Trends of ozone total columns and vertical distribution from FTIR observations at eight NDACC stations around the globe
- 1Department of Atmospheric Composition, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Brussels, Belgium
- 2Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-ASF), Karlsruhe, Germany
- 3Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, Colorado, USA
- 4Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre (IARC), Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET), Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
- 5Centre for Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia
- 6Department of Atmosphere, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA), Lauder, New Zealand
- 7Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics, University of Liège (ULg), Liège, Belgium
- 8Department of Earth and Space Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
- 9Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
- 10Climate Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Helsinki, Finland
Abstract. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements of solar absorption spectra can provide ozone total columns with a precision of 2% but also independent partial column amounts in about four vertical layers, one in the troposphere and three in the stratosphere up to about 45km, with a precision of 5–6%. We use eight of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) stations having a long-term time series of FTIR ozone measurements to study the total and vertical ozone trends and variability, namely, Ny-Ålesund (79° N), Thule (77° N), Kiruna (68° N), Harestua (60° N), Jungfraujoch (47° N), Izaña (28° N), Wollongong (34° S) and Lauder (45° S). The length of the FTIR time series varies by station but is typically from about 1995 to present. We applied to the monthly means of the ozone total and four partial columns a stepwise multiple regression model including the following proxies: solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic and Antarctic Oscillation (AO/AAO), tropopause pressure (TP), equivalent latitude (EL), Eliassen–Palm flux (EPF), and volume of polar stratospheric clouds (VPSC).
At the Arctic stations, the trends are found mostly negative in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, very mixed in the middle stratosphere, positive in the upper stratosphere due to a large increase in the 1995–2003 period, and non-significant when considering the total columns. The trends for mid-latitude and subtropical stations are all non-significant, except at Lauder in the troposphere and upper stratosphere and at Wollongong for the total columns and the lower and middle stratospheric columns where they are found positive. At Jungfraujoch, the upper stratospheric trend is close to significance (+0.9 ± 1.0% decade−1). Therefore, some signs of the onset of ozone mid-latitude recovery are observed only in the Southern Hemisphere, while a few more years seem to be needed to observe it at the northern mid-latitude station.