Articles | Volume 18, issue 17
12 Sep 2018
Research article | 12 Sep 2018
Quantifying the vertical transport of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 over the western Pacific
Robyn Butler et al.
R. Hossaini, P. K. Patra, A. A. Leeson, G. Krysztofiak, N. L. Abraham, S. J. Andrews, A. T. Archibald, J. Aschmann, E. L. Atlas, D. A. Belikov, H. Bönisch, L. J. Carpenter, S. Dhomse, M. Dorf, A. Engel, W. Feng, S. Fuhlbrügge, P. T. Griffiths, N. R. P. Harris, R. Hommel, T. Keber, K. Krüger, S. T. Lennartz, S. Maksyutov, H. Mantle, G. P. Mills, B. Miller, S. A. Montzka, F. Moore, M. A. Navarro, D. E. Oram, K. Pfeilsticker, J. A. Pyle, B. Quack, A. D. Robinson, E. Saikawa, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Sala, B.-M. Sinnhuber, S. Taguchi, S. Tegtmeier, R. T. Lidster, C. Wilson, and F. Ziska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9163–9187,
Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Robert J. Parker, Mark F. Lunt, and Hartmut Boesch
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Our understanding of recent changes in atmospheric methane has defied explanation. The atmospheric growth of methane has since 2007 accelerated to record-breaking values in 2020 and 2021. We use satellite observations of methane to show that 1) increasing emissions over the tropics are mostly responsible for these recent atmospheric changes, and 2) changes in the OH sink during the 2020 Covid-19 shutdown can explain up to 20 % of changes in atmospheric methane for that year.
Simone T. Andersen, Beth S. Nelson, Katie A. Read, Shalini Punjabi, Luis Neves, Matthew J. Rowlinson, James Hopkins, Tomás Sherwen, Lisa K. Whalley, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The cycling of NO and NO2 is important to understand to be able to predict O3 concentrations in the atmosphere. We have used long-term measurements from the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory together with model outputs to investigate the cycling of nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in very clean marine air. This study shows that we understand the processes occurring in very clean air, but with small amounts of pollution in the air known chemistry cannot explain what is observed.
Eric A. Ray, Elliot L. Atlas, Sue Schauffler, Sofia Chelpon, Laura Pan, Harald Bönisch, and Karen H. Rosenlof
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6539–6558,Short summary
The movement of air masses and the trace gases they contain from the Earth’s surface into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) can have important implications for the radiative and chemical balance of the atmosphere. In this study we build on recent techniques and use new ones to estimate a range of transport diagnostics based on simultaneously measured trace gases in the UTLS during the monsoon season in North America.
Guus J. M. Velders, John S. Daniel, Stephen A. Montzka, Isaac Vimont, Matthew Rigby, Paul B. Krummel, Jens Muhle, Simon O'Doherty, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6087–6101,Short summary
The emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have increased significantly in the past as a result of the phasing out of ozone-depleting substances. Observations indicate that HFCs are used much less in certain refrigeration applications than previously projected. Current policies are projected to reduce emissions and the surface temperature contribution of HFCs from 0.28–0.44 °C to 0.14–0.31 °C in 2100. The Kigali Amendment is projected to reduce the contributions further to 0.04 °C in 2100.
Hannah Walker, Daniel Stone, Trevor Ingham, Sina Hackenberg, Danny Cryer, Shalini Punjabi, Katie Read, James Lee, Lisa Whalley, Dominick V. Spracklen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Steve R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5535–5557,Short summary
Glyoxal is a ubiquitous reactive organic compound in the atmosphere, which may form organic aerosol and impact the atmosphere's oxidising capacity. There are limited measurements of glyoxal's abundance in the remote marine atmosphere. We made new measurements of glyoxal using a highly sensitive technique over two 4-week periods in the tropical Atlantic atmosphere. We show that daytime measurements are mostly consistent with our chemical understanding but a potential missing source at night.
Luke M. Western, Alison L. Redington, Alistair J. Manning, Cathy M. Trudinger, Lei Hu, Stephan Henne, Xuekun Fang, Lambert J. M. Kuijpers, Christina Theodoridi, David S. Godwin, Jgor Arduini, Bronwyn Dunse, Andreas Engel, Paul J. Fraser, Christina M. Harth, Paul B. Krummel, Michela Maione, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Hyeri Park, Sunyoung Park, Stefan Reimann, Peter K. Salameh, Daniel Say, Roland Schmidt, Tanja Schuck, Carolina Siso, Kieran M. Stanley, Isaac Vimont, Martin K. Vollmer, Dickon Young, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Stephen A. Montzka, and Matthew Rigby
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
The production of ozone destroying gases is being phased out. Even though production of one of the main ozone depleting gases, called HCFC-141b, has been declining for many years, the amount that is being released to the atmosphere has been increasing since 2017. We do not know for sure why this is. A possible explanation is that HCFC-141b that was used to make insulating foams many years ago is only now escaping to the atmosphere, or a large part of its production is not being reported.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Matthew W. Jones, Michael O'Sullivan, Robbie M. Andrew, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Judith Hauck, Corinne Le Quéré, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Rob B. Jackson, Simone R. Alin, Peter Anthoni, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Laurent Bopp, Thi Tuyet Trang Chau, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Margot Cronin, Kim I. Currie, Bertrand Decharme, Laique M. Djeutchouang, Xinyu Dou, Wiley Evans, Richard A. Feely, Liang Feng, Thomas Gasser, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Giacomo Grassi, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Özgür Gürses, Ian Harris, Richard A. Houghton, George C. Hurtt, Yosuke Iida, Tatiana Ilyina, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Atul Jain, Steve D. Jones, Etsushi Kato, Daniel Kennedy, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jürgen Knauer, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Sebastian Lienert, Junjie Liu, Gregg Marland, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Tsuneo Ono, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Thais M. Rosan, Jörg Schwinger, Clemens Schwingshackl, Roland Séférian, Adrienne J. Sutton, Colm Sweeney, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Chisato Wada, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Chao Yue, Xu Yue, Sönke Zaehle, and Jiye Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1917–2005,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2021 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Carlos Alberti, Frank Hase, Matthias Frey, Darko Dubravica, Thomas Blumenstock, Angelika Dehn, Paolo Castracane, Gregor Surawicz, Roland Harig, Bianca C. Baier, Caroline Bès, Jianrong Bi, Hartmut Boesch, André Butz, Zhaonan Cai, Jia Chen, Sean M. Crowell, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dragos Ene, Jonathan E. Franklin, Omaira García, David Griffith, Bruno Grouiez, Michel Grutter, Abdelhamid Hamdouni, Sander Houweling, Neil Humpage, Nicole Jacobs, Sujong Jeong, Lilian Joly, Nicholas B. Jones, Denis Jouglet, Rigel Kivi, Ralph Kleinschek, Morgan Lopez, Diogo J. Medeiros, Isamu Morino, Nasrin Mostafavipak, Astrid Müller, Hirofumi Ohyama, Paul I. Palmer, Mahesh Pathakoti, David F. Pollard, Uwe Raffalski, Michel Ramonet, Robbie Ramsay, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, William Simpson, Wolfgang Stremme, Youwen Sun, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Yao Té, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Voltaire A. Velazco, Felix Vogel, Masataka Watanabe, Chong Wei, Debra Wunch, Marcia Yamasoe, Lu Zhang, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2433–2463,Short summary
Space-borne greenhouse gas missions require ground-based validation networks capable of providing fiducial reference measurements. Here, considerable refinements of the calibration procedures for the COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) are presented. Laboratory and solar side-by-side procedures for the characterization of the spectrometers have been refined and extended. Revised calibration factors for XCO2, XCO and XCH4 are provided, incorporating 47 new spectrometers.
Zhu Deng, Philippe Ciais, Zitely A. Tzompa-Sosa, Marielle Saunois, Chunjing Qiu, Chang Tan, Taochun Sun, Piyu Ke, Yanan Cui, Katsumasa Tanaka, Xin Lin, Rona L. Thompson, Hanqin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao, Yuanyuan Huang, Ronny Lauerwald, Atul K. Jain, Xiaoming Xu, Ana Bastos, Stephen Sitch, Paul I. Palmer, Thomas Lauvaux, Alexandre d'Aspremont, Clément Giron, Antoine Benoit, Benjamin Poulter, Jinfeng Chang, Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Steven J. Davis, Zhu Liu, Giacomo Grassi, Clément Albergel, Francesco N. Tubiello, Lucia Perugini, Wouter Peters, and Frédéric Chevallier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1639–1675,Short summary
In support of the global stocktake of the Paris Agreement on climate change, we proposed a method for reconciling the results of global atmospheric inversions with data from UNFCCC national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGIs). Here, based on a new global harmonized database that we compiled from the UNFCCC NGHGIs and a comprehensive framework presented in this study to process the results of inversions, we compared their results of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O).
Matthias Nützel, Sabine Brinkop, Martin Dameris, Hella Garny, Patrick Jöckel, Laura L. Pan, and Mijeong Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
During the Asian summer monsoon season a large high-pressure system is present at levels close to the tropopause above Asia. We analyze how air masses are transported from surface levels to this high pressure system, which shows distinct features from the surrounding air masses. To achieve this, we employ multiannual data from two complementary models that allow us analyze these transport pathways. With this method we investigate the interannual and intraseasonal variability.
Lei Hu, Stephen A. Montzka, Fred Moore, Eric Hintsa, Geoff Dutton, M. Carolina Siso, Kirk Thoning, Robert W. Portmann, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Isaac Vimont, David Nance, Bradley Hall, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2891–2907,Short summary
The unexpected increase in CFC-11 emissions between 2012 and 2017 resulted in concerns about delaying the stratospheric ozone recovery. Although the subsequent decline of CFC-11 emissions indicated a mitigation in part to this problem, the regions fully responsible for these large emission changes were unclear. Here, our new estimate, based on atmospheric measurements from two global campaigns and from NOAA, suggests Asia primarily contributed to the global CFC-11 emission rise during 2012–2017.
Douglas P. Finch, Paul I. Palmer, and Tianran Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 721–733,Short summary
We developed a machine learning model to detect plumes of nitrogen dioxide satellite observations over 2 years. We find over 310 000 plumes, mainly over cities, industrial regions, and areas of oil and gas production. Our model performs well in comparison to other datasets and in some cases finds emissions that are not included in other datasets. This method could be used to help locate and measure emission hotspots across the globe and help inform climate policies.
Yanan Zhao, Dennis Booge, Christa A. Marandino, Cathleen Schlundt, Astrid Bracher, Elliot L. Atlas, Jonathan Williams, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 19, 701–714,Short summary
We present here, for the first time, simultaneously measured dimethylsulfide (DMS) seawater concentrations and DMS atmospheric mole fractions from the Peruvian upwelling region during two cruises in December 2012 and October 2015. Our results indicate low oceanic DMS concentrations and atmospheric DMS molar fractions in surface waters and the atmosphere, respectively. In addition, the Peruvian upwelling region was identified as an insignificant source of DMS emissions during both periods.
Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O'Dell, David Crisp, Akhiko Kuze, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Paul O. Wennberg, Abhishek Chatterjee, Michael Gunson, Annmarie Eldering, Brendan Fisher, Matthäus Kiel, Robert R. Nelson, Aronne Merrelli, Greg Osterman, Frédéric Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra K. Dubey, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Martine De Mazière, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Matthias Schneider, Coleen M. Roehl, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 325–360,Short summary
We provide an analysis of an 11-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations derived using an optimal estimation retrieval algorithm on measurements made by the GOSAT satellite. The new product (version 9) shows improvement over the previous version (v7.3) as evaluated against independent estimates of CO2 from ground-based sensors and atmospheric inversion systems. We also compare the new GOSAT CO2 values to collocated estimates from NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2.
Robert J. Parker, Chris Wilson, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Toby R. Marthews, A. Anthony Bloom, Mark F. Lunt, Nicola Gedney, Simon J. Dadson, Joe McNorton, Neil Humpage, Hartmut Boesch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Paul I. Palmer, and Dai Yamazaki
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane, one of the most important climate gases. The JULES land surface model simulates these emissions. We use satellite data to evaluate how well JULES reproduces the methane seasonal cycle over different tropical wetlands. It performs well for most regions however struggles for some African wetlands influenced heavily by river flooding. We explain the reasons for these deficiencies and highlight how future development will improve these areas.
Dien Wu, Junjie Liu, Paul O. Wennberg, Paul I. Palmer, Robert R. Nelson, Matthäus Kiel, and Annmarie Eldering
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Most previous studies have combined satellite-based CO2 and CO data to infer combustion efficiency at the regional and city scale. In this study, we zoomed into the urban area and accounted for several factors that can affect the calculation of spatially-resolved combustion efficiency from TROPOMI and OCO-3. We further related the intra-city variability in combustion efficiency to heavy industry in the city without relying on prior emission inventories.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Francis D. Pope, Chris Reed, James D. Lee, Lucy J. Carpenter, Lloyd D. J. Hollis, Stephen M. Ball, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18213–18225,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key source of atmospheric oxidants. We evaluate if the ocean surface is a source of HONO for the marine boundary layer, using measurements from two contrasting coastal locations. We observed no evidence for a night-time ocean surface source, in contrast to previous work. This points to significant geographical variation in the predominant HONO formation mechanisms in marine environments, reflecting possible variability in the sea-surface microlayer composition.
Sebastian Landwehr, Michele Volpi, F. Alexander Haumann, Charlotte M. Robinson, Iris Thurnherr, Valerio Ferracci, Andrea Baccarini, Jenny Thomas, Irina Gorodetskaya, Christian Tatzelt, Silvia Henning, Rob L. Modini, Heather J. Forrer, Yajuan Lin, Nicolas Cassar, Rafel Simó, Christel Hassler, Alireza Moallemi, Sarah E. Fawcett, Neil Harris, Ruth Airs, Marzieh H. Derkani, Alberto Alberello, Alessandro Toffoli, Gang Chen, Pablo Rodríguez-Ros, Marina Zamanillo, Pau Cortés-Greus, Lei Xue, Conor G. Bolas, Katherine C. Leonard, Fernando Perez-Cruz, David Walton, and Julia Schmale
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 1295–1369,Short summary
The Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition surveyed a large number of variables describing the dynamic state of ocean and atmosphere, freshwater cycle, atmospheric chemistry, ocean biogeochemistry, and microbiology in the Southern Ocean. To reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, we apply a sparse principal component analysis and identify temporal patterns from diurnal to seasonal cycles, as well as geographical gradients and
hotspotsof interaction. Code and data are open access.
Paul D. Hamer, Virginie Marécal, Ryan Hossaini, Michel Pirre, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Franziska Ziska, Andreas Engel, Stephan Sala, Timo Keber, Harald Bönisch, Elliot Atlas, Kirstin Krüger, Martyn Chipperfield, Valery Catoire, Azizan A. Samah, Marcel Dorf, Phang Siew Moi, Hans Schlager, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16955–16984,Short summary
Bromoform is a stratospheric ozone-depleting gas released by seaweed and plankton transported to the stratosphere via convection in the tropics. We study the chemical interactions of bromoform and its derivatives within convective clouds using a cloud-scale model and observations. Our findings are that soluble bromine gases are efficiently washed out and removed within the convective clouds and that most bromine is transported vertically to the upper troposphere in the form of bromoform.
Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Grant Allen, Tim Arnold, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Hartmut Boesch, Anita L. Ganesan, Aoife Grant, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, Simon J. O'Doherty, Paul I. Palmer, Joseph R. Pitt, Chris Rennick, Daniel Say, Kieran M. Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Dickon Young, and Matt Rigby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16257–16276,Short summary
We present an evaluation of the UK's methane emissions between 2013 and 2020 using a network of tall tower measurement sites. We find emissions that are consistent in both magnitude and trend with the UK's reported emissions, with a declining trend driven by a decrease in emissions from England. The impact of various components of the modelling set-up on these findings are explored through a number of sensitivity studies.
Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, Dale F. Hurst, Geoff S. Dutton, Bradley D. Hall, J. David Nance, Ben R. Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Laura P. Wolton, Audra McClure-Begley, James W. Elkins, Emrys G. Hall, Allen F. Jordan, Andrew W. Rollins, Troy D. Thornberry, Laurel A. Watts, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Thomas B. Ryerson, Bruce C. Daube, Yenny Gonzalez Ramos, Roisin Commane, Gregory W. Santoni, Jasna V. Pittman, Steven C. Wofsy, Eric Kort, Glenn S. Diskin, and T. Paul Bui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6795–6819,Short summary
We built UCATS to study atmospheric chemistry and transport. It has measured trace gases including CFCs, N2O, SF6, CH4, CO, and H2 with gas chromatography, as well as ozone and water vapor. UCATS has been part of missions to study the tropical tropopause; transport of air into the stratosphere; greenhouse gases, transport, and chemistry in the troposphere; and ozone chemistry, on both piloted and unmanned aircraft. Its design, capabilities, and some results are shown and described here.
Hélène Angot, Connor Davel, Christine Wiedinmyer, Gabrielle Pétron, Jashan Chopra, Jacques Hueber, Brendan Blanchard, Ilann Bourgeois, Isaac Vimont, Stephen A. Montzka, Ben R. Miller, James W. Elkins, and Detlev Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15153–15170,Short summary
After a multidecadal global decline in atmospheric abundance of ethane and propane (precursors of tropospheric ozone and aerosols), previous work showed a reversal of this trend in 2009–2015 in the Northern Hemisphere due to the growth in oil and natural gas production in North America. Here we show a temporary pause in the growth of atmospheric ethane and propane in 2015–2018 and highlight the critical need for additional top-down studies to further constrain ethane and propane emissions.
Mehliyar Sadiq, Paul I. Palmer, Mark F. Lunt, Liang Feng, Ingrid Super, Stijn N. C. Dellaert, and Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We make use of high-resolution emission inventory of CO2 and co-emitted tracers, satellite measurements, together with nested atmospheric transport model simulation, to investigate how reactive trace gases such as nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide can be used as proxies to determine the combustion contribution to atmospheric CO2 over Europe. We find stronger correlation in ratios of nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide between emission and satellite observed and modelled column concentration.
Antoine Berchet, Espen Sollum, Rona L. Thompson, Isabelle Pison, Joël Thanwerdas, Grégoire Broquet, Frédéric Chevallier, Tuula Aalto, Adrien Berchet, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Richard Engelen, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Christoph Gerbig, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Stephan Henne, Sander Houweling, Ute Karstens, Werner L. Kutsch, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Guillaume Monteil, Paul I. Palmer, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Elise Potier, Christian Rödenbeck, Marielle Saunois, Marko Scholze, Aki Tsuruta, and Yuanhong Zhao
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5331–5354,Short summary
We present here the Community Inversion Framework (CIF) to help rationalize development efforts and leverage the strengths of individual inversion systems into a comprehensive framework. The CIF is a programming protocol to allow various inversion bricks to be exchanged among researchers. The ensemble of bricks makes a flexible, transparent and open-source Python-based tool. We describe the main structure and functionalities and demonstrate it in a simple academic case.
Yenny Gonzalez, Róisín Commane, Ethan Manninen, Bruce C. Daube, Luke D. Schiferl, J. Barry McManus, Kathryn McKain, Eric J. Hintsa, James W. Elkins, Stephen A. Montzka, Colm Sweeney, Fred Moore, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano Jost, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea R. Thompson, Eric Ray, Paul O. Wennberg, John Crounse, Michelle Kim, Hannah M. Allen, Paul A. Newman, Britton B. Stephens, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Benjamin A. Nault, Eric Morgan, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11113–11132,Short summary
Vertical profiles of N2O and a variety of chemical species and aerosols were collected nearly from pole to pole over the oceans during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography mission. We observed that tropospheric N2O variability is strongly driven by the influence of stratospheric air depleted in N2O, especially at middle and high latitudes. We also traced the origins of biomass burning and industrial emissions and investigated their impact on the variability of tropospheric N2O.
Caterina Mogno, Paul I. Palmer, Christoph Knote, Fei Yao, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10881–10909,Short summary
We use a 3-D atmospheric chemistry model to investigate how seasonal emissions sources and meteorological conditions affect the surface distribution of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and organic aerosol (OA) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain. We find that all seasonal mean values of PM2.5 still exceed safe air quality levels, with human emissions contributing to PM2.5 all year round, open fires during post- and pre-monsoon, and biogenic emissions during monsoon. OA contributes up to 30 % to PM2.5.
Fabienne Maignan, Camille Abadie, Marine Remaud, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Róisín Commane, Richard Wehr, J. Elliott Campbell, Sauveur Belviso, Stephen A. Montzka, Nina Raoult, Ulli Seibt, Yoichi P. Shiga, Nicolas Vuichard, Mary E. Whelan, and Philippe Peylin
Biogeosciences, 18, 2917–2955,Short summary
The assimilation of carbonyl sulfide (COS) by continental vegetation has been proposed as a proxy for gross primary production (GPP). Using a land surface and a transport model, we compare a mechanistic representation of the plant COS uptake (Berry et al., 2013) to the classical leaf relative uptake (LRU) approach linking GPP and vegetation COS fluxes. We show that at high temporal resolutions a mechanistic approach is mandatory, but at large scales the LRU approach compares similarly.
Simone T. Andersen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Beth S. Nelson, Luis Neves, Katie A. Read, Chris Reed, Martyn Ward, Matthew J. Rowlinson, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3071–3085,Short summary
NOx has been measured in remote marine air via chemiluminescence detection using two different methods for NO2 to NO photolytic conversion: (a) internal diodes and a reaction chamber made of Teflon-like barium-doped material, which causes a NO2 artefact, and (b) external diodes and a quartz photolysis cell. Once corrections are made for the artefact of (a), the two converters are shown to give comparable NO2 mixing ratios, giving confidence in the quantitative measurement of NOx at low levels.
Stijn Naus, Stephen A. Montzka, Prabir K. Patra, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4809–4824,Short summary
Following up on previous box model studies, we employ a 3D transport model to estimate variations in the hydroxyl radical (OH) from observations of methyl chloroform (MCF). We derive small interannual OH variations that are consistent with variations in the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. We also find evidence for the release of MCF from oceans in atmospheric gradients of MCF. Both findings highlight the added value of a 3D transport model since box model studies did not identify these effects.
Jin Ma, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Ara Cho, Stephen A. Montzka, Norbert Glatthor, John R. Worden, Le Kuai, Elliot L. Atlas, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3507–3529,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide is an important trace gas in the atmosphere and useful to estimating gross primary productivity in ecosystems, but its sources and sinks remain highly uncertain. Therefore, we applied inverse model system TM5-4DVAR to better constrain the global budget. Our finding is in line with earlier studies, pointing to missing sources in the tropics and more uptake in high latitudes. We also stress the necessity of more ground-based observations and satellite data assimilation in future.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Tetsu Sakai, Tomohiro Nagai, Koichi Shiraishi, Yoichi Inai, Sergey Khaykin, Haosen Xi, Takashi Shibata, Masato Shiotani, and Laura L. Pan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3073–3090,Short summary
Lidar aerosol particle measurements in Japan during the summer of 2018 were found to detect the eastward extension of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer from the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone in the lower stratosphere. Analysis of various other data indicates that the observed enhanced particle levels are due to eastward-shedding vortices from the anticyclone, originating from pollutants emitted in Asian countries and transported vertically by convection in the Asian summer monsoon region.
Margaret R. Marvin, Paul I. Palmer, Barry G. Latter, Richard Siddans, Brian J. Kerridge, Mohd Talib Latif, and Md Firoz Khan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1917–1935,Short summary
We use an atmospheric chemistry model in combination with satellite and surface observations to investigate how biomass burning affects tropospheric ozone over Southeast Asia during its fire seasons. We find that nitrogen oxides from biomass burning were responsible for about 30 % of the regional ozone formation potential, and we estimate that ozone from biomass burning caused more than 400 excess premature deaths in Southeast Asia during the peak burning months of March and September 2014.
Marc von Hobe, Felix Ploeger, Paul Konopka, Corinna Kloss, Alexey Ulanowski, Vladimir Yushkov, Fabrizio Ravegnani, C. Michael Volk, Laura L. Pan, Shawn B. Honomichl, Simone Tilmes, Douglas E. Kinnison, Rolando R. Garcia, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1267–1285,Short summary
The Asian summer monsoon (ASM) is known to foster transport of polluted tropospheric air into the stratosphere. To test and amend our picture of ASM vertical transport, we analyse distributions of airborne trace gas observations up to 20 km altitude near the main ASM vertical conduit south of the Himalayas. We also show that a new high-resolution version of the global chemistry climate model WACCM is able to reproduce the observations well.
David C. Loades, Mingxi Yang, Thomas G. Bell, Adam R. Vaughan, Ryan J. Pound, Stefan Metzger, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6915–6931,Short summary
The loss of ozone to the sea surface was measured from the south coast of the UK and was found to be more rapid than previous observations over the open ocean. This is likely a consequence of different chemistry and biology in coastal environments. Strong winds appeared to speed up the loss of ozone. A better understanding of what influences ozone loss over the sea will lead to better model estimates of total ozone in the troposphere.
James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Doug P. Finch, Shona E. Wilde, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15743–15759,Short summary
Efforts to prevent the COVID-19 virus spreading across the globe have included travel restrictions and the closure of workplaces, leading to a significant drop in emissions of primary air pollutants. This provides for a unique opportunity to examine how air pollutant concentrations respond to an abrupt and prolonged reduction. We examine how NO2 and O3 have been affected at several urban measurement sites in the UK. We look at the change in NO2 compared to previous years and the effect on O3.
Robert J. Parker, Alex Webb, Hartmut Boesch, Peter Somkuti, Rocio Barrio Guillo, Antonio Di Noia, Nikoleta Kalaitzi, Jasdeep S. Anand, Peter Bergamaschi, Frederic Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Coleen Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3383–3412,Short summary
This work presents the latest release of the University of Leicester GOSAT methane data and acts as the definitive description of this dataset. We detail the processing, validation and evaluation involved in producing these data and highlight its many applications. With now over a decade of global atmospheric methane observations, this dataset has helped, and will continue to help, us better understand the global methane budget and investigate how it may respond to a future changing climate.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone Alin, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Almut Arneth, Vivek Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Selma Bultan, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Wiley Evans, Liesbeth Florentie, Piers M. Forster, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Ian Harris, Kerstin Hartung, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Vassilis Kitidis, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Adam J. P. Smith, Adrienne J. Sutton, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3269–3340,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2020 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, David Fahey, Eric Jensen, Sergey Khaykin, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Laura L. Pan, Martin Riese, Andrew Rollins, Fred Stroh, Troy Thornberry, Veronika Wolf, Sarah Woods, Peter Spichtinger, Johannes Quaas, and Odran Sourdeval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12569–12608,Short summary
To improve the representations of cirrus clouds in climate predictions, extended knowledge of their properties and geographical distribution is required. This study presents extensive airborne in situ and satellite remote sensing climatologies of cirrus and humidity, which serve as a guide to cirrus clouds. Further, exemplary radiative characteristics of cirrus types and also in situ observations of tropical tropopause layer cirrus and humidity in the Asian monsoon anticyclone are shown.
Ruqian Miao, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Yele Sun, Paul I. Palmer, Manish Shrivastava, Jianping Guo, Qiang Zhang, Yuhan Liu, Zhaofeng Tan, Xuefei Ma, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12265–12284,Short summary
In this study we evaluated the model performances for simulating secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and organic aerosol (OA) in PM2.5 in China against comprehensive datasets. The potential biases from factors related to meteorology, emission, chemistry, and atmospheric removal are systematically investigated. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of modeling PM2.5, which is important for studies on the effectiveness of emission control strategies.
Swaleha Inamdar, Liselotte Tinel, Rosie Chance, Lucy J. Carpenter, Prabhakaran Sabu, Racheal Chacko, Sarat C. Tripathy, Anvita U. Kerkar, Alok K. Sinha, Parli Venkateswaran Bhaskar, Amit Sarkar, Rajdeep Roy, Tomás Sherwen, Carlos Cuevas, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Kirpa Ram, and Anoop S. Mahajan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12093–12114,Short summary
Iodine chemistry is generating a lot of interest because of its impacts on the oxidising capacity of the marine boundary and depletion of ozone. However, one of the challenges has been predicting the right levels of iodine in the models, which depend on parameterisations for emissions from the sea surface. This paper discusses the different parameterisations available and compares them with observations, showing that our current knowledge is still insufficient, especially on a regional scale.
Johannes C. Laube, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, Karina E. Adcock, Bianca Baier, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Huilin Chen, Elise S. Droste, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Pauli Heikkinen, Andrew J. Hind, Rigel Kivi, Alexander Lojko, Stephen A. Montzka, David E. Oram, Steve Randall, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, Colm Sweeney, Max Thomas, Elinor Tuffnell, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9771–9782,Short summary
We demonstrate that AirCore technology, which is based on small low-cost balloons, can provide access to trace gas measurements such as CFCs at ultra-low abundances. This is a new way to quantify ozone-depleting, and related, substances in the stratosphere, which is largely inaccessible to aircraft. We show two potential uses: (a) tracking the stratospheric circulation, which is predicted to change, and (b) assessing three common meteorological reanalyses driving a global stratospheric model.
Malte Meinshausen, Zebedee R. J. Nicholls, Jared Lewis, Matthew J. Gidden, Elisabeth Vogel, Mandy Freund, Urs Beyerle, Claudia Gessner, Alexander Nauels, Nico Bauer, Josep G. Canadell, John S. Daniel, Andrew John, Paul B. Krummel, Gunnar Luderer, Nicolai Meinshausen, Stephen A. Montzka, Peter J. Rayner, Stefan Reimann, Steven J. Smith, Marten van den Berg, Guus J. M. Velders, Martin K. Vollmer, and Ray H. J. Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3571–3605,Short summary
This study provides the future greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations under the new set of so-called SSP scenarios (the successors of the IPCC SRES and previous representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios). The projected CO2 concentrations range from 350 ppm for low-emission scenarios by 2150 to more than 2000 ppm under the high-emission scenarios. We also provide concentrations, latitudinal gradients, and seasonality for most of the other 42 considered GHGs.
Susann Tegtmeier, Elliot Atlas, Birgit Quack, Franziska Ziska, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7103–7123,Short summary
We investigate emissions of brominated gases from the ocean and their contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion. Once in the atmosphere, these gases usually break down in less than 6 months. Their impact on the ozone layer depends on the prevailing atmospheric circulation, since transport to the stratosphere requires uplift. We combine aircraft and ship observations with atmospheric modelling to analyse how, where, and when these gases are transported from the ocean into the stratosphere.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Christian Stolle, Oliver Wurl, Enno Bahlmann, Xianda Gong, Jens Voigtländer, Heike Wex, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Stefan Barthel, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Marie Roveretto, Chunlin Li, Benoit Grosselin, Veronique Daële, Fabian Senf, Dominik van Pinxteren, Malena Manzi, Nicolás Zabalegui, Sanja Frka, Blaženka Gašparović, Ryan Pereira, Tao Li, Liang Wen, Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Jianmin Chen, Björn Fiedler, Wolf von Tümpling, Katie Alana Read, Shalini Punjabi, Alastair Charles Lewis, James Roland Hopkins, Lucy Jane Carpenter, Ilka Peeken, Tim Rixen, Detlef Schulz-Bull, María Eugenia Monge, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Christian George, Frank Stratmann, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6921–6951,Short summary
An introduction to a comprehensive field campaign performed at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory regarding ocean–atmosphere interactions is given. Chemical, physical, biological and meteorological techniques were applied, and measurements of bulk water, the sea surface microlayer, cloud water and ambient aerosol particles took place. Oceanic compounds were found to be transferred to atmospheric aerosol and to the cloud level; however, sea spray contributions to CCN and INPs were limited.
Jeffery Langille, Adam Bourassa, Laura L. Pan, Daniel Letros, Brian Solheim, Daniel Zawada, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5477–5486,Short summary
Water vapour (WV) is a highly variable and extremely important trace gas in Earth’s atmosphere. Due to its radiative and chemical properties, it is coupled to the climate in an extremely complex manner. This is especially true in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). Despite its importance, the physical processes that control mixing and the distribution of WV in the LMS are poorly understood. This study provides observational evidence of moistening the LMS via mixing across the subtropical jet.
Ryan J. Pound, Tomás Sherwen, Detlev Helmig, Lucy J. Carpenter, and Mat J. Evans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4227–4239,Short summary
Ozone is an important pollutant with impacts on health and the environment. Ozone is lost to plants, land and the oceans. Loss to the ocean is slow compared to all other types of land cover and has not received as much attention. We build on previous work to more accurately model ozone loss to the ocean. We find changes in the concentration of ozone over the oceans, notably the Southern Ocean, which improves model performance.
Sinikka T. Lennartz, Christa A. Marandino, Marc von Hobe, Meinrat O. Andreae, Kazushi Aranami, Elliot Atlas, Max Berkelhammer, Heinz Bingemer, Dennis Booge, Gregory Cutter, Pau Cortes, Stefanie Kremser, Cliff S. Law, Andrew Marriner, Rafel Simó, Birgit Quack, Günther Uher, Huixiang Xie, and Xiaobin Xu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 591–609,Short summary
Sulfur-containing trace gases in the atmosphere influence atmospheric chemistry and the energy budget of the Earth by forming aerosols. The ocean is an important source of the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and its most important precursor carbon disulfide (CS2). In order to assess global variability of the sea surface concentrations of both gases to calculate their oceanic emissions, we have compiled a database of existing shipborne measurements.
Conor G. Bolas, Valerio Ferracci, Andrew D. Robinson, Mohammed I. Mead, Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir, John A. Pyle, Roderic L. Jones, and Neil R. P. Harris
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 821–838,Short summary
Here we present the iDirac, a new instrument capable of making isoprene measurements in remote and challenging environments. The iDirac is a customisable and rugged field instrument for investigating emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation. It has been tested here in a series of experiments to ensure a high degree of technical precision, accuracy and repeatability. This new instrument allows us to ask and answer new questions about the influence of vegetation on the atmosphere.
Michal T. Filus, Elliot L. Atlas, Maria A. Navarro, Elena Meneguz, David Thomson, Matthew J. Ashfold, Lucy J. Carpenter, Stephen J. Andrews, and Neil R. P. Harris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1163–1181,Short summary
The effectiveness of transport of short-lived halocarbons to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere remains an important unknown in quantifying the supply of ozone-depleting substances to the stratosphere. In early 2014, a major field campaign in Guam in the western Pacific, involving UK and US research aircraft, sampled the tropical troposphere and lower stratosphere. The resulting measurements of CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 are compared here with calculations from a Lagrangian model.
Mark F. Lunt, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Christopher M. Taylor, Hartmut Boesch, and Robert J. Parker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14721–14740,Short summary
Using data from the GOSAT satellite between 2010 and 2016 and a Bayesian inversion approach, we estimate monthly emissions of methane from tropical Africa. We find an increase in methane emissions during this period, driven in part by rising emissions from South Sudan. Using ancillary data we attribute this short-term emissions rise to an increase in the extent of the Sudd wetlands driven by increased outflow from the East African lakes.
Elizabeth Asher, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Britton B. Stephens, Doug Kinnison, Eric J. Morgan, Ralph F. Keeling, Elliot L. Atlas, Sue M. Schauffler, Simone Tilmes, Eric A. Kort, Martin S. Hoecker-Martínez, Matt C. Long, Jean-François Lamarque, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Alan J. Hills, and Eric C. Apel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14071–14090,Short summary
Halogenated organic trace gases, which are a source of reactive halogens to the atmosphere, exert a disproportionately large influence on atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reports novel aircraft observations of halogenated compounds over the Southern Ocean in summer and evaluates hypothesized regional sources and emissions of these trace gases through their relationships to additional aircraft observations.
Kuo-Ying Wang, Philippe Nedelec, Hannah Clark, and Neil Harris
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials following the accidents of the 11 March 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants contain very distinctive characteristics over the land surface areas and over the oceanic atmosphere. Air dose rates measured over the land surface areas exhibit a combination of the effects from the deposited radioactive materials on the surface and the airborne radioactive materials. Air dose rates measured over the oceanic atmosphere were due to airborne particles.
Yue Jia, Susann Tegtmeier, Elliot Atlas, and Birgit Quack
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11089–11103,
Tomás Sherwen, Rosie J. Chance, Liselotte Tinel, Daniel Ellis, Mat J. Evans, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1239–1262,Short summary
Iodine plays an important role in the Earth system, as a nutrient to the biosphere and by changing the concentrations of climate and air-quality species. However, there are uncertainties on the magnitude of iodine’s role, and a key uncertainty is our understanding of iodide in the global sea-surface. Here we take a data-driven approach using a machine learning algorithm to convert a sparse set of sea-surface iodide observations into a spatially and temporally resolved dataset for use in models.
Sean Crowell, David Baker, Andrew Schuh, Sourish Basu, Andrew R. Jacobson, Frederic Chevallier, Junjie Liu, Feng Deng, Liang Feng, Kathryn McKain, Abhishek Chatterjee, John B. Miller, Britton B. Stephens, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, David Schimel, Ray Nassar, Christopher W. O'Dell, Tomohiro Oda, Colm Sweeney, Paul I. Palmer, and Dylan B. A. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9797–9831,Short summary
Space-based retrievals of carbon dioxide offer the potential to provide dense data in regions that are sparsely observed by the surface network. We find that flux estimates that are informed by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) show different character from that inferred using surface measurements in tropical land regions, particularly in Africa, with a much larger total emission and larger amplitude seasonal cycle.
Stuart N. Riddick, Denise L. Mauzerall, Michael Celia, Neil R. P. Harris, Grant Allen, Joseph Pitt, John Staunton-Sykes, Grant L. Forster, Mary Kang, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, and Alistair J. Manning
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9787–9796,Short summary
Currently, bottom-up methods estimate that 0.13 % of methane produced by UK North Sea oil and gas installations is lost. Here we measure emissions from eight platforms in the North Sea and, when considered collectively, the methane loss is estimated at 0.19 % of gas production. As this ambient loss is not explicitly accounted for in the bottom-up approach, these measured emissions represent significant additional emissions above previous estimates.
Leon King, Ieuan J. Roberts, Liselotte Tinel, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Recent studies suggest that the sea surface microlayer is ubiquitously enriched in surfactants, even at high wind speeds, which exert a control on air-sea gas exchange. These conclusions are partly based on voltammetry measurements of
surfactant activity(SA). Here, we show that the response of SA-voltammetry varies widely for different surfactants, becomes saturated above total surfactant concentrations of 1–2 mg L-1, and shows a poor correlation in natural waters with surface film pressure.
Xin Chen, Dylan B. Millet, Hanwant B. Singh, Armin Wisthaler, Eric C. Apel, Elliot L. Atlas, Donald R. Blake, Ilann Bourgeois, Steven S. Brown, John D. Crounse, Joost A. de Gouw, Frank M. Flocke, Alan Fried, Brian G. Heikes, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Tomas Mikoviny, Kyung-Eun Min, Markus Müller, J. Andrew Neuman, Daniel W. O'Sullivan, Jeff Peischl, Gabriele G. Pfister, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Stephen R. Shertz, Chelsea R. Thompson, Victoria Treadaway, Patrick R. Veres, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Petter Weibring, and Bin Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9097–9123,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affect air quality and modify the lifetimes of other pollutants. We combine a high-resolution 3-D atmospheric model with an ensemble of aircraft observations to perform an integrated analysis of the VOC budget over North America. We find that biogenic emissions provide the main source of VOC reactivity even in most major cities. Our findings point to key gaps in current models related to oxygenated VOCs and to the distribution of VOCs in the free troposphere.
Joseph R. Pitt, Grant Allen, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Martin W. Gallagher, James D. Lee, Will Drysdale, Beth Nelson, Alistair J. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8931–8945,Short summary
This paper presents a new method to assess inventory estimates of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions for large cities and their surrounding regions. A case study using data sampled by a research aircraft around London was used to test the method. We found that the UK national inventory agrees with our observations for CO but needed lower emissions for CH4 to agree with the measured data. Repeated studies could help determine how these emissions vary on different timescales.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Paul I. Palmer, Emily L. Wilson, Geronimo L. Villanueva, Giuliano Liuzzi, Liang Feng, Anthony J. DiGregorio, Jianping Mao, Lesley Ott, and Bryan Duncan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2579–2594,Short summary
We describe the potential impact of a new, low-cost, portable ground instrument (the mini-LHR) that measures methane and carbon dioxide in the atmospheric column. This region is key in quantifying the global carbon budget but has geographical gaps in measurements left by ground-based networks and space-based observations. A deployment of 50 mini-LHRs would add new data products in the Amazon, the Arctic, and southern Asia and significantly improve knowledge of regional and global carbon budgets.
Emily D. White, Matthew Rigby, Mark F. Lunt, T. Luke Smallman, Edward Comyn-Platt, Alistair J. Manning, Anita L. Ganesan, Simon O'Doherty, Ann R. Stavert, Kieran Stanley, Mathew Williams, Peter Levy, Michel Ramonet, Grant L. Forster, Andrew C. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4345–4365,Short summary
Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from the terrestrial biosphere on a national scale is important for evaluating land use strategies to mitigate climate change. We estimate emissions of CO2 from the UK biosphere using atmospheric data in a top-down approach. Our findings show that bottom-up estimates from models of biospheric fluxes overestimate the amount of CO2 uptake in summer. This suggests these models wrongly estimate or omit key processes, e.g. land disturbance due to harvest.
Alba Badia, Claire E. Reeves, Alex R. Baker, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore K. Koenig, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Lucy J. Carpenter, Stephen J. Andrews, Tomás Sherwen, and Roland von Glasow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3161–3189,Short summary
The oceans have an impact on the composition and reactivity of the troposphere through the emission of gases and particles. Thus, a quantitative understanding of the marine atmosphere is crucial to examine the oxidative capacity and climate forcing. This study investigates the impact of halogens in the tropical troposphere and explores the sensitivity of this to uncertainties in the fluxes and their chemical processing. Our modelled tropospheric Ox loss due to halogens ranges from 20 % to 60 %.
Carole Helfter, Neil Mullinger, Massimo Vieno, Simon O'Doherty, Michel Ramonet, Paul I. Palmer, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3043–3063,Short summary
We present a novel approach to estimate the annual budgets of carbon dioxide (881.0 ± 128.5 Tg) and methane (2.55 ± 0.48 Tg) of the British Isles from shipborne measurements taken over a 3-year period (2015–2017). This study brings independent verification of the emission budgets estimated using alternative products and investigates the seasonality of these emissions, which is usually not possible.
Pingyang Li, Jens Mühle, Stephen A. Montzka, David E. Oram, Benjamin R. Miller, Ray F. Weiss, Paul J. Fraser, and Toste Tanhua
Ocean Sci., 15, 33–60,Short summary
Use of CFCs as oceanic transient tracers is difficult for recently ventilated water masses as their atmospheric mole fractions have been decreasing. To explore novel tracers, we synthesized consistent annual mean atmospheric histories of HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HFC-125, HFC-23, PFC-14 (CF4) and PFC-116 in both hemispheres and reconstructed their solubility functions in water and seawater. This work is also potentially useful for tracer studies in a range of natural waters.
Stijn Naus, Stephen A. Montzka, Sudhanshu Pandey, Sourish Basu, Ed J. Dlugokencky, and Maarten Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 407–424,Short summary
We investigate how the use of a two-box model to describe the troposphere can impact derived results, relative to more complex models. For this, we use a 3-D transport model to tune a two-box model of OH, CH4, and MCF. By comparing the tuned two-box model with a standard model run, we can diagnose and quantify biases inherent to a two-box model. We find strong biases, but these have only a small impact on our final conclusions. However, it is not obvious that this should hold for future studies.
Sarah Connors, Alistair J. Manning, Andrew D. Robinson, Stuart N. Riddick, Grant L. Forster, Anita Ganesan, Aoife Grant, Stephen Humphrey, Simon O'Doherty, Dave E. Oram, Paul I. Palmer, Robert L. Skelton, Kieran Stanley, Ann Stavert, Dickon Young, and Neil R. P. Harris
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas & reducing its emissions is a vital part of climate change mitigation to limit global temperature increase to 1.5 °C or 2.0 °C. This paper explains a way to estimate emitted methane over a sub-national area by combining measurements & computer dispersion modelling in a so-called
inversiontechnique. Compared with the current national inventory, our results show lower emissions for Cambridgeshire, possibly due to waste sector emission differences.
Oscar B. Dimdore-Miles, Paul I. Palmer, and Lori P. Bruhwiler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17895–17907,Short summary
The Arctic is experiencing warming trends higher than the global mean. Arctic ecosystems are a large store of carbon. As the soil organic carbon thaws and decomposes, some fraction of this store will eventually be released to the atmosphere as methane. We show that a previously used measurement-based metric to identify changes in Arctic methane emissions does not reliably quantify these changes because it neglects the effect of atmospheric transport. A better metric will combine data and models.
Christopher W. O'Dell, Annmarie Eldering, Paul O. Wennberg, David Crisp, Michael R. Gunson, Brendan Fisher, Christian Frankenberg, Matthäus Kiel, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Lukas Mandrake, Aronne Merrelli, Vijay Natraj, Robert R. Nelson, Gregory B. Osterman, Vivienne H. Payne, Thomas E. Taylor, Debra Wunch, Brian J. Drouin, Fabiano Oyafuso, Albert Chang, James McDuffie, Michael Smyth, David F. Baker, Sourish Basu, Frédéric Chevallier, Sean M. R. Crowell, Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Mavendra Dubey, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, Coleen M. Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Te, Osamu Uchino, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6539–6576,
Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Robyn Butler, Stephen J. Andrews, Elliot L. Atlas, Lucy J. Carpenter, Valeria Donets, Neil R. P. Harris, Ross J. Salawitch, Laura L. Pan, and Sue M. Schauffler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14787–14798,Short summary
We infer surface fluxes of bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromoform (CH2Br2) from CAST and CONTRAST aircraft observations over the western Pacific, using a tagged version of the GEOS-Chem global 3-D atmospheric chemistry model and a Maximum A Posteriori inverse model. Using the aircraft data, we estimate the regional fluxes about 20–40 % smaller than the prior inventories by Ordóñez et al. (2012). We find no evidence to support a robust linear relationship between CHBr3 and CH2Br2 oceanic emissions.
Neil Humpage, Hartmut Boesch, Paul I. Palmer, Andy Vick, Phil Parr-Burman, Martyn Wells, David Pearson, Jonathan Strachan, and Naidu Bezawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5199–5222,Short summary
We present an overview of the GreenHouse gas Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST) instrument, a novel shortwave infrared grating spectrometer designed for remote sensing of total column greenhouse gas concentrations from an aircraft. Using laboratory measurements we show that the GHOST design is able to achieve its science objectives. We conclude by describing GHOST's maiden flights on board the NASA Global Hawk UAV during CAST/ATTREX and show some of the initial results.
Jiali Luo, Laura L. Pan, Shawn B. Honomichl, John W. Bergman, William J. Randel, Gene Francis, Cathy Clerbaux, Maya George, Xiong Liu, and Wenshou Tian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12511–12530,Short summary
We analyze upper tropospheric CO and O3 using satellite data from limb-viewing (MLS) and nadir-viewing (IASI and OMI) sensors, together with dynamical variables, to examine how the two types of data complement each other in representing the chemical variability associated with the day-to-day dynamical variability in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone. The results provide new observational evidence of eddy shedding in upper tropospheric CO distribution.
Paul I. Palmer, Simon O'Doherty, Grant Allen, Keith Bower, Hartmut Bösch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sarah Connors, Sandip Dhomse, Liang Feng, Douglas P. Finch, Martin W. Gallagher, Emanuel Gloor, Siegfried Gonzi, Neil R. P. Harris, Carole Helfter, Neil Humpage, Brian Kerridge, Diane Knappett, Roderic L. Jones, Michael Le Breton, Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Matthiesen, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Sebastian O'Shea, Robert J. Parker, Carl J. Percival, Joseph Pitt, Stuart N. Riddick, Matthew Rigby, Harjinder Sembhi, Richard Siddans, Robert L. Skelton, Paul Smith, Hannah Sonderfeld, Kieran Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Angelina Wenger, Emily White, Christopher Wilson, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11753–11777,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) experiment. GAUGE was designed to quantify nationwide GHG emissions of the UK, bringing together measurements and atmospheric transport models. This novel experiment is the first of its kind. We anticipate it will inform the blueprint for countries that are building a measurement infrastructure in preparation for global stocktakes, which are a key part of the Paris Agreement.
Prasad Kasibhatla, Tomás Sherwen, Mathew J. Evans, Lucy J. Carpenter, Chris Reed, Becky Alexander, Qianjie Chen, Melissa P. Sulprizio, James D. Lee, Katie A. Read, William Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, William C. Keene, Alexander A. P. Pszenny, and Alma Hodzic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11185–11203,Short summary
Recent measurements of NOx and HONO suggest that photolysis of particulate nitrate in sea-salt aerosols is important in terms of marine boundary layer oxidant chemistry. We present the first global-scale assessment of the significance of this new chemical pathway for NOx, O3, and OH in the marine boundary layer. We also present a preliminary assessment of the potential impact of photolysis of particulate nitrate associated with other aerosol types on continental boundary layer chemistry.
Mary E. Whelan, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Teresa E. Gimeno, Richard Wehr, Georg Wohlfahrt, Yuting Wang, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Timothy W. Hilton, Sauveur Belviso, Philippe Peylin, Róisín Commane, Wu Sun, Huilin Chen, Le Kuai, Ivan Mammarella, Kadmiel Maseyk, Max Berkelhammer, King-Fai Li, Dan Yakir, Andrew Zumkehr, Yoko Katayama, Jérôme Ogée, Felix M. Spielmann, Florian Kitz, Bharat Rastogi, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Julia Marshall, Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Lisa Wingate, Laura K. Meredith, Wei He, Rüdiger Bunk, Thomas Launois, Timo Vesala, Johan A. Schmidt, Cédric G. Fichot, Ulli Seibt, Scott Saleska, Eric S. Saltzman, Stephen A. Montzka, Joseph A. Berry, and J. Elliott Campbell
Biogeosciences, 15, 3625–3657,Short summary
Measurements of the trace gas carbonyl sulfide (OCS) are helpful in quantifying photosynthesis at previously unknowable temporal and spatial scales. While CO2 is both consumed and produced within ecosystems, OCS is mostly produced in the oceans or from specific industries, and destroyed in plant leaves in proportion to CO2. This review summarizes the advancements we have made in the understanding of OCS exchange and applications to vital ecosystem water and carbon cycle questions.
James Keeble, Hannah Brown, N. Luke Abraham, Neil R. P. Harris, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7625–7637,Short summary
2017 marks the 30th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol, which was implemented to protect the stratospheric ozone layer from the harmful effects of synthetic ozone depleting substances. Since the late 1990s atmospheric concentrations of these species have begun to decline, and as a result ozone concentrations are expected to increase. In this study we use an ensemble of chemistry–climate simulations to investigate recent ozone trends and search for early signs of ozone recovery.
Richard Newton, Geraint Vaughan, Eric Hintsa, Michal T. Filus, Laura L. Pan, Shawn Honomichl, Elliot Atlas, Stephen J. Andrews, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5157–5171,Short summary
We consider the ozone measurements from aircraft during the CAST/CONTRAST/ATTREX campaigns of 2014. Low concentrations of ozone were found in the layer of 10–15 km altitude, which is indicative of uplift of ozone-poor air from near the sea surface to 10–15 km altitude. Chemicals that have origins in the sea were found in greater abundance when ozone concentrations were low compared to when ozone concentrations were high. The lowest ozone concentrations were found in the Southern Hemisphere.
Luke Surl, Paul I. Palmer, and Gonzalo González Abad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4549–4566,Short summary
We used observations of HCHO formaldehyde columns from the OMI satellite instrument and the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model to investigate how and why HCHO varies over India. We find that emissions of biogenic VOC from forests are the most powerful driver, with forests' response to seasonal temperature variations causing variation over time. Human-driven emissions of VOC and burning of vegetation have detectable, but more limited, impacts.
Jacob T. Shaw, Richard T. Lidster, Danny R. Cryer, Noelia Ramirez, Fiona C. Whiting, Graham A. Boustead, Lisa K. Whalley, Trevor Ingham, Andrew R. Rickard, Rachel E. Dunmore, Dwayne E. Heard, Ally C. Lewis, Lucy J. Carpenter, Jacqui F. Hamilton, and Terry J. Dillon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4039–4054,Short summary
The lifetime of a chemical in the atmosphere is largely governed by the rate of its reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Measurements of rates for many of the thousands of identified volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have yet to be determined experimentally. We have developed a new technique for the rapid determination of gas-phase rate coefficients for the simultaneous reactions between multiple VOCs and OH. The method is tasted across a range of scenarios and is used to derive new values.
Daniel Stone, Tomás Sherwen, Mathew J. Evans, Stewart Vaughan, Trevor Ingham, Lisa K. Whalley, Peter M. Edwards, Katie A. Read, James D. Lee, Sarah J. Moller, Lucy J. Carpenter, Alastair C. Lewis, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3541–3561,Short summary
Halogen chemistry in the troposphere impacts oxidising capacity, but model studies assessing the nature of these impacts can vary according to the model framework used. In this work we present simulations of OH and HO2 radicals using both box and global model frameworks, and compare to observations made at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory. We highlight, and rationalise, differences between the model frameworks.
Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, Sunil Baidar, Barbara Dix, Siyuan Wang, Daniel C. Anderson, Ross J. Salawitch, Pamela A. Wales, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Mathew J. Evans, Tomás Sherwen, Daniel J. Jacob, Johan Schmidt, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-François Lamarque, Eric C. Apel, James C. Bresch, Teresa Campos, Frank M. Flocke, Samuel R. Hall, Shawn B. Honomichl, Rebecca Hornbrook, Jørgen B. Jensen, Richard Lueb, Denise D. Montzka, Laura L. Pan, J. Michael Reeves, Sue M. Schauffler, Kirk Ullmann, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Elliot L. Atlas, Valeria Donets, Maria A. Navarro, Daniel Riemer, Nicola J. Blake, Dexian Chen, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Thomas F. Hanisco, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15245–15270,Short summary
Tropospheric inorganic bromine (BrO and Bry) shows a C-shaped profile over the tropical western Pacific Ocean, and supports previous speculation that marine convection is a source for inorganic bromine from sea salt to the upper troposphere. The Bry profile in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is complex, suggesting that the total Bry budget in the TTL is not closed without considering aerosol bromide. The implications for atmospheric composition and bromine sources are discussed.
Anna Mackie, Paul I. Palmer, and Helen Brindley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15095–15119,Short summary
We compare the balance of solar and thermal radiation at the surface and the top of the atmosphere from a forecasting model to observations at a site in Niamey, Niger, in the Sahel. To interpret the energy budgets we examine other factors, such as cloud properties, water vapour and aerosols, which we use to understand the differences between the observation and model. We find that some differences are linked to lack of ice in clouds, underestimated aerosol loading and surface temperatures.
James Keeble, Ewa M. Bednarz, Antara Banerjee, N. Luke Abraham, Neil R. P. Harris, Amanda C. Maycock, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13801–13818,Short summary
In this study we explore the chemical and transport processes controlling ozone abundances in different altitude regions in the tropics for the present day and how these processes may change in the future in order to determine when total-column ozone values in the tropics will recover to pre-1980s values following the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments, which imposed bans on the use and emissions of CFCs.
Hannah Sonderfeld, Hartmut Bösch, Antoine P. R. Jeanjean, Stuart N. Riddick, Grant Allen, Sébastien Ars, Stewart Davies, Neil Harris, Neil Humpage, Roland Leigh, and Joseph Pitt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3931–3946,Short summary
The waste sector is the second largest source of methane in the UK. However, uncertainties of methane emissions from landfill sites still remain. In this study we present a new approach for the estimation of methane emissions from a landfill site by applying a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for precise measurements of methane with in situ Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Different source areas could be distinguished with this method and their emissions were assessed.
David E. Oram, Matthew J. Ashfold, Johannes C. Laube, Lauren J. Gooch, Stephen Humphrey, William T. Sturges, Emma Leedham-Elvidge, Grant L. Forster, Neil R. P. Harris, Mohammed Iqbal Mead, Azizan Abu Samah, Siew Moi Phang, Chang-Feng Ou-Yang, Neng-Huei Lin, Jia-Lin Wang, Angela K. Baker, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, and David Sherry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11929–11941,Short summary
We have observed large amounts of man-made chlorine compounds in E and SE Asia and in the upper tropical troposphere. These relatively short-lived compounds are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, but if significant quantities were able to reach the stratosphere, the long-term recovery of stratospheric ozone would be delayed. We have also identified an important atmospheric transport mechanism that can rapidly transport these chemicals from E Asia to the upper troposphere via the tropics.
Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Lucien Froidevaux, Ryan Fuller, Ray Wang, John Anderson, Chris Roth, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, Joe Zawodny, Stacey Frith, Richard McPeters, Pawan Bhartia, Jeannette Wild, Craig Long, Sean Davis, Karen Rosenlof, Viktoria Sofieva, Kaley Walker, Nabiz Rahpoe, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele Stiller, Natalya Kramarova, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Thierry Leblanc, Richard Querel, Daan Swart, Ian Boyd, Klemens Hocke, Niklaus Kämpfer, Eliane Maillard Barras, Lorena Moreira, Gerald Nedoluha, Corinne Vigouroux, Thomas Blumenstock, Matthias Schneider, Omaira García, Nicholas Jones, Emmanuel Mahieu, Dan Smale, Michael Kotkamp, John Robinson, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Neil Harris, Birgit Hassler, Daan Hubert, and Fiona Tummon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10675–10690,Short summary
Thanks to the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments, ozone-depleting chlorine (and bromine) in the stratosphere has declined slowly since the late 1990s. Improved and extended long-term ozone profile observations from satellites and ground-based stations confirm that ozone is responding as expected and has increased by about 2 % per decade since 2000 in the upper stratosphere, around 40 km altitude. At lower altitudes, however, ozone has not changed significantly since 2000.
Maria A. Navarro, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Elliot Atlas, Xavier Rodriguez-Lloveras, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, Troy Thornberry, Andrew Rollins, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, and Fred L. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9917–9930,Short summary
Inorganic bromine (Bry) plays an important role in ozone layer depletion. Based on aircraft observations of organic bromine species and chemistry simulations, we model the Bry abundances over the Pacific tropical tropopause. Our results show BrO and Br as the dominant species during daytime hours, and BrCl and BrONO2 as the nighttime dominant species over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The difference in the partitioning is due to changes in the abundance of O3, NO2, and Cly.
Stuart N. Riddick, Sarah Connors, Andrew D. Robinson, Alistair J. Manning, Pippa S. D. Jones, David Lowry, Euan Nisbet, Robert L. Skelton, Grant Allen, Joseph Pitt, and Neil R. P. Harris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7839–7851,Short summary
High methane mixing ratios occurred at our long-term measurement site. Isotopic measurements show the source is a landfill 7 km away; the emissions were estimated using three different approaches. The emission estimates made by near-source and middle-distance methods agree well for a period of intense observation. The estimate of the inverse modelling is similar to the labour-intensive middle-distance approach, which shows it can be used to identify point sources within an emission landscape.
Alina Fiehn, Birgit Quack, Helmke Hepach, Steffen Fuhlbrügge, Susann Tegtmeier, Matthew Toohey, Elliot Atlas, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6723–6741,Short summary
Halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLSs) are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. In the stratosphere, these compounds can have a significant influence on the ozone layer and climate. During a research cruise in the west Indian Ocean, we found an important source region of halogenated VSLSs during the Asian summer monsoon. Modeling the transport from the ocean to the stratosphere we found two main pathways, one over the Indian Ocean and one over northern India.
Malte Meinshausen, Elisabeth Vogel, Alexander Nauels, Katja Lorbacher, Nicolai Meinshausen, David M. Etheridge, Paul J. Fraser, Stephen A. Montzka, Peter J. Rayner, Cathy M. Trudinger, Paul B. Krummel, Urs Beyerle, Josep G. Canadell, John S. Daniel, Ian G. Enting, Rachel M. Law, Chris R. Lunder, Simon O'Doherty, Ron G. Prinn, Stefan Reimann, Mauro Rubino, Guus J. M. Velders, Martin K. Vollmer, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ray Weiss
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2057–2116,Short summary
Climate change is primarily driven by human-induced increases of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. Based on ongoing community efforts (e.g. AGAGE and NOAA networks, ice cores), this study presents historical concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O and 40 other GHGs from year 0 to year 2014. The data is recommended as input for climate models for pre-industrial, historical runs under CMIP6. Global means, but also latitudinal by monthly surface concentration fields are provided.
Katie A. Read, Luis M. Neves, Lucy J. Carpenter, Alastair C. Lewis, Zoe L. Fleming, and John Kentisbeer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5393–5406,Short summary
This paper presents 4 years of total gaseous mercury data obtained from measurements made at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory, a subtropical site in the Atlantic Ocean. The data show a clear decreasing trend in the overall concentrations but in air from sub-Saharan Africa the trend is less significant and the data more variable. We attribute this result to an influence from artisanal small-scale gold mining in this region, a source for which there is uncertain information.
Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Hartmut Bösch, Robert J. Parker, Alex J. Webb, Caio S. C. Correia, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Lucas G. Domingues, Dietrich G. Feist, Luciana V. Gatti, Emanuel Gloor, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Yi Liu, John B. Miller, Isamu Morino, Ralf Sussmann, Kimberly Strong, Osamu Uchino, Jing Wang, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4781–4797,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry and transport and an ensemble Kalman filter to simultaneously infer regional fluxes of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) directly from GOSAT retrievals of XCH4:XCO2, using sparse ground-based CH4 and CO2 mole fraction data to anchor the ratio. Our results show that assimilation of GOSAT data significantly reduced the posterior uncertainty and changed the a priori spatial distribution of CH4 emissions.
Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Seungun Lee, Gonzalo González Abad, Thomas P. Kurosu, Paul I. Palmer, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4673–4686,Short summary
A geostationary satellite can measure daytime hourly HCHO columns. Atmospheric conditions such as synoptic meteorology and the presence of other gases and aerosols may affect HCHO measurements. We examine the effects of their temporal variation on the HCHO measurement of a geostationary satellite in East Asia. We find that the hourly variation of other species could be important. Especially the inclusion of hourly aerosol variation in the retrieval could lead to improving HCHO measurements.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Jianchun Bian, Rolf Müller, Laura L. Pan, Gebhard Günther, Zhixuan Bai, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Qiujun Fan, and Holger Vömel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4657–4672,Short summary
High-resolution ozone and water vapour profiles over Lhasa, China, were measured in August 2013. The correlations between ozone and water vapour profiles show a strong variability in the upper troposphere. These relationships were investigated using CLaMS trajectory calculations. The model results demonstrate that three tropical cyclones (Jebi, Utor, and Trami), occurring over the western Pacific, had a strong impact on the vertical structure of ozone and water vapour profiles.
Chris Reed, Mathew J. Evans, Leigh R. Crilley, William J. Bloss, Tomás Sherwen, Katie A. Read, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4081–4092,Short summary
The source of ozone-depleting compounds in the remote troposphere has been thought to be long-range transport of secondary pollutants such as organic nitrates. Processing of organic nitrates to nitric acid and subsequent deposition on surfaces in the atmosphere was thought to remove these nitrates from the ozone–NOx–HOx cycle. We found through observation of NOx in the remote tropical troposphere at the Cape Verde Observatory that surface nitrates can be released back into the atmosphere.
Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Herrmann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, and Rahul A. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2103–2162,Short summary
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3 is an important interaction between anthropogenic and natural emissions. This review results from a June 2015 workshop and includes the recent literature on kinetics, mechanisms, organic aerosol yields, and heterogeneous chemistry; advances in analytical instrumentation; the current state NO3-BVOC chemistry in atmospheric models; and critical needs for future research in modeling, field observations, and laboratory studies.
Tomás Sherwen, Mat J. Evans, Lucy J. Carpenter, Johan A. Schmidt, and Loretta J. Mickley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1557–1569,Short summary
We model pre-industrial to present day changes using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with halogens (Cl, Br, I). The model better captures pre-industrial O3 observations with halogens included. Halogens buffer the tropospheric forcing of O3 (RFTO3) from pre-industrial to present day, reducing RFTO3 by 0.087 Wm−2. This reduction is greater than that from halogens on stratospheric O3 (−0.05 Wm−2). This suggests that models that do not include halogens will overestimate RFTO3by ~ 25%.
Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, Kenneth C. Aikin, Elliot L. Atlas, Paul D. Goldan, Martin Graus, Roger Hendershot, Gabriel A. Isaacman-VanWertz, Abigail Koss, William C. Kuster, Richard A. Lueb, Richard J. McLaughlin, Jeff Peischl, Donna Sueper, Thomas B. Ryerson, Travis W. Tokarek, Carsten Warneke, Bin Yuan, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 291–313,Short summary
Whole air sampling followed by analysis by gas chromatography is a common technique for characterization of trace volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. We describe a new automated gas chromatograph–mass spectrograph which uses a Stirling cooler for sample preconcentration at −165 °C without the need for a cryogen such as liquid nitrogen. We also discuss potential sources of artifacts from our electropolished stainless steel sampling system and present results from two field campaigns.
Bodo Werner, Jochen Stutz, Max Spolaor, Lisa Scalone, Rasmus Raecke, James Festa, Santo Fedele Colosimo, Ross Cheung, Catalina Tsai, Ryan Hossaini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Giorgio S. Taverna, Wuhu Feng, James W. Elkins, David W. Fahey, Ru-Shan Gao, Erik J. Hintsa, Troy D. Thornberry, Free Lee Moore, Maria A. Navarro, Elliot Atlas, Bruce C. Daube, Jasna Pittman, Steve Wofsy, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1161–1186,Short summary
The paper reports on inorganic and organic bromine measured in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the eastern Pacific in early 2013. Bryinorg is found to increase from a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ppt for θ in the range of 350–360 K to 5.11 ± 1.57 ppt for θ=390 ± 400 K, whereas in the subtropical lower stratosphere, it reaches 7.66 ± 2.95 ppt for θ in the range of 390–400 K. Within the TTL, total bromine is found to range from 20.3 ppt to 22.3 ppt.
Sinikka T. Lennartz, Christa A. Marandino, Marc von Hobe, Pau Cortes, Birgit Quack, Rafel Simo, Dennis Booge, Andrea Pozzer, Tobias Steinhoff, Damian L. Arevalo-Martinez, Corinna Kloss, Astrid Bracher, Rüdiger Röttgers, Elliot Atlas, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 385–402,Short summary
We present new sea surface and marine boundary layer measurements of carbonyl sulfide, the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, and calculate an oceanic emission estimate. Our results imply that oceanic emissions are very unlikely to account for the missing source in the atmospheric budget that is currently discussed for OCS.
Martyn P. Chipperfield, Qing Liang, Matthew Rigby, Ryan Hossaini, Stephen A. Montzka, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, L. Paul Steele, James D. Happell, Robert C. Rhew, James Butler, Shari A. Yvon-Lewis, Bradley Hall, David Nance, Fred Moore, Ben R. Miller, James W. Elkins, Jeremy J. Harrison, Chris D. Boone, Elliot L. Atlas, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15741–15754,Short summary
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a compound which, when released into the atmosphere, can cause depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Its emissions are controlled under the Montreal Protocol, and its atmospheric abundance is slowly decreasing. However, this decrease is not as fast as expected based on estimates of its emissions and its atmospheric lifetime. We have used an atmospheric model to look at the uncertainties in the CCl4 lifetime and to examine the impact on its atmospheric decay.
Eleonora Aruffo, Fabio Biancofiore, Piero Di Carlo, Marcella Busilacchio, Marco Verdecchia, Barbara Tomassetti, Cesare Dari-Salisburgo, Franco Giammaria, Stephane Bauguitte, James Lee, Sarah Moller, James Hopkins, Shalini Punjabi, Stephen J. Andrews, Alistair C. Lewis, Paul I. Palmer, Edward Hyer, Michael Le Breton, and Carl Percival
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5591–5606,Short summary
During the BORTAS aircraft campaign, we measured NO2 and their oxidtation products (as peroxy nitrates) with a custom laser-induced fluorescence instrument. Because of the high correlation between known pyrogenic tracers (i.e., carbon monoxide) and peroxy nitrates, we provide two methods to use these species for the identification of biomass burning (BB) plumes. Using an artifical neural network, we improved the BB identification taking into account of a meteorological parameter (pressure).
Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Nelly A. M. Uitslag, Mark S. Zahniser, David D. Nelson, Stephen A. Montzka, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5293–5314,Short summary
The accuracy of carbon models, used for the prediction of global climate change, is limited by the knowledge of the uptake of carbon by plants through photosynthesis. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been suggested as a tracer for this process. To be able to further explore and verify the application of this novel tracer we have tested a laser spectrometer for its suitability to obtain accurate and high precision measurements of COS and CO2 with both laboratory experiments and field measurements.
Stephen J. Andrews, Lucy J. Carpenter, Eric C. Apel, Elliot Atlas, Valeria Donets, James R. Hopkins, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Alastair C. Lewis, Richard T. Lidster, Richard Lueb, Jamie Minaeian, Maria Navarro, Shalini Punjabi, Daniel Riemer, and Sue Schauffler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5213–5225,Short summary
We present a comparison of aircraft measurements of important trace gases from a co-ordinated campaign in Jan–Feb 2014 in the tropical west Pacific involving the NASA Global Hawk, NCAR GV and FAAM BAe-146 aircraft. The paper studies the comparability of separate measurements across platforms and demonstrates that aircraft measurements are relevant for characterising the vertical uplift of important gases, such as those with ozone-depleting potential, to the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere.
Steffen Fuhlbrügge, Birgit Quack, Elliot Atlas, Alina Fiehn, Helmke Hepach, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12205–12217,Short summary
This study presents novel observations of the very short lived substances (VSLSs) bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide with high-resolution meteorological measurements and Lagrangian transport in the Peruvian upwelling. With a simple source–loss estimate we identified VSLS abundances below the trade inversion to be significantly influenced by advection of regional sources, underscoring the importance of oceanic upwelling and trade winds on the atmospheric distribution of VSLS emission.
Helmke Hepach, Birgit Quack, Susann Tegtmeier, Anja Engel, Astrid Bracher, Steffen Fuhlbrügge, Luisa Galgani, Elliot L. Atlas, Johannes Lampel, Udo Frieß, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12219–12237,Short summary
We present surface seawater measurements of bromo- and iodocarbons, which are involved in numerous atmospheric processes such as tropospheric and stratospheric ozone chemistry, from the highly productive Peruvian upwelling. By combining trace gas measurements, characterization of organic matter and phytoplankton species, and tropospheric modelling, we show that large amounts of iodocarbons produced from the pool of organic matter may contribute strongly to local tropospheric iodine loading.
Tomás Sherwen, Johan A. Schmidt, Mat J. Evans, Lucy J. Carpenter, Katja Großmann, Sebastian D. Eastham, Daniel J. Jacob, Barbara Dix, Theodore K. Koenig, Roman Sinreich, Ivan Ortega, Rainer Volkamer, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Cristina Prados-Roman, Anoop S. Mahajan, and Carlos Ordóñez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12239–12271,Short summary
We present a simulation of tropospheric Cl, Br, I chemistry within the GEOS-Chem CTM. We find a decrease in tropospheric ozone burden of 18.6 % and a 8.2 % decrease in global mean OH concentrations. Cl oxidation of some VOCs range from 15 to 27 % of the total loss. Bromine plays a small role in oxidising oVOCs. Surface ozone, ozone sondes, and methane lifetime are in general improved by the inclusion of halogens. We argue that simulated bromine and chlorine represent a lower limit.
Dennis Booge, Christa A. Marandino, Cathleen Schlundt, Paul I. Palmer, Michael Schlundt, Elliot L. Atlas, Astrid Bracher, Eric S. Saltzman, and Douglas W. R. Wallace
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11807–11821,Short summary
Isoprene, a biogenic trace gas, is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol/cloud condensation nuclei. Here, we use isoprene and related field measurements from three different ocean data sets together with remotely sensed satellite data to model global marine isoprene emissions. Our findings suggest that there is at least one missing oceanic source of isoprene and possibly other unknown factors in the ocean or atmosphere influencing the atmospheric values.
J. M. Barlow, P. I. Palmer, and L. M. Bruhwiler
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
We report significant changes in the amplitude of the atmospheric CH4 seasonal cycle at sites over the Arctic. All corresponding evidence points to a persistent increase in wetlands. We show using a global 3-d chemistry transport model that reductions in North American and European fossil fuel emissions could explain a large portion of the amplitude decrease, but we still require significant, persistent emissions from wetlands to reconcile observed trends in the seasonal cycle.
James H. Butler, Shari A. Yvon-Lewis, Jurgen M. Lobert, Daniel B. King, Stephen A. Montzka, John L. Bullister, Valentin Koropalov, James W. Elkins, Bradley D. Hall, Lei Hu, and Yina Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10899–10910,Short summary
This study was conducted to understand the influence of the ocean on the lifetime of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride, a strong, ozone-depleting gas. Data from 16 research cruises conducted between 1987 and 2010 show that, unlike the unreactive chlorofluorocarbons, carbon tetrachloride is undersaturated in surface waters regardless of temperature, wind, or biological regime, but with larger undersaturations with upwelling. Results suggest that the ocean consumes about 18 % of atmospheric CCl4.
R. Hossaini, P. K. Patra, A. A. Leeson, G. Krysztofiak, N. L. Abraham, S. J. Andrews, A. T. Archibald, J. Aschmann, E. L. Atlas, D. A. Belikov, H. Bönisch, L. J. Carpenter, S. Dhomse, M. Dorf, A. Engel, W. Feng, S. Fuhlbrügge, P. T. Griffiths, N. R. P. Harris, R. Hommel, T. Keber, K. Krüger, S. T. Lennartz, S. Maksyutov, H. Mantle, G. P. Mills, B. Miller, S. A. Montzka, F. Moore, M. A. Navarro, D. E. Oram, K. Pfeilsticker, J. A. Pyle, B. Quack, A. D. Robinson, E. Saikawa, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Sala, B.-M. Sinnhuber, S. Taguchi, S. Tegtmeier, R. T. Lidster, C. Wilson, and F. Ziska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9163–9187,
Joe McNorton, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Manuel Gloor, Chris Wilson, Wuhu Feng, Garry D. Hayman, Matt Rigby, Paul B. Krummel, Simon O'Doherty, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Dickon Young, Ed Dlugokencky, and Steve A. Montzka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7943–7956,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. The growth of atmospheric CH4 stalled from 1999 to 2006, with current explanations focussed mainly on changing surface fluxes. We combine models with observations and meteorological data to assess the atmospheric contribution to CH4 changes. We find that variations in mean atmospheric hydroxyl concentration can explain part of the stall in growth. Our study highlights the role of multi-annual variability in atmospheric chemistry in global CH4 trends.
Steffen Fuhlbrügge, Birgit Quack, Susann Tegtmeier, Elliot Atlas, Helmke Hepach, Qiang Shi, Stefan Raimund, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7569–7585,Short summary
This study presents a novel estimate for the contribution of oceanic VSLS emissions to the atmospheric boundary layer and free troposphere during the SHIVA-Sonne cruise in the South China and Sulu seas in 2011. While oceanic emissions of CHBr3 and CH3I showed a significant contribution to their atmospheric abundances, atmospheric CH2Br2 appeared to be largely advected. Convective activity in the region can furthermore lead to low VSLS boundary layer mixing ratios despite high oceanic emissions.
Marcella Busilacchio, Piero Di Carlo, Eleonora Aruffo, Fabio Biancofiore, Cesare Dari Salisburgo, Franco Giammaria, Stephane Bauguitte, James Lee, Sarah Moller, James Hopkins, Shalini Punjabi, Stephen Andrews, Alistair C. Lewis, Mark Parrington, Paul I. Palmer, Edward Hyer, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3485–3497,Short summary
Boreal fire emissions have little effect on ozone concentrations but evident impact on some NOx reservoirs as peroxy nitrates that we quantified. This should be taken into account since NOx reservoirs can be efficiently transported and may influence the ozone budget far away from the fire emission. The study is based on observations carried out on board the BAe 146 aircraft during BORTAS in Canada. We used a custom laser-induced fluorescence system to measure NO2 and NOx reservoirs.
M. Chirkov, G. P. Stiller, A. Laeng, S. Kellmann, T. von Clarmann, C. D. Boone, J. W. Elkins, A. Engel, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, C. M. Harth, M. Kiefer, F. Kolonjari, P. B. Krummel, A. Linden, C. R. Lunder, B. R. Miller, S. A. Montzka, J. Mühle, S. O'Doherty, J. Orphal, R. G. Prinn, G. Toon, M. K. Vollmer, K. A. Walker, R. F. Weiss, A. Wiegele, and D. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3345–3368,Short summary
HCFC-22 global distributions from MIPAS measurements for 2005 to 2012 are presented. Tropospheric trends are in good agreement with ground-based observations. A layer of enhanced HCFC-22 in the upper tropospheric tropics and northern subtropics is identified to come from Asian sources uplifted in the Asian monsoon. Stratospheric distributions provide show seasonal, semi-annual, and QBO-related variations. Hemispheric asymmetries of trends hint towards a change in the stratospheric circulation.
L. Feng, P. I. Palmer, R. J. Parker, N. M. Deutscher, D. G. Feist, R. Kivi, I. Morino, and R. Sussmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1289–1302,Short summary
There is an on-going debate on the larger European biospheric uptake inferred from GOSAT XCO2 retrievals than those inferred from in situ data. Using a set of 15 experiments, we found that the elevated uptake over Europe could largely be explained by mis-fitting data due to regional XCO2 biases: 50–80 % of the elevated European uptake is due to retrievals outside the immediate European; and a varying monthly bias of up to 0.5 ppm for XCO2 retrievals over Europe could explain most of the remainder.
T. Sherwen, M. J. Evans, L. J. Carpenter, S. J. Andrews, R. T. Lidster, B. Dix, T. K. Koenig, R. Sinreich, I. Ortega, R. Volkamer, A. Saiz-Lopez, C. Prados-Roman, A. S. Mahajan, and C. Ordóñez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1161–1186,Short summary
Using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) with additional iodine emissions, chemistry, and deposition we show that iodine is responsible for ~ 9 % of global ozone loss but has negligible impacts on global OH. Uncertainties are large in the chemistry and emissions and future research is needed in both. Measurements of iodine species (especially HOI) would be useful. We believe iodine chemistry should be considered in future chemistry-climate and in air quality modelling.
R. Newton, G. Vaughan, H. M. A. Ricketts, L. L. Pan, A. J. Weinheimer, and C. Chemel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 619–634,Short summary
This paper reports the results of a field campaign with ozonesondes held in Manus Island, Papua New Guinea in February 2014. Particular attention is paid to the background current correction for the ozonesondes. We show that the ozonesonde profiles compare very well with near-coincident aircraft measurements, and show no sign of the extremely low ozone concentrations (< 5 ppbv) reported by previous papers. The minimum repeatable ozone concentration just below the tropopause was 12 ppbv.
J. R. Pitt, M. Le Breton, G. Allen, C. J. Percival, M. W. Gallagher, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. J. O'Shea, J. B. A. Muller, M. S. Zahniser, J. Pyle, and P. I. Palmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 63–77,Short summary
We present details of an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS) used to make airborne measurements of N2O and CH4, including its configuration for use on board an aircraft. Two different methods to correct for the influence of water vapour on the measurements are evaluated. We diagnose a sensitivity of the instrument to changes in pressure, introduce a new calibration procedure to account for this effect, and assess its performance.
M. R. Russo, M. J. Ashfold, N. R. P. Harris, and J. A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 14031–14040,Short summary
We find a strong regional element to the uplift of CHBr3 from the ocean to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The strongest uplift occurs when the largest emission and the most intense convection are co-located which is over the Maritime Continent in northern winter. Estimates of CHBr3 emissions based on aircraft measurements will be sensitive to where the available aircraft campaigns took place.
J. M. Barlow, P. I. Palmer, L. M. Bruhwiler, and P. Tans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13739–13758,Short summary
The major results from our analysis include (1) a significant revision to previously reported estimates of phase changes in the seasonal cycle atmospheric CO2, which are more closely related to changes in the terrestrial biosphere; and (2) an indirect observation that is consistent with high northern latitude ecosystems progressively taking up more CO2 during spring and early summer.
R. S. Humphries, R. Schofield, M. D. Keywood, J. Ward, J. R. Pierce, C. M. Gionfriddo, M. T. Tate, D. P. Krabbenhoft, I. E. Galbally, S. B. Molloy, A. R. Klekociuk, P. V. Johnston, K. Kreher, A. J. Thomas, A. D. Robinson, N. R. P. Harris, R. Johnson, and S. R. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13339–13364,Short summary
An atmospheric new particle formation event that was observed in the pristine East Antarctic pack ice during a springtime voyage in 2012 is characterised in terms of formation and growth rates. Known nucleation mechanisms (e.g. those involving sulfate, iodine and organics) were unable to explain observations; however, correlations with total gaseous mercury were found, leading to the suggestion of a possible mercury-driven nucleation mechanism not previously described.
H. Lindqvist, C. W. O'Dell, S. Basu, H. Boesch, F. Chevallier, N. Deutscher, L. Feng, B. Fisher, F. Hase, M. Inoue, R. Kivi, I. Morino, P. I. Palmer, R. Parker, M. Schneider, R. Sussmann, and Y. Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13023–13040,Short summary
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration varies seasonally mainly due to plant photosynthesis in the Northern Hemisphere. We found that the satellite GOSAT can capture this variability from space to within 1ppm. We also found that models can differ by more than 1ppm. This implies that the satellite measurements could be useful in evaluating models and their prior estimates of carbon dioxide sources and sinks.
R. J. Parker, H. Boesch, K. Byckling, A. J. Webb, P. I. Palmer, L. Feng, P. Bergamaschi, F. Chevallier, J. Notholt, N. Deutscher, T. Warneke, F. Hase, R. Sussmann, S. Kawakami, R. Kivi, D. W. T. Griffith, and V. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4785–4801,Short summary
Atmospheric CH4 is an important greenhouse gas. Long-term global observations are necessary to understand its behaviour, with satellite observations playing a key role. The "proxy" retrieval method is one of the most successful but relies on the contribution from atmospheric CO2 models. This work assesses the significance of the uncertainty from the model CO2 within the retrieval and determines that despite this uncertainty the data are still valuable for determining sources and sinks of CH4.
H. Hepach, B. Quack, S. Raimund, T. Fischer, E. L. Atlas, and A. Bracher
Biogeosciences, 12, 6369–6387,Short summary
This manuscript covers the first measurements of CHBr3, CH2Br2 and CH3I from the equatorial Atlantic during the Cold Tongue season, identifying this region and season as a source for these compounds. For the first time, we calculated diapycnal fluxes, and showed that the fluxes from below the mixed layer to the surface are not sufficient to balance the mixed layer budget. Hence, we conclude that mixed layer production has to take place despite a pronounced sub-mixed-layer-maximum.
S. T. Lennartz, G. Krysztofiak, C. A. Marandino, B.-M. Sinnhuber, S. Tegtmeier, F. Ziska, R. Hossaini, K. Krüger, S. A. Montzka, E. Atlas, D. E. Oram, T. Keber, H. Bönisch, and B. Quack
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11753–11772,Short summary
Marine-produced short-lived trace gases such as halocarbons and DMS significantly impact atmospheric chemistry. To assess this impact on ozone depletion and the radiative budget, it is critical that their marine emissions in atmospheric chemistry models are quantified as accurately as possible. We show that calculating emissions online with an interactive atmosphere improves the agreement with current observations and should be employed regularly in models where marine sources are important.
T. P. Canty, L. Hembeck, T. P. Vinciguerra, D. C. Anderson, D. L. Goldberg, S. F. Carpenter, D. J. Allen, C. P. Loughner, R. J. Salawitch, and R. R. Dickerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10965–10982,
N. R. P. Harris, B. Hassler, F. Tummon, G. E. Bodeker, D. Hubert, I. Petropavlovskikh, W. Steinbrecht, J. Anderson, P. K. Bhartia, C. D. Boone, A. Bourassa, S. M. Davis, D. Degenstein, A. Delcloo, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, N. Jones, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, M. Laine, S. T. Leblanc, J.-C. Lambert, B. Liley, E. Mahieu, A. Maycock, M. de Mazière, A. Parrish, R. Querel, K. H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, C. Sioris, J. Staehelin, R. S. Stolarski, R. Stübi, J. Tamminen, C. Vigouroux, K. A. Walker, H. J. Wang, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9965–9982,Short summary
Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported for new and recently revised data sets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere peaked in the second half of the 1990s. We examine the trends before and after that peak to see if any change in trend is discernible. The previously reported decreases are confirmed. Furthermore, the downward trend in upper stratospheric ozone has not continued. The possible significance of any increase is discussed in detail.
Fuqing Zhang, Junhong Wei, Meng Zhang, K. P. Bowman, L. L. Pan, E. Atlas, and S. C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7667–7684,Short summary
Based on spectral and wavelet analyses, along with a diagnosis of the polarization relations, this study analyzes in situ airborne measurements from the 2008 Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport (START08) experiment to characterize gravity waves in the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (ExUTLS) region. The focus is on the second research flight (RF02), which was dedicated to probing gravity waves associated with strong upper-tropospheric jet-front systems.
J. D. Allan, P. I. Williams, J. Najera, J. D. Whitehead, M. J. Flynn, J. W. Taylor, D. Liu, E. Darbyshire, L. J. Carpenter, R. Chance, S. J. Andrews, S. C. Hackenberg, and G. McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5599–5609,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is an important contributor to aerosol number concentrations in the Arctic and thus has a major role in dictating cloud properties and climate in this region. Here we present direct evidence that the oxidation of iodine in the atmosphere causes NPF in the Greenland Sea. This is important because this is a NPF mechanism that has not previously been considered in modelling studies at these latitudes.
S. Gonzi, P. I. Palmer, R. Paugam, M. Wooster, and M. N. Deeter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4339–4355,
S. J. Andrews, S. C. Hackenberg, and L. J. Carpenter
Ocean Sci., 11, 313–321,Short summary
The oceans are a key source of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases. The accurate and robust determination of trace gases in seawater is a significant analytical challenge. Here we describe a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer based purge and trap system that was developed for the fully automated analysis of dissolved very short-lived species (VSLS) in seawater sampled from a research ship.
M. J. Ashfold, J. A. Pyle, A. D. Robinson, E. Meneguz, M. S. M. Nadzir, S. M. Phang, A. A. Samah, S. Ong, H. E. Ung, L. K. Peng, S. E. Yong, and N. R. P. Harris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3565–3573,Short summary
We use observations and model calculations to show that "cold surges" occurring during Northern Hemisphere winter can rapidly transport East Asian pollution to equatorial Southeast Asia. As well as affecting atmospheric composition near the surface, we argue that strong convection can subsequently lift the polluted air masses to the tropical upper troposphere. This suggests a potentially important connection between midlatitude pollution sources and the lower stratosphere.
M. D. Jolleys, H. Coe, G. McFiggans, J. W. Taylor, S. J. O'Shea, M. Le Breton, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. Moller, P. Di Carlo, E. Aruffo, P. I. Palmer, J. D. Lee, C. J. Percival, and M. W. Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3077–3095,Short summary
Particulate emissions in the form of organic aerosol from boreal forest fires in Canada have been measured during an aircraft measurement campaign. Ratios of the amount of aerosol emitted relative to gas species such as CO were calculated and show high levels of variability throughout the campaign. This variability is affected by both changes in fire conditions, as fires tended to die down later in the measurement period, and by changes to the aerosol due to chemical reactions in the atmosphere.
F. Tummon, B. Hassler, N. R. P. Harris, J. Staehelin, W. Steinbrecht, J. Anderson, G. E. Bodeker, A. Bourassa, S. M. Davis, D. Degenstein, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, E. Kyrölä, M. Laine, C. Long, A. A. Penckwitt, C. E. Sioris, K. H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, H.-J. Wang, and J. Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3021–3043,Short summary
Understanding ozone trends in the vertical is vital in terms of assessing the success of the Montreal Protocol. This paper compares and analyses the long-term trends in stratospheric ozone from seven new merged satellite data sets. The data sets largely agree well with each other, particularly for the negative trends seen in the early period 1984-1997. For the 1998-2011 period there is less agreement, but a clear shift from negative to mostly positive trends.
E. C. Leedham Elvidge, D. E. Oram, J. C. Laube, A. K. Baker, S. A. Montzka, S. Humphrey, D. A. O'Sullivan, and C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1939–1958,
D. P. Finch, P. I. Palmer, and M. Parrington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13789–13800,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to quantify the CO sources responsible for the observed CO during the BORTAS-B campaign over Canada in 2011. We found the largest source was biomass burning from Ontario, with smaller sources from fossil fuel emissions from Asia and NE US. We develop an age-of-emission metric and show values in BORTAS-B are consistent with a slowing of photochemistry in plumes. Indirect evidence suggests this slowing is due to aerosols within the plumes.
J. W. Taylor, J. D. Allan, G. Allen, H. Coe, P. I. Williams, M. J. Flynn, M. Le Breton, J. B. A. Muller, C. J. Percival, D. Oram, G. Forster, J. D. Lee, A. R. Rickard, M. Parrington, and P. I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13755–13771,Short summary
We present a case study of BC wet removal by examining aerosol properties in three biomass burning plumes, one of which passed through a precipitating cloud. Nucleation scavenging preferentially removed the largest and most coated BC-containing particles. Calculated single-scattering albedo (SSA) showed little variation, as a large number of non-BC particles were also present in the precipitation-affected plume.
R. P. Fernandez, R. J. Salawitch, D. E. Kinnison, J.-F. Lamarque, and A. Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13391–13410,Short summary
We propose the existence of a daytime “tropical ring of atomic bromine” surrounding the tropics at a height between 15 and 19km. Our simulations show that VSL bromocarbons produce increases of 3pptv for inorganic bromine and 2pptv for organic bromine in the tropical TTL on an annual average, resulting in a total stratospheric bromine injection of 5pptv. This result suggests that the inorganic bromine injected into the stratosphere may be larger than that from VSL bromocarbons.
X. Tian, Z. Xie, Y. Liu, Z. Cai, Y. Fu, H. Zhang, and L. Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13281–13293,Short summary
A new carbon cycle data assimilation system (Tan-Tracker) is developed based on an advanced hybrid assimilation approach, as a part of the preparation for the launch of the Chinese carbon dioxide observation satellite (TanSat). Tan-Tracker adopts a joint data assimilation framework to simultaneously estimate CO2 concentrations and CFs and thus gradually reduce the uncertainty in the CO2 concentration evolution through continuously fitting model CO2 concentration simulations to the observations.
A. Fraser, P. I. Palmer, L. Feng, H. Bösch, R. Parker, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. B. Krummel, and R. L. Langenfelds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12883–12895,Short summary
Satellite measurements of CO2 and CH4 can be subject to regional systematic errors that can consequently compromise their ability to infer robust flux estimates of these two gases. We develop a method to use retrieved ratios of CH4 and CO2 that are less affected by systematic error. We show that additional in situ data are needed to anchor these observed ratios so they can simultaneously infer fluxes of CO2 and CH4. We argue the ratio data will provide a more faithful description of true fluxes.
M. Maione, F. Graziosi, J. Arduini, F. Furlani, U. Giostra, D. R. Blake, P. Bonasoni, X. Fang, S. A. Montzka, S. J. O'Doherty, S. Reimann, A. Stohl, and M. K. Vollmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9755–9770,
A. D. Robinson, N. R. P. Harris, M. J. Ashfold, B. Gostlow, N. J. Warwick, L. M. O'Brien, E. J. Beardmore, M. S. M. Nadzir, S. M. Phang, A. A. Samah, S. Ong, H. E. Ung, L. K. Peng, S. E. Yong, M. Mohamad, and J. A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8369–8388,
J. E. Franklin, J. R. Drummond, D. Griffin, J. R. Pierce, D. L. Waugh, P. I. Palmer, M. Parrington, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, J. W. Taylor, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. A. Walker, L. Chisholm, T. J. Duck, J. T. Hopper, Y. Blanchard, M. D. Gibson, K. R. Curry, K. M. Sakamoto, G. Lesins, L. Dan, J. Kliever, and A. Saha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8449–8460,
S. J. Oltmans, A. Karion, R. C. Schnell, G. Pétron, C. Sweeney, S. Wolter, D. Neff, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, D. Helmig, B. J. Johnson, and J. Hueber
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Q. Liang, E. Atlas, D. Blake, M. Dorf, K. Pfeilsticker, and S. Schauffler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5781–5792,
D. R. Gentner, T. B. Ford, A. Guha, K. Boulanger, J. Brioude, W. M. Angevine, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, J. B. Gilman, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, S. Meinardi, D. R. Blake, E. Atlas, W. A. Lonneman, T. E. Kleindienst, M. R. Beaver, J. M. St. Clair, P. O. Wennberg, T. C. VandenBoer, M. Z. Markovic, J. G. Murphy, R. A. Harley, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4955–4978,
C. J. Young, R. A. Washenfelder, P. M. Edwards, D. D. Parrish, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, L. H. Mielke, H. D. Osthoff, C. Tsai, O. Pikelnaya, J. Stutz, P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, S. Griffith, S. Dusanter, P. S. Stevens, J. Flynn, N. Grossberg, B. Lefer, J. S. Holloway, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, E. L. Atlas, D. R. Blake, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3427–3440,
B. D. Hall, A. Engel, J. Mühle, J. W. Elkins, F. Artuso, E. Atlas, M. Aydin, D. Blake, E.-G. Brunke, S. Chiavarini, P. J. Fraser, J. Happell, P. B. Krummel, I. Levin, M. Loewenstein, M. Maione, S. A. Montzka, S. O'Doherty, S. Reimann, G. Rhoderick, E. S. Saltzman, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, M. K. Vollmer, R. F. Weiss, D. Worthy, and Y. Yokouchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 469–490,
H. Hepach, B. Quack, F. Ziska, S. Fuhlbrügge, E. L. Atlas, K. Krüger, I. Peeken, and D. W. R. Wallace
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1255–1275,
M. J. Ashfold, N. R. P. Harris, A. J. Manning, A. D. Robinson, N. J. Warwick, and J. A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 979–994,
L. Kuai, J. Worden, S. S. Kulawik, S. A. Montzka, and J. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 163–172,
C. Cressot, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, C. Crevoisier, E. J. Dlugokencky, A. Fortems-Cheiney, C. Frankenberg, R. Parker, I. Pison, R. A. Scheepmaker, S. A. Montzka, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, and R. L. Langenfelds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 577–592,
S. J. O'Shea, G. Allen, M. W. Gallagher, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. M. Illingworth, M. Le Breton, J. B. A. Muller, C. J. Percival, A. T. Archibald, D. E. Oram, M. Parrington, P. I. Palmer, and A. C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12451–12467,
S. Tegtmeier, K. Krüger, B. Quack, E. Atlas, D. R. Blake, H. Boenisch, A. Engel, H. Hepach, R. Hossaini, M. A. Navarro, S. Raimund, S. Sala, Q. Shi, and F. Ziska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11869–11886,
R. Hossaini, H. Mantle, M. P. Chipperfield, S. A. Montzka, P. Hamer, F. Ziska, B. Quack, K. Krüger, S. Tegtmeier, E. Atlas, S. Sala, A. Engel, H. Bönisch, T. Keber, D. Oram, G. Mills, C. Ordóñez, A. Saiz-Lopez, N. Warwick, Q. Liang, W. Feng, F. Moore, B. R. Miller, V. Marécal, N. A. D. Richards, M. Dorf, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11819–11838,
S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, R. Bahreini, A. M. Middlebrook, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. de Gouw, R. A. Washenfelder, E. Atlas, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. S. Holloway, J. P. Schwarz, R. Spackman, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11317–11337,
B. W. LaFranchi, G. Pétron, J. B. Miller, S. J. Lehman, A. E. Andrews, E. J. Dlugokencky, B. Hall, B. R. Miller, S. A. Montzka, W. Neff, P. C. Novelli, C. Sweeney, J. C. Turnbull, D. E. Wolfe, P. P. Tans, K. R. Gurney, and T. P. Guilderson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11101–11120,
J. Ungermann, L. L. Pan, C. Kalicinsky, F. Olschewski, P. Knieling, J. Blank, K. Weigel, T. Guggenmoser, F. Stroh, L. Hoffmann, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10517–10534,
D. Griffin, K. A. Walker, J. E. Franklin, M. Parrington, C. Whaley, J. Hopper, J. R. Drummond, P. I. Palmer, K. Strong, T. J. Duck, I. Abboud, P. F. Bernath, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, K. R. Curry, L. Dan, E. Hyer, J. Kliever, G. Lesins, M. Maurice, A. Saha, K. Tereszchuk, and D. Weaver
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10227–10241,
J. P. Parrella, K. Chance, R. J. Salawitch, T. Canty, M. Dorf, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2549–2561,
F. Ziska, B. Quack, K. Abrahamsson, S. D. Archer, E. Atlas, T. Bell, J. H. Butler, L. J. Carpenter, C. E. Jones, N. R. P. Harris, H. Hepach, K. G. Heumann, C. Hughes, J. Kuss, K. Krüger, P. Liss, R. M. Moore, A. Orlikowska, S. Raimund, C. E. Reeves, W. Reifenhäuser, A. D. Robinson, C. Schall, T. Tanhua, S. Tegtmeier, S. Turner, L. Wang, D. Wallace, J. Williams, H. Yamamoto, S. Yvon-Lewis, and Y. Yokouchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8915–8934,
J. Bak, X. Liu, J. C. Wei, L. L. Pan, K. Chance, and J. H. Kim
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2239–2254,
C. A. Marandino, S. Tegtmeier, K. Krüger, C. Zindler, E. L. Atlas, F. Moore, and H. W. Bange
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8427–8437,
H. He, J. W. Stehr, J. C. Hains, D. J. Krask, B. G. Doddridge, K. Y. Vinnikov, T. P. Canty, K. M. Hosley, R. J. Salawitch, H. M. Worden, and R. R. Dickerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7859–7874,
P. D. Hamer, V. Marécal, R. Hossaini, M. Pirre, N. Warwick, M. Chipperfield, A. A. Samah, N. Harris, A. Robinson, B. Quack, A. Engel, K. Krüger, E. Atlas, K. Subramaniam, D. Oram, E. Leedham, G. Mills, K. Pfeilsticker, S. Sala, T. Keber, H. Bönisch, L. K. Peng, M. S. M. Nadzir, P. T. Lim, A. Mujahid, A. Anton, H. Schlager, V. Catoire, G. Krysztofiak, S. Fühlbrügge, M. Dorf, and W. T. Sturges
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
M. Parrington, P. I. Palmer, A. C. Lewis, J. D. Lee, A. R. Rickard, P. Di Carlo, J. W. Taylor, J. R. Hopkins, S. Punjabi, D. E. Oram, G. Forster, E. Aruffo, S. J. Moller, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, and R. J. Leigh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7321–7341,
M. D. Gibson, J. R. Pierce, D. Waugh, J. S. Kuchta, L. Chisholm, T. J. Duck, J. T. Hopper, S. Beauchamp, G. H. King, J. E. Franklin, W. R. Leaitch, A. J. Wheeler, Z. Li, G. A. Gagnon, and P. I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7199–7213,
S. Fuhlbrügge, K. Krüger, B. Quack, E. Atlas, H. Hepach, and F. Ziska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6345–6357,
P. I. Palmer, M. Parrington, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, P. F. Bernath, T. J. Duck, D. L. Waugh, D. W. Tarasick, S. Andrews, E. Aruffo, L. J. Bailey, E. Barrett, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, K. R. Curry, P. Di Carlo, L. Chisholm, L. Dan, G. Forster, J. E. Franklin, M. D. Gibson, D. Griffin, D. Helmig, J. R. Hopkins, J. T. Hopper, M. E. Jenkin, D. Kindred, J. Kliever, M. Le Breton, S. Matthiesen, M. Maurice, S. Moller, D. P. Moore, D. E. Oram, S. J. O'Shea, R. C. Owen, C. M. L. S. Pagniello, S. Pawson, C. J. Percival, J. R. Pierce, S. Punjabi, R. M. Purvis, J. J. Remedios, K. M. Rotermund, K. M. Sakamoto, A. M. da Silva, K. B. Strawbridge, K. Strong, J. Taylor, R. Trigwell, K. A. Tereszchuk, K. A. Walker, D. Weaver, C. Whaley, and J. C. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6239–6261,
A. Fraser, P. I. Palmer, L. Feng, H. Boesch, A. Cogan, R. Parker, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, R. L. Langenfelds, S. O'Doherty, R. G. Prinn, L. P. Steele, M. van der Schoot, and R. F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5697–5713,
C. J. Hardacre, P. I. Palmer, K. Baumanns, M. Rounsevell, and D. Murray-Rust
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5451–5472,
T. Canty, N. R. Mascioli, M. D. Smarte, and R. J. Salawitch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3997–4031,
D. A. Belikov, S. Maksyutov, M. Krol, A. Fraser, M. Rigby, H. Bian, A. Agusti-Panareda, D. Bergmann, P. Bousquet, P. Cameron-Smith, M. P. Chipperfield, A. Fortems-Cheiney, E. Gloor, K. Haynes, P. Hess, S. Houweling, S. R. Kawa, R. M. Law, Z. Loh, L. Meng, P. I. Palmer, P. K. Patra, R. G. Prinn, R. Saito, and C. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1093–1114,
A. C. Lewis, M. J. Evans, J. R. Hopkins, S. Punjabi, K. A. Read, R. M. Purvis, S. J. Andrews, S. J. Moller, L. J. Carpenter, J. D. Lee, A. R. Rickard, P. I. Palmer, and M. Parrington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 851–867,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Assessing the representativity of NH3 measurements influenced by boundary-layer dynamics and the turbulent dispersion of a nearby emission sourceAnalysis of CO2, CH4, and CO surface and column concentrations observed at Réunion Island by assessing WRF-Chem simulationsTechnical note: Interpretation of field observations of point-source methane plume using observation-driven large-eddy simulationsQuantifying fossil fuel methane emissions using observations of atmospheric ethane and an uncertain emission ratioThe impact of peripheral circulation characteristics of typhoon on sustained ozone episodes over the Pearl River Delta region, ChinaUpdated Global Fuel Exploitation Inventory (GFEI) for methane emissions from the oil, gas, and coal sectors: evaluation with inversions of atmospheric methane observationsHigh-resolution mapping of regional traffic emissions using land-use machine learning modelsLand use and anthropogenic heat modulate ozone by meteorology: a perspective from the Yangtze River Delta regionFour years of global carbon cycle observed from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) version 9 and in situ data and comparison to OCO-2 version 7Data assimilation of CrIS NH3 satellite observations for improving spatiotemporal NH3 distributions in LOTOS-EUROSOn the cross-tropopause transport of water by tropical convective overshoots: a mesoscale modelling study constrained by in situ observations during the TRO-Pico field campaign in BrazilEffects of ozone–vegetation interactions on meteorology and air quality in China using a two-way coupled land–atmosphere modelThe drivers and health risks of unexpected surface ozone enhancements over the Sichuan Basin, China, in 2020Estimated regional CO2 flux and uncertainty based on an ensemble of atmospheric CO2 inversionsEstimating 2010–2015 anthropogenic and natural methane emissions in Canada using ECCC surface and GOSAT satellite observationsTechnical note: AQMEII4 Activity 1: evaluation of wet and dry deposition schemes as an integral part of regional-scale air quality modelsEvaluating the impact of storage-and-release on aircraft-based mass-balance methodology using a regional air-quality modelThe regional impact of urban emissions on air quality in Europe: the role of the urban canopy effectsA new inverse modeling approach for emission sources based on the DDM-3D and 3DVAR techniques: an application to air quality forecasts in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regionAssessing urban methane emissions using column-observing portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers and a novel Bayesian inversion frameworkEvidence of a recent decline in UK emissions of hydrofluorocarbons determined by the InTEM inverse model and atmospheric measurementsVehicle-induced turbulence and atmospheric pollutionA comparative study to reveal the influence of typhoons on the transport, production and accumulation of O3 in the Pearl River Delta, ChinaSensitivity to the sources of uncertainties in the modeling of atmospheric CO2 concentration within and in the vicinity of ParisEstimating Upper Silesian coal mine methane emissions from airborne in situ observations and dispersion modelingAnalysis of CO2 spatio-temporal variations in China using a weather–biosphere online coupled modelMobile monitoring of urban air quality at high spatial resolution by low-cost sensors: impacts of COVID-19 pandemic lockdownLinking global terrestrial CO2 fluxes and environmental drivers: inferences from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 satellite and terrestrial biospheric modelsUncertainties in the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) emission inventory of greenhouse gasesUsing TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) measurements and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) CO modelling to understand the contribution of meteorology and emissions to an extreme air pollution event in IndiaGlobal methane budget and trend, 2010–2017: complementarity of inverse analyses using in situ (GLOBALVIEWplus CH4 ObsPack) and satellite (GOSAT) observationsCOVID-19 lockdowns highlight a risk of increasing ozone pollution in European urban areasLarge-eddy simulation of traffic-related air pollution at a very high resolution in a mega-city: evaluation against mobile sensors and insights for influencing factorsTechnical note: Emission mapping of key sectors in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, using satellite-derived urban land use dataImpact of western Pacific subtropical high on ozone pollution over eastern ChinaHigh-resolution hybrid inversion of IASI ammonia columns to constrain US ammonia emissions using the CMAQ adjoint modelSimulation of radon-222 with the GEOS-Chem global model: emissions, seasonality, and convective transportRegional CO2 fluxes from 2010 to 2015 inferred from GOSAT XCO2 retrievals using a new version of the Global Carbon Assimilation SystemThe friagem event in the central Amazon and its influence on micrometeorological variables and atmospheric chemistryModeling atmospheric ammonia using agricultural emissions with improved spatial variability and temporal dynamicsQuantifying methane emissions from Queensland's coal seam gas producing Surat Basin using inventory data and a regional Bayesian inversionErrors in top-down estimates of emissions using a known sourceThe impact of urban land-surface on extreme air pollution over central EuropeImpacts of future land use and land cover change on mid-21st-century surface ozone air quality: distinguishing between the biogeophysical and biogeochemical effectsWhat have we missed when studying the impact of aerosols on surface ozone via changing photolysis rates?Stratospheric impact on the Northern Hemisphere winter and spring ozone interannual variability in the troposphereDesign and evaluation of CO2 observation network to optimize surface CO2 fluxes in Asia using observation system simulation experimentsOzone pollution over China and India: seasonality and sourcesInfluences of oceanic ozone deposition on tropospheric photochemistryInvestigating the regional contributions to air pollution in Beijing: a dispersion modelling study using CO as a tracer
Ruben B. Schulte, Margreet C. van Zanten, Bart J. H. van Stratum, and Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8241–8257,Short summary
We present a fine-scale simulation framework, utilizing large-eddy simulations, to assess NH3 measurements influenced by boundary-layer dynamics and turbulent dispersion of a nearby emission source. The minimum required distance from an emission source differs for concentration and flux measurements, from 0.5–3.0 km and 0.75–4.5 km, respectively. The simulation framework presented here proves to be a powerful and versatile tool for future NH3 research at high spatio-temporal resolutions.
Sieglinde Callewaert, Jérôme Brioude, Bavo Langerock, Valentin Duflot, Dominique Fonteyn, Jean-François Müller, Jean-Marc Metzger, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Michel Ramonet, Morgan Lopez, Emmanuel Mahieu, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7763–7792,Short summary
A regional atmospheric transport model is used to analyze the factors contributing to CO2, CH4, and CO observations at Réunion Island. We show that the surface observations are dominated by local fluxes and dynamical processes, while the column data are influenced by larger-scale mechanisms such as biomass burning plumes. The model is able to capture the measured time series well; however, the results are highly dependent on accurate boundary conditions and high-resolution emission inventories.
Anja Ražnjević, Chiel van Heerwaarden, Bart van Stratum, Arjan Hensen, Ilona Velzeboer, Pim van den Bulk, and Maarten Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6489–6505,Short summary
Mobile measurement techniques (e.g., instruments placed in cars) are often employed to identify and quantify individual sources of greenhouse gases. Due to road restrictions, those observations are often sparse (temporally and spatially). We performed high-resolution simulations of plume dispersion, with realistic weather conditions encountered in the field, to reproduce the measurement process of a methane plume emitted from an oil well and provide additional information about the plume.
Alice E. Ramsden, Anita L. Ganesan, Luke M. Western, Matthew Rigby, Alistair J. Manning, Amy Foulds, James L. France, Patrick Barker, Peter Levy, Daniel Say, Adam Wisher, Tim Arnold, Chris Rennick, Kieran M. Stanley, Dickon Young, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3911–3929,Short summary
Quantifying methane emissions from different sources is a key focus of current research. We present a method for estimating sectoral methane emissions that uses ethane as a tracer for fossil fuel methane. By incorporating variable ethane : methane emission ratios into this model, we produce emissions estimates with improved uncertainty characterisation. This method will be particularly useful for studying methane emissions in areas with complex distributions of sources.
Ying Li, Xiangjun Zhao, Xuejiao Deng, and Jinhui Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3861–3873,Short summary
This study finds a new phenomenon of weak wind deepening (WWD) associated with the peripheral circulation of typhoon and gives the influence mechanism of WWD on its contribution to daily variation during sustained ozone episodes. The WWD provides the premise for pollution accumulation in the whole PBL and continued enhancement of ground-level ozone via vertical mixing processes. These findings could benefit the daily daytime ozone forecast in the PRD region and other areas.
Tia R. Scarpelli, Daniel J. Jacob, Shayna Grossman, Xiao Lu, Zhen Qu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Yuzhong Zhang, Frances Reuland, Deborah Gordon, and John R. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3235–3249,Short summary
We present a spatially explicit version of the national inventories of oil, gas, and coal methane emissions as submitted by individual countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2021. We then use atmospheric modeling to compare our inventory emissions to atmospheric methane observations with the goal of identifying potential under- and overestimates of oil–gas methane emissions in the national inventories.
Xiaomeng Wu, Daoyuan Yang, Ruoxi Wu, Jiajun Gu, Yifan Wen, Shaojun Zhang, Rui Wu, Renjie Wang, Honglei Xu, K. Max Zhang, Ye Wu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1939–1950,Short summary
Our work pioneered land-use machine learning methods for developing link-level emission inventories, utilizing hourly traffic profiles, including volume, speed, and fleet mix, obtained from the governmental intercity highway monitoring network in the "capital circles" of China. This research provides a platform to realize the near-real-time process of establishing high-resolution vehicle emission inventories for policy makers to engage in sophisticated traffic management.
Chenchao Zhan and Min Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1351–1371,Short summary
The changes of land use and anthropogenic heat (AH) derived from urbanization can affect meteorology and in turn O3 evolution. In this study, we briefly describe the general features of O3 pollution in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) based on in situ observational data. Then, the impacts of land use and anthropogenic heat on O3 via changing the meteorological factors and local circulations are investigated in this region using the WRF-Chem model.
Hélène Peiro, Sean Crowell, Andrew Schuh, David F. Baker, Chris O'Dell, Andrew R. Jacobson, Frédéric Chevallier, Junjie Liu, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, Feng Deng, Brad Weir, Sourish Basu, Matthew S. Johnson, Sajeev Philip, and Ian Baker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1097–1130,Short summary
Satellite CO2 observations are constantly improved. We study an ensemble of different atmospheric models (inversions) from 2015 to 2018 using separate ground-based data or two versions of the OCO-2 satellite. Our study aims to determine if different satellite data corrections can yield different estimates of carbon cycle flux. A difference in the carbon budget between the two versions is found over tropical Africa, which seems to show the impact of corrections applied in satellite data.
Shelley van der Graaf, Enrico Dammers, Arjo Segers, Richard Kranenburg, Martijn Schaap, Mark W. Shephard, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 951–972,Short summary
CrIS NH3 satellite observations are assimilated into the LOTOS-EUROS model using two different methods. In the first method the data are used to fit spatially varying NH3 emission time factors. In the second method a local ensemble transform Kalman filter is used. Compared to in situ observations, combining both methods led to the most significant improvements in the modeled concentrations and deposition, illustrating the usefulness of CrIS NH3 to improve the spatiotemporal distribution of NH3.
Abhinna K. Behera, Emmanuel D. Rivière, Sergey M. Khaykin, Virginie Marécal, Mélanie Ghysels, Jérémie Burgalat, and Gerhard Held
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 881–901,Short summary
Deep convection overshooting the stratosphere's contribution to the global stratospheric water budget is still being quantified. We ran three different cloud-resolving simulations of an observed case of overshoots in Bauru during the TRO-Pico balloon campaign in the context of upscaling the impact of overshoots at a large scale. These simulations, which have been validated with balloon-borne and S-band radar measurements, shed light on the local-scale variability and composition of overshoots.
Jiachen Zhu, Amos P. K. Tai, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 765–782,Short summary
This study assessed O3 damage to plant and the subsequent effects on meteorology and air quality in China, whereby O3, meteorology, and vegetation can co-evolve with each other. We provided comprehensive understanding about how O3–vegetation impacts adversely affect plant growth and crop production, and contribute to global warming and severe O3 air pollution in China. Our findings clearly pinpoint the need to consider the O3 damage effects in both air quality studies and climate change studies.
Youwen Sun, Hao Yin, Xiao Lu, Justus Notholt, Mathias Palm, Cheng Liu, Yuan Tian, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18589–18608,Short summary
This study uses high-resolution nested-grid GEOS-Chem simulation, the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) machine learning method, and the exposure–response relationship to determine the drivers and evaluate the health risks of the unexpected surface O3 enhancements over the Sichuan Basin in 2020. These unexpected O3 enhancements were induced by meteorological anomalies and caused dramatically high health risks.
Naveen Chandra, Prabir K. Patra, Yousuke Niwa, Akihiko Ito, Yosuke Iida, Daisuke Goto, Shinji Morimoto, Masayuki Kondo, Masayuki Takigawa, Tomohiro Hajima, and Michio Watanabe
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This paper is intended to accomplish two goals: 1) quantify mean and uncertainty in non-fossil fuel CO2 fluxes estimated by the inverse modeling, and 2) provide in-depth analyses of regional CO2 fluxes in support of the emission mitigation policymaking. CO2 flux variability and trends are discussed concerning natural climate variability and human disturbances using multiple lines of evidence. Finally, some recommendations are given for inversion flux comparison from multiple transport models.
Sabour Baray, Daniel J. Jacob, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Jian-Xiong Sheng, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Dylan B. A. Jones, A. Anthony Bloom, and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18101–18121,Short summary
We use 2010–2015 surface and satellite observations to disentangle methane from anthropogenic and natural sources in Canada. Using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), the mismatch between modelled and observed methane concentrations can be used to infer emissions according to Bayesian statistics. Compared to prior knowledge, we show higher anthropogenic emissions attributed to energy and/or agriculture in Western Canada and lower natural emissions from Boreal wetlands.
Stefano Galmarini, Paul Makar, Olivia E. Clifton, Christian Hogrefe, Jesse O. Bash, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Tim Butler, Jason Ducker, Johannes Flemming, Alma Hodzic, Christopher D. Holmes, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Richard Kranenburg, Aurelia Lupascu, Juan Luis Perez-Camanyo, Jonathan Pleim, Young-Hee Ryu, Roberto San Jose, Donna Schwede, Sam Silva, and Ralf Wolke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15663–15697,Short summary
This technical note presents the research protocols for phase 4 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII4). This initiative has three goals: (i) to define the state of wet and dry deposition in regional models, (ii) to evaluate how dry deposition influences air concentration and flux predictions, and (iii) to identify the causes for prediction differences. The evaluation compares LULC-specific dry deposition and effective conductances and fluxes.
Sepehr Fathi, Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Andrea Darlington, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15461–15491,Short summary
We have investigated the accuracy of aircraft-based mass balance methodologies through computer model simulations of the atmosphere and air quality at a regional high-resolution scale. We have defined new quantitative metrics to reduce emission retrieval uncertainty by evaluating top-down mass balance estimates against the known simulated meteorology and input emissions. We also recommend methodologies and flight strategies for improved retrievals in future aircraft-based studies.
Peter Huszar, Jan Karlický, Jana Marková, Tereza Nováková, Marina Liaskoni, and Lukáš Bartík
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14309–14332,Short summary
Urban areas are strong hot spots of emissions influencing local and regional air quality. Cities furthermore influence the meteorological conditions due to their characteristic surface properties and geometry. We found that if these latter effects are not included in the quantification of the impact of urban emissions on regional air quality, this impact will be overestimated, and this overestimation is mainly due to the enhanced turbulence that is present in cities compared to rural areas.
Xinghong Cheng, Zilong Hao, Zengliang Zang, Zhiquan Liu, Xiangde Xu, Shuisheng Wang, Yuelin Liu, Yiwen Hu, and Xiaodan Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13747–13761,Short summary
We develop a new inversion method of emission sources based on sensitivity analysis and the three-dimension variational technique. The novel explicit observation operator matrix between emission sources and the receptor’s concentrations is established. Then this method is applied to a typical heavy haze episode in North China, and spatiotemporal variations of SO2, NO2, and O3 concentrations simulated using a posterior emission sources are compared with results using an a priori inventory.
Taylor S. Jones, Jonathan E. Franklin, Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Kristian D. Hajny, Johannes C. Paetzold, Adrian Wenzel, Conor Gately, Elaine Gottlieb, Harrison Parker, Manvendra Dubey, Frank Hase, Paul B. Shepson, Levi H. Mielke, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13131–13147,Short summary
Methane emissions from leaks in natural gas pipes are often a large source in urban areas, but they are difficult to measure on a city-wide scale. Here we use an array of innovative methane sensors distributed around the city of Indianapolis and a new method of combining their data with an atmospheric model to accurately determine the magnitude of these emissions, which are about 70 % larger than predicted. This method can serve as a framework for cities trying to account for their emissions.
Alistair J. Manning, Alison L. Redington, Daniel Say, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Peter G. Simmonds, Martin K. Vollmer, Jens Mühle, Jgor Arduini, Gerard Spain, Adam Wisher, Michela Maione, Tanja J. Schuck, Kieran Stanley, Stefan Reimann, Andreas Engel, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Ray F. Weiss, Ray Gluckman, Peter N. Brown, John D. Watterson, and Tim Arnold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12739–12755,Short summary
This paper estimates UK emissions of important greenhouse gases (hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)) using high-quality atmospheric observations and atmospheric modelling. We compare these estimates with those submitted by the UK to the United Nations. We conclude that global concentrations of these gases are still increasing. Our estimates for the UK are 73 % of those reported and that the UK emissions are now falling, demonstrating an impact of UK government policy.
Paul A. Makar, Craig Stroud, Ayodeji Akingunola, Junhua Zhang, Shuzhan Ren, Philip Cheung, and Qiong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12291–12316,Short summary
Vehicle pollutant emissions occur in an environment where upward transport can be enhanced due to the turbulence created by the vehicles as they move through the atmosphere. An approach for including these turbulence effects in regional air pollution forecast models has been derived from theoretical, observation, and higher-resolution modeling. The enhanced mixing, which occurs in the immediate vicinity of roadways, changes pollutant concentrations on the regional to continental scale.
Kun Qu, Xuesong Wang, Yu Yan, Jin Shen, Teng Xiao, Huabin Dong, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11593–11612,Short summary
Typhoons above the Northwest Pacific frequently lead to severe ambient ozone pollution in the Pearl River Delta, China, in autumn and summer. However, typhoons do not enhance ozone transport, production and accumulation at the same time, and differences also exist between these influences in two seasons. Through systematic comparisons, we revealed the complex interactions between local meteorology and ozone processes, which is essential for understanding the causes of regional ozone pollution.
Jinghui Lian, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, Thomas Lauvaux, Bo Zheng, Michel Ramonet, Irène Xueref-Remy, Simone Kotthaus, Martial Haeffelin, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10707–10726,Short summary
Currently there is growing interest in monitoring city-scale CO2 emissions based on atmospheric CO2 measurements, atmospheric transport modeling, and inversion technique. We analyze the various sources of uncertainty that impact the atmospheric CO2 modeling and that may compromise the potential of this method for the monitoring of CO2 emission over Paris. Results suggest selection criteria for the assimilation of CO2 measurements into the inversion system that aims at retrieving city emissions.
Julian Kostinek, Anke Roiger, Maximilian Eckl, Alina Fiehn, Andreas Luther, Norman Wildmann, Theresa Klausner, Andreas Fix, Christoph Knote, Andreas Stohl, and André Butz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8791–8807,Short summary
Abundant mining and industrial activities in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin lead to large emissions of the potent greenhouse gas methane. This study quantifies these emissions with continuous, high-precision airborne measurements and dispersion modeling. Our emission estimates are in line with values reported in the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR 2017) but significantly lower than values reported in the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v4.3.2).
Xinyi Dong, Man Yue, Yujun Jiang, Xiao-Ming Hu, Qianli Ma, Jingjiao Pu, and Guangqiang Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7217–7233,Short summary
The dynamics of CO2 has received considerable attention in the literature, yet uncertainties remain. We applied an online coupled weather-biosphere model to simulate biosphere processes and meteorology simultaneously to characterize CO2 dynamics in China. Anthropogenic emission was more influential in upper air, and the biosphere flux played a more important role in surface CO2, suggesting a significant influence of the boundary layer thermal structure on the accumulation and depletion of CO2.
Shibao Wang, Yun Ma, Zhongrui Wang, Lei Wang, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Mingzhi Yao, Yunpeng Li, Qilin Li, Mengxian Wu, Ling Zhang, Yongle Xiao, and Yanxu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7199–7215,Short summary
Mobile monitoring with low-cost sensors is a promising approach to garner high-spatial-resolution observations representative of the community scale. We develop a grid analysis method to obtain 50 m resolution maps of major air pollutants (CO, NO2, and O3) based on GIS technology. Our results demonstrate the sensing power of mobile monitoring for urban air pollution, which provides detailed information for source attribution and accurate traceability at the urban micro-scale.
Zichong Chen, Junjie Liu, Daven K. Henze, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Kelley C. Wells, Stephen Sitch, Pierre Friedlingstein, Emilie Joetzjer, Vladislav Bastrikov, Daniel S. Goll, Vanessa Haverd, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Sebastian Lienert, Danica L. Lombardozzi, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Benjamin Poulter, Hanqin Tian, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Sönke Zaehle, and Scot M. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6663–6680,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite observes atmospheric CO2 globally. We use a multiple regression and inverse model to quantify the relationships between OCO-2 and environmental drivers within individual years for 2015–2018 and within seven global biomes. Our results point to limitations of current space-based observations for inferring environmental relationships but also indicate the potential to inform key relationships that are very uncertain in process-based models.
Efisio Solazzo, Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Marilena Muntean, Margarita Choulga, and Greet Janssens-Maenhout
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5655–5683,Short summary
We conducted an extensive analysis of the structural uncertainty of the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) emission inventory of greenhouse gases, which adds a much needed reliability dimension to the accuracy of the emission estimates. The study undertakes in-depth analyses of the implication of aggregating emissions from different sources and/or countries on the accuracy. Results are presented for all emissions sectors according to IPCC definitions.
Ashique Vellalassery, Dhanyalekshmi Pillai, Julia Marshall, Christoph Gerbig, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, and Aparnna Ravi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5393–5414,Short summary
We investigate factors contributing to the severe and persistent air quality degradation in northern India that has worsened during every winter over the last decade. This is achieved by implementing atmospheric modelling and using recently available Sentinel-5 P satellite data for carbon monoxide. We see a minimal role of biomass burning, except for the state of Punjab. The aim is to focus on residential and industrial emission reduction strategies to tackle air pollution over northern India.
Xiao Lu, Daniel J. Jacob, Yuzhong Zhang, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Tia R. Scarpelli, Hannah Nesser, Robert M. Yantosca, Jianxiong Sheng, Arlyn Andrews, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, A. Anthony Bloom, and Shuang Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4637–4657,Short summary
We use an analytical solution to the Bayesian inverse problem to quantitatively compare and combine the information from satellite and in situ observations, and to estimate global methane budget and their trends over the 2010–2017 period. We find that satellite and in situ observations are to a large extent complementary in the inversion for estimating global methane budget, and reveal consistent corrections of regional anthropogenic and wetland methane emissions relative to the prior inventory.
Stuart K. Grange, James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Alastair C. Lewis, Christoph Hueglin, Lukas Emmenegger, and David C. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4169–4185,Short summary
The changes in mobility across Europe due to the COVID-19 lockdowns had consequences for air quality. We compare what was experienced to estimates of "what would have been" without the lockdowns. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an important vehicle-sourced pollutant, decreased by a third. However, ozone (O3) increased in response to lower NO2. Because NO2 is decreasing over time, increases in O3 can be expected in European urban areas and will require management to avoid future negative outcomes.
Yanxu Zhang, Xingpei Ye, Shibao Wang, Xiaojing He, Lingyao Dong, Ning Zhang, Haikun Wang, Zhongrui Wang, Yun Ma, Lei Wang, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Mingzhi Yao, Yunpeng Li, Qilin Li, Ling Zhang, and Yongle Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2917–2929,Short summary
Urban air quality varies drastically at street scale, but traditional methods are too coarse to resolve it. We develop a 10 m resolution air quality model and apply it for traffic-related carbon monoxide air quality in Nanjing megacity. The model reveals a detailed geographical dispersion pattern of air pollution in and out of the road network and agrees well with a validation dataset. The model can be a vigorous part of the smart city system and inform urban planning and air quality management.
Trang Thi Quynh Nguyen, Wataru Takeuchi, Prakhar Misra, and Sachiko Hayashida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2795–2818,Short summary
This study provides annual emissions of transportation, manufacturing industries and construction, and residential areas at 1 km resolution from 2009 to 2016 for Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our originality is our use of satellite-derived urban land use morphological maps. These maps which are based on building height provided by a coarse-resolution satellite-derived digital surface model (DSM) and urban built-up area classified from Landsat images allow spatial disaggregation of annual emissions.
Zhongjing Jiang, Jing Li, Xiao Lu, Cheng Gong, Lin Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2601–2613,Short summary
This study demonstrates that the intensity of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), a major synoptic pattern in the northern Pacific during summer, can induce a dipole change in surface ozone pollution over eastern China. Ozone concentration increases in the north and decreases in the south during the strong WPSH phase, and vice versa. The change in chemical processes associated with the WPSH change plays a decisive role, whereas the natural emission of ozone precursors accounts for ~ 30 %.
Yilin Chen, Huizhong Shen, Jennifer Kaiser, Yongtao Hu, Shannon L. Capps, Shunliu Zhao, Amir Hakami, Jhih-Shyang Shih, Gertrude K. Pavur, Matthew D. Turner, Daven K. Henze, Jaroslav Resler, Athanasios Nenes, Sergey L. Napelenok, Jesse O. Bash, Kathleen M. Fahey, Gregory R. Carmichael, Tianfeng Chai, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Martin Van Damme, and Armistead G. Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2067–2082,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) emissions can exert adverse impacts on air quality and ecosystem well-being. NH3 emission inventories are viewed as highly uncertain. Here we optimize the NH3 emission estimates in the US using an air quality model and NH3 measurements from the IASI satellite instruments. The optimized NH3 emissions are much higher than the National Emissions Inventory estimates in April. The optimized NH3 emissions improved model performance when evaluated against independent observation.
Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, James H. Crawford, Gao Chen, T. Duncan Fairlie, Scott Chambers, Chang-Hee Kang, Alastair G. Williams, Kai Zhang, David B. Considine, Melissa P. Sulprizio, and Robert M. Yantosca
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1861–1887,Short summary
We simulate atmospheric 222Rn using the GEOS-Chem model to improve understanding of 222Rn emissions and characterize convective transport in the model. We demonstrate the potential of a customized global 222Rn emission scenario to improve simulated surface 222Rn concentrations and seasonality. We assess convective transport using observed 222Rn vertical profiles. Results have important implications for using chemical transport models to interpret the transport of trace gases and aerosols.
Fei Jiang, Hengmao Wang, Jing M. Chen, Weimin Ju, Xiangjun Tian, Shuzhuang Feng, Guicai Li, Zhuoqi Chen, Shupeng Zhang, Xuehe Lu, Jane Liu, Haikun Wang, Jun Wang, Wei He, and Mousong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1963–1985,Short summary
We present a 6-year inversion from 2010 to 2015 for the global and regional carbon fluxes using only the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. We find that the XCO2 retrievals could significantly improve the modeling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and that the inferred interannual variations in the terrestrial carbon fluxes in most land regions have a better relationship with the changes in severe drought area or leaf area index, or are more consistent with the previous estimates about drought impact.
Guilherme F. Camarinha-Neto, Julia C. P. Cohen, Cléo Q. Dias-Júnior, Matthias Sörgel, José Henrique Cattanio, Alessandro Araújo, Stefan Wolff, Paulo A. F. Kuhn, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Luciana V. Rizzo, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 339–356,Short summary
It was observed that friagem phenomena (incursion of cold waves from the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere to the Amazon region), very common in the dry season of the Amazon region, produced significant changes in microclimate and atmospheric chemistry. Moreover, the effects of the friagem change the surface O3 and CO2 mixing ratios and therefore interfere deeply in the microclimatic conditions and the chemical composition of the atmosphere above the rainforest.
Xinrui Ge, Martijn Schaap, Richard Kranenburg, Arjo Segers, Gert Jan Reinds, Hans Kros, and Wim de Vries
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16055–16087,Short summary
This article is about improving the modeling of agricultural ammonia emissions. By considering land use, meteorology and agricultural practices, ammonia emission totals officially reported by countries are distributed in space and time. We illustrated the first step for a better understanding of the variability of ammonia emission, with the possibility of being applied at a European scale, which is of great significance for ammonia budget research and future policy-making.
Ashok K. Luhar, David M. Etheridge, Zoë M. Loh, Julie Noonan, Darren Spencer, Lisa Smith, and Cindy Ong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15487–15511,Short summary
With the sharp rise in coal seam gas (CSG) production in Queensland’s Surat Basin, there is much interest in quantifying methane emissions from this area and from unconventional gas production in general. We develop and apply a regional Bayesian inverse model that uses hourly methane concentration data from two sites and modelled backward dispersion to quantify emissions. The model requires a narrow prior and suggests that the emissions from the CSG areas are 33% larger than bottom-up estimates.
Wayne M. Angevine, Jeff Peischl, Alice Crawford, Christopher P. Loughner, Ilana B. Pollack, and Chelsea R. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11855–11868,Short summary
Emissions of air pollutants must be known for a wide variety of applications. Different methods of estimating emissions often disagree substantially. In this study, we apply standard methods to a well-known source, a power plant. We explore the uncertainty implied by the different answers that come from the different methods, different samples taken over several years, and different pollutants. We find that the overall uncertainty of emissions estimates is about 30 %.
Peter Huszar, Jan Karlický, Jana Ďoubalová, Tereza Nováková, Kateřina Šindelářová, Filip Švábik, Michal Belda, Tomáš Halenka, and Michal Žák
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11655–11681,Short summary
The paper shows how extreme meteorological conditions change due to the urban land-cover forcing and how this translates to the impact on the extreme air pollution over central European cities. It focuses on ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm and shows that, while for the extreme daily maximum 8 h ozone, changes are same as for the mean ones, much larger modifications are calculated for extreme NO2 and PM2.5 compared to their mean changes.
Lang Wang, Amos P. K. Tai, Chi-Yung Tam, Mehliyar Sadiq, Peng Wang, and Kevin K. W. Cheung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11349–11369,Short summary
We investigate the effects of future land use and land cover change (LULCC) on surface ozone air quality worldwide and find that LULCC can significantly influence ozone in North America and Europe via modifying surface energy balance, boundary-layer meteorology, and regional circulation. The strength of such “biogeophysical effects” of LULCC is strongly dependent on forest type and generally greater than the “biogeochemical effects” via changing deposition and emission fluxes alone.
Jinhui Gao, Ying Li, Bin Zhu, Bo Hu, Lili Wang, and Fangwen Bao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10831–10844,Short summary
Light extinction of aerosols can decease surface ozone mainly via reducing photochemical production of ozone. However, it also leads to high levels of ozone aloft being entrained down to the surface which partly counteracts the reduction in surface ozone. The impact of aerosols is more sensitive to local ozone, which suggests that while controlling the levels of aerosols, controlling the local ozone precursors is an effective way to suppress the increase of ozone over China at present.
Junhua Liu, Jose M. Rodriguez, Luke D. Oman, Anne R. Douglass, Mark A. Olsen, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6417–6433,Short summary
Our paper quantifies and identifies the importance of stratospheric ozone influence on the tropospheric ozone IAV in Northern Hemisphere mid-high latitudes. Our analysis provides an in-depth understanding of how 3-D dynamics influences the O3 redistribution in the troposphere. These findings are particularly important considering the potential changes in these dynamical conditions in the future as a result of climate change
Jun Park and Hyun Mee Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5175–5195,Short summary
Observation network experiments were conducted to optimize the surface CO2 flux in Asia. The impacts of the redistribution of and additions to the existing observation network were evaluated. The addition experiments revealed that considering both the normalized self-sensitivity and ecoregion information can yield better simulated surface CO2 fluxes compared to random addition. This study provides useful information for future observation network design to estimate the surface CO2 flux.
Meng Gao, Jinhui Gao, Bin Zhu, Rajesh Kumar, Xiao Lu, Shaojie Song, Yuzhong Zhang, Beixi Jia, Peng Wang, Gufran Beig, Jianlin Hu, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, Peter Sherman, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4399–4414,Short summary
A regional fully coupled meteorology–chemistry model, Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), was employed to study the seasonality of ozone (O3) pollution and its sources in both China and India.
Ryan J. Pound, Tomás Sherwen, Detlev Helmig, Lucy J. Carpenter, and Mat J. Evans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4227–4239,Short summary
Ozone is an important pollutant with impacts on health and the environment. Ozone is lost to plants, land and the oceans. Loss to the ocean is slow compared to all other types of land cover and has not received as much attention. We build on previous work to more accurately model ozone loss to the ocean. We find changes in the concentration of ozone over the oceans, notably the Southern Ocean, which improves model performance.
Marios Panagi, Zoë L. Fleming, Paul S. Monks, Matthew J. Ashfold, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, Qiang Zhang, Freya A. Squires, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2825–2838,Short summary
In this paper, using dispersion modelling with emission inventories it was determined that on average 45 % of the total CO pollution that affects Beijing is transported from other areas. About half of the CO comes from beyond the immediate surrounding areas. Finally three classification types of pollution were identified and used to analyse the APHH winter campaign. The results can inform targeted control measures to be implemented in Beijing and the other regions to tackle air quality problems.
Andrews, S. J., Carpenter, L. J., Apel, E. C., Atlas, E., Donets, V., Hopkins, J. R., Hornbrook, R. S., Lewis, A. C., Lidster, R. T., Lueb, R., Minaeian, J., Navarro, M., Punjabi, S., Riemer, D., and Schauffler, S.: A comparison of very short lived halocarbon (VSLS) and DMS aircraft measurements in the tropical west Pacific from CAST, ATTREX and CONTRAST, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5213–5225, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-5213-2016, 2016.
Aschmann, J. and Sinnhuber, B.-M.: Contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine loading: uncertainties and constraints, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1203–1219, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-1203-2013, 2013.
Aschmann, J., Sinnhuber, B.-M., Atlas, E. L., and Schauffler, S. M.: Modeling the transport of very short-lived substances into the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9237–9247, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-9237-2009, 2009.
Ashfold, M. J., Harris, N. R. P., Atlas, E. L., Manning, A. J., and Pyle, J. A.: Transport of short-lived species into the Tropical Tropopause Layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6309–6322, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-6309-2012, 2012.
Bell, N., Hsu, L., Jacob, D. J., Schultz, M. G., Blake, D. R., Butler, J. H., King, D. B., Lobert, J. M., and Maier-Reimer, E.: Methyl iodide: Atmospheric budget and use as a tracer of marine convection in global models, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, 4340, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD001151, 2002.
Carpenter, L., Reimann, S., Burkholder, J., Clerbaux, C., Hall, B., Hossaini, R., Laube, J., and Yvon-Lewis, S.: Chapter 1: Update on Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODSs) and Other Gases of Interest to the Montreal Protocol, pp. 21–125, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Report, World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 2014.
Carpenter, L. J. and Liss, P. S.: On temperate sources of bromoform and other reactive organic bromine gases, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 20539, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900242, 2000.
Dorf, M., Butz, A., Camy-Peyret, C., Chipperfield, M. P., Kritten, L., and Pfeilsticker, K.: Bromine in the tropical troposphere and stratosphere as derived from balloon-borne BrO observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 7265–7271, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-7265-2008, 2008.
Fernandez, R. P., Salawitch, R. J., Kinnison, D. E., Lamarque, J.-F., and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Bromine partitioning in the tropical tropopause layer: implications for stratospheric injection, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13391–13410, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-13391-2014, 2014.
Finch, D. P., Palmer, P. I., and Parrington, M.: Origin, variability and age of biomass burning plumes intercepted during BORTAS-B, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13789–13800, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-13789-2014, 2014.
Fueglistaler, S., Wernli, H., and Peter, T.: Tropical troposphere-to-stratosphere transport inferred from trajectory calculations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, d03108, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004069, 2004.
Fueglistaler, S., Dessler, A. E., Dunkerton, T. J., Folkins, I., Fu, Q., and Mote, P. W.: Tropical tropopause layer, Rev. Geophys., 47, RG1004, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008RG000267, 2009.
Gettelman, A. and Forster, P. M. D. F.: A Climatology of the Tropical Tropopause Layer., J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 80, 911–924, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.80.911, 2002.
Gettelman, A., Salby, M. L., and Sassi, F.: Distribution and influence of convection in the tropical tropopause region, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4080, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD001048, 2002.
Harris, N. R. P., Carpenter, L. J., Lee, J. D., Vaughan, G., Filus, M. T., Jones, R. L., OuYang, B., Pyle, J. A., Robinson, A. D., Andrews, S. J., Lewis, A. C., Minaeian, J., Vaughan, A., Dorsey, J. R., Gallagher, M. W., Breton, M. L., Newton, R., Percival, C. J., Ricketts, H. M. A., Baugitte, S. J.-B., Nott, G. J., Wellpott, A., Ashfold, M. J., Flemming, J., Butler, R., Palmer, P. I., Kaye, P. H., Stopford, C., Chemel, C., Boesch, H., Humpage, N., Vick, A., MacKenzie, A. R., Hyde, R., Angelov, P., Meneguz, E., and Manning, A. J.: Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST), B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 98, 145–162, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00290.1, 2016.
Hossaini, R., Chipperfield, M. P., Monge-Sanz, B. M., Richards, N. A. D., Atlas, E., and Blake, D. R.: Bromoform and dibromomethane in the tropics: a 3-D model study of chemistry and transport, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 719–735, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-719-2010, 2010.
Hossaini, R., Chipperfield, M. P., Feng, W., Breider, T. J., Atlas, E., Montzka, S. A., Miller, B. R., Moore, F., and Elkins, J.: The contribution of natural and anthropogenic very short-lived species to stratospheric bromine, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 371–380, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-371-2012, 2012.
Hossaini, R., Mantle, H., Chipperfield, M. P., Montzka, S. A., Hamer, P., Ziska, F., Quack, B., Krüger, K., Tegtmeier, S., Atlas, E., Sala, S., Engel, A., Bönisch, H., Keber, T., Oram, D., Mills, G., Ordóñez, C., Saiz-Lopez, A., Warwick, N., Liang, Q., Feng, W., Moore, F., Miller, B. R., Marécal, V., Richards, N. A. D., Dorf, M., and Pfeilsticker, K.: Evaluating global emission inventories of biogenic bromocarbons, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11819–11838, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-11819-2013, 2013.
Hossaini, R., Patra, P. K., Leeson, A. A., Krysztofiak, G., Abraham, N. L., Andrews, S. J., Archibald, A. T., Aschmann, J., Atlas, E. L., Belikov, D. A., Bönisch, H., Carpenter, L. J., Dhomse, S., Dorf, M., Engel, A., Feng, W., Fuhlbrügge, S., Griffiths, P. T., Harris, N. R. P., Hommel, R., Keber, T., Krüger, K., Lennartz, S. T., Maksyutov, S., Mantle, H., Mills, G. P., Miller, B., Montzka, S. A., Moore, F., Navarro, M. A., Oram, D. E., Pfeilsticker, K., Pyle, J. A., Quack, B., Robinson, A. D., Saikawa, E., Saiz-Lopez, A., Sala, S., Sinnhuber, B.-M., Taguchi, S., Tegtmeier, S., Lidster, R. T., Wilson, C., and Ziska, F.: A multi-model intercomparison of halogenated very short-lived substances (TransCom-VSLS): linking oceanic emissions and tropospheric transport for a reconciled estimate of the stratospheric source gas injection of bromine, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9163–9187, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-9163-2016, 2016.
Jones, D. B. A., Bowman, K. W., Palmer, P. I., Worden, J. R., Jacob, D. J., Hoffman, R. N., Bey, I., and Yantosca, R. M.: Potential of observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer to constrain continental sources of carbon monoxide, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 4789, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003702, 2003.
Ko, M. and Poulet, G.: Chapter 2: Very short-lived halogen and sulfur substances, in: Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002 Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 47, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2003.
Liang, Q., Stolarski, R. S., Kawa, S. R., Nielsen, J. E., Douglass, A. R., Rodriguez, J. M., Blake, D. R., Atlas, E. L., and Ott, L. E.: Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2269–2286, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-2269-2010, 2010.
Liang, Q., Atlas, E., Blake, D., Dorf, M., Pfeilsticker, K., and Schauffler, S.: Convective transport of very short lived bromocarbons to the stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5781–5792, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-5781-2014, 2014.
Mackie, A. R., Palmer, P. I., Barlow, J. M., Finch, D. P., Novelli, P., and Jaegl'e, L.: Reduced Arctic air pollution due to decreasing European and North American emissions, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121, 8692–8700, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD024923, 2016.
McLinden, C. A., Haley, C. S., Lloyd, N. D., Hendrick, F., Rozanov, A., Sinnhuber, B.-M., Goutail, F., Degenstein, D. A., Llewellyn, E. J., Sioris, C. E., Van Roozendael, M., Pommereau, J. P., Lotz, W., and Burrows, J. P.: Odin/OSIRIS observations of stratospheric BrO: Retrieval methodology, climatology, and inferred Bry, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, d15308, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012488, 2010.
Montzka, S. A., Krol, M., Dlugokencky, E., Hall, B., Jöckel, P., and Lelieveld, J.: Small Interannual Variability of Global Atmospheric Hydroxyl, Science, 331, 67–69, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1197640, 2011.
National Geographic Data Center, NOAA: 2-minute Gridded Global Relief Data (ETOPO2) v2, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, https://doi.org/10.7289/v5j1012q, 2006.
Navarro, M. A., Atlas, E. L., Saiz-Lopez, A., Rodriguez-Lloveras, X., Kinnison, D. E., Lamarque, J.-F., Tilmes, S., Filus, M., Harris, N. R. P., Meneguz, E., Ashfold, M. J., Manning, A. J., Cuevas, C. A., Schauffler, S. M., and Donets, V.: Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 112, 13789–13793, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1511463112, 2015.
Ordóñez, C., Lamarque, J.-F., Tilmes, S., Kinnison, D. E., Atlas, E. L., Blake, D. R., Sousa Santos, G., Brasseur, G., and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Bromine and iodine chemistry in a global chemistry-climate model: description and evaluation of very short-lived oceanic sources, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1423–1447, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-1423-2012, 2012.
Palmer, P. I., Jacob, D. J., Jones, D. B. A., Heald, C. L., Yantosca, R. M., Logan, J. A., Sachse, G. W., and Streets, D. G.: Inverting for emissions of carbon monoxide from Asia using aircraft observations over the western Pacific, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 8828, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003397, 2003.
Pan, L. L., Paulik, L. C., Honomichl, S. B., Munchak, L. A., Bian, J., Selkirk, H. B., and Vömel, H.: Identification of the tropical tropopause transition layer using the ozone-water vapor relationship, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 3586–3599, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD020558, 2014.
Pan, L. L., Atlas, E. L., Salawitch, R. J., Honomichl, S. B., Bresch, J. F., Randel, W. J., Apel, E. C., Hornbrook, R. S., Weinheimer, A. J., Anderson, D. C., Andrews, S. J., Baidar, S., Beaton, S. P., Campos, T. L., Carpenter, L. J., Chen, D., Dix, B., Donets, V., Hall, S. R., Hanisco, T. F., Homeyer, C. R., Huey, L. G., Jensen, J. B., Kaser, L., Kinnison, D. E., Koenig, T. K., Lamarque, J.-F., Liu, C., Luo, J., Luo, Z. J., Montzka, D. D., Nicely, J. M., Pierce, R. B., Riemer, D. D., Robinson, T., Romashkin, P., Saiz-Lopez, A., Schauffler, S., Shieh, O., Stell, M. H., Ullmann, K., Vaughan, G., Volkamer, R., and Wolfe, G.: The Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) Experiment, B. Am. Meteor. Soc., 98, 106–128, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00272.1, 2016.
Quack, B. and Wallace, D. W. R.: Air-sea flux of bromoform: Controls, rates, and implications, Glob. Biogeochem. Cy., 17, 1–27, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GB001890, 2003.
Quack, B., Atlas, E., Petrick, G., and Wallace, D. W. R.: Bromoform and dibromomethane above the Mauritanian upwelling: Atmospheric distributions and oceanic emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D09312, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007614, 2007.
Salawitch, R. J., Canty, T., Kurosu, T., Chance, K., Liang, Q., da Silva, A., Pawson, S., Nielsen, J. E., Rodriguez, J. M., Bhartia, P. K., Liu, X., Huey, L. G., Liao, J., Stickel, R. E., Tanner, D. J., Dibb, J. E., Simpson, W. R., Donohoue, D., Weinheimer, A., Flocke, F., Knapp, D., Montzka, D., Neuman, J. A., Nowak, J. B., Ryerson, T. B., Oltmans, S., Blake, D. R., Atlas, E. L., Kinnison, D. E., Tilmes, S., Pan, L. L., Hendrick, F., Van Roozendael, M., Kreher, K., Johnston, P. V., Gao, R. S., Johnson, B., Bui, T. P., Chen, G., Pierce, R. B., Crawford, J. H., and Jacob, D. J.: A new interpretation of total column BrO during Arctic spring, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, l21805, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL043798, 2010.
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Natural sources of short-lived bromoform and dibromomethane are important for determining the inorganic bromine budget in the stratosphere that drives ozone loss. Two new modelling techniques describe how different geographical source regions influence their atmospheric variability over the western Pacific. We find that it is driven primarily by open ocean sources, and we use atmospheric observations to help estimate their contributions to the upper tropospheric inorganic bromine budget.
Natural sources of short-lived bromoform and dibromomethane are important for determining the...