
The performance of LOTOS-EUROS v2.2.001 regional chemical transport model NO2 simulations is investigated over Greece from June to December 2018. Comparison with in situ NO2 measurements shows a spatial correlation coefficient of 0.86, while the model underestimates the concentrations mostly during daytime (12 to 15:00 local time). Further, the simulated tropospheric NO2 columns are evaluated against ground-based MAX-DOAS NO2 measurements and S5P/TROPOMI observations for July and December 2018.
Jérôme Barré, Ilse Aben, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Nicolas Bousserez, Peter Dueben, Richard Engelen, Antje Inness, Alba Lorente, Joe McNorton, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Gabor Radnoti, and Roberto Ribas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5117–5136,Short summary
This study presents a new approach to the systematic global detection of anomalous local CH4 concentration anomalies caused by rapid changes in anthropogenic emission levels. The approach utilises both satellite measurements and model simulations, and applies novel data analysis techniques (such as filtering and classification) to automatically detect anomalous emissions from point sources and small areas, such as oil and gas drilling sites, pipelines and facility leaks.
Eloise A. Marais, John F. Roberts, Robert G. Ryan, Henk Eskes, K. Folkert Boersma, Sungyeon Choi, Joanna Joiner, Nader Abuhassan, Alberto Redondas, Michel Grutter, Alexander Cede, Laura Gomez, and Monica Navarro-Comas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2389–2408,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides in the upper troposphere have a profound influence on the global troposphere, but routine reliable observations there are exceedingly rare. We apply cloud-slicing to TROPOMI total columns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at high spatial resolution to derive near-global observations of NO2 in the upper troposphere and show consistency with existing datasets. These data offer tremendous potential to address knowledge gaps in this oft underappreciated portion of the atmosphere.
Lukas Hubert Leufen, Felix Kleinert, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1553–1574,Short summary
MLAir provides a coherent end-to-end structure for a typical time series analysis workflow using machine learning (ML). MLAir is adaptable to a wide range of ML use cases, focusing in particular on deep learning. The user has a free hand with the ML model itself and can select from different methods during preprocessing, training, and postprocessing. MLAir offers tools to track the experiment conduction, documents necessary ML parameters, and creates a variety of publication-ready plots.
Nicola Zoppetti, Simone Ceccherini, Bruno Carli, Samuele Del Bianco, Marco Gai, Cecilia Tirelli, Flavio Barbara, Rossana Dragani, Antti Arola, Jukka Kujanpää, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Ronald van der A, and Ugo Cortesi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2041–2053,Short summary
The new platforms for Earth observation from space will provide an enormous amount of data that can be hard to exploit as a whole. The Complete Data Fusion algorithm can reduce the data volume while retaining the information of the full dataset. In this work, we applied the Complete Data Fusion algorithm to simulated ozone profiles, and the results show that the fused products are characterized by higher information content compared to individual L2 products.
Song Liu, Pieter Valks, Gaia Pinardi, Jian Xu, Ka Lok Chan, Athina Argyrouli, Ronny Lutz, Steffen Beirle, Ehsan Khorsandi, Frank Baier, Vincent Huijnen, Alkiviadis Bais, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Myrto Gratsea, François Hendrick, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Kezia Lange, Ankie J. M. Piters, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, Mark Wenig, and Diego G. Loyola
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
In this work, an improved tropospheric NO2 retrieval algorithm from TROPOMI measurements over Europe is presented. The stratospheric estimation is implemented with correction for the dependency of the stratospheric NO2 on the viewing geometry. The AMF calculation is implemented using improved surface albedo, a priori NO2 profiles, and cloud correction. The improved tropospheric NO2 data show good correlations with ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements.
Wannan Wang, Tianhai Cheng, Ronald J. van der A, Jos de Laat, and Jason E. Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1673–1687,Short summary
This paper is an evaluation of the AIRS and MLS ozone (O3) algorithms via comparison with daytime and night-time O3 datasets. Results show that further refinements of the AIRS O3 algorithm are required for better surface emissivity retrievals and that cloud cover is another problem that needs to be solved. An inconsistency is found in the
AscDescModeflag of the MLS v4.20 standard O3 product for 90–60° S and 60–90° N, resulting in inconsistent O3 profiles in these regions before May 2015.
Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Ioanna Skoulidou, Andreas Karavias, Isaak Parcharidis, Dimitris Balis, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Henk Eskes, and Jos van Geffen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1759–1774,Short summary
In recent years, satellite observations have contributed to monitoring air quality. During the first COVID-19 lockdown, lower levels of nitrogen dioxide were observed over Greece by S5P/TROPOMI for March and April 2020 (than the preceding year) due to decreased transport emissions. Taking meteorology into account, using LOTOS-EUROS CTM simulations, the resulting decline due to the lockdown was estimated to range between 0 % and −37 % for the five largest Greek cities, with an average of ~ −10 %.
Marvin Knapp, Ralph Kleinschek, Frank Hase, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Antje Inness, Jérôme Barré, Jochen Landgraf, Tobias Borsdorff, Stefan Kinne, and André Butz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 199–211,Short summary
We developed a shipborne variant of a remote sensing spectrometer for direct sunlight measurements of column-averaged atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. The instrument was deployed on the research vessel Sonne during a longitudinal transect over the Pacific during June 2019. The campaign yielded more than 32 000 observations which compare excellently to atmospheric composition data from a state-of-the-art model (CAMS) and satellite observations (TROPOMI).
Frederik Tack, Alexis Merlaud, Marian-Daniel Iordache, Gaia Pinardi, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Henk Eskes, Bart Bomans, Pepijn Veefkind, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 615–646,Short summary
We assess the TROPOMI tropospheric NO2 product (OFFL v1.03.01; 3.5 km × 7 km at nadir observations) based on coinciding airborne APEX reference observations (~75 m × 120 m), acquired over polluted regions in Belgium. The TROPOMI NO2 product meets the mission requirements in terms of precision and accuracy. However, we show that TROPOMI is biased low over polluted areas, mainly due to the limited spatial resolution of a priori input for the AMF computation.
Tijl Verhoelst, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Henk J. Eskes, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Ann Mari Fjæraa, José Granville, Sander Niemeijer, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, François Hendrick, Andrea Pazmiño, Alkiviadis Bais, Ariane Bazureau, K. Folkert Boersma, Kristof Bognar, Angelika Dehn, Sebastian Donner, Aleksandr Elokhov, Manuel Gebetsberger, Florence Goutail, Michel Grutter de la Mora, Aleksandr Gruzdev, Myrto Gratsea, Georg H. Hansen, Hitoshi Irie, Nis Jepsen, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Rigel Kivi, Karin Kreher, Pieternel F. Levelt, Cheng Liu, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro Comas, Ankie J. M. Piters, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Thierry Portafaix, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, John Rimmer, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Lidia Saavedra de Miguel, Valery P. Sinyakov, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Michel Van Roozendael, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Thomas Wagner, Folkard Wittrock, Margarita Yela González, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 481–510,Short summary
This paper reports on the ground-based validation of the NO2 data produced operationally by the TROPOMI instrument on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite. Tropospheric, stratospheric, and total NO2 columns are compared to measurements collected from MAX-DOAS, ZSL-DOAS, and PGN/Pandora instruments respectively. The products are found to satisfy mission requirements in general, though negative mean differences are found at sites with high pollution levels. Potential causes are discussed.
Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Alessio Bozzo, Nicholas Byrne, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Michail Diamantakis, Johannes Flemming, Lesley J. Gray, Robin J. Hogan, Luke Jones, Linus Magnusson, Inna Polichtchouk, Theodore G. Shepherd, Nils Wedi, and Antje Weisheimer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The stratosphere is emerging as one of the keys to improve tropospheric weather and climate predictions. This study provides evidence of the role the stratospheric ozone layer plays in improving weather predictions at different time scales. Using a new ozone modelling approach suitable for high resolution global models that provide operational forecasts from days to seasons, we find significant improvements in stratospheric meteorological fields and stratosphere-troposphere coupling.
Ivar R. van der Velde, Guido R. van der Werf, Sander Houweling, Henk J. Eskes, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Tobias Borsdorff, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 597–616,Short summary
This paper compares the relative atmospheric enhancements of CO and NO2 measured by the space-based instrument TROPOMI over different fire-prone ecosystems around the world. We find distinct spatial and temporal patterns in the ΔNO2 / ΔCO ratio that correspond to regional differences in combustion efficiency. This joint analysis provides a better understanding of regional-scale combustion characteristics and can help the fire modeling community to improve existing global emission inventories.
Felix Kleinert, Lukas H. Leufen, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1–25,Short summary
With IntelliO3-ts v1.0, we present an artificial neural network as a new forecasting model for daily aggregated near-surface ozone concentrations with a lead time of up to 4 d. We used measurement and reanalysis data from more than 300 German monitoring stations to train, fine tune, and test the model. We show that the model outperforms standard reference models like persistence models and demonstrate that IntelliO3-ts outperforms climatological reference models for the first 2 d.
Gaia Pinardi, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Nicolas Theys, Nader Abuhassan, Alkiviadis Bais, Folkert Boersma, Alexander Cede, Jihyo Chong, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Anatoly Dzhola, Henk Eskes, Udo Frieß, José Granville, Jay R. Herman, Robert Holla, Jari Hovila, Hitoshi Irie, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Natalia Kouremeti, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Jianzhong Ma, Enno Peters, Ankie Piters, Oleg Postylyakov, Andreas Richter, Julia Remmers, Hisahiro Takashima, Martin Tiefengraber, Pieter Valks, Tim Vlemmix, Thomas Wagner, and Folkard Wittrock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6141–6174,Short summary
We validate several GOME-2 and OMI tropospheric NO2 products with 23 MAX-DOAS and 16 direct sun instruments distributed worldwide, highlighting large horizontal inhomogeneities at several sites affecting the validation results. We propose a method for quantification and correction. We show the application of such correction reduces the satellite underestimation in almost all heterogeneous cases, but a negative bias remains over the MAX-DOAS and direct sun network ensemble for both satellites.
Laura M. Judd, Jassim A. Al-Saadi, James J. Szykman, Lukas C. Valin, Scott J. Janz, Matthew G. Kowalewski, Henk J. Eskes, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Alexander Cede, Moritz Mueller, Manuel Gebetsberger, Robert Swap, R. Bradley Pierce, Caroline R. Nowlan, Gonzalo González Abad, Amin Nehrir, and David Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6113–6140,Short summary
This paper evaluates Sentinel-5P TROPOMI v1.2 NO2 tropospheric columns over New York City using data from airborne mapping spectrometers and a network of ground-based spectrometers (Pandora) collected in 2018. These evaluations consider impacts due to cloud parameters, a priori profile assumptions, and spatial and temporal variability. Overall, TROPOMI tropospheric NO2 columns appear to have a low bias in this region.
Dimitris Akritidis, Eleni Katragkou, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Prodromos Zanis, Stergios Kartsios, Johannes Flemming, Antje Inness, John Douros, and Henk Eskes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13557–13578,Short summary
We assess the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) global and regional forecasts performance during a complex aerosol transport event over Europe induced by the passage of Storm Ophelia in mid-October 2017. Comparison with satellite observations reveals a satisfactory performance of CAMS global forecast assisted by data assimilation, while comparison with ground-based measurements indicates that the CAMS regional system over-performs compared to the global one in terms of air quality.
Daniele Minganti, Simon Chabrillat, Yves Christophe, Quentin Errera, Marta Abalos, Maxime Prignon, Douglas E. Kinnison, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12609–12631,Short summary
The climatology of the N2O transport budget in the stratosphere is studied in the transformed Eulerian mean framework across a variety of datasets: a chemistry climate model, a chemistry transport model driven by four reanalyses and a chemical reanalysis. The impact of vertical advection on N2O agrees well in the datasets, but horizontal mixing presents large differences above the Antarctic and in the whole Northern Hemisphere.
Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Kevin Bowman, Takashi Sekiya, Henk Eskes, Folkert Boersma, Helen Worden, Nathaniel Livesey, Vivienne H. Payne, Kengo Sudo, Yugo Kanaya, Masayuki Takigawa, and Koji Ogochi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2223–2259,Short summary
This study presents the results from the Tropospheric Chemistry Reanalysis version 2 (TCR-2) for 2005–2018 obtained from the assimilation of multiple satellite measurements of ozone, CO, NO2, HNO3, and SO2 from the OMI, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, TES, MLS, and MOPITT instruments. The evaluation results demonstrate the capability of the reanalysis products to improve understanding of the processes controlling variations in atmospheric composition, including long-term changes in air quality and emissions.
Srijana Lama, Sander Houweling, K. Folkert Boersma, Henk Eskes, Ilse Aben, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Maarten C. Krol, Han Dolman, Tobias Borsdorff, and Alba Lorente
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10295–10310,Short summary
Rapid urbanization has increased the consumption of fossil fuel, contributing the degradation of urban air quality. Burning efficiency is a major factor determining the impact of fuel burning on the environment. We quantify the burning efficiency of fossil fuel use over six megacities using satellite remote sensing data. City governance can use these results to understand air pollution scenarios and to formulate effective air pollution control strategies.
Martine G. de Vos, Wilco Hazeleger, Driss Bari, Jörg Behrens, Sofiane Bendoukha, Irene Garcia-Marti, Ronald van Haren, Sue Ellen Haupt, Rolf Hut, Fredrik Jansson, Andreas Mueller, Peter Neilley, Gijs van den Oord, Inti Pelupessy, Paolo Ruti, Martin G. Schultz, and Jeremy Walton
Geosci. Commun., 3, 191–201,Short summary
At the 14th IEEE International eScience Conference domain specialists and data and computer scientists discussed the road towards open weather and climate science. Open science offers manifold opportunities but goes beyond sharing code and data. Besides domain-specific technical challenges, we observed that the main challenges are non-technical and impact the system of science as a whole.
Mengyao Liu, Jintai Lin, Hao Kong, K. Folkert Boersma, Henk Eskes, Yugo Kanaya, Qin He, Xin Tian, Kai Qin, Pinhua Xie, Robert Spurr, Ruijing Ni, Yingying Yan, Hongjian Weng, and Jingxu Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4247–4259,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are important air pollutants in the troposphere and play crucial roles in the formation of ozone and particulate matter. The recently launched TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) provides an opportunity to retrieve tropospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at an unprecedented high horizontal resolution. This work presents a new NO2 retrieval product over East Asia and further quantifies key factors affecting the retrieval, including aerosol.
Alexander Ukhov, Suleiman Mostamandi, Arlindo da Silva, Johannes Flemming, Yasser Alshehri, Illia Shevchenko, and Georgiy Stenchikov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9281–9310,Short summary
The data assimilation products MERRA2 and CAMS are tested over the Middle East (ME) against in situ and satellite observations. For the first time, we compared the new MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval, MAIAC, with the Deep Blue and Dark Target MODIS AOD. We conducted 2-year high-resolution WRF-Chem simulations with the most accurate OMI-HTAP SO2 emissions to estimate the contribution of natural and anthropogenic aerosols to the PM pollution in the ME.
Steven Compernolle, Tijl Verhoelst, Gaia Pinardi, José Granville, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Sander Niemeijer, Bruno Rino, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Folkert Boersma, John P. Burrows, Isabelle De Smedt, Henk Eskes, Florence Goutail, François Hendrick, Alba Lorente, Andrea Pazmino, Ankie Piters, Enno Peters, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Jos van Geffen, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, and Jean-Christopher Lambert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8017–8045,Short summary
Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 columns from the OMI QA4ECV NO2 satellite product are validated by comparison with ground-based measurements at 11 sites. The OMI stratospheric column has a small negative bias, and the OMI tropospheric column has a stronger negative bias relative to the ground-based data. Discrepancies are attributed to comparison errors (e.g. difference in horizontal smoothing) and measurement errors (e.g. clouds, aerosols, vertical smoothing and a priori proﬁle assumptions).
Xiaoyi Zhao, Debora Griffin, Vitali Fioletov, Chris McLinden, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, Moritz Müller, Kristof Bognar, Kimberly Strong, Folkert Boersma, Henk Eskes, Jonathan Davies, Akira Ogyu, and Sum Chi Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2131–2159,Short summary
Pandora NO2 measurements made at three sites located in the Toronto area are used to evaluate the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) NO2 data products, including standard NO2 and research data developed using a high-resolution regional air quality forecast model. TROPOMI pixels located upwind and downwind from the Pandora sites were analyzed by a new wind-based validation method, which revealed the spatial patterns of local and transported emissions and regional air quality changes.
Yuting Wang, Yong-Feng Ma, Henk Eskes, Antje Inness, Johannes Flemming, and Guy P. Brasseur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4493–4521,Short summary
The paper presents an evaluation of the CAMS global reanalysis of reactive gases performed for the period 2003–2016. The evaluation is performed by comparing concentrations of chemical species gathered during airborne field campaigns with calculated values. The reanalysis successfully reproduces the observed concentrations of ozone and carbon monoxide but generally underestimates the abundance of hydrocarbons. Large discrepancies exist for fast-reacting radicals such as OH and HO2.
Xin Zhang, Yan Yin, Ronald van der A, Jeff L. Lapierre, Qian Chen, Xiang Kuang, Shuqi Yan, Jinghua Chen, Chuan He, and Rulin Shi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1709–1734,Short summary
Lightning NOx has a strong impact on ozone and the hydroxyl radical production. However, the production efficiency of lightning NOx is still quite uncertain. This work develops the algorithm of estimating lightning NOx for both clean and polluted regions and evaluates the sensitivity of estimates to the model setting of lightning NO. Results reveal that our method reduces the sensitivity to the background NO2 and includes much of the below-cloud LNO2.
Vincent Huijnen, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Johannes Flemming, Antje Inness, Takashi Sekiya, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1513–1544,Short summary
We present the evaluation and intercomparison of global tropospheric ozone reanalyses that have been produced in recent years. Such reanalyses can be used to assess the current state and variability of tropospheric ozone. The reanalyses show overall good agreements with independent ground and ozone-sonde observations for the diurnal, synoptical, seasonal, and interannual variabilities, with generally improved performances for the updated reanalyses.
Jos van Geffen, K. Folkert Boersma, Henk Eskes, Maarten Sneep, Mark ter Linden, Marina Zara, and J. Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1315–1335,Short summary
The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) provides atmospheric trace gase and cloud and aerosol property measurements at unprecedented spatial resolution. This study focusses on the TROPOMI NO2 slant column density (SCD) retrieval: the retrieval method used, the stability of and uncertainties in the SCDs, and a comparison with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 SCDs. TROPOMI shows a superior performance compared to OMI/QA4ECV and operates as anticipated from instrument specifications.
Alessio Bozzo, Angela Benedetti, Johannes Flemming, Zak Kipling, and Samuel Rémy
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1007–1034,Short summary
Aerosols are tiny particles of natural and anthropogenic origin transported by the winds in the Earth's atmosphere. These particles play a key role in the energy budget of our planet. In numerical models of the Earth's atmosphere, aerosols spatial distribution are often represented by conditions averaged over several years. We prepared a new aerosol climatology and used it in a numerical weather model. We show that in certain regions aerosols can affect the quality of numerical weather forecast.
Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Joaquim Arteta, Adriana Coman, Lyana Curier, Henk Eskes, Gilles Foret, Clio Gielen, Francois Hendrick, Virginie Marécal, Frédérik Meleux, Jonathan Parmentier, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie J. M. Piters, Matthieu Plu, Andreas Richter, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Álvaro M. Valdebenito, Michel Van Roozendael, Julius Vira, Tim Vlemmix, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2795–2823,Short summary
MAX-DOAS tropospheric NO2 vertical column retrievals from a set of European measurement stations are compared to regional air quality models which contribute to the operational Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Correlations are on the order of 35 %–75 %; large differences occur for individual pollution plumes. The results demonstrate that future model development needs to concentrate on improving representation of diurnal cycles and associated temporal scalings.
Iolanda Ialongo, Henrik Virta, Henk Eskes, Jari Hovila, and John Douros
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 205–218,Short summary
New satellite-based nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data from TROPOMI/Sentinel 5P are used to monitor air pollution levels at the urban site of Helsinki, Finland. NO2 is a polluting gas produced by fossil fuel combustion. TROPOMI NO2 data agree with ground-based reference measurements within 10 % and show similar day-to-day and weekly variability. The results confirm that satellite-based observations can bring additional information to traditional in situ measurements for urban air quality monitoring.
Samuel Quesada-Ruiz, Jean-Luc Attié, William A. Lahoz, Rachid Abida, Philippe Ricaud, Laaziz El Amraoui, Régina Zbinden, Andrea Piacentini, Mathieu Joly, Henk Eskes, Arjo Segers, Lyana Curier, Johan de Haan, Jukka Kujanpää, Albert Christiaan Plechelmus Oude Nijhuis, Johanna Tamminen, Renske Timmermans, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 131–152,
Catherine Wespes, Daniel Hurtmans, Simon Chabrillat, Gaétane Ronsmans, Cathy Clerbaux, and Pierre-François Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14031–14056,Short summary
This paper highlights the global fingerprint of recent changes in O3 in both the middle–upper and lower stratosphere from the first 10 years of the IASI/Metop-A satellite measurements. The results present the first detection of a significant O3 recovery at middle–high latitudes in winter–spring in the stratosphere as well as in the total column from one single dataset. They also show a speeding up in the recovery at high southern latitudes contrasting with a decline at northern mid-latitudes.
Quentin Errera, Simon Chabrillat, Yves Christophe, Jonas Debosscher, Daan Hubert, William Lahoz, Michelle L. Santee, Masato Shiotani, Sergey Skachko, Thomas von Clarmann, and Kaley Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13647–13679,Short summary
BRAM2 is a 13-year reanalysis of the chemical composition from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere based on the assimilation of the Microwave Limb Sounder observations where eight species are assimilated: O3, H2O, N2O, HNO3, HCl, ClO, CH3Cl and CO. BRAM2 agrees generally well with independent observations in the middle stratosphere, the polar vortex and the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere but also shows several issues in the model and in the observations.
Samuel Rémy, Zak Kipling, Johannes Flemming, Olivier Boucher, Pierre Nabat, Martine Michou, Alessio Bozzo, Melanie Ades, Vincent Huijnen, Angela Benedetti, Richard Engelen, Vincent-Henri Peuch, and Jean-Jacques Morcrette
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4627–4659,Short summary
This article describes the IFS-AER aerosol module used operationally in the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) cycle 45R1, operated by the ECMWF in the framework of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Services (CAMS). We describe the different parameterizations for aerosol sources, sinks, and how the aerosols are integrated in the larger atmospheric composition forecasting system. The skill of PM and AOD simulations against observations is improved compared to the older cycle 40R2.
Renske Timmermans, Arjo Segers, Lyana Curier, Rachid Abida, Jean-Luc Attié, Laaziz El Amraoui, Henk Eskes, Johan de Haan, Jukka Kujanpää, William Lahoz, Albert Oude Nijhuis, Samuel Quesada-Ruiz, Philippe Ricaud, Pepijn Veefkind, and Martijn Schaap
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12811–12833,Short summary
We present an evaluation of the added value of the Sentinel-4 and Sentinel-5P missions for air quality analyses of NO2. For this, synthetic observations for both missions are generated and combined with a chemistry transport model. While hourly Sentinel-4 NO2 observations over Europe benefit modelled NO2 analyses throughout the entire day, daily Sentinel-5P NO2 observations with global coverage show an impact up to 3–6 h after overpass. This supports the need for a combination of missions.
Maxime Prignon, Simon Chabrillat, Daniele Minganti, Simon O'Doherty, Christian Servais, Gabriele Stiller, Geoffrey C. Toon, Martin K. Vollmer, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12309–12324,Short summary
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are the first, but temporary, substitution products for the strong ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). In this work, we present and validate an improved method to retrieve the most abundant HCFC in the atmosphere, allowing its evolution to be monitored independently in the troposphere and stratosphere. These kinds of contributions are fundamental for scrutinizing the fulfilment of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
Christoph Heinze, Veronika Eyring, Pierre Friedlingstein, Colin Jones, Yves Balkanski, William Collins, Thierry Fichefet, Shuang Gao, Alex Hall, Detelina Ivanova, Wolfgang Knorr, Reto Knutti, Alexander Löw, Michael Ponater, Martin G. Schultz, Michael Schulz, Pier Siebesma, Joao Teixeira, George Tselioudis, and Martin Vancoppenolle
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 379–452,Short summary
Earth system models for producing climate projections under given forcings include additional processes and feedbacks that traditional physical climate models do not consider. We present an overview of climate feedbacks for key Earth system components and discuss the evaluation of these feedbacks. The target group for this article includes generalists with a background in natural sciences and an interest in climate change as well as experts working in interdisciplinary climate research.
Jacob C. A. van Peet and Ronald J. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8297–8309,Short summary
In this research, we combine satellite measurements of ozone with a chemical transport model of the atmosphere. The focus is on the ozone concentration between the surface and 6 km above mean sea level, since in that altitude range ozone has the highest impact on living organisms. Monthly mean ozone fields show significant improvements and more detail, especially for features such as biomass-burning-enhanced ozone concentrations and outflow of ozone-rich air from Asia over the Pacific.
Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Ronald J. van der A, Piet Stammes, K. Folkert Boersma, and Henk J. Eskes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6269–6294,Short summary
In this paper, a ∼21-year self-consistent global dataset from four different satellite sensors is compiled for the first time to study the long-term tropospheric NO2 patterns and trends. A novel method capable of detecting the year when a reversal of trends happened shows that tropospheric NO2 concentrations switched from positive to negative trends and vice versa over several regions around the globe during the last 2 decades.
Vincent Huijnen, Andrea Pozzer, Joaquim Arteta, Guy Brasseur, Idir Bouarar, Simon Chabrillat, Yves Christophe, Thierno Doumbia, Johannes Flemming, Jonathan Guth, Béatrice Josse, Vlassis A. Karydis, Virginie Marécal, and Sophie Pelletier
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1725–1752,Short summary
We report on an evaluation of tropospheric ozone and its precursor gases in three atmospheric chemistry versions as implemented in ECMWF’s Integrated Forecasting System (IFS), referred to as IFS(CB05BASCOE), IFS(MOZART) and IFS(MOCAGE). This configuration of having various chemistry versions within IFS provides a quantification of uncertainties in CAMS trace gas products that are induced by chemistry modelling.
Ina Tegen, David Neubauer, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Colombe Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Isabelle Bey, Nick Schutgens, Philip Stier, Duncan Watson-Parris, Tanja Stanelle, Hauke Schmidt, Sebastian Rast, Harri Kokkola, Martin Schultz, Sabine Schroeder, Nikos Daskalakis, Stefan Barthel, Bernd Heinold, and Ulrike Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1643–1677,Short summary
We describe a new version of the aerosol–climate model ECHAM–HAM and show tests of the model performance by comparing different aspects of the aerosol distribution with different datasets. The updated version of HAM contains improved descriptions of aerosol processes, including updated emission fields and cloud processes. While there are regional deviations between the model and observations, the model performs well overall.
Rolf Sander, Andreas Baumgaertner, David Cabrera-Perez, Franziska Frank, Sergey Gromov, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Hartwig Harder, Vincent Huijnen, Patrick Jöckel, Vlassis A. Karydis, Kyle E. Niemeyer, Andrea Pozzer, Hella Riede, Martin G. Schultz, Domenico Taraborrelli, and Sebastian Tauer
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1365–1385,Short summary
We present the atmospheric chemistry box model CAABA/MECCA which now includes a number of new features: skeletal mechanism reduction, the MOM chemical mechanism for volatile organic compounds, an option to include reactions from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) and other chemical mechanisms, updated isotope tagging, improved and new photolysis modules, and the new feature of coexisting multiple chemistry mechanisms. CAABA/MECCA is a community model published under the GPL.
Anna Katinka Petersen, Guy P. Brasseur, Idir Bouarar, Johannes Flemming, Michael Gauss, Fei Jiang, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Richard Kranenburg, Bas Mijling, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Matthieu Pommier, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Renske Timmermans, Ronald van der A, Stacy Walters, Ying Xie, Jianming Xu, and Guangqiang Zhou
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1241–1266,Short summary
An operational multi-model forecasting system for air quality is providing daily forecasts of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter for 37 urban areas of China. The paper presents the evaluation of the different forecasts performed during the first year of operation.
Antje Inness, Johannes Flemming, Klaus-Peter Heue, Christophe Lerot, Diego Loyola, Roberto Ribas, Pieter Valks, Michel van Roozendael, Jian Xu, and Walter Zimmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3939–3962,Short summary
This paper documents the use of total column ozone data from the TROPOMI satellite in the global forecasting system of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). The data are of good quality over large parts of the globe but have some issues at high latitudes, at low solar elevations and over snow/ice. Assimilating the data in the CAMS system has a small positive impact, especially in the tropical troposphere.
Antje Inness, Melanie Ades, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Jérôme Barré, Anna Benedictow, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Juan Jose Dominguez, Richard Engelen, Henk Eskes, Johannes Flemming, Vincent Huijnen, Luke Jones, Zak Kipling, Sebastien Massart, Mark Parrington, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Miha Razinger, Samuel Remy, Michael Schulz, and Martin Suttie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3515–3556,Short summary
This paper describes a new global dataset of atmospheric composition data for the years 2003-2016 that has been produced by the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). It is called the CAMS reanalysis and provides information on aerosols and reactive gases. The CAMS reanalysis shows an improved performance compared to our previous atmospheric composition reanalyses; has smaller biases compared to independent O3, CO, NO2 and aerosol observations; and is more consistent in time.
Kai-Lan Chang, Owen R. Cooper, J. Jason West, Marc L. Serre, Martin G. Schultz, Meiyun Lin, Virginie Marécal, Béatrice Josse, Makoto Deushi, Kengo Sudo, Junhua Liu, and Christoph A. Keller
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 955–978,Short summary
We developed a new method for combining surface ozone observations from thousands of monitoring sites worldwide with the output from multiple atmospheric chemistry models. The result is a global surface ozone distribution with greater accuracy than any single model can achieve. We focused on an ozone metric relevant to human mortality caused by long-term ozone exposure. Our method can be applied to studies that quantify the impacts of ozone on human health and mortality.
Lars Hoffmann, Gebhard Günther, Dan Li, Olaf Stein, Xue Wu, Sabine Griessbach, Yi Heng, Paul Konopka, Rolf Müller, Bärbel Vogel, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3097–3124,Short summary
ECMWF's new ERA5 reanalysis provides higher spatiotemporal resolution, yielding an improved representation of meso- and synoptic-scale features of the atmosphere. We assessed the impact of this challenging new data set on Lagrangian trajectory calculations for the free troposphere and stratosphere. Key findings are considerable transport deviations between the ERA5 and ERA-Interim simulations as well as significantly improved conservation of potential temperature in the stratosphere for ERA5.
Jeronimo Escribano, Alessio Bozzo, Philippe Dubuisson, Johannes Flemming, Robin J. Hogan, Laurent C.-Labonnote, and Olivier Boucher
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 805–827,Short summary
Accurate shortwave radiance computations are becoming increasingly important for some applications in atmospheric composition. In this work we propose a benchmark protocol and dataset to asses the accuracy and computing runtime of radiance calculations of radiative transfer models. It is applied to four models, showing the potential of this benchmark to evaluate the model performance under a variety of atmospheric conditions, viewing geometries, aerosol loading, and optical properties.
Angela Benedetti, Francesca Di Giuseppe, Luke Jones, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Samuel Rémy, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 987–998,
Guy P. Brasseur, Ying Xie, Anna Katinka Petersen, Idir Bouarar, Johannes Flemming, Michael Gauss, Fei Jiang, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Richard Kranenburg, Bas Mijling, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Matthieu Pommier, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Renske Timmermans, Ronald van der A, Stacy Walters, Jianming Xu, and Guangqiang Zhou
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 33–67,Short summary
An operational multi-model forecasting system for air quality provides daily forecasts of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter for 37 urban areas in China. The paper presents an intercomparison of the different forecasts performed during a specific period of time and highlights recurrent differences between the model output. Pathways to improve the forecasts by the multi-model system are suggested.
Mengyao Liu, Jintai Lin, K. Folkert Boersma, Gaia Pinardi, Yang Wang, Julien Chimot, Thomas Wagner, Pinhua Xie, Henk Eskes, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Pucai Wang, Ting Wang, Yingying Yan, Lulu Chen, and Ruijing Ni
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1–21,Short summary
China has become the world’s largest emitter of NOx, which mainly comes from vehicle exhaust, power plants, etc. However, there are no official ground-based measurements before 2013, so satellites have been widely used to monitor and analyze NOx pollution here. Aerosol is the key factor influencing the accuracy of the satellite NOx product. Our study provides a more accurate way to account for aerosol's influence compared to current widely used products.
K. Folkert Boersma, Henk J. Eskes, Andreas Richter, Isabelle De Smedt, Alba Lorente, Steffen Beirle, Jos H. G. M. van Geffen, Marina Zara, Enno Peters, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Ronald J. van der A, Joanne Nightingale, Anne De Rudder, Hitoshi Irie, Gaia Pinardi, Jean-Christopher Lambert, and Steven C. Compernolle
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6651–6678,Short summary
This paper describes a new, improved data record of 22+ years of coherent nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution measurements from different satellite instruments. Our work helps to ensure that climate data are of sufficient quality to draw reliable conclusions and shape decisions. It shows how dedicated intercomparisons of retrieval sub-steps have led to improved NO2 measurements from the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2(A), and OMI sensors, and how quality assurance of the new data product is achieved.
Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Michael J. Prather, Clare M. Flynn, Lee T. Murray, Arlene M. Fiore, Gustavo Correa, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Jonathan Guth, Béatrice Josse, Johannes Flemming, Vincent Huijnen, N. Luke Abraham, and Alex T. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16809–16828,Short summary
Photolysis (J rates) initiates and drives atmospheric chemistry, and Js are perturbed by factors of 2 by clouds. The NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) Mission provides the first comprehensive observations on how clouds perturb Js through the remote Pacific and Atlantic basins. We compare these cloud-perturbation J statistics with those from nine global chemistry models. While basic patterns agree, there is a large spread across models, and all lack some basic features of the observations.
Larisa Sogacheva, Edith Rodriguez, Pekka Kolmonen, Timo H. Virtanen, Giulia Saponaro, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Georgia Alexandri, Konstantinos Kourtidis, and Ronald J. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16631–16652,Short summary
Understanding long-term trends in aerosol optical density (AOD) is essential for evaluating health and climate effects and the effectiveness of pollution control policies. A method to construct a combined AOD long time series (1995-2017) using ATSR and MODIS spaceborne instruments is introduced. The effect of changes in the emission regulation policy in China is seen in a gradual AOD decrease after 2011. The effect is more visible in highly populated and industrialized areas in southeast China.
Dimitris Akritidis, Eleni Katragkou, Prodromos Zanis, Ioannis Pytharoulis, Dimitris Melas, Johannes Flemming, Antje Inness, Hannah Clark, Matthieu Plu, and Henk Eskes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15515–15534,Short summary
Analysis and evaluation of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) global and regional forecast systems during a deep stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone transport event over Europe in January 2017. Radiosondes, satellite images, ozonesondes and aircraft measurements were used to investigate the folding of the tropopause at several European sites and the induced presence of dry and ozone-rich air in the troposphere.
Arlene M. Fiore, Emily V. Fischer, George P. Milly, Shubha Pandey Deolal, Oliver Wild, Daniel A. Jaffe, Johannes Staehelin, Olivia E. Clifton, Dan Bergmann, William Collins, Frank Dentener, Ruth M. Doherty, Bryan N. Duncan, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Peter G. Hess, Larry W. Horowitz, Alexandru Lupu, Ian A. MacKenzie, Rokjin Park, Ludwig Ries, Michael G. Sanderson, Martin G. Schultz, Drew T. Shindell, Martin Steinbacher, David S. Stevenson, Sophie Szopa, Christoph Zellweger, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15345–15361,Short summary
We demonstrate a proof-of-concept approach for applying northern midlatitude mountaintop peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) measurements and a multi-model ensemble during April to constrain the influence of continental-scale anthropogenic precursor emissions on PAN. Our findings imply a role for carefully coordinated multi-model ensembles in helping identify observations for discriminating among widely varying (and poorly constrained) model responses of atmospheric constituents to changes in emissions.
Simon Chabrillat, Corinne Vigouroux, Yves Christophe, Andreas Engel, Quentin Errera, Daniele Minganti, Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Arjo Segers, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14715–14735,Short summary
Mean age of stratospheric air is computed for the period 1989–2015 with a kinematic transport model which uses surface pressure and wind fields from five reanalyses: ERA-I, MERRA-2, MERRA, CFSR, JRA-55. The spread between the resulting datasets is as large as in climate model intercomparisons; the age trends have large disagreement and depend strongly on the considered period. We highlight the need for similar studies using diabatic transport models which also use temperature and heating rates.
Jan Eiof Jonson, Michael Schulz, Louisa Emmons, Johannes Flemming, Daven Henze, Kengo Sudo, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Meiyun Lin, Anna Benedictow, Brigitte Koffi, Frank Dentener, Terry Keating, Rigel Kivi, and Yanko Davila
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13655–13672,Short summary
Focusing on Europe, this HTAP 2 study computes ozone in several global models when reducing anthropogenic emissions by 20 % in different world regions. The differences in model results are explored by use of a novel stepwise approach combining a tracer, CO and ozone. For ozone the contributions from the rest of the world are larger than from Europe, with the largest contributions from North America and eastern Asia. Contributions do, however, depend on the choice of ozone metric.
Harri Kokkola, Thomas Kühn, Anton Laakso, Tommi Bergman, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Tero Mielonen, Antti Arola, Scarlet Stadtler, Hannele Korhonen, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Ulrike Lohmann, David Neubauer, Ina Tegen, Colombe Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Martin G. Schultz, Isabelle Bey, Philip Stier, Nikos Daskalakis, Colette L. Heald, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3833–3863,Short summary
In this paper we present a global aerosol–chemistry–climate model with the focus on its representation for atmospheric aerosol particles. In the model, aerosols are simulated using the aerosol module SALSA2.0, which in this paper is compared to satellite, ground, and aircraft-based observations of the properties of atmospheric aerosol. Based on this study, the model simulated aerosol properties compare well with the observations.
Larisa Sogacheva, Gerrit de Leeuw, Edith Rodriguez, Pekka Kolmonen, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Georgia Alexandri, Konstantinos Kourtidis, Emmanouil Proestakis, Eleni Marinou, Vassilis Amiridis, Yong Xue, and Ronald J. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11389–11407,Short summary
Using AATSR ADV (1995–2011) and MODIS C6.1 (2000–2017) annual and seasonal aerosol optical depth (AOD) aggregates, we obtained information regarding the occurrence of aerosols and their spatial and temporal variation over China. We specifically focused on regional differences in annual and seasonal AOD behavior for selected regions. AOD dataset comparisons, validation results and AOD tendencies during the overlapping period (2000–2011) are discussed.
Scarlet Stadtler, Thomas Kühn, Sabine Schröder, Domenico Taraborrelli, Martin G. Schultz, and Harri Kokkola
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3235–3260,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols interact with our climate system and have adverse health effects. Nevertheless, these particles are a source of uncertainty in climate projections and the formation process of secondary aerosols formed by organic gas-phase precursors is particularly not fully understood. In order to gain a deeper understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation, this model system explicitly represents gas-phase and aerosol formation processes. Finally, this allows for process discussion.
Angela Benedetti, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peter Knippertz, John H. Marsham, Francesca Di Giuseppe, Samuel Rémy, Sara Basart, Olivier Boucher, Ian M. Brooks, Laurent Menut, Lucia Mona, Paolo Laj, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Alexander Baklanov, Malcolm Brooks, Peter R. Colarco, Emilio Cuevas, Arlindo da Silva, Jeronimo Escribano, Johannes Flemming, Nicolas Huneeus, Oriol Jorba, Stelios Kazadzis, Stefan Kinne, Thomas Popp, Patricia K. Quinn, Thomas T. Sekiyama, Taichu Tanaka, and Enric Terradellas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10615–10643,Short summary
Numerical prediction of aerosol particle properties has become an important activity at many research and operational weather centers. This development is due to growing interest from a diverse set of stakeholders, such as air quality regulatory bodies, aviation authorities, solar energy plant managers, climate service providers, and health professionals. This paper describes the advances in the field and sets out requirements for observations for the sustainability of these activities.
Ciao-Kai Liang, J. Jason West, Raquel A. Silva, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Yanko Davila, Frank J. Dentener, Louisa Emmons, Johannes Flemming, Gerd Folberth, Daven Henze, Ulas Im, Jan Eiof Jonson, Terry J. Keating, Tom Kucsera, Allen Lenzen, Meiyun Lin, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Xiaohua Pan, Rokjin J. Park, R. Bradley Pierce, Takashi Sekiya, Kengo Sudo, and Toshihiko Takemura
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10497–10520,Short summary
Emissions from one continent affect air quality and health elsewhere. Here we quantify the effects of intercontinental PM2.5 and ozone transport on human health using a new multi-model ensemble, evaluating the health effects of emissions from six world regions and three emission source sectors. Emissions from one region have significant health impacts outside of that source region; similarly, foreign emissions contribute significantly to air-pollution-related deaths in several world regions.
Marta G. Vivanco, Mark R. Theobald, Héctor García-Gómez, Juan Luis Garrido, Marje Prank, Wenche Aas, Mario Adani, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Camilla Andersson, Roberto Bellasio, Bertrand Bessagnet, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Jørgen Brandt, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Gabriele Curci, Jesper H. Christensen, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Cornelis Cuvelier, Massimo D'Isidoro, Johannes Flemming, Andrea Fraser, Camilla Geels, Kaj M. Hansen, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Oriol Jorba, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Astrid Manders, Mihaela Mircea, Noelia Otero, Maria-Teresa Pay, Luca Pozzoli, Efisio Solazzo, Svetlana Tsyro, Alper Unal, Peter Wind, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10199–10218,Short summary
European wet and dry atmospheric deposition of N and S estimated by 14 air quality models was found to vary substantially. An ensemble of models meeting acceptability criteria was used to estimate the exceedances of the critical loads for N in habitats within the Natura 2000 network, as well as their lower and upper limits. Scenarios with 20 % emission reductions in different regions of the world showed that European emissions are responsible for most of the N and S deposition in Europe.
Marina Zara, K. Folkert Boersma, Isabelle De Smedt, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Jos H. G. M. van Geffen, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Michel Van Roozendael, Sergey Marchenko, Lok N. Lamsal, and Henk J. Eskes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4033–4058,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde satellite data are used for air quality and climate studies. We quantify and characterise slant column uncertainties from different research groups. Our evaluation is motivated by recently improved techniques and by a desire to provide fully traceable uncertainty budget for climate records generated within the QA4ECV project. The improved slant columns are in agreement but with substantial differences in the reported uncertainties between groups and instruments.
Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, Frank J. Dentener, Yanko Davila, Louisa K. Emmons, Johannes Flemming, Gerd A. Folberth, Daven K. Henze, Jan E. Jonson, Terry J. Keating, Sudo Kengo, Meiyun Lin, Marianne Lund, Simone Tilmes, and Fiona M. O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8953–8978,Short summary
A simple parameterisation was developed in this study to provide a rapid assessment of the impacts and uncertainties associated with future emission control strategies by predicting changes to surface ozone air quality and near-term climate forcing of ozone. Future emissions scenarios based on currently implemented legislation are shown to worsen surface ozone air quality and enhance near-term climate warming, with changes in methane becoming increasingly important in the future.
Ulas Im, Jesper Heile Christensen, Camilla Geels, Kaj Mantzius Hansen, Jørgen Brandt, Efisio Solazzo, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocio Baro, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Augustin Colette, Gabriele Curci, Aidan Farrow, Johannes Flemming, Andrea Fraser, Pedro Jimenez-Guerrero, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Peng Liu, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Laura Palacios-Peña, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marje Prank, Rebecca Rose, Ranjeet Sokhi, Paolo Tuccella, Alper Unal, Marta G. Vivanco, Greg Yarwood, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8929–8952,Short summary
We evaluate the impact of global and regional anthropogenic emission reductions on major air pollutant levels over Europe and North America, using a multi-model ensemble of regional chemistry and transport models. Results show that ozone levels are largely driven by long-range transport over both continents while other pollutants such as carbon monoxide or aerosols are mainly controlled by domestic sources. Use of multi-model ensembles can help to reduce the uncertainties in individual models.
Arno Keppens, Jean-Christopher Lambert, José Granville, Daan Hubert, Tijl Verhoelst, Steven Compernolle, Barry Latter, Brian Kerridge, Richard Siddans, Anne Boynard, Juliette Hadji-Lazaro, Cathy Clerbaux, Catherine Wespes, Daniel R. Hurtmans, Pierre-François Coheur, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Ronald J van der A, Katerina Garane, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Dimitris S. Balis, Andy Delcloo, Rigel Kivi, Réné Stübi, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Michel Van Roozendael, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3769–3800,Short summary
This work, performed at the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy and the second in a series of four Ozone_cci papers, reports for the first time on data content studies, information content studies, and comparisons with co-located ground-based reference observations for all 13 nadir ozone profile data products that are part of the Climate Research Data Package (CRDP) on atmospheric ozone of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative.
Stephen Broccardo, Klaus-Peter Heue, David Walter, Christian Meyer, Alexander Kokhanovsky, Ronald van der A, Stuart Piketh, Kristy Langerman, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2797–2819,Short summary
Measurements of nitrogen dioxide, known to originate from industrial and automotive combustion sources, have been made from space for two decades. Successive generations of instrument bring improvements in ground-pixel resolution; however features in the atmosphere are known to be smaller than what the satellites can resolve. Measurements of urban and industrial areas using a high-resolution airborne instrument allow the impact of the satellite's relatively low resolution to be evaluated.
Lisa K. Behrens, Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Henk Eskes, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2769–2795,Short summary
We developed a novel NO2 DOAS retrieval for the GOME-2A instrument in the UV spectral range, which is compared with a NO2 retrieval in the visible and model values. Regions representative for both anthropogenic and biomass burning NO2 pollution are investigated. Anthropogenic air pollution is mostly located in the boundary layer close to the surface. In contrast, biomass burning NO2 is often uplifted into elevated layers.
Martin G. Schultz, Scarlet Stadtler, Sabine Schröder, Domenico Taraborrelli, Bruno Franco, Jonathan Krefting, Alexandra Henrot, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Ulrike Lohmann, David Neubauer, Colombe Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Sebastian Wahl, Harri Kokkola, Thomas Kühn, Sebastian Rast, Hauke Schmidt, Philip Stier, Doug Kinnison, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, John J. Orlando, and Catherine Wespes
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1695–1723,Short summary
The chemistry–climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ contains a detailed representation of tropospheric and stratospheric reactive chemistry and state-of-the-art parameterizations of aerosols. It thus allows for detailed investigations of chemical processes in the climate system. Evaluation of the model with various observational data yields good results, but the model has a tendency to produce too much OH in the tropics. This highlights the important interplay between atmospheric chemistry and dynamics.
Ulas Im, Jørgen Brandt, Camilla Geels, Kaj Mantzius Hansen, Jesper Heile Christensen, Mikael Skou Andersen, Efisio Solazzo, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocio Baro, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Augustin Colette, Gabriele Curci, Aidan Farrow, Johannes Flemming, Andrea Fraser, Pedro Jimenez-Guerrero, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Ciao-Kai Liang, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marje Prank, Rebecca Rose, Ranjeet Sokhi, Paolo Tuccella, Alper Unal, Marta Garcia Vivanco, Jason West, Greg Yarwood, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5967–5989,Short summary
The impacts of air pollution on human health and their costs in Europe and the United States for the year 2010 ared modeled by a multi-model ensemble. In Europe, the number of premature deaths is calculated to be 414 000, while in the US it is estimated to be 160 000. Health impacts estimated by individual models can vary up to a factor of 3. Results show that the domestic emissions have the largest impact on premature deaths, compared to foreign sources.
Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Huan Yu, Thomas Danckaert, Christophe Lerot, Steven Compernolle, Michel Van Roozendael, Andreas Richter, Andreas Hilboll, Enno Peters, Mattia Pedergnana, Diego Loyola, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Henk Eskes, Jos van Geffen, Klaas Folkert Boersma, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2395–2426,Short summary
This paper introduces the formaldehyde (HCHO) tropospheric vertical column retrieval algorithm implemented in the TROPOMI/Sentinel-5 Precursor operational processor, and comprehensively describes its various retrieval steps. Furthermore, algorithmic improvements developed in the framework of the EU FP7-project QA4ECV are described for future updates of the processor. Detailed error estimates are discussed in the light of Copernicus user requirements and needs for validation are highlighted.
Pieternel F. Levelt, Joanna Joiner, Johanna Tamminen, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Pawan K. Bhartia, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Bryan N. Duncan, David G. Streets, Henk Eskes, Ronald van der A, Chris McLinden, Vitali Fioletov, Simon Carn, Jos de Laat, Matthew DeLand, Sergey Marchenko, Richard McPeters, Jerald Ziemke, Dejian Fu, Xiong Liu, Kenneth Pickering, Arnoud Apituley, Gonzalo González Abad, Antti Arola, Folkert Boersma, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Martin de Graaf, Janne Hakkarainen, Seppo Hassinen, Iolanda Ialongo, Quintus Kleipool, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Lok Lamsal, Paul Newman, Caroline Nowlan, Raid Suleiman, Lieuwe Gijsbert Tilstra, Omar Torres, Huiqun Wang, and Krzysztof Wargan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5699–5745,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to highlight the many successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) spanning more than 13 years. Data from OMI have been used in a wide range of applications. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. OMI data continue to be used for new research and applications.
Theano Drosoglou, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Natalia Kouremeti, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Irene Zyrichidou, Dimitris Balis, Ronald J. van der A, Jin Xu, and Ang Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2239–2255,Short summary
A diurnal pattern of tropospheric NO2 with two maxima around late morning and late afternoon is revealed, reflecting high anthropogenic emissions, and a minimum at noon, due to photochemical destruction of tropospheric NO2. GOME-2B shows the smallest underestimation despite its large pixel size. The distance between the measurement location and the satellite pixel center affects mostly GOME-2B data selection. The effect of clouds is more profound on the selection of OMI overpass data.
Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Nicolas Theys, Jieying Ding, Irene Zyrichidou, Bas Mijling, Dimitrios Balis, and Ronald Johannes van der A
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1817–1832,Short summary
Within the framework of the EU FP7 project MarcoPolo (Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations), a new SO2 emission inventory over China was calculated using the CHIMERE CTM simulations, 10 years of OMI/Aura total SO2 columns and the bottom-up Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC v1.2).
Fei Liu, Ronald J. van der A, Henk Eskes, Jieying Ding, and Bas Mijling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4171–4186,Short summary
We used ground measurements from the recently developed air quality monitoring network in China to validate modeling surface NO2 concentrations from the regional chemical transport model (CTM). The CTM simulations driven by satellite-derived and bottom-up inventories show negative and positive differences against the ground measurements, respectively. Our study suggests an improvement of the distribution of emissions between urban and rural areas in the satellite-derived inventory.
Christian Hogrefe, Peng Liu, George Pouliot, Rohit Mathur, Shawn Roselle, Johannes Flemming, Meiyun Lin, and Rokjin J. Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3839–3864,Short summary
This study quantifies the impacts of different representations of background ozone in state-of-the-science large-scale models on surface and aloft ozone burdens simulated by the CMAQ regional model over the United States. It also compares both the CMAQ simulations and the driving large-scale models to surface and upper air observations.
Scarlet Stadtler, David Simpson, Sabine Schröder, Domenico Taraborrelli, Andreas Bott, and Martin Schultz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3147–3171,
Thomas Rößler, Olaf Stein, Yi Heng, Paul Baumeister, and Lars Hoffmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 575–592,Short summary
In this study, we performed an assessment of truncation errors and computational efficiency of trajectory calculations using six popular numerical integration schemes of the Runge–Kutta family. More than 5000 transport simulations for different seasons and regions of the free troposphere and stratosphere were conducted, driven by the latest version of ECMWF operational analyses and forecasts. The study provides guidelines to achieve the most accurate and efficient trajectory calculations.
Jacob C. A. van Peet, Ronald J. van der A, Hennie M. Kelder, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1685–1704,Short summary
Ozone profiles measured by two satellite instruments (GOME-2A and OMI) have been combined with a chemical transport model using data assimilation. The results give a better insight into the global spatial and temporal ozone distribution than either measurement or model results alone. Validation with independent measurements shows biases varying between -5 % and +10 % between the surface and 100 hPa, while between 100 and 10 hPa the biases vary between -3 % and +3 %.
Gerrit de Leeuw, Larisa Sogacheva, Edith Rodriguez, Konstantinos Kourtidis, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Georgia Alexandri, Vassilis Amiridis, Emmanouil Proestakis, Eleni Marinou, Yong Xue, and Ronald van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1573–1592,Short summary
The complementary use of two sensors, ATSR and MODIS, to provide aerosol information over two decades (1995–2015) is described. To this end, the AOD retrieved from both instruments had to be compared, showing that ATSR slightly underestimates and MODIS overestimates by a similar amount. Results show the increase of aerosols over the years, with an indication of the onset of a decrease in recent years. The AOD spatial distribution shows seasonal variations across China.
Emmanouil Proestakis, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Stavros Solomos, Stelios Kazadzis, Julien Chimot, Huizheng Che, Georgia Alexandri, Ioannis Binietoglou, Vasiliki Daskalopoulou, Konstantinos A. Kourtidis, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Ronald J. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1337–1362,Short summary
We provide a 3-D climatology of desert dust aerosols over South and East Asia, based on 9 years of CALIPSO observations and an EARLINET methodology. The results provide the horizontal, vertical and seasonal distribution of dust aerosols over SE Asia along with the change in dust transport pathways. The dataset is unique for its potential applications, including evaluation and assimilation activities in atmospheric simulations and the estimation of the climatic impact of dust aerosols.
Astrid M. M. Manders, Peter J. H. Builtjes, Lyana Curier, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Carlijn Hendriks, Sander Jonkers, Richard Kranenburg, Jeroen J. P. Kuenen, Arjo J. Segers, Renske M. A. Timmermans, Antoon J. H. Visschedijk, Roy J. Wichink Kruit, W. Addo J. van Pul, Ferd J. Sauter, Eric van der Swaluw, Daan P. J. Swart, John Douros, Henk Eskes, Erik van Meijgaard, Bert van Ulft, Peter van Velthoven, Sabine Banzhaf, Andrea C. Mues, Rainer Stern, Guangliang Fu, Sha Lu, Arnold Heemink, Nils van Velzen, and Martijn Schaap
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4145–4173,Short summary
The regional-scale air quality model LOTOS–EUROS has been developed by a consortium of Dutch institutes. Recently, version 2.0 of the model was released as an open-source version. Next to a technical description and model evaluation for 2012, this paper presents the model developments in context of the history of air quality modelling and provides an outlook for future directions. Key and innovative applications of LOTOS–EUROS are also highlighted.
Florian Berkes, Patrick Neis, Martin G. Schultz, Ulrich Bundke, Susanne Rohs, Herman G. J. Smit, Andreas Wahner, Paul Konopka, Damien Boulanger, Philippe Nédélec, Valerie Thouret, and Andreas Petzold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12495–12508,Short summary
This study highlights the importance of independent global measurements with high and long-term accuracy to quantify long-term changes, especially in the UTLS region, and to help identify inconsistencies between different data sets of observations and models. Here we investigated temperature trends over different regions within a climate-sensitive area of the atmosphere and demonstrated the value of the IAGOS temperature observations as an anchor point for the evaluation of reanalyses.
Jieying Ding, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Ronald Johannes van der A, Bas Mijling, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, SeogYeon Cho, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Qiang Zhang, Fei Liu, and Pieternel Felicitas Levelt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10125–10141,Short summary
To evaluate the quality of the satellite-derived NOx emissions, we compare nine emission inventories of nitrogen oxides including four satellite-derived NOx inventories and bottom-up inventories for East Asia. The temporal and spatial distribution of NOx emissions over East Asia are evaluated. We analyse the differences in satellite-derived emissions from two different inversion methods. The paper ends with recommendations for future improvements of emission estimates.
Fei Liu, Steffen Beirle, Qiang Zhang, Ronald J. van der A, Bo Zheng, Dan Tong, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9261–9275,Short summary
We assess NOx emission trends over Chinese cities based on satellite NO2 observations using a method independent of chemical transport models. NOx emissions over 48 Chinese cities have decreased significantly since 2011. Cities with different dominant emission sources (i.e. power, industrial, and transportation sectors) showed variable emission decline timelines that corresponded to the schedules for emission control in different sectors.
Lars Hoffmann, Albert Hertzog, Thomas Rößler, Olaf Stein, and Xue Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8045–8061,Short summary
We present an intercomparison of temperatures and horizontal winds of five meteorological data sets (ECMWF operational analysis, ERA-Interim, MERRA, MERRA-2, and NCEP/NCAR) in the Antarctic lower stratosphere. The assessment is based on 19 superpressure balloon flights during the Concordiasi field campaign in September 2010 to January 2011. The balloon data are used to successfully validate trajectory calculations with the new Lagrangian particle dispersion model MPTRAC.
Melina-Maria Zempila, Jos H. G. M. van Geffen, Michael Taylor, Ilias Fountoulakis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Michiel van Weele, Ronald J. van der A, Alkiviadis Bais, Charikleia Meleti, and Dimitrios Balis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7157–7174,Short summary
NILU irradiances at five UV channels were used to produce CIE, vitamin D, and DNA- damage daily doses via a neural network (NN) model. The NN was trained with collocated weighted Brewer spectra and uncertainty in the NILU-derived UV effective doses was 7.5 %. TEMIS UV products were found to be ~ 12.5 % higher than the NILU estimates. The results improve for cloud-free days with differences of 0.57 % for CIE, 1.22 % for vitamin D, and 1.18 % for DNA damage, with standard deviations of ~ 11–13 %.
Min Huang, Gregory R. Carmichael, R. Bradley Pierce, Duseong S. Jo, Rokjin J. Park, Johannes Flemming, Louisa K. Emmons, Kevin W. Bowman, Daven K. Henze, Yanko Davila, Kengo Sudo, Jan Eiof Jonson, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Frank J. Dentener, Terry J. Keating, Hilke Oetjen, and Vivienne H. Payne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5721–5750,Short summary
In support of the HTAP phase 2 experiment, we conducted a number of regional-scale Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model base and sensitivity simulations over North America during May–June 2010. The STEM chemical boundary conditions were downscaled from three (GEOS-Chem, RAQMS, and ECMWF C-IFS) global chemical transport models' simulations. Analyses were performed on large spatial–temporal scales relative to HTAP1 and also on subcontinental and event scales including the use of satellite data.
Jieying Ding, Ronald Johannes van der A, Bas Mijling, and Pieternel Felicitas Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 925–938,Short summary
We improve the DECSO algorithm for NOx emission estimates from satellite observations, especially over remote regions. The accuracy is about 20 percent for monthly NOx emissions with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees. We are able to distinguish ship emissions below the outflow of NO2 from the mainland of China.
Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Andrew Orr, M. Joan Alexander, Laura A. Holt, and Olaf Stein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2901–2920,Short summary
We introduce a 10-year record (2003–2012) of AIRS/Aqua observations of gravity waves in the polar lower stratosphere. The data set was optimized to study the impact of gravity waves on the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). We discuss the temporal and spatial patterns of gravity wave activity, validate explicitly resolved small-scale temperature fluctuations in the ECMWF data, and present a survey of gravity-wave-induced PSC formation events using joint AIRS and MIPAS observations.
Alexandra-Jane Henrot, Tanja Stanelle, Sabine Schröder, Colombe Siegenthaler, Domenico Taraborrelli, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 903–926,Short summary
This paper describes the basic results of the biogenic emission scheme, based on MEGAN, integrated into the ECHAM6-HAMMOZ chemistry climate model. Sensitivity to vegetation and climate-dependent parameters is also analysed. This version of the model is now suitable for many tropospheric investigations concerning the impact of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions on the ozone budget, secondary aerosol formation, and atmospheric chemistry.
Johannes Flemming, Angela Benedetti, Antje Inness, Richard J. Engelen, Luke Jones, Vincent Huijnen, Samuel Remy, Mark Parrington, Martin Suttie, Alessio Bozzo, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Dimitris Akritidis, and Eleni Katragkou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1945–1983,Short summary
We combine satellite observations of carbon monoxide, ozone and aerosols with the results from a model using a technique called data assimilation. The generated global data set (CAMS interim reanalysis) covers the period 2003–2015 at a resolution of about 110 km. The CAMS interim reanalysis can be used to study global air pollution and climate forcing of aerosol and stratospheric ozone. It has been produced by the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (http://atmosphere. copernicus.eu).
Ronald J. van der A, Bas Mijling, Jieying Ding, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Fei Liu, Qing Li, Huiqin Mao, and Nicolas Theys
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1775–1789,Short summary
The SO2 concentrations and NOx emissions over China derived from satellite observations are compared with the national fossil fuel consumption and air quality regulations. It is shown that not only NO2 concentrations but also NOx emissions in all Chinese provinces decreased in the last 2 years. We conclude that without the air quality regulations the SO2 concentrations would be about 2.5 times higher and the NO2 concentrations would be at least 25 % higher than they are today in China.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Jonathon S. Wright, Gloria L. Manney, Lesley J. Gray, James Anstey, Thomas Birner, Sean Davis, Edwin P. Gerber, V. Lynn Harvey, Michaela I. Hegglin, Cameron R. Homeyer, John A. Knox, Kirstin Krüger, Alyn Lambert, Craig S. Long, Patrick Martineau, Andrea Molod, Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Michelle L. Santee, Susann Tegtmeier, Simon Chabrillat, David G. H. Tan, David R. Jackson, Saroja Polavarapu, Gilbert P. Compo, Rossana Dragani, Wesley Ebisuzaki, Yayoi Harada, Chiaki Kobayashi, Will McCarty, Kazutoshi Onogi, Steven Pawson, Adrian Simmons, Krzysztof Wargan, Jeffrey S. Whitaker, and Cheng-Zhi Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1417–1452,Short summary
We introduce the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP), review key concepts and elements of atmospheric reanalysis systems, and summarize the technical details of and differences among 11 of these systems. This work supports scientific studies and intercomparisons of reanalysis products by collecting these background materials and technical details into a single reference. We also address several common misunderstandings and points of confusion regarding reanalyses.
Rachid Abida, Jean-Luc Attié, Laaziz El Amraoui, Philippe Ricaud, William Lahoz, Henk Eskes, Arjo Segers, Lyana Curier, Johan de Haan, Jukka Kujanpää, Albert Oude Nijhuis, Johanna Tamminen, Renske Timmermans, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1081–1103,Short summary
A detailed Observing System Simulation Experiment is performed to quantify the impact of future satellite instrument S-5P carbon monoxide (CO) on tropospheric analyses and forecasts. We focus on Europe for the period of northern summer 2003, when there was a severe heat wave episode. S-5P is able to capture the CO from forest fires that occurred in Portugal. Furthermore, our results provide evidence of S-5P CO benefits for monitoring processes contributing to atmospheric pollution.
Christos S. Zerefos, Kostas Eleftheratos, John Kapsomenakis, Stavros Solomos, Antje Inness, Dimitris Balis, Alberto Redondas, Henk Eskes, Marc Allaart, Vassilis Amiridis, Arne Dahlback, Veerle De Bock, Henri Diémoz, Ronny Engelmann, Paul Eriksen, Vitali Fioletov, Julian Gröbner, Anu Heikkilä, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Janusz Jarosławski, Weine Josefsson, Tomi Karppinen, Ulf Köhler, Charoula Meleti, Christos Repapis, John Rimmer, Vladimir Savinykh, Vadim Shirotov, Anna Maria Siani, Andrew R. D. Smedley, Martin Stanek, and René Stübi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 551–574,Short summary
The paper makes a convincing case that the Brewer network is capable of detecting enhanced SO2 columns, as observed, e.g., after volcanic eruptions. For this reason, large volcanic eruptions of the past decade have been used to detect and forecast SO2 plumes of volcanic origin using the Brewer and other ground-based networks, aided by satellite, trajectory analysis calculations and modelling.
Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ulas Im, Efisio Solazzo, Roberto Bianconi, Alba Badia, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocío Baró, Roberto Bellasio, Dominik Brunner, Charles Chemel, Gabriele Curci, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Johannes Flemming, Renate Forkel, Lea Giordano, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Marcus Hirtl, Oriol Jorba, Astrid Manders-Groot, Lucy Neal, Juan L. Pérez, Guidio Pirovano, Roberto San Jose, Nicholas Savage, Wolfram Schroder, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Dimiter Syrakov, Paolo Tuccella, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15629–15652,Short summary
Four ensemble methods are applied to two annual AQMEII datasets and their performance is compared for O3, NO2 and PM10. The goal of the study is to quantify to what extent we can extract predictable signals from an ensemble with superior skill at each station over the single models and the ensemble mean. The promotion of the right amount of accuracy and diversity within the ensemble results in an average additional skill of up to 31 % compared to using the full ensemble in an unconditional way.
Quentin Errera, Simone Ceccherini, Yves Christophe, Simon Chabrillat, Michaela I. Hegglin, Alyn Lambert, Richard Ménard, Piera Raspollini, Sergey Skachko, Michiel van Weele, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5895–5909,Short summary
When this study started, its goal was to provide a reanalysis of the stratospheric composition of methane and nitrous oxide, two important sources of hydrogen and nitrogen species in the stratosphere that influence the ozone abundance. However, the goal changed when several issues in the assimilated observations were discovered. Finally, this study illustrates how data assimilation methods can be used to add value to the observations as well as to diagnose their limitations.
Vincent Huijnen, Johannes Flemming, Simon Chabrillat, Quentin Errera, Yves Christophe, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Andreas Richter, and Henk Eskes
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3071–3091,Short summary
We present a model description and benchmark evaluation of an extension of the tropospheric chemistry module in the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) with stratospheric chemistry. The stratospheric chemistry originates from the one used in the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvations (BASCOE), and is here combined with the modified CB05 chemistry module for the troposphere as currently used operationally in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS).
Cristen Adams, Elise N. Normand, Chris A. McLinden, Adam E. Bourassa, Nicholas D. Lloyd, Douglas A. Degenstein, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Maria Belmonte Rivas, K. Folkert Boersma, and Henk Eskes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4103–4122,Short summary
A new "OMI-minus-OSIRIS" (OmO) prototype dataset for tropospheric NO2 was created by combining information from the OMI satellite instrument, which is sensitive to NO2 in both the troposphere and stratosphere, with information from the OSIRIS satellite instrument, which measures NO2 in the stratosphere. This paper demonstrates that this approach is feasible and could be applied to future geostationary missions.
Sergey Skachko, Richard Ménard, Quentin Errera, Yves Christophe, and Simon Chabrillat
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2893–2908,Short summary
In the present work, we performed a comparison of two broadly used data assimilation algorithms, 4D-Var and EnKF, applied to a state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry transport model. The comparison is carried out using carefully calibrated error statistics. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each method applied to real-life conditions of a numerical atmospheric chemistry data assimilation.
Olga Lyapina, Martin G. Schultz, and Andreas Hense
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6863–6881,Short summary
This study applies numerical clustering for the classification of about 1500 ozone data sets in Europe. We show the usefulness of cluster analysis (CA) for the quantitative evaluation of a global model: pre-selection of stations and validation of a global model in a phase-space produce clearer and more interpretable results. CA can be easily updated for new stations, different length of data, and other type of input properties, as well as other type of data (for example, meteorological).
Dimitris Balis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Nikolaos Siomos, Spyridon Dimopoulos, Lucia Mona, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Franco Marenco, Lieven Clarisse, Lucy J. Ventress, Elisa Carboni, Roy G. Grainger, Ping Wang, Gijsbert Tilstra, Ronald van der A, Nicolas Theys, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5705–5720,Short summary
The ESA-funded SACS-2 and SMASH projects developed and improved dedicated satellite-derived ash plume and sulfur dioxide level assessments. These estimates were validated using ground-based and aircraft lidar measurements. The validation results are promising for most satellite products and are within the estimated uncertainties of each of the comparative data sets. The IASI data show a better consistency concerning the ash optical depth and ash layer height.
Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Marina Zara, Christophe Lerot, Konstantinos Fragkos, Dimitris Balis, Michel van Roozendael, Marcus Antonius Franciscus Allart, and Ronald Johannes van der A
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2055–2065,Short summary
The main aim of the paper is to demonstrate an approach for the post-processing of the Dobson spectrophotometers' total ozone columns (TOCs) in order to compensate for their known stratospheric effective temperature dependency and its resulting effect on the usage of the Dobson TOCs for satellite TOCs' validation.
Yi Heng, Lars Hoffmann, Sabine Griessbach, Thomas Rößler, and Olaf Stein
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1627–1645,Short summary
A new inverse modeling and simulation system is developed to enable efficient and reliable transport simulations of volcanic SO2 at large scale. The complex time- and altitude-dependent volcanic emission pattern of the Nabro eruption is identified by our inversion algorithm. The simulation results show good agreements with different satellite observations in terms of SO2 horizontal distributions, and help to further reveal the complex transport processes such as the Asian monsoon circulation.
K. F. Boersma, G. C. M. Vinken, and H. J. Eskes
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 875–898,Short summary
Satellite measurements of pollutants and greenhouse gases are useful to test and improve atmospheric models. But this requires that modellers account for the spatial and temporal representativeness and the vertical sensitivity of the satellite measurements. This paper provides guidelines on how to carry out a faithful model-satellite comparison for species such as nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and formaldehyde that play a key role in air pollution studies.
Franco Marenco, Ben Johnson, Justin M. Langridge, Jane Mulcahy, Angela Benedetti, Samuel Remy, Luke Jones, Kate Szpek, Jim Haywood, Karla Longo, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2155–2174,Short summary
A widespread and persistent smoke layer was observed in the Amazon region during the biomass burning season, spanning a distance of 2200 km and a period of 14 days. The larger smoke content was typically found in elevated layers, from 1–1.5 km to 4–6 km. Measurements have been compared to model predictions, and the latter were able to reproduce the general features of the smoke layer, but with some differences which are analysed and described in the paper.
A. Wagner, A.-M. Blechschmidt, I. Bouarar, E.-G. Brunke, C. Clerbaux, M. Cupeiro, P. Cristofanelli, H. Eskes, J. Flemming, H. Flentje, M. George, S. Gilge, A. Hilboll, A. Inness, J. Kapsomenakis, A. Richter, L. Ries, W. Spangl, O. Stein, R. Weller, and C. Zerefos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 14005–14030,Short summary
The Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project (MACC) operationally produces global analyses and forecasts of reactive gases and aerosol fields. We have investigated the ability of the model to simulate concentrations of reactive gases (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone) between 2009 and 2012. The model reproduced reactive gas concentrations with consistent quality, however, with a seasonally dependent bias compared to surface and satellite observations.
M. Belmonte Rivas, P. Veefkind, H. Eskes, and P. Levelt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13519–13553,
G. Roberts, M. J. Wooster, W. Xu, P. H. Freeborn, J.-J. Morcrette, L. Jones, A. Benedetti, H. Jiangping, D. Fisher, and J. W. Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13241–13267,Short summary
Characterising the dynamics of wildfires at high temporal resolution is best achieved using observations from geostationary satellite sensors. The SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products have been developed using such imagery at up to 15-minute temporal frequency. These data are used to estimate wildfire fuel consumption and to the characterise smoke emissions from the 2007 Peloponnese "mega fires" within an atmospheric transport model.
S. Rémy, A. Benedetti, A. Bozzo, T. Haiden, L. Jones, M. Razinger, J. Flemming, R. J. Engelen, V. H. Peuch, and J. N. Thepaut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12909–12933,Short summary
In this paper we report on the feedbacks between dust and boundary layer meteorology during a dust storm over Egypt and Libya in April 2012, using an atmospheric composition forecasting system. Dust was found to act on atmospheric stability, leading to an increase (night) or a decrease (day) in dust production. Horizontal gradients of temperature were modified by the radiative impact of the dust layer, leading to changes in wind patterns at the edge of the storm due to the thermal wind effect.
H. Eskes, V. Huijnen, A. Arola, A. Benedictow, A.-M. Blechschmidt, E. Botek, O. Boucher, I. Bouarar, S. Chabrillat, E. Cuevas, R. Engelen, H. Flentje, A. Gaudel, J. Griesfeller, L. Jones, J. Kapsomenakis, E. Katragkou, S. Kinne, B. Langerock, M. Razinger, A. Richter, M. Schultz, M. Schulz, N. Sudarchikova, V. Thouret, M. Vrekoussis, A. Wagner, and C. Zerefos
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3523–3543,Short summary
The MACC project is preparing the operational atmosphere service of the European Copernicus Programme, and uses data assimilation to combine atmospheric models with available observations. Our paper provides an overview of the aerosol and trace gas validation activity of MACC. Topics are the validation requirements, the measurement data, the assimilation systems, the upgrade procedure, operational aspects and the scoring methods. A summary is provided of recent results, including special events.
S. Fadnavis, K. Semeniuk, M. G. Schultz, M. Kiefer, A. Mahajan, L. Pozzoli, and S. Sonbawane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11477–11499,Short summary
The model and MIPAS satellite data show that there are three regions which contribute substantial pollution to the south Asian UTLS: the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), the North American monsoon (NAM) and the West African monsoon (WAM). However, penetration due to ASM convection reaches deeper into the UTLS compared to NAM and WAM outflow. Simulations show that westerly winds drive North American and European pollutants eastward where they can become part of the ASM and lifted to LS.
M. George, C. Clerbaux, I. Bouarar, P.-F. Coheur, M. N. Deeter, D. P. Edwards, G. Francis, J. C. Gille, J. Hadji-Lazaro, D. Hurtmans, A. Inness, D. Mao, and H. M. Worden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4313–4328,
M. Coldewey-Egbers, D. G. Loyola, M. Koukouli, D. Balis, J.-C. Lambert, T. Verhoelst, J. Granville, M. van Roozendael, C. Lerot, R. Spurr, S. M. Frith, and C. Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3923–3940,
J. Ding, R. J. van der A, B. Mijling, P. F. Levelt, and N. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9399–9412,Short summary
We derived the NOx emissions from the OMI satellite observations. We find a NOx emission reduction of at least 25% during the Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing in 2014. The emission estimate algorithm has detected an emission reduction of 10% during the Chinese Spring Festival. This paper also shows that the observed concentrations and the derived emissions from space have different patterns that provide complimentary information.
A. Inness, A. Benedetti, J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, J. W. Kaiser, M. Parrington, and S. Remy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9083–9097,
E. Katragkou, P. Zanis, A. Tsikerdekis, J. Kapsomenakis, D. Melas, H. Eskes, J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, A. Inness, M. G. Schultz, O. Stein, and C. S. Zerefos
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2299–2314,Short summary
This work is an extended evaluation of near-surface ozone as part of the global reanalysis of atmospheric composition, produced within the European-funded project MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate). It includes an evaluation over the period 2003-2012 and provides an overall assessment of the modelling system performance with respect to near surface ozone for specific European subregions.
R. J. van der A, M. A. F. Allaart, and H. J. Eskes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3021–3035,Short summary
The ozone multi-sensor reanalysis (MSR2) is a multi-decadal ozone column analysis for the period 1970-2012 based on all available ozone column satellite datasets, surface Brewer-Dobson observations and a data assimilation technique with detailed error modelling. The latest total ozone retrievals of 15 different satellite instruments are used: BUV-Nimbus4, TOMS-Nimbus7, TOMS-EP, SBUV-7, -9, -11, -14, -16, -17, -18, -19, GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2.
K. Miyazaki, H. J. Eskes, and K. Sudo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8315–8348,Short summary
This paper reports on an 8-year reanalysis of tropospheric chemistry based on an assimilation of multiple satellite-derived data sets. The reanalysis performed well on regional and global scales and for seasonal and interannual variations. The simultaneous assimilation of multiple-species data, involving the optimisation of both concentration and emission fields, provides unique information on year-to-year variations in the atmospheric environment.
L. K. Emmons, S. R. Arnold, S. A. Monks, V. Huijnen, S. Tilmes, K. S. Law, J. L. Thomas, J.-C. Raut, I. Bouarar, S. Turquety, Y. Long, B. Duncan, S. Steenrod, S. Strode, J. Flemming, J. Mao, J. Langner, A. M. Thompson, D. Tarasick, E. C. Apel, D. R. Blake, R. C. Cohen, J. Dibb, G. S. Diskin, A. Fried, S. R. Hall, L. G. Huey, A. J. Weinheimer, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, J. Nowak, J. Peischl, J. M. Roberts, T. Ryerson, C. Warneke, and D. Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6721–6744,Short summary
Eleven 3-D tropospheric chemistry models have been compared and evaluated with observations in the Arctic during the International Polar Year (IPY 2008). Large differences are seen among the models, particularly related to the model chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and reactive nitrogen (NOx, PAN, HNO3) partitioning. Consistency among the models in the underestimation of CO, ethane and propane indicates the emission inventory is too low for these compounds.
S. R. Arnold, L. K. Emmons, S. A. Monks, K. S. Law, D. A. Ridley, S. Turquety, S. Tilmes, J. L. Thomas, I. Bouarar, J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, J. Mao, B. N. Duncan, S. Steenrod, Y. Yoshida, J. Langner, and Y. Long
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6047–6068,Short summary
The extent to which forest fires produce the air pollutant and greenhouse gas ozone (O3) in the atmosphere at high latitudes in not well understood. We have compared how fire emissions produce O3 and its precursors in several models of atmospheric chemistry. We find enhancements in O3 in air dominated by fires in all models, which increase on average as fire emissions age. We also find that in situ O3 production in the Arctic is sensitive to details of organic chemistry and vertical lifting.
A. Keppens, J.-C. Lambert, J. Granville, G. Miles, R. Siddans, J. C. A. van Peet, R. J. van der A, D. Hubert, T. Verhoelst, A. Delcloo, S. Godin-Beekmann, R. Kivi, R. Stübi, and C. Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2093–2120,Short summary
This work thoroughly discusses a methodology, as summarized in a flowchart, for the round-robin evaluation and geophysical validation of nadir ozone profile retrievals and applies the proposed best practice to a pair of optimal-estimation algorithms run on exactly the same level-1 radiance measurements. The quality assessment combines data set content studies, information content studies, and comparisons with ground-based reference measurements.
M. Bocquet, H. Elbern, H. Eskes, M. Hirtl, R. Žabkar, G. R. Carmichael, J. Flemming, A. Inness, M. Pagowski, J. L. Pérez Camaño, P. E. Saide, R. San Jose, M. Sofiev, J. Vira, A. Baklanov, C. Carnevale, G. Grell, and C. Seigneur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5325–5358,Short summary
Data assimilation is used in atmospheric chemistry models to improve air quality forecasts, construct re-analyses of concentrations, and perform inverse modeling. Coupled chemistry meteorology models (CCMM) are atmospheric chemistry models that simulate meteorological processes and chemical transformations jointly. We review here the current status of data assimilation in atmospheric chemistry models, with a particular focus on future prospects for data assimilation in CCMM.
A. Inness, A.-M. Blechschmidt, I. Bouarar, S. Chabrillat, M. Crepulja, R. J. Engelen, H. Eskes, J. Flemming, A. Gaudel, F. Hendrick, V. Huijnen, L. Jones, J. Kapsomenakis, E. Katragkou, A. Keppens, B. Langerock, M. de Mazière, D. Melas, M. Parrington, V. H. Peuch, M. Razinger, A. Richter, M. G. Schultz, M. Suttie, V. Thouret, M. Vrekoussis, A. Wagner, and C. Zerefos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5275–5303,Short summary
The paper presents results from data assimilation studies with the new Composition-IFS model developed in the MACC project. This system was used in MACC to produce daily analyses and 5-day forecasts of atmospheric composition and is now run daily in the EU’s Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service. The paper looks at the quality of the CO, O3 and NO2 analysis fields obtained with this system, comparing them against observations, a control run and an older version of the model.
J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, J. Arteta, P. Bechtold, A. Beljaars, A.-M. Blechschmidt, M. Diamantakis, R. J. Engelen, A. Gaudel, A. Inness, L. Jones, B. Josse, E. Katragkou, V. Marecal, V.-H. Peuch, A. Richter, M. G. Schultz, O. Stein, and A. Tsikerdekis
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 975–1003,Short summary
We describe modules for atmospheric chemistry, wet and dry deposition and lightning NO production, which have been newly introduced in ECMWF's weather forecasting model. With that model, we want to forecast global air pollution as part of the European Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service. We show that the new model results compare as well or better with in situ and satellite observations of ozone, CO, NO2, SO2 and formaldehyde as the previous model.
S. A. Monks, S. R. Arnold, L. K. Emmons, K. S. Law, S. Turquety, B. N. Duncan, J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, S. Tilmes, J. Langner, J. Mao, Y. Long, J. L. Thomas, S. D. Steenrod, J. C. Raut, C. Wilson, M. P. Chipperfield, G. S. Diskin, A. Weinheimer, H. Schlager, and G. Ancellet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3575–3603,Short summary
Multi-model simulations of Arctic CO, O3 and OH are evaluated using observations. Models show highly variable concentrations but the relative importance of emission regions and types is robust across the models, demonstrating the importance of biomass burning as a source. Idealised tracer experiments suggest that some of the model spread is due to variations in simulated transport from Europe in winter and from Asia throughout the year.
R. Paugam, M. Wooster, J. Atherton, S. R. Freitas, M. G. Schultz, and J. W. Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The transport of Biomass Burning emissions in Chemical Transport Model rely on parametrization of plumes injection height. Using fire observation selected to ensure match-up of fire-atmosphere-plume dynamics; a popular plume rise model was improved and optimized. The resulting model shows response to the effect of atmospheric stability consistent with previous findings and is able to predict higher injection height than any other tested parametrizations, giving a closer match with observation.
B. Langerock, M. De Mazière, F. Hendrick, C. Vigouroux, F. Desmet, B. Dils, and S. Niemeijer
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 911–921,
C. Vigouroux, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, Q. Errera, O. García, N. B. Jones, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, B. Liley, E. Mahieu, J. Mellqvist, J. Notholt, M. Palm, G. Persson, M. Schneider, C. Servais, D. Smale, L. Thölix, and M. De Mazière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2915–2933,
P. Schneider, W. A. Lahoz, and R. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1205–1220,Short summary
We use a homogeneous 10-year record of satellite data to study recent trends in NO2 over the world's major urban agglomerations. The results indicate distinct spatial patterns in trends, with moderate but consistent reductions in NO2 throughout most developed countries and rapid increases of up to 15 % per year over many sites in Asia, Africa, and South America. We also show links between urban NO2 trends and economic as well as demographic factors, and how the latter drive regional differences.
A. T. J. de Laat, R. J. van der A, and M. van Weele
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 79–97,Short summary
Recent research suggests the Antarctic ozone hole has started to shrink due to decreasing ozone-depleting substances. Because it could be questioned how robust these results are, we provide an assessment of uncertainties in both the underlying ozone observational records and the detection-attribution method. Although Antarctic ozone concentrations are definitely increasing slowly, the formal identification of recovery is not yet justified, although this will likely become possible this decade.
A. Schanz, K. Hocke, N. Kämpfer, S. Chabrillat, A. Inness, M. Palm, J. Notholt, I. Boyd, A. Parrish, and Y. Kasai
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The manuscript describes novel findings in the diurnal variation of stratospheric ozone by means of the MACC reanalysis, the ERA-Interim reanalysis and the WACCM model. The diurnal variation in ozone has dynamical and photochemical origins which lead to substantial amplitudes especially in the polar, stratospheric regions. The unprecedented, global view on diurnal ozone variation strengthens the implication to correct diurnally sampled satellite observations used for ozone trend estimates.
S. Fadnavis, M. G. Schultz, K. Semeniuk, A. S. Mahajan, L. Pozzoli, S. Sonbawne, S. D. Ghude, M. Kiefer, and E. Eckert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12725–12743,Short summary
The Asian summer monsoon transports pollutants from local emission sources to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The increasing trend of these pollutants may have climatic impact. This study addresses the impact of convectively lifted Indian and Chinese emissions on the ULTS. Sensitivity experiments with emission changes in particular regions show that Chinese emissions have a greater impact on the concentrations of NOY species than Indian emissions.
A. T. J. de Laat, I. Aben, M. Deeter, P. Nédélec, H. Eskes, J.-L. Attié, P. Ricaud, R. Abida, L. El Amraoui, and J. Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3783–3799,
A. Agustí-Panareda, S. Massart, F. Chevallier, S. Boussetta, G. Balsamo, A. Beljaars, P. Ciais, N. M. Deutscher, R. Engelen, L. Jones, R. Kivi, J.-D. Paris, V.-H. Peuch, V. Sherlock, A. T. Vermeulen, P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11959–11983,Short summary
This paper presents a new operational CO2 forecast product as part of the Copernicus Atmospheric Services suite of atmospheric composition products, using the state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction model from the European Centre of Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The evaluation with independent observations shows that the forecast has skill in predicting the synoptic variability of CO2. The online simulation of CO2 fluxes from vegetation contributes to this skill.
N. Hao, M. E. Koukouli, A. Inness, P. Valks, D. G. Loyola, W. Zimmer, D. S. Balis, I. Zyrichidou, M. Van Roozendael, C. Lerot, and R. J. D. Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2937–2951,
O. Stein, M. G. Schultz, I. Bouarar, H. Clark, V. Huijnen, A. Gaudel, M. George, and C. Clerbaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9295–9316,
J. S. Knibbe, R. J. van der A, and A. T. J. de Laat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8461–8482,
S. Fadnavis, K. Semeniuk, M. G. Schultz, A. Mahajan, L. Pozzoli, S. Sonbawane, and M. Kiefer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
M. Belmonte Rivas, P. Veefkind, F. Boersma, P. Levelt, H. Eskes, and J. Gille
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2203–2225,
S. Skachko, Q. Errera, R. Ménard, Y. Christophe, and S. Chabrillat
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1451–1465,
M. Diamantakis and J. Flemming
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 965–979,
B. Hassler, I. Petropavlovskikh, J. Staehelin, T. August, P. K. Bhartia, C. Clerbaux, D. Degenstein, M. De Mazière, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Dufour, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Granville, N. R. P. Harris, K. Hoppel, D. Hubert, Y. Kasai, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, J.-C. Lambert, P. F. Levelt, C. T. McElroy, R. D. McPeters, R. Munro, H. Nakajima, A. Parrish, P. Raspollini, E. E. Remsberg, K. H. Rosenlof, A. Rozanov, T. Sano, Y. Sasano, M. Shiotani, H. G. J. Smit, G. Stiller, J. Tamminen, D. W. Tarasick, J. Urban, R. J. van der A, J. P. Veefkind, C. Vigouroux, T. von Clarmann, C. von Savigny, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1395–1427,
H. Brenot, N. Theys, L. Clarisse, J. van Geffen, J. van Gent, M. Van Roozendael, R. van der A, D. Hurtmans, P.-F. Coheur, C. Clerbaux, P. Valks, P. Hedelt, F. Prata, O. Rasson, K. Sievers, and C. Zehner
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1099–1123,
K. Miyazaki, H. J. Eskes, K. Sudo, and C. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3277–3305,
V. Huijnen, J. E. Williams, and J. Flemming
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
J. C. A. van Peet, R. J. van der A, O. N. E. Tuinder, E. Wolfram, J. Salvador, P. F. Levelt, and H. M. Kelder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 859–876,
A. Basu, M. G. Schultz, S. Schröder, L. Francois, X. Zhang, G. Lohmann, and T. Laepple
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
A. Baklanov, K. Schlünzen, P. Suppan, J. Baldasano, D. Brunner, S. Aksoyoglu, G. Carmichael, J. Douros, J. Flemming, R. Forkel, S. Galmarini, M. Gauss, G. Grell, M. Hirtl, S. Joffre, O. Jorba, E. Kaas, M. Kaasik, G. Kallos, X. Kong, U. Korsholm, A. Kurganskiy, J. Kushta, U. Lohmann, A. Mahura, A. Manders-Groot, A. Maurizi, N. Moussiopoulos, S. T. Rao, N. Savage, C. Seigneur, R. S. Sokhi, E. Solazzo, S. Solomos, B. Sørensen, G. Tsegas, E. Vignati, B. Vogel, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 317–398,
B. Mijling, R. J. van der A, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12003–12012,
T. Stavrakou, J.-F. Müller, K. F. Boersma, R. J. van der A, J. Kurokawa, T. Ohara, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9057–9082,
S. Fadnavis, K. Semeniuk, L. Pozzoli, M. G. Schultz, S. D. Ghude, S. Das, and R. Kakatkar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8771–8786,
A. Inness, F. Baier, A. Benedetti, I. Bouarar, S. Chabrillat, H. Clark, C. Clerbaux, P. Coheur, R. J. Engelen, Q. Errera, J. Flemming, M. George, C. Granier, J. Hadji-Lazaro, V. Huijnen, D. Hurtmans, L. Jones, J. W. Kaiser, J. Kapsomenakis, K. Lefever, J. Leitão, M. Razinger, A. Richter, M. G. Schultz, A. J. Simmons, M. Suttie, O. Stein, J.-N. Thépaut, V. Thouret, M. Vrekoussis, C. Zerefos, and the MACC team
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4073–4109,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Stratosphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Effects of enhanced downwelling of NOx on Antarctic upper-stratospheric ozone in the 21st centuryProcesses influencing lower stratospheric water vapour in monsoon anticyclones: insights from Lagrangian modellingEvaluating stratospheric ozone and water vapour changes in CMIP6 models from 1850 to 2100Slow feedbacks resulting from strongly enhanced atmospheric methane mixing ratios in a chemistry–climate model with mixed-layer oceanAn Arctic Ozone Hole in 2020 If Not For the Montreal ProtocolImpact of the eruption of Mt Pinatubo on the chemical composition of the stratosphereProjecting ozone hole recovery using an ensemble of chemistry–climate models weighted by model performance and independenceInconsistencies between chemistry–climate models and observed lower stratospheric ozone trends since 1998Reformulating the bromine alpha factor and equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC): evolution of ozone destruction rates of bromine and chlorine in future climate scenariosAnalysis and attribution of total column ozone changes over the Tibetan Plateau during 1979–2017Seasonal impact of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons on lowermost stratospheric ozone between 60° N and 60° S during the 21st centuryModelling the potential impacts of the recent, unexpected increase in CFC-11 emissions on total column ozone recoveryThe potential impacts of a sulfur- and halogen-rich supereruption such as Los Chocoyos on the atmosphere and climateTechnical note: Intermittent reduction of the stratospheric ozone over northern Europe caused by a storm in the Atlantic OceanPossible implications of enhanced chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations on ozoneTechnical note: Reanalysis of Aura MLS chemical observationsSeparating the role of direct radiative heating and photolysis in modulating the atmospheric response to the amplitude of the 11-year solar cycle forcingReactive nitrogen (NOy) and ozone responses to energetic electron precipitation during Southern Hemisphere winterImplication of strongly increased atmospheric methane concentrations for chemistry–climate connectionsMultitimescale variations in modeled stratospheric water vapor derived from three modern reanalysis productsHow robust are stratospheric age of air trends from different reanalyses?Evaluation of CESM1 (WACCM) free-running and specified dynamics atmospheric composition simulations using global multispecies satellite data recordsChlorine nitrate in the atmosphereLinking uncertainty in simulated Arctic ozone loss to uncertainties in modelled tropical stratospheric water vapourImportance of seasonally resolved oceanic emissions for bromoform delivery from the tropical Indian Ocean and west Pacific to the stratosphereThe representation of solar cycle signals in stratospheric ozone – Part 2: Analysis of global modelsInvestigating the yield of H2O and H2 from methane oxidation in the stratosphereComparison of ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) simulations of the Arctic winter 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 with Envisat/MIPAS and Aura/MLS observationsOn the discrepancy of HCl processing in the core of the wintertime polar vorticesEstimates of ozone return dates from Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative simulationsTrend differences in lower stratospheric water vapour between Boulder and the zonal mean and their role in understanding fundamental observational discrepanciesOn ozone trend detection: using coupled chemistry–climate simulations to investigate early signs of total column ozone recoveryFuture changes in the stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone mass flux and the contribution from climate change and ozone recoveryThe maintenance of elevated active chlorine levels in the Antarctic lower stratosphere through HCl null cyclesChemical and climatic drivers of radiative forcing due to changes in stratospheric and tropospheric ozone over the 21st centuryOzone sensitivity to varying greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances in CCMI-1 simulationsDiagnosing the radiative and chemical contributions to future changes in tropical column ozone with the UM-UKCA chemistry–climate modelDenitrification, dehydration and ozone loss during the 2015/2016 Arctic winterAssessment of upper tropospheric and stratospheric water vapor and ozone in reanalyses as part of S-RIPA quantitative analysis of the reactions involved in stratospheric ozone depletion in the polar vortex coreAn assessment of ozone mini-hole representation in reanalyses over the Northern HemisphereImpact of biogenic very short-lived bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st centuryInfluence of enhanced Asian NOx emissions on ozone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in chemistry–climate model simulationsDetermination of the atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of sulfur hexafluoride using a three-dimensional modelAntarctic ozone depletion between 1960 and 1980 in observations and chemistry–climate model simulationsSeasonal variability of stratospheric methane: implications for constraining tropospheric methane budgets using total column observationsThe role of methane in projections of 21st century stratospheric water vapourFuture Arctic ozone recovery: the importance of chemistry and dynamicsAtmospheric changes caused by galactic cosmic rays over the period 1960–2010Stratospheric ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality
Ville Maliniemi, Hilde Nesse Tyssøy, Christine Smith-Johnsen, Pavle Arsenovic, and Daniel R. Marsh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11041–11052,Short summary
We simulate ozone variability over the 21st century with different greenhouse gas scenarios. Our results highlight a novel mechanism of additional reactive nitrogen species descending to the Antarctic stratosphere from the thermosphere/upper mesosphere due to the accelerated residual circulation under climate change. This excess descending NOx can potentially prevent a super recovery of ozone in the Antarctic upper stratosphere.
Nuria Pilar Plaza, Aurélien Podglajen, Cristina Peña-Ortiz, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9585–9607,Short summary
We study the role of different processes in setting the lower stratospheric water vapour. We find that mechanisms involving ice microphysics and small-scale mixing produce the strongest increase in water vapour, in particular over the Asian Monsoon. Small-scale mixing has a special relevance as it improves the agreement with observations at seasonal and intra-seasonal timescales, contrary to the North American Monsoon case, in which large-scale temperatures still dominate its variability.
James Keeble, Birgit Hassler, Antara Banerjee, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Gabriel Chiodo, Sean Davis, Veronika Eyring, Paul T. Griffiths, Olaf Morgenstern, Peer Nowack, Guang Zeng, Jiankai Zhang, Greg Bodeker, Susannah Burrows, Philip Cameron-Smith, David Cugnet, Christopher Danek, Makoto Deushi, Larry W. Horowitz, Anne Kubin, Lijuan Li, Gerrit Lohmann, Martine Michou, Michael J. Mills, Pierre Nabat, Dirk Olivié, Sungsu Park, Øyvind Seland, Jens Stoll, Karl-Hermann Wieners, and Tongwen Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5015–5061,Short summary
Stratospheric ozone and water vapour are key components of the Earth system; changes to both have important impacts on global and regional climate. We evaluate changes to these species from 1850 to 2100 in the new generation of CMIP6 models. There is good agreement between the multi-model mean and observations, although there is substantial variation between the individual models. The future evolution of both ozone and water vapour is strongly dependent on the assumed future emissions scenario.
Laura Stecher, Franziska Winterstein, Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, Michael Ponater, and Markus Kunze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 731–754,Short summary
This study investigates the impact of strongly increased atmospheric methane mixing ratios on the Earth's climate. An interactive model system including atmospheric dynamics, chemistry, and a mixed-layer ocean model is used to analyse the effect of doubled and quintupled methane mixing ratios. We assess feedbacks on atmospheric chemistry and changes in the stratospheric circulation, focusing on the impact of tropospheric warming, and their relevance for the model's climate sensitivity.
Catherine Wilka, Susan Solomon, Doug Kinnison, and David Tarasick
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We use satellite and balloon measurements to evaluate modeled ozone loss seen in the unusually cold Arctic of 2020 in the real world, and compare to simulations of a
World Avoided. We show that extensive denitrification in 2020 provides an important test case for stratospheric model process representations. If the Montreal Protocol had not banned ozone depleting substances, we show that an Arctic Ozone hole emerges for the first time in Spring 2020 that is comparable to those in the Antarctic.
Markus Kilian, Sabine Brinkop, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11697–11715,Short summary
After the volcanic eruption of Mt Pinatubo in 1991, ozone decreased in the tropics and increased in the midlatitudes and polar regions for 1 year. The change in the ozone column is solely a result of the volcanic heating, followed by an ozone decrease in the higher latitudes. This is caused by the volcanic aerosol, which changes the heterogeneous chemistry and thus the catalytic ozone loss cycles. Vertical transport of water vapour is enhanced by volcanic heating and increases methane.
Matt Amos, Paul J. Young, J. Scott Hosking, Jean-François Lamarque, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Markus Kunze, Marion Marchand, David A. Plummer, David Saint-Martin, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, and Yousuke Yamashita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9961–9977,Short summary
We present an updated projection of Antarctic ozone hole recovery using an ensemble of chemistry–climate models. To do so, we employ a method, more advanced and skilful than the current multi-model mean standard, which is applicable to other ensemble analyses. It calculates the performance and similarity of the models, which we then use to weight the model. Calculating model similarity allows us to account for models which are constructed from similar components.
William T. Ball, Gabriel Chiodo, Marta Abalos, Justin Alsing, and Andrea Stenke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9737–9752,Short summary
Recent lower stratospheric ozone decreases remain unexplained. We show that chemistry–climate models are not generally able to reproduce mid-latitude ozone and water vapour changes. Our analysis of observations provides evidence that climate change may be responsible for the ozone trends. While model projections suggest that extratropical ozone should recover by 2100, our study raises questions about their efficacy in simulating lower stratospheric changes in this region.
J. Eric Klobas, Debra K. Weisenstein, Ross J. Salawitch, and David M. Wilmouth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9459–9471,Short summary
The rates of important ozone-destroying chemical reactions in the stratosphere are likely to change in the future. We employ a computer model to evaluate how the rates of ozone destruction by chlorine and bromine may evolve in four climate change scenarios with the introduction of the eta factor. We then show how these changing rates will impact the ozone-depleting power of the stratosphere with a new metric known as Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Benchmark-normalized Chlorine (EESBnC).
Yajuan Li, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Sandip S. Dhomse, Richard J. Pope, Faquan Li, and Dong Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8627–8639,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) exerts important thermal and dynamical effects on atmospheric circulation, climate change as well as the ozone distribution. In this study, we use updated observations and model simulations to investigate the ozone trends and variations over the TP. Wintertime TP ozone variations are largely controlled by tropical to high-latitude transport processes, whereas summertime concentrations are a combined effect of photochemical decay and tropical processes.
Javier Alejandro Barrera, Rafael Pedro Fernandez, Fernando Iglesias-Suarez, Carlos Alberto Cuevas, Jean-Francois Lamarque, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8083–8102,Short summary
The inclusion of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSLBr) in the CAM-chem model improves the model–satellite agreement of the total ozone columns at mid-latitudes and drives a persistent hemispheric asymmetry in lowermost stratospheric ozone loss. The seasonal VSLBr impact on mid-latitude lowermost stratospheric ozone is influenced by the heterogeneous reactivation processes of inorganic chlorine on ice crystals, with a clear increase in ozone destruction during spring and winter.
James Keeble, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Paul T. Griffiths, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7153–7166,Short summary
The Montreal Protocol was agreed in 1987 to limit and then stop the production of man-made CFCs, which destroy stratospheric ozone. As a result, the atmospheric abundances of CFCs are now declining in the atmosphere. However, the atmospheric abundance of CFC-11 is not declining as expected under complete compliance with the Montreal Protocol. Using the UM-UKCA chemistry–climate model, we explore the impact of future unregulated production of CFC-11 on ozone recovery.
Hans Brenna, Steffen Kutterolf, Michael J. Mills, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6521–6539,Short summary
The Los Chocoyos supereruption (84 000 years ago) in Guatemala was one of the largest volcanic events of the last 100 000 years. This eruption released enormous amounts of sulfur, which cooled the climate, as well as chlorine and bromine, which destroyed the ozone in the stratosphere. We have simulated this eruption by using an advanced chemistry–climate model. We found a collapse in the ozone layer lasting more than 10 years, increased surface–UV radiation, and a 30-year climate-cooling period.
Mikhail Sofiev, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Risto Hänninen, and Viktoria F. Sofieva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1839–1847,Short summary
An episode of anomalously low ozone concentrations in the stratosphere over northern Europe occurred on 3–5 November 2018. The 30 % reduction of the ozone layer was predicted by the global chemistry-transport model of the Finnish Meteorological Institute driven by weather forecasts of ECMWF. The reduction was subsequently observed by ozone monitoring satellites. The episode was caused by a storm in the northern Atlantic, which uplifted air from the troposphere to stratosphere.
Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, and Matthias Nützel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13759–13771,Short summary
A chemistry–climate model (CCM) study is performed, investigating the consequences of a constant CFC-11 surface mixing ratio for stratospheric ozone in the future. The total column ozone is particularly affected in both polar regions in winter and spring. It turns out that the calculated ozone changes, especially in the upper stratosphere, are smaller than expected. In this attitudinal region the additional ozone depletion due to the catalysis by reactive chlorine is partly compensated for.
Quentin Errera, Simon Chabrillat, Yves Christophe, Jonas Debosscher, Daan Hubert, William Lahoz, Michelle L. Santee, Masato Shiotani, Sergey Skachko, Thomas von Clarmann, and Kaley Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13647–13679,Short summary
BRAM2 is a 13-year reanalysis of the chemical composition from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere based on the assimilation of the Microwave Limb Sounder observations where eight species are assimilated: O3, H2O, N2O, HNO3, HCl, ClO, CH3Cl and CO. BRAM2 agrees generally well with independent observations in the middle stratosphere, the polar vortex and the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere but also shows several issues in the model and in the observations.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Amanda C. Maycock, Peter Braesicke, Paul J. Telford, N. Luke Abraham, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9833–9846,Short summary
The atmospheric response to the amplitude of 11-year solar cycle in UM-UKCA is separated into the contributions from changes in direct radiative heating and photolysis rates, and the results compared with a control case with both effects included. We find that while the tropical responses are largely additive, this is not necessarily the case in the high latitudes. We suggest that solar-induced changes in ozone are important for modulating the SH dynamical response to the 11-year solar cycle.
Pavle Arsenovic, Alessandro Damiani, Eugene Rozanov, Bernd Funke, Andrea Stenke, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9485–9494,Short summary
Low-energy electrons (LEE) are the dominant source of odd nitrogen, which destroys ozone, in the mesosphere and stratosphere in polar winter in the geomagnetically active periods. However, the observed stratospheric ozone anomalies can be reproduced only when accounting for both low- and middle-range energy electrons (MEE) in the chemistry-climate model. Ozone changes may induce further dynamical and thermal changes in the atmosphere. We recommend including both LEE and MEE in climate models.
Franziska Winterstein, Fabian Tanalski, Patrick Jöckel, Martin Dameris, and Michael Ponater
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7151–7163,Short summary
The atmospheric concentrations of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas methane are predicted to rise in the future. In this paper we investigate how very strong methane concentrations will impact the atmosphere. We analyse two experiments, one with doubled and one with quintupled methane concentrations and focus on the rapid atmospheric changes before the ocean adjusts to the induced forcing. In particular these are changes in temperature, ozone, the hydroxyl radical and stratospheric water vapour.
Mengchu Tao, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Xiaolu Yan, Jonathon S. Wright, Mohamadou Diallo, Stephan Fueglistaler, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6509–6534,Short summary
This paper examines the annual and interannual variations as well as long-term trend of modeled stratospheric water vapor with a Lagrangian chemical transport model driven by ERA-I, MERRA-2 and JRA-55. We find reasonable consistency among the annual cycle, QBO and the variabilities induced by ENSO and volcanic aerosols. The main discrepancies are linked to the differences in reanalysis upwelling rates in the lower stratosphere. The trends are sensitive to the reanalyses that drives the model.
Felix Ploeger, Bernard Legras, Edward Charlesworth, Xiaolu Yan, Mohamadou Diallo, Paul Konopka, Thomas Birner, Mengchu Tao, Andreas Engel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6085–6105,Short summary
We analyse the change in the circulation of the middle atmosphere based on current generation meteorological reanalysis data sets. We find that long-term changes from 1989 to 2015 are similar for the chosen reanalyses, mainly resembling the forced response in climate model simulations to climate change. For shorter periods circulation changes are less robust, and the representation of decadal variability appears to be a major uncertainty for modelling the circulation of the middle atmosphere.
Lucien Froidevaux, Douglas E. Kinnison, Ray Wang, John Anderson, and Ryan A. Fuller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4783–4821,Short summary
This work evaluates two versions of a 3-D global model of upper-atmospheric composition for recent decades. The two versions differ mainly in their dynamical (wind) constraints. Model–data differences, variability, and trends in five gases (ozone, H2O, HCl, HNO3, and N2O) are compared. While the match between models and observations is impressive, a few areas of discrepancy are noted. This work also updates trends in composition based on recent satellite-based measurements (through 2018).
Thomas von Clarmann and Sören Johansson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15363–15386,Short summary
This review article compiles the characteristics of the gas chlorine nitrate and discusses its role in atmospheric chemistry. Chlorine nitrate is a reservoir of both stratospheric chlorine and nitrogen. Formation and sink processes are discussed, as well as spectral features and spectroscopic studies. Remote sensing, fluorescence, and mass spectroscopic measurement techniques are introduced, and global distributions and the annual cycle are discussed in the context of chlorine de-/activation.
Laura Thölix, Alexey Karpechko, Leif Backman, and Rigel Kivi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15047–15067,Short summary
We analyse the impact of water vapour (WV) on Arctic ozone loss and find the strongest impact during intermediately cold stratospheric winters when chlorine activation increases with increasing PSCs and WV. In colder winters the impact is limited because chlorine activation becomes complete at relatively low WV values, so further addition of WV does not affect ozone loss. Our results imply that improved simulations of WV are needed for more reliable projections of ozone layer recovery.
Alina Fiehn, Birgit Quack, Irene Stemmler, Franziska Ziska, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11973–11990,Short summary
Oceanic very short-lived substances, VSLS, contribute to stratospheric halogen loading and ozone depletion. We created bromoform emission inventories with monthly resolution for the tropical Indian Ocean and west Pacific and modeled the atmospheric transport of bromoform with the particle dispersion model FLEXPART/ERA-Interim. Results underline that the seasonal and regional stratospheric bromine entrainment critically depends on the seasonality and spatial distribution of the VSLS emissions.
Amanda C. Maycock, Katja Matthes, Susann Tegtmeier, Hauke Schmidt, Rémi Thiéblemont, Lon Hood, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Oliver Kirner, Markus Kunze, Marion Marchand, Daniel R. Marsh, Martine Michou, David Plummer, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Yousuke Yamashita, and Kohei Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11323–11343,Short summary
The 11-year solar cycle is an important driver of climate variability. Changes in incoming solar ultraviolet radiation affect atmospheric ozone, which in turn influences atmospheric temperatures. Constraining the impact of the solar cycle on ozone is therefore important for understanding climate variability. This study examines the representation of the solar influence on ozone in numerical models used to simulate past and future climate. We highlight important differences among model datasets.
Franziska Frank, Patrick Jöckel, Sergey Gromov, and Martin Dameris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9955–9973,Short summary
It is frequently assumed that one methane molecule produces two water molecules. Applying various modeling concepts, we find that the yield of water from methane is vertically not constantly 2. In the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere, transport of intermediate H2 molecules even led to a yield greater than 2. We conclude that for a realistic chemical source of stratospheric water vapor, one must also take other sources (H2), intermediates and the chemical removal of water into account.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Gabriele Stiller, Michael Höpfner, Michelle L. Santee, Sylvia Kellmann, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8873–8892,Short summary
An extensive assessment of the performance of the chemistry–climate model EMAC is given for Arctic winters 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The EMAC simulations are compared to satellite observations. The comparisons between EMAC simulations and satellite observations show that model and measurements compare well for these two Arctic winters. However, differences between model and observations are found that need improvements in the model in the future.
Jens-Uwe Grooß, Rolf Müller, Reinhold Spang, Ines Tritscher, Tobias Wegner, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Douglas E. Kinnison, and Sasha Madronich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8647–8666,Short summary
We investigate a discrepancy between model simulations and observations of HCl in the dark polar stratosphere. In early winter, the less-well-studied period of the onset of chlorine activation, observations show a much faster depletion of HCl than simulations of three models. This points to some unknown process that is currently not represented in the models. Various hypotheses for potential causes are investigated that partly reduce the discrepancy. The impact on polar ozone depletion is low.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Douglas Kinnison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Ross J. Salawitch, Irene Cionni, Michaela I. Hegglin, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alex T. Archibald, Ewa M. Bednarz, Slimane Bekki, Peter Braesicke, Neal Butchart, Martin Dameris, Makoto Deushi, Stacey Frith, Steven C. Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, Rong-Ming Hu, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Oliver Kirner, Stefanie Kremser, Ulrike Langematz, Jared Lewis, Marion Marchand, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8409–8438,Short summary
We analyse simulations from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) to estimate the return dates of the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion by anthropogenic chlorine and bromine. The simulations from 20 models project that global column ozone will return to 1980 values in 2047 (uncertainty range 2042–2052). Return dates in other regions vary depending on factors related to climate change and importance of chlorine and bromine. Column ozone in the tropics may continue to decline.
Stefan Lossow, Dale F. Hurst, Karen H. Rosenlof, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Sabine Brinkop, Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, Doug E. Kinnison, Johannes Plieninger, David A. Plummer, Felix Ploeger, William G. Read, Ellis E. Remsberg, James M. Russell, and Mengchu Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8331–8351,Short summary
Trend estimates of lower stratospheric H2O derived from the FPH observations at Boulder and a merged zonal mean satellite data set clearly differ for the time period from the late 1980s to 2010. We investigate if a sampling bias between Boulder and the zonal mean around the Boulder latitude can explain these trend discrepancies. Typically they are small and not sufficient to explain the trend discrepancies in the observational database.
James Keeble, Hannah Brown, N. Luke Abraham, Neil R. P. Harris, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7625–7637,Short summary
2017 marks the 30th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol, which was implemented to protect the stratospheric ozone layer from the harmful effects of synthetic ozone depleting substances. Since the late 1990s atmospheric concentrations of these species have begun to decline, and as a result ozone concentrations are expected to increase. In this study we use an ensemble of chemistry–climate simulations to investigate recent ozone trends and search for early signs of ozone recovery.
Stefanie Meul, Ulrike Langematz, Philipp Kröger, Sophie Oberländer-Hayn, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7721–7738,Short summary
Using a chemistry--climate model future changes in the stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone mass flux, their drivers, and the future distribution of stratospheric ozone in the troposphere are investigated. In an extreme greenhouse gas (GHG) scenario, the global influx of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere is projected to grow between 2000 and 2100 by 53%. The increase is due to the recovery of stratospheric ozone owing to declining halogens and GHG induced circulation and temperature changes.
Rolf Müller, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Abdul Mannan Zafar, Sabine Robrecht, and Ralph Lehmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2985–2997,Short summary
This paper revisits the chemistry leading to strong ozone depletion in the Antarctic. We focus on the heart of the ozone layer in the lowermost stratosphere in the core of the vortex. We argue that chemical cycles (referred to as HCl null cycles) that have hitherto been largely neglected counteract the deactivation of chlorine and are therefore key to ozone depletion in the core of the Antarctic vortex. The key process to full activation of chlorine is the photolysis of formaldehyde.
Antara Banerjee, Amanda C. Maycock, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2899–2911,Short summary
This study quantifies the radiative forcing (RF) of future ozone changes. Under climate change, even the sign of the ozone RF can change depending on the greenhouse gas emissions scenario followed. Stratosphere–troposphere exchange plays an important role in driving ozone RF due to reductions in ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and increases in methane abundance. These could negate the ozone-derived climate benefits of air-quality controls on non-methane ozone precursor emissions.
Olaf Morgenstern, Kane A. Stone, Robyn Schofield, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Yousuke Yamashita, Douglas E. Kinnison, Rolando R. Garcia, Kengo Sudo, David A. Plummer, John Scinocca, Luke D. Oman, Michael E. Manyin, Guang Zeng, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Laura E. Revell, Giovanni Pitari, Eva Mancini, Glauco Di Genova, Daniele Visioni, Sandip S. Dhomse, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1091–1114,Short summary
We assess how ozone as simulated by a group of chemistry–climate models responds to variations in man-made climate gases and ozone-depleting substances. We find some agreement, particularly in the middle and upper stratosphere, but also considerable disagreement elsewhere. Such disagreement affects the reliability of future ozone projections based on these models, and also constitutes a source of uncertainty in climate projections using prescribed ozone derived from these simulations.
James Keeble, Ewa M. Bednarz, Antara Banerjee, N. Luke Abraham, Neil R. P. Harris, Amanda C. Maycock, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13801–13818,Short summary
In this study we explore the chemical and transport processes controlling ozone abundances in different altitude regions in the tropics for the present day and how these processes may change in the future in order to determine when total-column ozone values in the tropics will recover to pre-1980s values following the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments, which imposed bans on the use and emissions of CFCs.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Michelle L. Santee, Lucien Froidevaux, Jörn Ungermann, Roland Ruhnke, Wolfgang Woiwode, Hermann Oelhaf, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12893–12910,Short summary
The 2015/2016 Arctic winter was one of the coldest winters in recent years, allowing extensive PSC formation and chlorine activation. Model simulations of the 2015/2016 Arctic winter were performed with the atmospheric chemistry–climate model ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC). We find that ozone loss was quite strong but not as strong as in 2010/2011; denitrification and dehydration were so far the strongest observed in the Arctic stratosphere in at least the past 10 years.
Sean M. Davis, Michaela I. Hegglin, Masatomo Fujiwara, Rossana Dragani, Yayoi Harada, Chiaki Kobayashi, Craig Long, Gloria L. Manney, Eric R. Nash, Gerald L. Potter, Susann Tegtmeier, Tao Wang, Krzysztof Wargan, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12743–12778,Short summary
Ozone and water vapor in the stratosphere are important gases that affect surface climate and absorb incoming solar ultraviolet radiation. These gases are represented in reanalyses, which create a complete picture of the state of Earth's atmosphere using limited observations. We evaluate reanalysis water vapor and ozone fidelity by intercomparing them, and comparing them to independent observations. Generally reanalyses do a good job at representing ozone, but have problems with water vapor.
Ingo Wohltmann, Ralph Lehmann, and Markus Rex
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10535–10563,Short summary
We present a quantitative analysis of the chemical reactions involved in polar ozone depletion in the stratosphere, and of the relevant reaction pathways and cycles. We show time series of reaction rates averaged over the core of the polar vortex in winter and spring for all relevant reactions. An emphasis is put on the partitioning of the relevant chemical families (nitrogen, hydrogen, chlorine, bromine and odd oxygen) and activation and deactivation of chlorine.
Luis F. Millán and Gloria L. Manney
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9277–9289,Short summary
An ozone mini-hole is a synoptic-scale region with strongly decreased total column ozone resulting from dynamical processes. Using total column measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and ozone profile measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder, we evaluate the accuracy of mini-hole representation in five reanalyses.
Rafael P. Fernandez, Douglas E. Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1673–1688,Short summary
The inclusion of biogenic very-short lived bromine (VSLBr) in a chemistry-climate model produces an expansion of the ozone hole area of ~ 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the reduction of anthropogenic CFCs and halons. The maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, but does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels.
Chaitri Roy, Suvarna Fadnavis, Rolf Müller, D. C. Ayantika, Felix Ploeger, and Alexandru Rap
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1297–1311,Short summary
In the monsoon season, Asian NOx emissions are rapidly transported to the UTLS and can impact ozone in the UTLS. From chemistry–climate model simulations, we show that increasing Asian NOx emissions have enhanced ozone radiative forcing over Southeast Asia, which leads to significant warming over the Tibetan Plateau and increase precipitation over India. However, a further increase in NOx emissions elicited negative precipitation due to reversal of monsoon Hadley circulation.
Tamás Kovács, Wuhu Feng, Anna Totterdill, John M. C. Plane, Sandip Dhomse, Juan Carlos Gómez-Martín, Gabriele P. Stiller, Florian J. Haenel, Christopher Smith, Piers M. Forster, Rolando R. García, Daniel R. Marsh, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 883–898,Short summary
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a very potent greenhouse gas, which is present in the atmosphere only through its industrial use, for example as an electrical insulator. To estimate accurately the impact of SF6 emissions on climate we need to know how long it persists in the atmosphere before being removed. Previous estimates of the SF6 lifetime indicate a large degree of uncertainty. Here we use a detailed atmospheric model to calculate a current best estimate of the SF6 lifetime.
Ulrike Langematz, Franziska Schmidt, Markus Kunze, Gregory E. Bodeker, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15619–15627,Short summary
The extent of anthropogenically driven Antarctic ozone depletion prior to 1980 is examined using transient chemistry–climate model simulations from 1960 to 2000 with prescribed changes of ozone depleting substances in conjunction with observations. All models show a long-term, halogen-induced negative trend in Antarctic ozone from 1960 to 1980, ranging between 26 and 50 % of the total anthropogenic ozone depletion from 1960 to 2000. A stronger ozone decline of 56 % was estimated from observation.
Katherine M. Saad, Debra Wunch, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Martine De Mazière, Justus Notholt, David F. Pollard, Coleen M. Roehl, Matthias Schneider, Ralf Sussmann, Thorsten Warneke, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14003–14024,Short summary
Current approaches to constrain the global methane budget assimilate total column measurements into models, but model biases can impact results. We use tropospheric methane columns to evaluate model transport errors and identify a seasonal time lag in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere masked by stratospheric compensating effects. We find systematic biases in the stratosphere will alias into model-derived emissions estimates, especially those in the high Northern latitudes that vary seasonally.
Laura E. Revell, Andrea Stenke, Eugene Rozanov, William Ball, Stefan Lossow, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13067–13080,Short summary
Water vapour in the stratosphere plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and the Earth's radiative balance. We have analysed trends in stratospheric water vapour through the 21st century as simulated by a coupled chemistry–climate model following a range of greenhouse gas emission scenarios. We have also quantified the contribution that methane oxidation in the stratosphere makes to projected water vapour trends.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Amanda C. Maycock, N. Luke Abraham, Peter Braesicke, Olivier Dessens, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12159–12176,Short summary
Future trends in springtime Arctic ozone, and its chemical dynamical and radiative drivers, are analysed using a 7-member ensemble of chemistry–climate model integrations, allowing for a detailed assessment of interannual variability. Despite the future long-term recovery of Arctic ozone, there is large interannual variability and episodic reductions in springtime Arctic column ozone. Halogen chemistry will become a smaller but non-negligible driver of Arctic ozone variability over the century.
Charles H. Jackman, Daniel R. Marsh, Douglas E. Kinnison, Christopher J. Mertens, and Eric L. Fleming
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5853–5866,Short summary
Two global models were used to investigate the impact of galactic cosmic ray (GCRs) on the atmosphere over the 1960-2010 time period. The primary impact of the naturally occurring GCRs on ozone was found to be due to their production of NOx and this impact varies with the atmospheric chlorine loading, sulfate aerosol loading, and solar cycle variation. GCR-caused decreases of annual average global total ozone were computed to be 0.2 % or less.
Peer Johannes Nowack, Nathan Luke Abraham, Peter Braesicke, and John Adrian Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4191–4203,Short summary
Various forms of solar radiation management (SRM) have been proposed to counteract man-made climate change. However, all these countermeasures could have unintended side-effects. We add a novel perspective to this discussion by showing how atmospheric ozone changes under solar geoengineering could affect UV exposure and air pollution. This would have implications for human health and ecology. Atmospheric composition changes are therefore important to consider in the evaluation of any SRM scheme.
Adams, C., Strong, K., Batchelor, R. L., Bernath, P. F., Brohede, S., Boone, C., Degenstein, D., Daffer, W. H., Drummond, J. R., Fogal, P. F., Farahani, E., Fayt, C., Fraser, A., Goutail, F., Hendrick, F., Kolonjari, F., Lindenmaier, R., Manney, G., McElroy, C. T., McLinden, C. A., Mendonca, J., Park, J.-H., Pavlovic, B., Pazmino, A., Roth, C., Savastiouk, V., Walker, K. A., Weaver, D., and Zhao, X.: Validation of ACE and OSIRIS ozone and NO2 measurements using ground-based instruments at 80° N, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 927–953, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-5-927-2012, 2012.
Baier, F., Erbertseder, T., Elbern, H., and Schwinger, J.: Impact of different ozone sounding networks on a 4D-Var stratospheric data assimilation system, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 139, 2055–2067, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2086, 2013.
Balis, D., Kroon, M., Koukouli, M. E., Brinksma, E. J., Labow, G., Veefkind, J. P., and McPeters, R. D.: Validation of Ozone Monitoring Instrument total ozone column measurements using Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometer ground-based observations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D24S46, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008796, 2007.
Benedetti, A., Morcrette, J.-J., Boucher, O., Dethof, A., Engelen, R. J., Fisher, M., Flentje, H., Huneeus, N., Jones, L., Kaiser, J. W., Kinne, S., Mangold, A., Razinger, M., Simmons, A. J., and Suttie, M.: Aerosol analysis and forecast in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Integrated Forecast System: 2. Data assimilation, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D13205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011115, 2009.
Bernath, P. F., McElroy, C. T., Abrams, M. C., Boone, C. D., Butler, M., Camy-Peyret, C., Carleer, M., Clerbaux, C., Coheur, P.-F., Colin, R., DeCola, P., De Mazière, M., Drummond, J. R., Dufour, D., Evans, W. F. J., Fast, H., Fussen, D., Gilbert, K., Jennings, D. E., Llewellyn, E. J., Lowe, R. P., Mahieu, E., McConnell, J. C., McHugh, M., McLeod, S. D., Michaud, R., Midwinter, C., Nassar, R., Nichitiu, F., Nowlan, C., Rinsland, C. P., Rochon, Y. J., Rowlands, N., Semeniuk, K., Simon, P., Skelton, R., Sloan, J. J., Soucy, M.-A., Strong, K., Tremblay, P., Turnbull, D., Walker, K. A., Walkty, I., Wardle, D. A., Wehrle, V., Zander, R., and Zou, J.: Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission overview, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L15S01, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL022386, 2005.
Bhartia, P. K., McPeters, R. D., Flynn, L. E., Taylor, S., Kramarova, N. A., Frith, S., Fisher, B., and DeLand, M.: Solar Backscatter UV (SBUV) total ozone and profile algorithm, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2533–2548, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-6-2533-2013, 2013.
Boone, C. D., Nassar, R., Walker, K. A., Rochon, Y., McLeod, S. D., Rinsland, C. P., and Bernath, P. F.: Retrievals for the atmospheric chemistry experiment Fourier-transform spectrometer, Appl. Optics IP, 44, 7218–7231, https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.44.007218, 2005.
Brewer, A. W.: Evidence for a world circulation provided by the measurements of helium and water vapour distribution in the stratosphere, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 75, 351–363, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49707532603, 1949.
Brewer, A. W.: A replacement for the Dobson spectrophotometer?, Pure Appl. Geophys., 106–108, 919–927, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00881042, 1973.
Cariolle, D. and Teyssèdre, H.: A revised linear ozone photochemistry parameterization for use in transport and general circulation models: multi-annual simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2183–2196, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-2183-2007, 2007.
Considine, D. B., Logan, J. A., and Olsen, M. A.: Evaluation of near-tropopause ozone distributions in the Global Modeling Initiative combined stratosphere/troposphere model with ozonesonde data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2365–2385, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-2365-2008, 2008.
Damski, J., Thölix, L., Backmann, L., Taalas, P., and Kulmala, M.: FinROSE – middle atmospheric chemistry transport model, Boreal Env. Res., 12, 535–550, 2007.
Deshler, T., Mercer, J. L., Smit, H. G. J., Stubi, R., Levrat, G., Johnson, B. J., Oltmans, S. J., Kivi, R., Thompson, A. M., Witte, J., Davies, J., Schmidlin, F. J., Brothers, G., and Sasaki, T.: Atmospheric comparison of electrochemical cell ozonesondes from different manufacturers, and with different cathode solution strengths: The Balloon Experiment on Standards for Ozonesondes, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D04307, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008975, 2008.
Dethf, A. and Hólm, E. V.: Ozone assimilation in the ERA-40 reanalysis project, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 2851–2872, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.03.196, 2004.
Dobson, G. M. B.: Origin and Distribution of the Polyatomic Molecules in the Atmosphere, Royal Society of London Proceedings Series A, 236, 187–193, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1956.0127, 1956.
Dupuy, E., Walker, K. A., Kar, J., Boone, C. D., McElroy, C. T., Bernath, P. F., Drummond, J. R., Skelton, R., McLeod, S. D., Hughes, R. C., Nowlan, C. R., Dufour, D. G., Zou, J., Nichitiu, F., Strong, K., Baron, P., Bevilacqua, R. M., Blumenstock, T., Bodeker, G. E., Borsdorff, T., Bourassa, A. E., Bovensmann, H., Boyd, I. S., Bracher, A., Brogniez, C., Burrows, J. P., Catoire, V., Ceccherini, S., Chabrillat, S., Christensen, T., Coffey, M. T., Cortesi, U., Davies, J., De Clercq, C., Degenstein, D. A., De Mazière, M., Demoulin, P., Dodion, J., Firanski, B., Fischer, H., Forbes, G., Froidevaux, L., Fussen, D., Gerard, P., Godin-Beekmann, S., Goutail, F., Granville, J., Griffith, D., Haley, C. S., Hannigan, J. W., Höpfner, M., Jin, J. J., Jones, A., Jones, N. B., Jucks, K., Kagawa, A., Kasai, Y., Kerzenmacher, T. E., Kleinböhl, A., Klekociuk, A. R., Kramer, I., Küllmann, H., Kuttippurath, J., Kyrölä, E., Lambert, J.-C., Livesey, N. J., Llewellyn, E. J., Lloyd, N. D., Mahieu, E., Manney, G. L., Marshall, B. T., McConnell, J. C., McCormick, M. P., McDermid, I. S., McHugh, M., McLinden, C. A., Mellqvist, J., Mizutani, K., Murayama, Y., Murtagh, D. P., Oelhaf, H., Parrish, A., Petelina, S. V., Piccolo, C., Pommereau, J.-P., Randall, C. E., Robert, C., Roth, C., Schneider, M., Senten, C., Steck, T., Strandberg, A., Strawbridge, K. B., Sussmann, R., Swart, D. P. J., Tarasick, D. W., Taylor, J. R., Tétard, C., Thomason, L. W., Thompson, A. M., Tully, M. B., Urban, J., Vanhellemont, F., Vigouroux, C., von Clarmann, T., von der Gathen, P., von Savigny, C., Waters, J. W., Witte, J. C., Wolff, M., and Zawodny, J. M.: Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 287–343, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-287-2009, 2009.
Elbern, H., Schwinger, J., and Botchorishvili, R.: Chemical state estimation for the middle atmosphere by four-dimensional variational data assimilation: System configuration, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D06302, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD011953, 2010.
Engelen, R. J., Serrar, S., and Chevallier, F.: Four-dimensional data assimilation of atmospheric CO2 using AIRS observations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D03303, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010739, 2009.
Errera, Q. and Ménard, R.: Technical Note: Spectral representation of spatial correlations in variational assimilation with grid point models and application to the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical Observations (BASCOE), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10015–10031, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-10015-2012, 2012.
Errera, Q., Daerden, F., Chabrillat, S., Lambert, J. C., Lahoz, W. A., Viscardy, S., Bonjean, S., and Fonteyn, D.: 4D-Var assimilation of MIPAS chemical observations: ozone and nitrogen dioxide analyses, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 6169–6187, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-6169-2008, 2008.
Eskes, H. J., Velthoven, P. F. J. V., Valks, P. J. M., and Kelder, H. M.: Assimilation of GOME total-ozone satellite observations in a three-dimensional tracer-transport model, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 129, 1663–1681, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.02.14, 2003.
Eskes, H. J., van der A, R. J., Brinksma, E. J., Veefkind, J. P., de Haan, J. F., and Valks, P. J. M.: Retrieval and validation of ozone columns derived from measurements of SCIAMACHY on Envisat, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 5, 4429–4475, https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-5-4429-2005, 2005.
Farman, J. C., Gardiner, B. G., and Shanklin, J. D.: Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction, Nature, 315, 207–210, https://doi.org/10.1038/315207a0, 1985.
Fisher, M.: Wavelet Jb - A new way to model the statistics of background errors., ECMWF Newsletter, 106, 23–28, 2006.
Fisher, M. and Andersson, E.: Developments in 4D-Var and Kalman Filtering., ECMWF Technical Memorandum 347, available at: http://old.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tm/301-400/tm347.pdf (last access: 22 February 2015), 2001.
Flemming, J., Inness, A., Flentje, H., Huijnen, V., Moinat, P., Schultz, M. G., and Stein, O.: Coupling global chemistry transport models to ECMWF's integrated forecast system, Geosci. Model Dev., 2, 253–265, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2-253-2009, 2009.
Flemming, J., Inness, A., Jones, L., Eskes, H. J., Huijnen, V., Schultz, M. G., Stein, O., Cariolle, D., Kinnison, D., and Brasseur, G.: Forecasts and assimilation experiments of the Antarctic ozone hole 2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1961–1977, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-1961-2011, 2011.
Froidevaux, L., Jiang, Y. B., Lambert, A., Livesey, N. J., Read, W. G., Waters, J. W., Browell, E. V., Hair, J. W., Avery, M. A., McGee, T. J., Twigg, L. W., Sumnicht, G. K., Jucks, K. W., Margitan, J. J., Sen, B., Stachnik, R. A., Toon, G. C., Bernath, P. F., Boone, C. D., Walker, K. A., Filipiak, M. J., Harwood, R. S., Fuller, R. A., Manney, G. L., Schwartz, M. J., Daffer, W. H., Drouin, B. J., Cofield, R. E., Cuddy, D. T., Jarnot, R. F., Knosp, B. W., Perun, V. S., Snyder, W. V., Stek, P. C., Thurstans, R. P., and Wagner, P. A.: Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric ozone measurements, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D15S20, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008771, 2008.
Gauss, M., Valdebenito, A., Benedictow, A., and et al.: Report on end-to-end analysis for the seven individual production lines and for ensemble production, MACC-II project deliverable D108.1, ECMWF, http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/documents/maccii/deliverables/ens/MACCII_ENS_DEL_D_108.1_201301_METEOFR.pdf (last access: 22 February 2015), 2013.
Geer, A. J., Lahoz, W. A., Bekki, S., Bormann, N., Errera, Q., Eskes, H. J., Fonteyn, D., Jackson, D. R., Juckes, M. N., Massart, S., Peuch, V.-H., Rharmili, S., and Segers, A.: The ASSET intercomparison of ozone analyses: method and first results, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 5445–5474, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-5445-2006, 2006.
Hassler, B., Petropavlovskikh, I., Staehelin, J., August, T., Bhartia, P. K., Clerbaux, C., Degenstein, D., Mazière, M. De, Dinelli, B. M., Dudhia, A., Dufour, G., Frith, S. M., Froidevaux, L., Godin-Beekmann, S., Granville, J., Harris, N. R. P., Hoppel, K., Hubert, D., Kasai, Y., Kurylo, M. J., Kyrölä, E., Lambert, J.-C., Levelt, P. F., McElroy, C. T., McPeters, R. D., Munro, R., Nakajima, H., Parrish, A., Raspollini, P., Remsberg, E. E., Rosenlof, K. H., Rozanov, A., Sano, T., Sasano, Y., Shiotani, M., Smit, H. G. J., Stiller, G., Tamminen, J., Tarasick, D. W., Urban, J., van der A, R. J., Veefkind, J. P., Vigouroux, C., von Clarmann, T., von Savigny, C., Walker, K. A., Weber, M., Wild, J., and Zawodny, J. M.: Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1395–1427, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-7-1395-2014, 2014.
Hendrick, F., Pommereau, J.-P., Goutail, F., Evans, R. D., Ionov, D., Pazmino, A., Kyrö, E., Held, G., Eriksen, P., Dorokhov, V., Gil, M., and Van Roozendael, M.: NDACC/SAOZ UV-visible total ozone measurements: improved retrieval and comparison with correlative ground-based and satellite observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5975–5995, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-5975-2011, 2011.
Hollingsworth, A. and Lönnberg, P.: The statistical structure of short-range forecast errors as determined from radiosonde data. Part I: The wind field, Tellus Series A, 38, 111, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0870.1986.tb00460.x, 1986.
Hughes, R. and Bernath, P.: ACE Mission Information for Public Data Release, Document Number: ACE-SOC 0022, http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca/v22data/ACEFTSPublicReleaseDocumentation.pdf (last access: 22 February 2015), 2012.
Inness, A., Flemming, J., Suttie, M., and Jones, L.: GEMS data assimilation system for chemically reactive gases, ECMWF technical memorandum 587, http://old.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tm/501-600/tm587.pdf (last access: 22 February 2015), 2009.
Inness, A., Baier, F., Benedetti, A., Bouarar, I., Chabrillat, S., Clark, H., Clerbaux, C., Coheur, P., Engelen, R. J., Errera, Q., Flemming, J., George, M., Granier, C., Hadji-Lazaro, J., Huijnen, V., Hurtmans, D., Jones, L., Kaiser, J. W., Kapsomenakis, J., Lefever, K., Leitão, J., Razinger, M., Richter, A., Schultz, M. G., Simmons, A. J., Suttie, M., Stein, O., Thépaut, J.-N., Thouret, V., Vrekoussis, M., Zerefos, C., and the MACC team: The MACC reanalysis: an 8 yr data set of atmospheric composition, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4073–4109, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-4073-2013, 2013.
Kalnay, E.: Atmospheric Modeling, Data Assimilation and Predictability, Cambridge University Press, 364 pp., ISBN:9780521796293, 2002.
Kerr, J. B., Fast, H., McElroy, C. T., Oltmans, S. J., Lathrop, J. A., Kyro, E., Paukkunen, A., Claude, H., Köhler, U., Sreedharan, C. R., Takao, T., and Tsukagoshi, Y.: The 1991 WMO international ozonesonde intercomparison at Vanscoy, Canada, Atmos.-Ocean, 32, 685–716, https://doi.org/10.1080/07055900.1994.9649518, 1994.
Kinnison, D. E., Brasseur, G. P., Walters, S., Garcia, R. R., Marsh, D. R., Sassi, F., Harvey, V. L., Randall, C. E., Emmons, L., Lamarque, J. F., Hess, P., Orlando, J. J., Tie, X. X., Randel, W., Pan, L. L., Gettelman, A., Granier, C., Diehl, T., Niemeier, U., and Simmons, A. J.: Sensitivity of chemical tracers to meteorological parameters in the MOZART-3 chemical transport model, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D20302, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007879, 2007.
Kramarova, N. A., Bhartia, P. K., Frith, S. M., McPeters, R. D., and Stolarski, R. S.: Interpreting SBUV smoothing errors: an example using the quasi-biennial oscillation, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2089–2099, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-6-2089-2013, 2013.
Lahoz, W. and Errera, Q.: Data Assimilation: Making Sense of Observations, chap. Constituent Assimilation, p. 449, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74703-1, 2010.
Lahoz, W. A., Geer, A. J., Bekki, S., Bormann, N., Ceccherini, S., Elbern, H., Errera, Q., Eskes, H. J., Fonteyn, D., Jackson, D. R., Khattatov, B., Marchand, M., Massart, S., Peuch, V.-H., Rharmili, S., Ridolfi, M., Segers, A., Talagrand, O., Thornton, H. E., Vik, A. F., and von Clarmann, T.: The Assimilation of Envisat data (ASSET) project, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 1773–1796, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-1773-2007, 2007.
Lahoz, W. A., Errera, Q., Viscardy, S., and Manney, G. L.: The 2009 stratospheric major warming described from synergistic use of BASCOE water vapour analyses and MLS observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4689–4703, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-4689-2011, 2011.
Langerock, B., De Mazière, M., Hendrick, F., Vigouroux, C., Desmet, F., Dils, B., and Niemeijer, S.: Description of algorithms for co-locating and comparing gridded model data with remote-sensing observations, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 7, 8151–8178, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-7-8151-2014, 2014.
Lerot, C., Van Roozendael, M., van Geffen, J., van Gent, J., Fayt, C., and Spurr, R.: On the accuracy of GOME and SCIAMACHY total ozone measurements in polar regions, Proceeding "Envisat Symposium 2007", Montreux, Switzerland, 23–27 April 2007 (ESA SP-636, July 2007), 2007.
Lerot, C., Van Roozendael, M., Spurr, R., Loyola, D., Coldewey-Egbers, M., Kochenova, S., van Gent, J., Koukouli4, D. Balis4,, M., Lambert, J.-C., Granville, J., and Zehner, C.: Homogenized total ozone data records from the European sensors GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME-2/MetOp-A., J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 1639–1662, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD020831, 2013.
Levelt, P. F., van den Oord, G. H. J., Dobber, M. R., Malkki, A., Visser, H., de Vries, J., Stammes, P., Lundell, J. O. V., and Saari, H.: The Ozone Monitoring Instrument, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 44, 1093–1101, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2006.872333, 2006.
Lin, S. J. and Rood, R. B.: A fast flux form semi-Lagrangian transport scheme on the sphere, Mon. Weather Rev., 124, 2046–2070, 1996.
Lindenmaier, R., Strong, K., Batchelor, R. L., Bernath, P. F., Chabrillat, S., Chipperfield, M. P., Daffer, W. H., Drummond, J. R., Feng, W., Jonsson, A. I., Kolonjari, F., Manney, G. L., McLinden, C., Ménard, R., and Walker, K. A.: A study of the Arctic NOy budget above Eureka, Canada, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 116, D23302, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD016207, 2011.
Livesey, N. J., van Snyder, W., Read, W. G., and Wagner, P. A.: Retrieval Algorithms for the EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 44, 1144–1155, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2006.872327, 2006.
Livesey, N. J., Read, W., Lambert, A., Cofield, R., Cuddy, D., Froidevaux, L., Fuller, R., Jarnot, R., Jiang, J., Jiang, Y., Knosp, B., Kovalenko, L., Pickett, H., Pumphrey, H., Santee, M., Schwartz, M., Stek, P., Wagner, P., Waters, J., and Wu, D.: Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Version 2.2 and 2.3 Level 2 data quality and description document, Tech. rep., Jet Propulsion Laboratory, http://mls.jpl.nasa.gov/data/v2_data_quality_document.pdf (last access: 22 February 2015), 2013a.
Livesey, N. J., Read, W. G., Froidevaux, L., Lambert, A., Manney, G. L., Pumphrey, H. C., Santee, M. L., Schwartz, M. J., Wang, S., Cofield, R. E., Cuddy, D. T., Fuller, R. A., Jarnot, R. F., Jiang, J. H., Knosp, B. W., Stek, P. C., Wagner, P. A., and Wu, D. L.: Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Version 3.3 and 3.4 Level 2 data quality and description document, Tech. rep., Jet Propulsion Laboratory, http://mls.jpl.nasa.gov/data/v3-3_data_quality_document.pdf (last access: 22 February 2015), 2013b.
Lorenc, A. C.: Analysis methods for numerical weather prediction, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 112, 1177–1194, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49711247414, 1986.
Loyola, D. G., Koukouli, M. E., Valks, P., Balis, D. S., Hao, N., van Roozendael, M., Spurr, R. J. D., Zimmer, W., Kiemle, S., Lerot, C., and Lambert, J.-C.: The GOME-2 total column ozone product: Retrieval algorithm and ground-based validation, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 116, D07302, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014675, 2011.
Majewski, D., Liermann, D., Prohl, P., Ritter, B., Buchhold, M., Hanisch, T., Paul, G., Wergen, W., and Baumgardner, J.: The operational global icosahedral-hexagonal gridpoint model GME: Description and high resolution tests, Mon. Weather Rev., 130, 319–338, https://doi.org/10.1029/1998GL900152, 2001.
Manney, G. L., Santee, M. L., Rex, M., Livesey, N. J., Pitts, M. C., Veefkind, P., Nash, E. R., Wohltmann, I., Lehmann, R., Froidevaux, L., Poole, L. R., Schoeberl, M. R., Haffner, D. P., Davies, J., Dorokhov, V., Gernandt, H., Johnson, B., Kivi, R., Kyrö, E., Larsen, N., Levelt, P. F., Makshtas, A., McElroy, C. T., Nakajima, H., Parrondo, M. C., Tarasick, D. W., von der Gathen, P., Walker, K. A., and Zinoviev, N. S.: Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011, Nature, 478, 469–475, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10556, 2011.
McPeters, R. D., Bhartia, P. K., Haffner, D., Labow, G. J., and Flynn, L.: The version 8.6 SBUV ozone data record: An overview, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 8032–8039, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50597, 2013.
Morcrette, J.-J., Boucher, O., Jones, L., Salmond, D., Bechtold, P., Beljaars, A., Benedetti, A., Bonet, A., Kaiser, J. W., Razinger, M., Schulz, M., Serrar, S., Simmons, A. J., Sofiev, M., Suttie, M., Tompkins, A. M., and Untch, A.: Aerosol analysis and forecast in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Integrated Forecast System: Forward modeling, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D06206, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011235, 2009.
Munro, R., Anderson, C., and Callies, J. e. a.: GOME-2 on MetOp, in: Atmospheric Science Conference, vol. 628 of ESA Special Publication, http://earth.esa.int/workshops/atmos2006/participants/35/paper_Munro_Day5_GOME-2_on_MetOp_Paper.pdf (last access: 22 February 2015), 2006.
Peuch, V.-H., Engelen, R., Simmons, A., Lahoz, W., Laj, P., and Galmarini, S. (Eds.): Monitoring atmospheric composition and climate, research in support of the Copernicus/GMES atmospheric service, Special Issue, Atmos. Chem. Phys., http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/special_issue310.html, 2014.
Pommereau, J. P. and Goutail, F.: O3 and NO2 ground-based measurements by visible spectrometry during Arctic winter and spring 1988, Geophys. Res. Lett., 15, 891–894, https://doi.org/10.1029/GL015i008p00891, 1988.
Prather, M. J.: Numerical advection by conservation of second-order moments, J. Geophy. Res., 91, 6671–6681, https://doi.org/10.1029/JD091iD06p06671, 1986.
Redler, R., Valcke, S., and Ritzdorf, H.: OASIS4 – a coupling software for next generation earth system modelling, Geosci. Model Dev., 3, 87–104, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-3-87-2010, 2010.
Robichaud, A., Ménard, R., Chabrillat, S., de Grandpré, J., Rochon, Y. J., Yang, Y., and Charette, C.: Impact of energetic particle precipitation on stratospheric polar constituents: an assessment using monitoring and assimilation of operational MIPAS data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 1739–1757, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-1739-2010, 2010.
Rood, R. B., Allen, D. J., Baker, W. E., Lamich, D. J., and Kaye, J. A.: The Use of Assimilated Stratospheric Data in Constituent Transport Calculations, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 687–702, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<0687:TUOASD>2.0.CO;2, 1989.
Sagi, K., Murtagh, D., Urban, J., Sagawa, H., and Kasai, Y.: The use of SMILES data to study ozone loss in the Arctic winter 2009/2010 and comparison with Odin/SMR data using assimilation techniques, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12855–12869, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-12855-2014, 2014.
Sander, S. P., Golden, D. M., and Kurylo, M. J., e. a.: Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies, Evaluation Number 15, JPL Publication 02-25, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA, http://jpldataeval.jpl.nasa.gov/pdf/JPL_15_AllInOne.pdf (last access: 22 February 2015), 2006.
Scarnato, B., Staehelin, J., Peter, T., GröBner, J., and Stübi, R.: Temperature and slant path effects in Dobson and Brewer total ozone measurements, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D24303, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012349, 2009.
Schoeberl, M. R., Douglass, A. R., Hilsenrath, E., Bhartia, P. K., Beer, R., Waters, J. W., Gunson, M. R., Froidevaux, L., Gille, J. C., Barnett, J. J., Levelt, P. F., and de Cola, P.: Overview of the EOS Aura Mission, IEEE T. Geosci.Remote, 44, 1066–1074, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2005.861950, 2006.
Schwinger, J. and Elbern, H.: Chemical state estimation for the middle atmosphere by four-dimensional variational data assimilation: a posteriori validation of error statistics in observation space, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D18307, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013115, 2010.
Smit, H. G. J., Sträter, W., Helten, M., Kley, D., Ciupa, D., Claude, H., Köhler, U., Hoegger, B., Levrat, G., Johnson, B., Oltmans, S. J., Kerr, J. B., Tarasick, D. W., Davies, J., Shitamichi, M., Srivastav, S. K., and Vialle, C.: JOSIE: The 1996 WMO international intercomparison of ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental chamber at Jülich, in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the Quadrennial O3 Symposium, l'Aquila, Italy, 971–974, 1996.
Smit, H. G. J., Straeter, W., Johnson, B. J., Oltmans, S. J., Davies, J., Tarasick, D. W., Hoegger, B., Stubi, R., Schmidlin, F. J., Northam, T., Thompson, A. M., Witte, J. C., Boyd, I., and Posny, F.: Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber: Insights from the Juelich Ozone Sonde Intercomparison Experiment (JOSIE), J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D19306, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007308, 2007.
Solomon, S.: Stratospheric ozone depletion: a review of concepts and history, Rev. Geophys., 37, 275–316, 1999.
Solomon, S., Portmann, R. W., Sasaki, T., Hofmann, D. J., and Thompson, D. W. J.: Four decades of ozonesonde measurements over Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 110, D21311, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD005917, 2005.
Stein, O., Flemming, J., Inness, A., Kaiser, J., and Schultz, M.: Global reactive gases forecasts and reanalysis in the MACC project, J. Integr. Environ. Sci., 9, 57–70, https://doi.org/10.1080/1943815X.2012.696545, 2012.
Stein, O., Huijnen, V., and Flemming, J.: Model description of the IFS-MOZART and IFS-TM5 coupled systems, MACC-II project deliverable D55.4, ECMWF, http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/documents/maccii/deliverables/grg/MACCII_GRG_DEL_D_55.4_IFS-MOZART_and_TM5.pdf (last access: 22 February 2015), 2013.
Stübi, R., Levrat, G., Hoegger, B., Viatte, P., Staehelin, J., and Schmidlin, F. J.: In-flight comparison of Brewer-Mast and electrochemical concentration cell ozonesondes, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D13302, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009091, 2008.
van der A, R. J., Allaart, M. A. F., and Eskes, H. J.: Multi sensor reanalysis of total ozone, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11277–11294, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-11277-2010, 2010.
van Roozendael, M., Hermans, C., Kabbadj, Y., Lambert, J.-C., Vandaele, A.-C., Simon, P. C., Carleer, M., Guilmot, J.-M., and Colin, R. : Ground-based measurements of stratospheric OCIO, NO2 and O3 at Harestua, Norway (60°N, 10°E) during SESAME, European rocket and balloon programmes and related research, 370, 305, 1995.
Van Roozendael, M., Peeters, P., Roscoe, H. K., De Backer, H., Jones, A. E., Bartlett, L., Vaughan, G., Goutail, F., Pommereau, J.-P., Kyro, E., Wahlstrom, C., Braathen,, G., and Simon, P. C.: Validation of Ground-Based Visible Measurements of Total Ozone by Comparison with Dobson and Brewer Spectrophotometers, J. Atmos. Chem., 29, 55–83, 1998.
van Roozendael, M., Loyola, D., Spurr, R., Balis, D., Lambert, J.-C., Livschitz, Y., Valks, P., Ruppert, T., Kenter, P., Fayt, C., and Zehner, C.: Ten years of GOME/ERS-2 total ozone data - The new GOME data processor (GDP) version 4: 1. Algorithm description, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 111, D14311, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006375, 2006.
Viscardy, S., Errera, Q., Christophe, Y., Chabrillat, S., and Lambert, J.-C.: Evaluation of ozone analyses from UARS MLS assimilation by BASCOE between 1992 and 1997, JSTARS 3, 190–202, 2010.
von Bargen, A., Schröder, T., Kretschel, K., Hess, M., Lerot, C., Van Roozendael, M., Vountas, M., Kokhanovsky, A., Lotz, W., and H., B.: Operational SCIAMACHY Level 1B-2 Off-line processor: total vertical columns for O3 and NO2 and cloud products., Proceeding Envisat Symposium 2007, Montreux, Switzerland, 23–27 April 2007 (ESA SP-636, July 2007), 2007.
Waters, J. W., Froidevaux, L., Harwood, R. S., Jarnot, R. F., Pickett, H. M., Read, W. G., Siegel, P. H., Cofield, R. E., Filipiak, M. J., Flower, D. A., Holden, J. R., Lau, G. K., Livesey, N. J., Manney, G. L., Pumphrey, H. C., Santee, M. L., Wu, D. L., Cuddy, D. T., Lay, R. R., Loo, M. S., Perun, V. S., Schwartz, M. J., Stek, P. C., Thurstans, R. P., Boyles, M. A., Chandra, K. M., Chavez, M. C., Chen, G.-S., Chudasama, B. V., Dodge, R., Fuller, R. A., Girard, M. A., Jiang, J. H., Jiang, Y., Knosp, B. W., Labelle, R. C., Lam, J. C., Lee, A. K., Miller, D., Oswald, J. E., Patel, N. C., Pukala, D. M., Quintero, O., Scaff, D. M., Vansnyder, W., Tope, M. C., Wagner, P. A., and Walch, M. J.: The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura Satellite, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 44, 1075–1092, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2006.873771, 2006.
Weaver, A. and Courtier, P.: Correlation modelling on the sphere using a generalized diffusion equation, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 127, 1815–1846, 2001.
Weber, M., Dikty, S., Burrows, J. P., Garny, H., Dameris, M., Kubin, A., Abalichin, J., and Langematz, U.: The Brewer-Dobson circulation and total ozone from seasonal to decadal time scales, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11221–11235, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-11221-2011, 2011.
WMO: WMO/UNEP Report of the 8th ORM (Ozone Research Managers) Meeting of the Parties to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Geneva, Switzerland, 2–4 May 2011), http://ozone.unep.org/new_site/en/Treaties/treaties_decisions-hb.php?dec_id=1003 (last access: 22 February 2015), 2011.
We validate and discuss the analyses of stratospheric ozone delivered in near-real time between 2009 and 2012 by four different data assimilation systems: IFS-MOZART, BASCOE, SACADA and TM3DAM. It is shown that the characteristics of the assimilation systems are much less important than those of the assimilated data sets. A correct representation of the vertical distribution of ozone requires satellite observations which are well resolved vertically and extend into the lowermost stratosphere.
We validate and discuss the analyses of stratospheric ozone delivered in near-real time between...