Articles | Volume 21, issue 7
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5549–5573, 2021
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article 12 Apr 2021
Research article | 12 Apr 2021
Atmospheric conditions and composition that influence PM2.5 oxidative potential in Beijing, China
Steven J. Campbell et al.
No articles found.
Jing Cai, Cheng Wu, Jiandong Wang, Wei Du, Feixue Zheng, Simo Hakala, Xiaolong Fan, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Zemin Feng, Yongchun Liu, Yele Sun, Jun Zheng, Chao Yan, Federico Bianchi, Markku Kulmala, Claudia Mohr, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1251–1269,Short summary
This study investigates the connection between organic aerosol (OA) molecular composition and particle absorptive properties in autumn in Beijing. We find that the molecular properties of OA compounds in different episodes influence particle light absorption properties differently: the light absorption enhancement of black carbon and light absorption coefficient of brown carbon were mostly related to more oxygenated OA (low C number and four O atoms) and aromatics/nitro-aromatics, respectively.
Junjun Deng, Hao Ma, Xinfeng Wang, Shujun Zhong, Zhimin Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Yanbing Fan, Wei Hu, Libin Wu, Xiaodong Li, Lujie Ren, Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Light-absorbing brown carbon (BrC) plays an important role in climate change and atmospheric chemistry. Here we investigated the seasonal and diurnal variations in water-soluble BrC in PM2.5 in the megacity Tianjin in coastal China. Source apportionment results from the combination with organic molecular compositions and optical properties of water-soluble BrC reveal a large contribution from primary bioaerosol particles to BrC in the urban atmosphere.
Jiaxing Sun, Zhe Wang, Wei Zhou, Conghui Xie, Cheng Wu, Chun Chen, Tingting Han, Qingqing Wang, Zhijie Li, Jie Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 561–575,Short summary
We analyzed 9-year measurements of BC and aerosol optical properties from 2012 to 2020 in Beijing, China. Our results showed large reductions in BC and light extinction coefficient due to the Clean Air Action Plan. As a response, both SSA and mass extinction efficiency (MEE) showed considerable increases, demonstrating a future challenge in visibility improvement. The primary and secondary BrC was also separated and quantified, and the changes in radiative forcing of BC and BrC were estimated.
Jingnan Shi, Juan Hong, Nan Ma, Qingwei Luo, Yao He, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Qiaoqiao Wang, Jiangchuan Tao, Yaqing Zhou, Shuang Han, Long Peng, Linhong Xie, Guangsheng Zhou, Wanyun Xu, Yele Sun, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In this study, we investigated the hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols at a rural site in the North China Plain during the winter of 2018, using a HTDMA and a CV-ToF-ACSM. We observed differences in aerosol hygroscopicity during two distinct episodes with different primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation processes. These results provide an improved understanding of the complex influence of sources and aerosol evolution processes on their hygroscopicity.
Outi Meinander, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavel Amosov, Elena Aseyeva, Cliff Atkins, Alexander Baklanov, Clarissa Baldo, Sarah Barr, Barbara Barzycka, Liane Benning, Bojan Cvetkovic, Polina Enchilik, Denis Frolov, Santiago Gassó, Konrad Kandler, Nikolay Kasimov, Jan Kavan, James King, Tatyana Koroleva, Viktoria Krupskaya, Monika Kusiak, Michał Laska, Jerome Lasne, Marek Lewandowski, Bartłomiej Luks, James McQuaid, Beatrice Moroni, Benjamin Murray, Ottmar Möhler, Adam Nawrot, Slobodan Nickovic, Norman O’Neill, Goran Pejanovic, Olga Popovicheva, Keyvan Ranjbar, Manolis Romanias, Olga Samonova, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Kerstin Schepanski, Ivan Semenkov, Anna Sharapova, Elena Shevnina, Zongbo Shi, Mikhail Sofiev, Frédéric Thevenet, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Mikhail Timofeev, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Andreas Uppstu, Darya Urupina, György Varga, Tomasz Werner, Olafur Arnalds, and Ana Vukovic Vimic
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
High latitude dust (HLD) is a short-lived climate forcer, air pollutant and nutrient source. We identified 64 new high latitude dust sources and their observations and source characteristics. Our update provides crucially needed information on the extent of active HLD sources and their locations. Active HLD sources serve as important sources of aerosols with both direct and indirect impacts on climate and environment in remote regions, which are often poorly understood and predicted.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Francis D. Pope, Chris Reed, James D. Lee, Lucy J. Carpenter, Lloyd D. J. Hollis, Stephen M. Ball, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18213–18225,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key source of atmospheric oxidants. We evaluate if the ocean surface is a source of HONO for the marine boundary layer, using measurements from two contrasting coastal locations. We observed no evidence for a night-time ocean surface source, in contrast to previous work. This points to significant geographical variation in the predominant HONO formation mechanisms in marine environments, reflecting possible variability in the sea-surface microlayer composition.
Ülkü Alver Şahin, Roy M. Harrison, Mohammed S. Alam, David C. S. Beddows, Dimitrios Bousiotis, Zongbo Shi, Leigh R. Crilley, William Bloss, James Brean, Isha Khanna, and Rulan Verma
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Wide range particle size spectra have been measured in three seasons in Delhi and are interpreted in terms of sources and processes. Condensational growth is a major feature of the fine fraction, and a coarse fraction contributes substantially only in summer.
Yuting Zhang, Hang Liu, Shandong Lei, Wanyun Xu, Yu Tian, Weijie Yao, Xiaoyong Liu, Qi Liao, Jie Li, Chun Chen, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Jinyuan Xin, Junji Cao, Xiaole Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17631–17648,Short summary
In this study, the authors used a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) to characterize the particle size, mixing state, and optical properties of black carbon aerosols in rural areas of the North China Plain in winter. Relatively warm and high-RH environments (RH > 50 %, −4° < T < 4 °) were more favorable to rBC aging than dry and cold environments (RH < 60 %, T < −8°). The paper emphasizes the importance of meteorological parameters in the mixing state of black carbon.
Jiaxing Sun, Yele Sun, Conghui Xie, Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Zhe Wang, Lei Li, Xubing Du, Fugui Huang, Yan Li, Zhijie Li, Xiaole Pan, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We analyzed chemical composition and mixing state of BC-containing particles at urban and rural sites in winter in North China Plain and evaluated their impacts on light absorption enhancement. BC was dominantly mixed with organic carbon, nitrate and sulfate and the mixing state evolved significantly as a function of RH at both sites. The absorption enhancement depended strongly on coated secondary inorganic aerosol and was up to ~1.3–1.4 during ageing processes.
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, Anna Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17185–17223,Short summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system the effects of which are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
Yanhong Zhu, Weijun Li, Yue Wang, Jian Zhang, Lei Liu, Liang Xu, Jingsha Xu, Jinhui Shi, Longyi Shao, Pingqing Fu, Daizhou Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The solubilities of iron in fine particles in a megacity in southern China were studied under haze, fog, dust, clear, and rain weather conditions. For the first time, a receptor model was used to quantify the sources of dissolved and total iron aerosol. Microscopic analysis further confirmed aging of iron aerosol during haze and fog conditions that facilitated dissolution of insoluble iron.
Adam R. Vaughan, James D. Lee, Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Alastair C. Lewis, Marvin D. Shaw, Will S. Drysdale, Ruth M. Purvis, Brian Davison, and C. Nicholas Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15283–15298,Short summary
Validating emissions estimates of atmospheric pollutants is a vital pathway towards reducing urban concentrations of air pollution and ensuring effective legislative controls are implemented. The work presented here highlights a strategy capable of quantifying and spatially disaggregating NOx emissions over challenging urban terrain. This work shows great scope as a tool for emission inventory validation and independent generation of high-resolution surface emissions on a city-wide scale.
Shipra Jain, Ruth M. Doherty, David Sexton, Steven Turnock, Chaofan Li, Zixuan Jia, Zongbo Shi, and Lin Pei
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We provide a range of future projections of winter haze and clear conditions over the North China Plain (NCP) using multiple simulations from a climate model for the high-emission scenario (RCP8.5). The frequency of haze conducive weather is likely to increase whereas the frequency of clear weather is likely to decrease in future. The total number of hazy days for a given winter can be as much as ~3.5 times higher than the number of clear days over the NCP.
Deepchandra Srivastava, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Di Liu, Linjie Li, Pingqing Fu, Siqi Hou, Natalia Moreno Palmerola, Zongbo Shi, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14703–14724,Short summary
This study presents the source apportionment of PM2.5 performed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) at urban and rural sites in Beijing. These factors are interpreted as traffic emissions, biomass burning, road and soil dust, coal and oil combustion, and secondary inorganics. PMF failed to resolve some sources identified by CMB and AMS and appears to overestimate the dust sources. Comparison with earlier PMF studies from the Beijing area highlights inconsistent findings using this method.
Clarissa Baldo, Akinori Ito, Michael D. Krom, Weijun Li, Tim Jones, Nick Drake, Konstantin Ignatyev, Nicholas Davidson, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
High ionic strength relevant to aerosol water enhanced proton-promoted Fe dissolution of coal fly ash (up to 7 times) at low pH (2–3) but suppressed oxalate-promoted dissolution at more acidic pH. Fe in coal fly ash dissolved up to 7 times faster than in Saharan dust at low pH. The newly measured dissolution kinetics were implemented into a global model, which suggested a larger contribution of pyrogenic dissolved Fe over regions with a strong impact from fossil fuel combustions.
Sihui Jiang, Fang Zhang, Jingye Ren, Lu Chen, Xing Yan, Jieyao Liu, Yele Sun, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14293–14308,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) can be a large source of CCN and affect weather and climate. Here we show that the NPF contributes largely to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) but is suppressed at high particle number concentrations in Beijing due to water vapor competition. We also reveal a considerable impact of primary sources on the evaluation in the urban atmosphere. Our study has great significance for assessing NPF-associated effects on climate in polluted regions.
Rebecca L. Wagner, Naomi J. Farren, Jack Davison, Stuart Young, James R. Hopkins, Alastair C. Lewis, David C. Carslaw, and Marvin D. Shaw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6083–6100,Short summary
We describe the use of a selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometer (SIFT-MS) in a mobile laboratory to provide on-road, high spatial and temporal measurements of CO2, CH4, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gases. Results are presented that highlight the potential of this platform for developing characterisation methods of different emissions sources in complex urban areas.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, David Carruthers, Sue Grimmond, Yiqun Han, Pingqing Fu, and Simone Kotthaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13687–13711,Short summary
Heat-related illnesses are of increasing concern in China given its rapid urbanisation and our ever-warming climate. We examine the relative impacts that land surface properties and anthropogenic heat have on the urban heat island (UHI) in Beijing using ADMS-Urban. Air temperature measurements and satellite-derived land surface temperatures provide valuable means of evaluating modelled spatiotemporal variations. This work provides critical information for urban planners and UHI mitigation.
Beth S. Nelson, Gareth J. Stewart, Will S. Drysdale, Mike J. Newland, Adam R. Vaughan, Rachel E. Dunmore, Pete M. Edwards, Alastair C. Lewis, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, W. Joe Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, Ülkü A. Şahin, David C. S. Beddows, William J. Bloss, Eloise Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Eiko Nemitz, Roberto Sommariva, Sam Cox, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Bhola R. Gurjar, James R. Hopkins, Andrew R. Rickard, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13609–13630,Short summary
Ozone production at an urban site in Delhi is sensitive to volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, particularly those of the aromatic, monoterpene, and alkene VOC classes. The change in ozone production by varying atmospheric pollutants according to their sources, as defined in an emissions inventory, is investigated. The study suggests that reducing road transport emissions alone does not reduce reactive VOCs in the atmosphere enough to perturb an increase in ozone production.
Hong Ren, Wei Hu, Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Jian Zhao, Linjie Li, Libin Wu, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Mingjie Kang, Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12949–12963,Short summary
This study presents vertical profiles of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the urban boundary layer based on a 325 m tower in Beijing in late summer. The increases in the isoprene and toluene SOAs with height were found to be more related to regional transport, whereas the decrease in those from monoterpenes and sesquiterpene were more subject to local emissions. Such complicated vertical distributions of SOA should be considered in future modeling work.
Zhi-Hui Zhang, Elena Hartner, Battist Utinger, Benjamin Gfeller, Andreas Paul, Martin Sklorz, Hendryk Czech, Bin Xia Yang, Xin Yi Su, Gert Jakobi, Jürgen Orasche, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Seongho Jeong, Thomas Gröger, Michal Pardo, Thorsten Hohaus, Thomas Adam, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Yinon Rudich, Ralf Zimmermann, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Using a novel setup, we comprehensively characterized the formation of particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) in anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA). We found that more than 90 % of all ROS components in both SOA types have a short lifetime. Our results also show that photochemical aging promotes particle-bound ROS production and enhances the oxidative potential of the aerosols. We found consistent results between chemical-based and biological-based ROS analyses.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Francis D. Pope, David C. S. Beddows, Manuel Dall'Osto, Andreas Massling, Jakob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Tuukka Petäjä, Noemi Perez, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11905–11925,Short summary
Formation of new particles is a key process in the atmosphere. New particle formation events arising from nucleation of gaseous precursors have been analysed in extensive datasets from 13 sites in five European countries in terms of frequency, nucleation rate, and particle growth rate, with several common features and many differences identified. Although nucleation frequencies are lower at roadside sites, nucleation rates and particle growth rates are typically higher.
Yang Yang, Minqiang Zhou, Ting Wang, Bo Yao, Pengfei Han, Denghui Ji, Wei Zhou, Yele Sun, Gengchen Wang, and Pucai Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11741–11757,Short summary
This study introduces the in situ CO2 measurement system installed in Beijing (urban), Xianghe (suburban), and Xinglong (rural) in North China for the first time. The spatial and temporal variations in CO2 mole fractions at the three sites between June 2018 and April 2020 are discussed on both seasonal and diurnal scales.
Gongda Lu, Eloise A. Marais, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Zongbo Shi, James D. Lee, Qiang Zhang, Lu Shen, Gan Luo, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Emission controls were imposed in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei in northern China in autumn-winter 2017. We find that regional PM2.5 targets (15 % decrease relative to previous year) were exceeded. Our analysis shows that decline in precursor emissions only leads to less than half (43 %) the improved air quality. Most of the change (57 %) is due to interannual variability in meteorology. Stricter emission controls may be necessary in years with unfavourable meteorology.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Jing Chen, Yuqing Dai, Siyao Yue, Hang Su, Haijie Tong, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Ying Li, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Cong-Qiang Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11453–11465,Short summary
This study investigated the role of nighttime chemistry during Chinese New Year's Eve that enhances the formation of nitrooxy organosulfates in the aerosol phase. Results show that anthropogenic precursors, together with biogenic ones, considerably contribute to the formation of low-volatility nitrooxy OSs. Our study provides detailed molecular composition of firework-related aerosols, which gives new insights into the physicochemical properties and potential health effects of urban aerosols.
Congbo Song, Manuel Dall'Osto, Angelo Lupi, Mauro Mazzola, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Stefania Gilardoni, Stergios Vratolis, Karl Espen Yttri, David C. S. Beddows, Julia Schmale, James Brean, Agung Ghani Kramawijaya, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11317–11335,Short summary
We present a cluster analysis of relatively long-term (2015–2019) aerosol aerodynamic volume size distributions up to 20 μm in the Arctic for the first time. The study found that anthropogenic and natural aerosols comprised 27 % and 73 % of the occurrence of the coarse-mode aerosols, respectively. Our study shows that about two-thirds of the coarse-mode aerosols are related to two sea-spray-related aerosol clusters, indicating that sea spray aerosol may more complex in the Arctic environment.
Esther Borrás, Luis A. Tortajada-Genaro, Milagro Ródenas, Teresa Vera, Thomas Speak, Paul Seakins, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, and Amalia Muñoz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4989–4999,Short summary
This work presents promising results in the characterization of specific atmospheric pollutants (oxygenated VOCs) present at very low but highly relevant concentrations. We carried out this research at EUPHORE facilities within the framework of the EUROCHAMP project. A new analytical method, with high robustness and precision, also clean in the use of solvents, low cost, and easily adaptable for use in mobile laboratories for air quality monitoring, is presented.
Ying Wei, Xueshun Chen, Huansheng Chen, Yele Sun, Wenyi Yang, Huiyun Du, Qizhong Wu, Dan Chen, Xiujuan Zhao, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4411–4428,Short summary
The sub-grid particle formation (SGPF) in plumes plays an important role in air pollution and climate. We coupled an SGPF scheme to a chemical transport model with an aerosol microphysics module and applied it to investigate the SGPF impact over China. The scheme clearly improved the model performance in simulating aerosol components and particle number at typical sites influenced by point sources. The results indicate the significant effects of SGPF on aerosol particles in industrial areas.
Haijie Tong, Fobang Liu, Alexander Filippi, Jake Wilson, Andrea M. Arangio, Yun Zhang, Siyao Yue, Steven Lelieveld, Fangxia Shen, Helmi-Marja K. Keskinen, Jing Li, Haoxuan Chen, Ting Zhang, Thorsten Hoffmann, Pingqing Fu, William H. Brune, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Maosheng Yao, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10439–10455,Short summary
We measured radical yields of aqueous PM2.5 extracts and found lower yields at higher concentrations of PM2.5. Abundances of water-soluble transition metals and aromatics in PM2.5 were positively correlated with the relative fraction of •OH but negatively correlated with the relative fraction of C-centered radicals among detected radicals. Composition-dependent reactive species yields may explain differences in the reactivity and health effects of PM2.5 in clean versus polluted air.
Yaqing Zhou, Nan Ma, Qiaoqiao Wang, Zhibin Wang, Chunrong Chen, Jiangchuan Tao, Juan Hong, Long Peng, Yao He, Linhong Xie, Shaowen Zhu, Yuxuan Zhang, Guo Li, Wanyun Xu, Peng Cheng, Uwe Kuhn, Guangsheng Zhou, Pingqing Fu, Qiang Zhang, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study characterizes size-resolved particle effective density and its evolution associated with sources and aging processes in a rural area of the North China Plain. Particle effective density exhibits high frequency of bimodal distribution, and two density modes exhibit opposite trend with increasing particle size. SIA and BC mass fractions are key factors dominating particle effective density, and a value of 0.6 g cm−3 is appropriate to represent BC effective density in bulk particles.
Xueshun Chen, Fangqun Yu, Wenyi Yang, Yele Sun, Huansheng Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Ying Wei, Lianfang Wei, Huiyun Du, Zhe Wang, Qizhong Wu, Jie Li, Junling An, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9343–9366,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol particles have significant climate and health effects that depend on aerosol size, composition, and mixing state. A new global-regional nested aerosol model with an advanced particle microphysics module and a volatility basis set organic aerosol module was developed to simulate aerosol microphysical processes. Simulations strongly suggest the important role of anthropogenic organic species in particle formation over the areas influenced by anthropogenic sources.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Ajit Singh, Molly Haugen, David C. S. Beddows, Sebastián Diez, Killian L. Murphy, Pete M. Edwards, Adam Boies, Roy M. Harrison, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4139–4155,Short summary
Measurement and source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants are crucial for the assessment of air quality and the implementation of policies for their improvement. This study highlights the current capability of low-cost sensors in source identification and differentiation using clustering approaches. Future directions towards particulate matter source apportionment using low-cost OPCs are highlighted.
Dac-Loc Nguyen, Hendryk Czech, Simone M. Pieber, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Martin Steinbacher, Jürgen Orasche, Stephan Henne, Olga B. Popovicheva, Gülcin Abbaszade, Guenter Engling, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Nhat-Anh Nguyen, Xuan-Anh Nguyen, and Ralf Zimmermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8293–8312,Short summary
Southeast Asia is well-known for emission-intense and recurring wildfires and after-harvest crop residue burning during the pre-monsoon season from February to April. We describe a biomass burning (BB) plume arriving at remote Pha Din meteorological station, outline its carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) constituents based on more than 50 target compounds and discuss possible BB sources. This study adds valuable information on chemical PM composition for a region with scarce data availability.
Siqi Hou, Di Liu, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Xuefang Wu, Deepchandra Srivastava, Pingqing Fu, Linjie Li, Yele Sun, Athanasia Vlachou, Vaios Moschos, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, André S. H. Prévôt, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8273–8292,Short summary
This study provides a newly developed method which combines radiocarbon (14C) with organic tracers to enable source apportionment of primary and secondary fossil vs. non-fossil sources of carbonaceous aerosols at an urban and a rural site of Beijing. The source apportionment results were compared with those by chemical mass balance and AMS/ACSM-PMF methods. Correlations of WINSOC and WSOC with different sources of OC were also performed to elucidate the formation mechanisms of SOC.
Weiqi Xu, Masayuki Takeuchi, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Conghui Xie, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3693–3705,Short summary
Here we developed a method for estimation of particulate organic nitrates (pON) from the measurements of a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a thermodenuder based on the volatility differences between inorganic nitrate and pON. The results generally had improvements in reducing negative values due to the influences of a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and a constant ratio of NO+ to NO2+ of organic nitrates (RON).
Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Yele Sun, Wanyun Xu, Yanyan Zhang, Yao He, Qingwei Luo, Linhong Xie, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7409–7427,Short summary
The mechanism of secondary aerosol (SA) formation can be affected by relative humidity (RH) and has different influences on the particle CCN activity under different RH conditions. In the North China Plain, we find different responses of CCN activity and enhancements of CCN number concentration to SA formation under different RH conditions. In addition, variations of aerosol mixing state due to SA formation contribute some of the largest uncertainties in predicting CCN number concentration.
Jingsha Xu, Di Liu, Xuefang Wu, Tuan V. Vu, Yanli Zhang, Pingqing Fu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Bo Zheng, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7321–7341,Short summary
Source apportionment of fine aerosols in an urban site of Beijing used a chemical mass balance (CMB) model. Seven primary sources (industrial/residential coal burning, biomass burning, gasoline/diesel vehicles, cooking and vegetative detritus) explained an average of 75.7 % and 56.1 % of fine OC in winter and summer, respectively. CMB was found to resolve more primary OA sources than AMS-PMF, but the latter apportioned more secondary OA sources.
Karn Vohra, Eloise A. Marais, Shannen Suckra, Louisa Kramer, William J. Bloss, Ravi Sahu, Abhishek Gaur, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, and Pierre-F. Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6275–6296,Short summary
We find satellite observations of atmospheric composition generally reproduce variability in surface air pollution, so we use their long record to estimate air quality trends in major UK and Indian cities. Our trend analysis shows that pollutants targeted with air quality policies have not declined in Delhi and Kanpur but have in London and Birmingham, with the exception of a recent and dramatic increase in reactive volatile organics in London. Unregulated ammonia has increased only in Delhi.
Claire E. Reeves, Graham P. Mills, Lisa K. Whalley, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, Sue Grimmond, Dwayne E. Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James R. Hopkins, Simone Kotthaus, Louisa J. Kramer, Roderic L. Jones, James D. Lee, Yanhui Liu, Bin Ouyang, Eloise Slater, Freya Squires, Xinming Wang, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6315–6330,Short summary
The impact of isoprene on atmospheric chemistry is dependent on how its oxidation products interact with other pollutants, specifically nitrogen oxides. Such interactions can lead to isoprene nitrates. We made measurements of the concentrations of individual isoprene nitrate isomers in Beijing and used a model to test current understanding of their chemistry. We highlight areas of uncertainty in understanding, in particular the chemistry following oxidation of isoprene by the nitrate radical.
Philippe Massicotte, Rainer M. W. Amon, David Antoine, Philippe Archambault, Sergio Balzano, Simon Bélanger, Ronald Benner, Dominique Boeuf, Annick Bricaud, Flavienne Bruyant, Gwenaëlle Chaillou, Malik Chami, Bruno Charrière, Jing Chen, Hervé Claustre, Pierre Coupel, Nicole Delsaut, David Doxaran, Jens Ehn, Cédric Fichot, Marie-Hélène Forget, Pingqing Fu, Jonathan Gagnon, Nicole Garcia, Beat Gasser, Jean-François Ghiglione, Gaby Gorsky, Michel Gosselin, Priscillia Gourvil, Yves Gratton, Pascal Guillot, Hermann J. Heipieper, Serge Heussner, Stanford B. Hooker, Yannick Huot, Christian Jeanthon, Wade Jeffrey, Fabien Joux, Kimitaka Kawamura, Bruno Lansard, Edouard Leymarie, Heike Link, Connie Lovejoy, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Johannie Martin, Jacobo Martín, Guillaume Massé, Atsushi Matsuoka, Vanessa McKague, Alexandre Mignot, William L. Miller, Juan-Carlos Miquel, Alfonso Mucci, Kaori Ono, Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Tim Papakyriakou, Marc Picheral, Louis Prieur, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Rick A. Reynolds, André Rochon, Jean-François Rontani, Catherine Schmechtig, Sabine Schmidt, Richard Sempéré, Yuan Shen, Guisheng Song, Dariusz Stramski, Eri Tachibana, Alexandre Thirouard, Imma Tolosa, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Mickael Vaïtilingom, Daniel Vaulot, Frédéric Vaultier, John K. Volkman, Huixiang Xie, Guangming Zheng, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1561–1592,Short summary
The MALINA oceanographic expedition was conducted in the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Sea systems. The sampling was performed across seven shelf–basin transects to capture the meridional gradient between the estuary and the open ocean. The main goal of this research program was to better understand how processes such as primary production are influencing the fate of organic matter originating from the surrounding terrestrial landscape during its transition toward the Arctic Ocean.
Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Ying Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Eleni Karnezi, Spyros N. Pandis, Conghui Xie, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Jiang Zhu, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5463–5476,Short summary
Here aerosol volatility and viscosity at a rural site (Gucheng) and an urban site (Beijing) in the North China Plain (NCP) were investigated in summer and winter. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) in winter in the NCP is more volatile than that in summer due to enhanced primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. We also found that OA existed mainly as a solid in winter in Beijing but as semisolids in Beijing in summer and Gucheng in winter.
Wenhua Wang, Longyi Shao, Claudio Mazzoleni, Yaowei Li, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Janarjan Bhandari, Jiaoping Xing, Xiaolei Feng, Mengyuan Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5301–5314,Short summary
We compared the characteristics of individual particles at ground level and above the mixed-layer height. We found that the particles above the mixed-layer height during haze periods are more aged compared to ground level. More coal-combustion-related primary organic particles were found above the mixed-layer height. We suggest that the particles above the mixed-layer height are affected by the surrounding areas, and once mixed down to the ground, they might contribute to ground air pollution.
Santosh Kumar Verma, Kimitaka Kawamura, Fei Yang, Pingqing Fu, Yugo Kanaya, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4959–4978,Short summary
We studied aerosol samples collected in autumn 2007 with day and night intervals in a rural site of Mangshan, north of Beijing, for sugar compounds (SCs) that are abundant organic aerosol components and can influence the air quality and climate. We found higher concentrations of biomass burning (BB) products at nighttime than daytime, whereas pollen tracers and other SCs showed an opposite diurnal trend, because this site is meteorologically characterized by a mountain/valley breeze.
Stuart K. Grange, James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Alastair C. Lewis, Christoph Hueglin, Lukas Emmenegger, and David C. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4169–4185,Short summary
The changes in mobility across Europe due to the COVID-19 lockdowns had consequences for air quality. We compare what was experienced to estimates of "what would have been" without the lockdowns. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an important vehicle-sourced pollutant, decreased by a third. However, ozone (O3) increased in response to lower NO2. Because NO2 is decreasing over time, increases in O3 can be expected in European urban areas and will require management to avoid future negative outcomes.
Shona E. Wilde, Pamela A. Dominutti, Grant Allen, Stephen J. Andrews, Prudence Bateson, Stephane J.-B. Bauguitte, Ralph R. Burton, Ioana Colfescu, James France, James R. Hopkins, Langwen Huang, Anna E. Jones, Tom Lachlan-Cope, James D. Lee, Alastair C. Lewis, Stephen D. Mobbs, Alexandra Weiss, Stuart Young, and Ruth M. Purvis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3741–3762,Short summary
We use airborne measurements to evaluate the speciation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from offshore oil and gas (O&G) installations in the North Sea. The composition of emissions varied across regions associated with either gas, condensate or oil extraction, demonstrating that VOC emissions are not uniform across the whole O&G sector. We compare our results to VOC source profiles in the UK emissions inventory, showing these emissions are not currently fully characterized.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, James Brean, Francis D. Pope, Manuel Dall'Osto, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Noemi Perez, Tuukka Petäjä, Andreas Massling, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3345–3370,Short summary
New particle formation events from 16 sites over Europe have been studied, and the influence of meteorological and atmospheric composition variables has been investigated. Some variables, like solar radiation intensity and temperature, have a positive effect on the occurrence of these events, while others have a negative effect, affecting different aspects such as the rate at which particles are formed or grow. This effect varies depending on the site type and magnitude of these variables.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dantong Liu, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zongbo Shi, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2251–2265,Short summary
We found that large numbers of light-absorbing primary organic particles with high viscosity, especially tarballs, from domestic coal and biomass burning occurred in rural and even urban hazes in the winter of North China. For the first time, we characterized the atmospheric aging process of these burning-related primary organic particles by microscopic analysis and further evaluated their light absorption enhancement resulting from the “lensing effect” of secondary inorganic coatings.
Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2125–2147,Short summary
To understand how emission controls will impact ozone, an understanding of the sources and sinks of OH and the chemical cycling between peroxy radicals is needed. This paper presents measurements of OH, HO2 and total RO2 taken in central Beijing. The radical observations are compared to a detailed chemistry model, which shows that under low NO conditions, there is a missing OH source. Under high NOx conditions, the model under-predicts RO2 and impacts our ability to model ozone.
Mike J. Newland, Daniel J. Bryant, Rachel E. Dunmore, Thomas J. Bannan, W. Joe F. Acton, Ben Langford, James R. Hopkins, Freya A. Squires, William Dixon, William S. Drysdale, Peter D. Ivatt, Mathew J. Evans, Peter M. Edwards, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James D. Lee, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Xinming Wang, Alastair C. Lewis, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1613–1625,Short summary
We report the formation of secondary pollutants in the urban megacity of Beijing that are typically associated with remote regions such as rainforests. This is caused by extremely low levels of nitric oxide (NO), typically expected to be high in urban areas, observed in the afternoon. This work has significant implications for how we understand atmospheric chemistry in the urban environment and thus for how to implement effective policies to improve urban air quality.
Christian Mark Garcia Salvador, Rongzhi Tang, Michael Priestley, Linjie Li, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Michael Le Breton, Wenfei Zhu, Limin Zeng, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Min Hu, Song Guo, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1389–1406,Short summary
High-frequency online measurement of gas- and particle-phase nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) at a rural site in China, heavily influenced by biomass burning events, enabled the analysis of the production pathway of NACs, including an explanation of strong persistence in the daytime. The contribution of secondary processes was significant, even during the dominant wintertime influence of primary emissions, suggesting the important role of regional secondary chemistry, i.e. photochemical smog.
Liya Ma, Yujiao Zhu, Mei Zheng, Yele Sun, Lei Huang, Xiaohuan Liu, Yang Gao, Yanjie Shen, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 183–200,Short summary
In this study, we investigate three patterns of new particles growing to CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) size, i.e., one-stage growth and two-stage growth-A and growth-B patterns. Combining the observations of gaseous pollutants and measured or modeled particulate chemical species, the three growth patterns were discussed regarding the spatial heterogeneity, formation of secondary aerosols, and evaporation of semivolatile particulates as was the survival probability of new particles to CCN size.
Rutambhara Joshi, Dantong Liu, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Neil Mullinger, Freya Squires, James Lee, Yunfei Wu, Xiaole Pan, Pingqing Fu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Oliver Wild, Michael Flynn, Hugh Coe, and James Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 147–162,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is a component of particulate matter which has significant effects on climate and human health. Sources of BC include biomass burning, transport, industry and domestic cooking and heating. In this study, we measured BC emissions in Beijing, finding a dominance of traffic emissions over all other sources. The quantitative method presented here has benefits for revising widely used emissions inventories and for understanding BC sources with impacts on air quality and climate.
W. Joe F. Acton, Zhonghui Huang, Brian Davison, Will S. Drysdale, Pingqing Fu, Michael Hollaway, Ben Langford, James Lee, Yanhui Liu, Stefan Metzger, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Claire E. Reeves, Freya A. Squires, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Zhaoyi Wang, Oliver Wild, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, and C. Nicholas Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15101–15125,Short summary
Air quality in Beijing is of concern to both policy makers and the general public. In order to address concerns about air quality it is vital that the sources of atmospheric pollutants are understood. This work presents the first top-down measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in Beijing. These measurements are used to evaluate the emissions inventory and assess the impact of VOC emission from the city centre on atmospheric chemistry.
Eloise J. Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa Kramer, William Bloss, Tuan Vu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14847–14871,Short summary
The paper details atmospheric chemistry in a megacity (Beijing), focussing on radicals which mediate the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Highly polluted conditions were experienced, including the highest ever levels of nitric oxide (NO), with simultaneous radical measurements. Radical concentrations were large during "haze" events, demonstrating active photochemistry. Modelling showed that our understanding of the chemistry at high NOx levels is incomplete.
Junjun Deng, Hao Guo, Hongliang Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Xin Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14419–14435,Short summary
One-year source apportionment of BC aerosols in a coastal city in China was conducted with the light-absorption observation-based method and source-oriented model. Source contributions identified by the two source apportionment methods were compared. Temporal variability, potential sources and transport pathways of BC from fossil fuel and biomass burning were characterized. Significant influence of biomass burning in North and East–Central China on BC in the region was highlighted.
Jingsha Xu, Shaojie Song, Roy M. Harrison, Congbo Song, Lianfang Wei, Qiang Zhang, Yele Sun, Lu Lei, Chao Zhang, Xiaohong Yao, Dihui Chen, Weijun Li, Miaomiao Wu, Hezhong Tian, Lining Luo, Shengrui Tong, Weiran Li, Junling Wang, Guoliang Shi, Yanqi Huangfu, Yingze Tian, Baozhu Ge, Shaoli Su, Chao Peng, Yang Chen, Fumo Yang, Aleksandra Mihajlidi-Zelić, Dragana Đorđević, Stefan J. Swift, Imogen Andrews, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Ye Sun, Agung Kramawijaya, Jinxiu Han, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Clarissa Baldo, Siqi Hou, Feixue Zheng, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Chao Yan, Yongchun Liu, Markku Kulmala, Pingqing Fu, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6325–6341,Short summary
An interlaboratory comparison was conducted for the first time to examine differences in water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) measured by 10 labs using ion chromatography (IC) and by two online aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) methods. Major ions including SO42−, NO3− and NH4+ agreed well in 10 IC labs and correlated well with ACSM data. WSII interlab variability strongly affected aerosol acidity results based on ion balance, but aerosol pH computed by ISORROPIA II was very similar.
Liang Xu, Satoshi Fukushima, Sophie Sobanska, Kotaro Murata, Ayumi Naganuma, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Hongya Niu, Zongbo Shi, Tomoko Kojima, Daizhou Zhang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14321–14332,Short summary
We quantified the mixing structures of soot particles and found that the dominant mixing structure changed from fresh to partially embedded to fully embedded along the pathway of an Asian dust storm from eastern China to Japan. Soot particles became more compact following transport. Our findings not only provide direct evidence for soot aging during regional transport but also help us understand how their morphology changes in different air environments.
Atallah Elzein, Gareth J. Stewart, Stefan J. Swift, Beth S. Nelson, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ranu Gadi, Roy M. Harrison, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14303–14319,Short summary
We collected high-frequency air particle samples (PM2.5) in Beijing (China) and Delhi (India) and measured the concentration of PAHs in daytime and night-time. PAHs were higher in Delhi than in Beijing, and the five-ring PAHs contribute the most to the total PAH concentration. We compared the emission sources and identified the major sectors that could be subject to mitigation measures. The adverse health effects from inhalation exposure to PAHs in Delhi are 2.2 times higher than in Beijing.
Chaomin Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Sihang Wang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Wei Chen, Chenshuo Ye, Wenjie Wang, Yele Sun, Chen Wang, Shan Huang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Suxia Yang, Shenyang Zhang, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Zhanyi Zhang, Bin Jiang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14123–14138,Short summary
We utilized a novel online mass spectrometry method to measure the total concentration of higher alkanes at each carbon number at two different sites in China, allowing us to take into account SOA contributions from all isomers for higher alkanes. We found that higher alkanes account for significant fractions of SOA formation at the two sites. The contributions are comparable to or even higher than single-ring aromatics, the most-recognized SOA precursors in urban air.
Junfeng Wang, Jianhuai Ye, Dantong Liu, Yangzhou Wu, Jian Zhao, Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Fuzhen Shen, Jie Zhang, Paul E. Ohno, Yiming Qin, Xiuyong Zhao, Scot T. Martin, Alex K. Y. Lee, Pingqing Fu, Daniel J. Jacob, Qi Zhang, Yele Sun, Mindong Chen, and Xinlei Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14091–14102,Short summary
We compared the organics in total submicron matter and those coated on BC cores during summertime in Beijing and found large differences between them. Traffic-related OA was associated significantly with BC, while cooking-related OA did not coat BC. In addition, a factor likely originated from primary biomass burning OA was only identified in BC-containing particles. Such a unique BBOA requires further field and laboratory studies to verify its presence and elucidate its properties and impacts.
Clarissa Baldo, Paola Formenti, Sophie Nowak, Servanne Chevaillier, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Claudia Di Biagio, Jean-Francois Doussin, Konstantin Ignatyev, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, A. Robert MacKenzie, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13521–13539,Short summary
We showed that Icelandic dust has a fundamentally different chemical and mineralogical composition from low-latitude dust. In particular, magnetite is as high as 1 %–2 % of the total dust mass. Our results suggest that Icelandic dust may have an important impact on the radiation balance in the subpolar and polar regions.
Sarah S. Steimer, Daniel J. Patton, Tuan V. Vu, Marios Panagi, Paul S. Monks, Roy M. Harrison, Zoë L. Fleming, Zongbo Shi, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13303–13318,Short summary
Air pollution is of growing concern due to its negative effect on public health, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigates how the chemical composition of particles in Beijing changes under different measurement conditions (pollution levels, season) to get a better understanding of the sources of this form of air pollution.
Mohammed S. Alam, Leigh R. Crilley, James D. Lee, Louisa J. Kramer, Christian Pfrang, Mónica Vázquez-Moreno, Milagros Ródenas, Amalia Muñoz, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5977–5991,Short summary
We report on the interference arising in measurements of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the presence of a range of alkenes in sampled air when using the most widespread air quality monitoring technique for chemiluminescence detection. Interferences of up to 11 % are reported, depending upon the alkene present and conditions used. Such interferences may be of substantial importance for the interpretation of ambient NOx data, particularly for high volatile organic compound and low NOx environments.
Jing Cai, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Chao Yan, Liine M. Heikkinen, Feixue Zheng, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Shaojun Zhang, Daoyuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Tom V. Kokkonen, Tommy Chan, Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Pauli Paasonen, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Claudia Mohr, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Yele Sun, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Wei Du, Markku Kulmala, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12721–12740,Short summary
By applying both OA PMF and size PMF at the same urban measurement site in Beijing, similar particle source types, including vehicular emissions, cooking emissions and secondary formation-related sources, were resolved by both frameworks and agreed well. It is also found that in the absence of new particle formation, vehicular and cooking emissions dominate the particle number concentration, while secondary particulate matter governed PM2.5 mass during spring and summer in Beijing.
Ruqian Miao, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Yele Sun, Paul I. Palmer, Manish Shrivastava, Jianping Guo, Qiang Zhang, Yuhan Liu, Zhaofeng Tan, Xuefei Ma, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12265–12284,Short summary
In this study we evaluated the model performances for simulating secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and organic aerosol (OA) in PM2.5 in China against comprehensive datasets. The potential biases from factors related to meteorology, emission, chemistry, and atmospheric removal are systematically investigated. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of modeling PM2.5, which is important for studies on the effectiveness of emission control strategies.
Jiawei Li, Zhiwei Han, Pingqing Fu, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Organic aerosols of marine origin are so far poorly understood. An on-line coupled regional chemistry-climate model is developed to firstly explore and characterize the seasonality and annual feature of emission, distribution and radiative effects of marine organic aerosols specifically for the western Pacific over East Asia. This study reveals an important role of marine organic aerosols in radiation and cloud and would be valuable for climate research at both regional and global scales.
Hwajin Kim, Qi Zhang, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11527–11550,Short summary
Severe spring haze and influences of long-range transport in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) in March 2019 were investigated. Simultaneous downwind (SMA) and upwind (Beijing) measurements using AMS and ACSM over the same period showed that PM species can be transported in approximately 2 d. Nitrate was the most responsible, and sulfate and two regional-transport-influenced SOAs also contributed. Enhancement of Pb also showed that the haze in the SMA was influenced by the regional transport.
Wei Hu, Kotaro Murata, Chunlan Fan, Shu Huang, Hiromi Matsusaki, Pingqing Fu, and Daizhou Zhang
Biogeosciences, 17, 4477–4487,Short summary
This paper reports the first estimate of the status of bacteria in long-distance-transported Asian dust, demonstrating that airborne dust, which can carry viable and nonviable bacteria on particle surfaces, is an efficient medium for constantly spreading bacteria at regional and even global scales. Such data are essential to better model and understand the roles and activities of bioaerosols in environmental evolution and climate change and the potential risks of bioaerosols to human health.
Wanyu Zhao, Hong Ren, Kimitaka Kawamura, Huiyun Du, Xueshun Chen, Siyao Yue, Qiaorong Xie, Lianfang Wei, Ping Li, Xin Zeng, Shaofei Kong, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10331–10350,Short summary
Our observations provide detailed information on the abundance and vertical distribution of dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls in PM2.5 collected at three heights based on a 325 m meteorological tower in Beijing in summer. Our results demonstrate that organic acids at the ground surface are largely associated with local traffic emissions, while long-range atmospheric transport followed by photochemical ageing contributes more in the urban boundary layer than the ground surface.
James Brean, David C. S. Beddows, Zongbo Shi, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, María Cruz Minguillón, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10029–10045,Short summary
New particle formation is a key process influencing both local air quality and climatically active cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. This study has carried out fundamental measurements of nucleation processes in Barcelona, Spain, and concludes that a mechanism involving stabilisation of sulfuric acid clusters by low molecular weight amines is primarily responsible for new particle formation events.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Yingze Tian, Yinchang Feng, Yongli Liang, Yixuan Li, Qianqian Xue, Zongbo Shi, Jingsha Xu, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Size distributions of inorganic and organic components in particulate matter (PM) can provide critical information on sources and pollution processes. Ions, elements, carbon fractions, n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes and steranes in size-resolved PM were analyzed during one year in a northern Chinese megacity. Results reveal that size distributions of inorganic and organic aerosol components are dependent on seasons and pollution levels as a result of differing sources and physicochemical processes.
Yang Chen, Jing Cai, Zhichao Wang, Chao Peng, Xiaojiang Yao, Mi Tian, Yiqun Han, Guangming Shi, Zongbo Shi, Yue Liu, Xi Yang, Mei Zheng, Tong Zhu, Kebin He, Qiang Zhang, and Fumo Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9231–9247,Short summary
Patterns of particle transport, accumulation, and evolution in both urban and rural areas of Beijing are investigated. The two sites shared 17 common particle types in different stages of atmospheric processing.
Yang Chen, Guangming Shi, Jing Cai, Zongbo Shi, Zhichao Wang, Xiaojiang Yao, Mi Tian, Chao Peng, Yiqun Han, Tong Zhu, Yue Liu, Xi Yang, Mei Zheng, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9249–9263,Short summary
Individual particles were observed in two field studies during winter 2016 in the urban and rural areas of Beijing. An online single-particle chemical composition analysis was used as a tracing system to investigate the impact of heating activities and the formation of haze events. During the pollution events, a pattern of transport and accumulation was found with evidence of single particles. The transport from Pinggu to Peking University was significant but PKU to PG occurred occasionally.
Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Andrés Alastuey, Todor Petkov Arsov, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Cédric Couret, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Harald Flentje, Markus Fiebig, Martin Gysel-Beer, Jenny L. Hand, András Hoffer, Rakesh Hooda, Christoph Hueglin, Warren Joubert, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Casper Labuschagne, Neng-Huei Lin, Yong Lin, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marco Pandolfi, Natalia Prats, Anthony J. Prenni, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Ludwig Ries, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Elvis Torres, Thomas Tuch, Rolf Weller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paul Zieger, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8867–8908,Short summary
Long-term trends of aerosol radiative properties (52 stations) prove that aerosol load has significantly decreased over the last 20 years. Scattering trends are negative in Europe (EU) and North America (NA), not ss in Asia, and show a mix of positive and negative trends at polar stations. Absorption has mainly negative trends. The single scattering albedo has positive trends in Asia and eastern EU and negative in western EU and NA, leading to a global positive median trend of 0.02 % per year.
Freya A. Squires, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Oliver Wild, Will S. Drysdale, W. Joe F. Acton, Pingqing Fu, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Simone Kotthaus, James Lee, Stefan Metzger, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Marvin Shaw, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Ruili Wu, Qiang Zhang, and Yanli Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8737–8761,Short summary
Significant air quality problems exist in megacities like Beijing, China. To manage air pollution, legislators need a clear understanding of pollutant emissions. However, emissions inventories have large uncertainties, and reliable field measurements of pollutant emissions are required to constrain them. This work presents the first measurements of traffic-dominated emissions in Beijing which suggest that inventories overestimate these emissions in the region during both winter and summer.
Jan-David Förster, Christian Gurk, Mark Lamneck, Haijie Tong, Florian Ditas, Sarah S. Steimer, Peter A. Alpert, Markus Ammann, Jörg Raabe, Markus Weigand, Benjamin Watts, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3717–3729,Short summary
A gas flow system coupled with a microreactor for X-ray microspectroscopy is presented. Its core objective is to mimic the atmospheric processing of aerosol particles under laboratory conditions in a controlled gas-phase environment and allow in situ observations with high spatial and chemical resolution. We here emphasize its analytical capabilities and show initial results from hydration–dehydration experiments and the observation of water ice at low temperature and high relative humidity.
Junchen Guo, Shengzhen Zhou, Mingfu Cai, Jun Zhao, Wei Song, Weixiong Zhao, Weiwei Hu, Yele Sun, Yao He, Chengqiang Yang, Xuezhe Xu, Zhisheng Zhang, Peng Cheng, Qi Fan, Jian Hang, Shaojia Fan, Xinming Wang, and Xuemei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7595–7615,Short summary
We characterized non-refractory submicron particulate matter (PM1.0) during winter in Guangzhou, south China. Chemical composition and key sources of ambient PM1.0 are revealed, highlighting the significant role of SOA. The relationship with SOA and peroxy radicals indicated gas-phase oxidation contributed predominantly to SOA formation during non-pollution periods, while heterogeneous/multiphase reactions played more important roles in SOA formation during pollution periods.
Daniel J. Bryant, William J. Dixon, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Kelly L. Pereira, Marvin Shaw, Freya A. Squires, Thomas J. Bannan, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Bin Ouyang, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Di Liu, Zongbo Shi, Roy Harrison, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Alastair C. Lewis, James D. Lee, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7531–7552,Short summary
Using the chemical composition of offline filter samples, we report that a large share of oxidized organic aerosol in Beijing during summer is due to isoprene secondary organic aerosol (iSOA). iSOA organosulfates showed a strong correlation with the product of ozone and particulate sulfate. This highlights the role of both photochemistry and the availability of particulate sulfate in heterogeneous reactions and further demonstrates that iSOA formation is controlled by anthropogenic emissions.
Jingyi Li, Haowen Zhang, Qi Ying, Zhijun Wu, Yanli Zhang, Xinming Wang, Xinghua Li, Yele Sun, Min Hu, Yuanhang Zhang, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7291–7306,Short summary
Large gaps still exist in modeled and observed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass loading and properties. Here we investigated the impacts of water partitioning into organic aerosol and nonideality of the organic–water mixture on SOA over eastern China using a regional 3D model. SOA is increased more significantly in humid and hot environments. Increases in SOA further cause an enhancement of the cooling effects of aerosols. It is crucial to consider the above processes in modeling SOA.
Weiqi Xu, Yao He, Yanmei Qiu, Chun Chen, Conghui Xie, Lu Lei, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Junyao Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3205–3219,Short summary
We characterized mass spectral features of organic aerosol (OA) and water-soluble OA (WSOA) from 21 cooking, crop straw, wood, and coal burning experiments using aerosol mass spectrometers with standard and capture vaporizers, and we demonstrated the applications of source spectral profiles in improving source apportionment of ambient OA at a highly polluted rural site in the North China Plain in winter.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Christian Stolle, Oliver Wurl, Enno Bahlmann, Xianda Gong, Jens Voigtländer, Heike Wex, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Stefan Barthel, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Marie Roveretto, Chunlin Li, Benoit Grosselin, Veronique Daële, Fabian Senf, Dominik van Pinxteren, Malena Manzi, Nicolás Zabalegui, Sanja Frka, Blaženka Gašparović, Ryan Pereira, Tao Li, Liang Wen, Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Jianmin Chen, Björn Fiedler, Wolf von Tümpling, Katie Alana Read, Shalini Punjabi, Alastair Charles Lewis, James Roland Hopkins, Lucy Jane Carpenter, Ilka Peeken, Tim Rixen, Detlef Schulz-Bull, María Eugenia Monge, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Christian George, Frank Stratmann, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6921–6951,Short summary
An introduction to a comprehensive field campaign performed at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory regarding ocean–atmosphere interactions is given. Chemical, physical, biological and meteorological techniques were applied, and measurements of bulk water, the sea surface microlayer, cloud water and ambient aerosol particles took place. Oceanic compounds were found to be transferred to atmospheric aerosol and to the cloud level; however, sea spray contributions to CCN and INPs were limited.
Jing Yang, Wanyu Zhao, Lianfang Wei, Qiang Zhang, Yue Zhao, Wei Hu, Libin Wu, Xiaodong Li, Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Cong-Qiang Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6841–6860,Short summary
Our observations provide novel detailed information on the atmospheric abundances and spatial distributions of dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, and α-dicarbonyls in marine aerosols collected from the South China Sea to the East Indian Ocean. Our results demonstrate that the continental outflow of both biogenic and anthropogenic precursors followed by photochemical aging is one of the main sources and formation processes of marine organic aerosols over the tropical oceanic regions.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Shuang Chen, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Jing Chen, Lujie Ren, Siyao Yue, Wanyu Zhao, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Haijie Tong, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Cong-Qiang Liu, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6803–6820,Short summary
Current knowledge on firework-related organic aerosols is very limited. Here the detailed molecular composition of organics in urban aerosols was characterized using ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Our findings highlight that firework emission leads to a sharp increase in CHO, CHNO, and CHOS containing high-molecular-weight species, particularly aromatic-like substances, which affect the physicochemical properties such as the light absorption and health effects of urban aerosols.
Shengzhen Zhou, Luolin Wu, Junchen Guo, Weihua Chen, Xuemei Wang, Jun Zhao, Yafang Cheng, Zuzhao Huang, Jinpu Zhang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Shiguo Jia, Jun Tao, Yanning Chen, and Junxia Kuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6435–6453,Short summary
In this work, measurements of size-segregated aerosols were conducted at three altitudes (ground level, 118 m, and 488 m) on the 610 m high Canton Tower in southern China. Vertical variations of PM and size-segregated chemical compositions were investigated. The results indicated that meteorological parameters and atmospheric aqueous and heterogeneous reactions together led to aerosol formation and haze episodes in the Pearl River Delta region during the measurement periods.
Hang Liu, Xiaole Pan, Dantong Liu, Xiaoyong Liu, Xueshun Chen, Yu Tian, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5771–5785,Short summary
The bare black carbon (BC) was in a fractal structure. With coating thickness increasing, BC changed from a fractal structure to a core–shell structure. In the ambient atmosphere, plenty of BC particles were not in a perfect core–shell structure. This study brought attention to the combined effects of morphology and coating thickness on the absorption enhancement of BC-containing particles, which is helpful for determining the climatic effects of BC.
Jian Zhang, Lei Liu, Liang Xu, Qiuhan Lin, Hujia Zhao, Zhibin Wang, Song Guo, Min Hu, Dantong Liu, Zongbo Shi, Dao Huang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5355–5372,Short summary
Northeast China faces severe air pollution in regional haze in wintertime. In this study, we revealed a contrasting formation mechanism of two typical haze events: Haze-I was induced by adverse meteorological conditions together with residential coal burning emissions; Haze-II was caused by agricultural biomass waste burning. In particular, we observed large numbers of tar balls as the primary brown carbon in northeast China.
Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh R. Crilley, Thomas J. Adams, Stephen M. Ball, Francis D. Pope, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5231–5248,Short summary
HONO is a large source of OH radicals, which can drive VOC oxidation, leading to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Here we investigate primary vehicle emissions of HONO from measurements in a road tunnel in Birmingham, UK. A HONO/NOx emission ratio was detemined and compared to previous studies. Results indicate HONO/NOx has not varied much over the last two decades and technologies aimed at reducing NO2 may have also resulted in a reduction in direct HONO vehicle emissions.
Fanhao Meng, Min Qin, Ke Tang, Jun Duan, Wu Fang, Shuaixi Liang, Kaidi Ye, Pinhua Xie, Yele Sun, Conghui Xie, Chunxiang Ye, Pingqing Fu, Jianguo Liu, and Wenqing Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5071–5092,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO), a major precursor of the OH radical, plays a key role in atmospheric chemistry, but its sources are still debated. The first high-resolution vertical measurements of HONO and NO2 were conducted in Beijing to investigate the nocturnal sources of HONO at different stages of pollution. The ground surface dominated HONO production by heterogeneous conversion of NO2 during clean episodes, but the aerosol production was an important nighttime HONO source during haze episodes.
Thomas Lachlan-Cope, David C. S. Beddows, Neil Brough, Anna E. Jones, Roy M. Harrison, Angelo Lupi, Young Jun Yoon, Aki Virkkula, and Manuel Dall'Osto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4461–4476,Short summary
We present a statistical cluster analysis of the physical characteristics of particle size distributions collected at Halley (Antarctica) for the year 2015. Complex interactions between multiple ecosystems, coupled with different atmospheric circulation, result in very different aerosol size distributions populating the Southern Hemisphere.
Roberto Sommariva, Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1655–1670,Short summary
Ozone is a key atmospheric pollutant formed through chemical processing of natural and anthropogenic emissions and removed by reaction with organic compounds emitted by plants. We describe a new instrument – the
Total Ozone Reactivity Systemor TORS – that measures the total loss of ozone in the troposphere. The objective of the TORS instrument is to provide an estimate of the organic compounds emitted by plants which are not measured and thus to improve our understanding of the ozone budget.
Chenjie Yu, Dantong Liu, Kurtis Broda, Rutambhara Joshi, Jason Olfert, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Hugh Coe, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3645–3661,Short summary
This study presents the first atmospheric application of a new morphology-independent measurement for the quantification of the mixing state of rBC-containing particles in urban Beijing as part of the UK–China APHH campaign. An inversion method has been applied for better quantification of rBC mixing state. The mass-resolved rBC mixing state information presented here has implications for detailed models of BC, its optical properties and its atmospheric life cycle.
Shaofeng Xu, Lujie Ren, Yunchao Lang, Shengjie Hou, Hong Ren, Lianfang Wei, Libin Wu, Junjun Deng, Wei Hu, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3623–3644,Short summary
Current knowledge on the size distribution of biogenic primary organic aerosols in urban regions with heavy haze pollution is very limited. Here we performed a year-round study focusing on the organic molecular composition of size-segregated aerosol samples collected in urban Beijing during haze and non-haze days to elucidate the seasonal contributions of biomass burning, fungal spores, and plant debris to organic carbon as well as the influences from local emissions and long-range transport.
Leigh R. Crilley, Ajit Singh, Louisa J. Kramer, Marvin D. Shaw, Mohammed S. Alam, Joshua S. Apte, William J. Bloss, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, Pingqing Fu, Weiqi Fu, Shahzad Gani, Michael Gatari, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Alastair C. Lewis, David Ng'ang'a, Yele Sun, Rachel C. W. Whitty, Siyao Yue, Stuart Young, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1181–1193,Short summary
There is considerable interest in using low-cost optical particle counters (OPCs) for particle mass measurements; however, there is no agreed upon method with respect to calibration. Here we exploit a number of datasets globally to demonstrate that particle composition and relative humidity are the key factors affecting measured concentrations from a low-cost OPC, and we present a simple correction methodology that corrects for this influence.
Lu Lei, Conghui Xie, Dawei Wang, Yao He, Qingqing Wang, Wei Zhou, Wei Hu, Pingqing Fu, Yong Chen, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2877–2890,Short summary
We characterized aerosol composition and sources near two steel plants in a coastal region in fall and spring seasons. Our results showed substantially different aerosol composition and sources between the two seasons. We observed significant impacts of steel plant emissions on aerosol chemistry nearby, and we found that aerosol particles emitted from the steel plants were dominated by ammonium sulfate/bisulfate; NOx/CO and NOx/SO2 were distinct from those in the absence of industrial plumes.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, David Carruthers, Jie Li, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Freya A. Squires, James Lee, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2755–2780,Short summary
Ambient air pollution is a major cause of premature death in China. We examine the street-scale variation of pollutant levels in Beijing using air pollution dispersion and chemistry model ADMS-Urban. Campaign measurements are compared with simulated pollutant levels, providing a valuable means of evaluating the impact of key processes on urban air quality. Air quality modelling at such fine scales is essential for human exposure studies and for informing choices on future emission controls.
Roberto Sommariva, Sam Cox, Chris Martin, Kasia Borońska, Jenny Young, Peter K. Jimack, Michael J. Pilling, Vasileios N. Matthaios, Beth S. Nelson, Mike J. Newland, Marios Panagi, William J. Bloss, Paul S. Monks, and Andrew R. Rickard
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 169–183,Short summary
This paper presents the AtChem software, which can be used to build box models for atmospheric chemistry studies. The software is designed to facilitate the use of one of the most important chemical mechanisms used by atmospheric scientists, the Master Chemical Mechanism. AtChem exists in two versions: an on-line application for laboratory studies and educational or outreach activities and an offline version for more complex models and batch simulations. AtChem is open source under MIT License.
Xinxin Fan, Jieyao Liu, Fang Zhang, Lu Chen, Don Collins, Weiqi Xu, Xiaoai Jin, Jingye Ren, Yuying Wang, Hao Wu, Shangze Li, Yele Sun, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 915–929,Short summary
Aerosol effects on visibility and climate are influenced by their hygroscopicity. By contrasting data from two techniques between summer and winter in Beijing, we investigate the effect of aerosol aging, mixing state, and local sources on its hygroscopicity. We revealed that inappropriate use of the density of BC and organics results in large uncertainty in calculating aerosols hygroscopicity. Our results are helpful for parameterization in models.
Xiaoai Jin, Yuying Wang, Zhanqing Li, Fang Zhang, Weiqi Xu, Yele Sun, Xinxin Fan, Guangyu Chen, Hao Wu, Jingye Ren, Qiuyan Wang, and Maureen Cribb
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 901–914,Short summary
In this study the aerosol liquid water content (ALWC) is determined from aerosol hygroscopic growth factor (GF) measurement (ALWCHTDMA) and also simulated by the ISORROPIA II thermodynamic model (ALWCISO). We found that ALWC contributed by organics (ALWCOrg) accounts for 30 % ± 22 % of the total ALWC in winter in Beijing. A case study reveals that ALWCOrg plays an important role in the formation of secondary aerosols through multiphase reactions at the initial stage of a heavy-haze episode.
Ye Kuang, Yao He, Wanyun Xu, Pusheng Zhao, Yafang Cheng, Gang Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, Nan Ma, Hang Su, Yanyan Zhang, Jiayin Sun, Peng Cheng, Wenda Yang, Shaobin Zhang, Cheng Wu, Yele Sun, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 865–880,Short summary
A new method was developed to calculate hygroscopicity parameter κ of organic aerosols (κOA) based on aerosol light-scattering measurements and bulk aerosol chemical-composition measurements. Derived high-time-resolution κOA varied in a wide range (near 0 to 0.25), and the organic aerosol oxidation degree significantly impacts variations in κOA. Distinct diurnal variation in κOA is found, and its relationship with oxygenated organic aerosol is discussed.
Yanbing Fan, Cong-Qiang Liu, Linjie Li, Lujie Ren, Hong Ren, Zhimin Zhang, Qinkai Li, Shuang Wang, Wei Hu, Junjun Deng, Libin Wu, Shujun Zhong, Yue Zhao, Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Xiaodong Li, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Kimitaka Kawamura, Zongbo Shi, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 117–137,Short summary
This study provides useful knowledge on the abundance, sources, and formation processes of organic aerosols in the coastal megacity of Tianjin, North China, based on the investigation of the molecular composition, diurnal variation, and winter/summer differences under the influence of land/sea breezes and the Asian summer monsoon.
Danhui Xu, Baozhu Ge, Xueshun Chen, Yele Sun, Nianliang Cheng, Mei Li, Xiaole Pan, Zhiqiang Ma, Yuepeng Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15569–15581,Short summary
Wet deposition is one of the most important and efficient removal mechanisms in the evolution of the air pollution. Due to the lack of a localized parameterization scheme and some mechanisms being neglected in theoretical estimations and modeling calculations, below-cloud wet scavenging coefficients (BWSC) have large uncertainties. We compare the BWSCs under the same conditions to perform a multi-method evaluation in order to describe their characteristics.
James Brean, Roy M. Harrison, Zongbo Shi, David C. S. Beddows, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Freya A. Squires, and James Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14933–14947,Short summary
Measurements of highly oxidized molecules measured during a summer campaign in Beijing are presented. These molecules represent an intermediary between gas-phase chemicals from which they are formed and airborne particles which form from them. Conclusions are drawn as to the factors affecting the formation of new particles within the Beijing atmosphere.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Bin Ouyang, Jun Duan, Wenqian Zhang, Shengrui Tong, Maofa Ge, Ke Tang, Min Qin, Pinhua Xie, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, James Allan, Carl J. Percival, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Roderic L. Jones, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6449–6463,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is key species for understanding tropospheric chemistry, yet accurate and precise measurements are challenging. Here we report an inter–comparison exercise of a number of instruments that measured HONO in a highly polluted location (Beijing). All instruments agreed on the temporal trends yet displayed divergence in absolute concentrations. The cause of this divergence was unclear, but it may in part be due to spatial variability in instrument location.
Hang Liu, Xiaole Pan, Yu Wu, Dawei Wang, Yu Tian, Xiaoyong Liu, Lu Lei, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14791–14804,Short summary
The relationship among the effective density, rBC's coating thickness, and rBC's morphology was investigated. rBC with larger effective density adopted a more regular shape due to more coating thickness. The effective density distribution of ambient rBC was also measured. From the information of effective density, the ambient rBC mainly adopts an irregular shape, which can cause large uncertainties in the rBC's optical properties.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Veronika Pospisilova, Wei Huang, Markus Kalberer, Claudia Mohr, Giulia Stefenelli, Joel A. Thornton, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4867–4886,Short summary
We present a novel, field-deployable extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), which provides real-time, near-molecular measurements of organic aerosol at atmospherically relevant concentrations, addressing a critical gap in existing measurement capabilities. Successful deployments of the EESI-TOF for laboratory measurements, ground-based ambient sampling, and aboard a research aircraft highlight the versatility and potential of the EESI-TOF system.
Tuan V. Vu, Zongbo Shi, Jing Cheng, Qiang Zhang, Kebin He, Shuxiao Wang, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11303–11314,Short summary
A 5-year Clean Air Action Plan was implemented in 2013 to improve ambient air quality in Beijing. Here, we applied a novel machine-learning-based model to determine the real trend in air quality from 2013 to 2017 in Beijing to assess the efficacy of the plan. We showed that the action plan led to a major reduction in primary emissions and significant improvement in air quality. The marked decrease in PM2.5 and SO2 is largely attributable to a reduction in coal combustion.
Ruihe Lyu, Zongbo Shi, Mohammed Salim Alam, Xuefang Wu, Di Liu, Tuan V. Vu, Christopher Stark, Pingqing Fu, Yinchang Feng, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10865–10881,Short summary
Severe pollution of the Beijing atmosphere is a frequent occurrence. The airborne particles which characterize the episodes of haze contain a wide range of chemical constituents but organic compounds make up a substantial proportion. In this study individual compounds are analysed under both haze and non-haze conditions, and the measurements are compared with samples collected in London, where the air pollution climate and sources are very different.
Hua Yu, Weijun Li, Yangmei Zhang, Peter Tunved, Manuel Dall'Osto, Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Xiaoye Zhang, Jianchao Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10433–10446,Short summary
Interaction of anthropogenic particles with radiation and clouds plays an important role in Arctic climate change. The mixing state of different aerosols is a key parameter influencing such interactions. However, little is known of this parameter, preventing an accurate representation of this information in global models. Multi-microscopic techniques were used to find one general core–shell structure in which secondary sulfate particles were covered by organic coating in the Arctic atmosphere.
Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Eleni Karnezi, Qi Zhang, Junfeng Wang, Spyros N. Pandis, Xinlei Ge, Jingwei Zhang, Junling An, Qingqing Wang, Jian Zhao, Wei Du, Yanmei Qiu, Wei Zhou, Yao He, Ying Li, Jie Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10205–10216,Short summary
We present the first aerosol volatility measurements in Beijing in summer using a thermodenuder coupled with aerosol mass spectrometers. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) comprised mainly semi-volatile organic compounds in summer, and the freshly oxidized secondary OA was the most volatile component. We also found quite different volatility distributions in black-carbon-containing primary and secondary OA, ambient OA, ambient secondary OA and the WRF-Chem model.
Michael Hollaway, Oliver Wild, Ting Yang, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Lisa Whalley, Eloise Slater, Dwayne Heard, and Dantong Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9699–9714,Short summary
This study, for the first time, uses combinations of aerosol and lidar data to drive an offline photolysis scheme. Absorbing species are shown to have the greatest impact on photolysis rate constants in the winter and scattering aerosol are shown to dominate responses in the summer. During haze episodes, aerosols are shown to produce a greater impact than cloud cover. The findings demonstrate the potential photochemical impacts of haze pollution in a highly polluted urban environment.
Huiyun Du, Jie Li, Xueshun Chen, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Jianjun Li, Jian Gao, and Ying Wei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9351–9370,Short summary
Regional transport and heterogeneous reactions play crucial roles in haze formation. Using a chemical transport model, we found that chemical transformation of SO2 along the transport pathway from source regions to Beijing was the major source of sulfate. Heterogeneous chemistry had a stronger effect under high humidity and high pollution levels. Aerosols underwent aging during transport which altered the aerosol size and the degree of aging.
Atallah Elzein, Rachel E. Dunmore, Martyn W. Ward, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8741–8758,Short summary
This article investigates the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Beijing, China, in winter 2016. It includes the identification and quantification of 35 polycyclic aromatic compounds. The results include their distribution between daytime and night-time. They were correlated with the gas-phase concentrations of atmospheric oxidants. Major emission sources were identified, and the cancer risk associated with particle inhalation in Beijing was estimated.
Tabish Umar Ansari, Oliver Wild, Jie Li, Ting Yang, Weiqi Xu, Yele Sun, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8651–8668,Short summary
We explore the effectiveness of short-term emission controls on haze events in Beijing in October–November 2014 with high-resolution model studies. The model captures observed hourly variation in key pollutants well, but representation of boundary layer processes remains a key constraint. The controls contributed to improved air quality in early November but would not have been sufficient had the meteorology been less favourable. We quantify the much more stringent controls needed in that case.
Xiaole Pan, Hang Liu, Yu Wu, Yu Tian, Yele Sun, Conghui Xie, Xiaoyong Liu, Tianhai Cheng, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Ying Wei, Xueshun Chen, Huansheng Chen, Jie Li, Zifa Wang, Wenyi Yang, Baozhu Ge, Huiyun Du, Jianqi Hao, Wei Wang, Jianjun Li, Yele Sun, and Huili Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8269–8296,Short summary
This study presents a full description and evaluation of a global–regional nested aerosol and atmospheric chemistry model (IAP-AACM). The simulation for 2014 is evaluated against model datasets and a range of observational datasets. The results show that IAP-AACM is within the range of other models, and reproduces both spatial and seasonal variation of trace gases and aerosols over most areas well. In future, we recommend improving the model's ability to capture high spatial variation of PM2.5.
Jessie M. Creamean, Claudia Mignani, Nicolas Bukowiecki, and Franz Conen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8123–8140,Short summary
Aerosols that serve as seeds for cloud ice formation are important to study because they impact cloud radiative properties, lifetime, and precipitation formation. We present an investigation of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) from aerosol, rime, and snow samples collected in clear and cloudy conditions during winter storms in the Swiss Alsp. INPs were more abundant and effective when storms originated from the south. We use spectral characteristics to investigate warm versus cold mode INPs.
Weijun Li, Lei Liu, Qi Yuan, Liang Xu, Yanhong Zhu, Bingbing Wang, Hua Yu, Xiaokun Ding, Jian Zhang, Dao Huang, Dantong Liu, Wei Hu, Daizhou Zhang, Pingqing Fu, Maosheng Yao, Min Hu, Xiaoye Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The real state of individual primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) derived from natural sources is under mystery, although many studies well evaluate the morphology, mixing state, and elemental composition of anthropogenic particles. It induces that some studies mislead some anthropogenic particles into biological particles through electron microscopy. Here we firstly estimate the full database of individual PBAPs through two microscopic instruments. The database is good for research.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Peter Tunved, Roy M. Harrison, Angelo Lupi, Vito Vitale, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Ki-Tae Park, Young Jun Yoon, Andreas Massling, Henrik Skov, Robert Lange, Johan Strom, and Radovan Krejci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7377–7395,Short summary
We present a cluster analysis of particle size distributions simultaneously collected from three European high Arctic sites centred in the Fram Strait during a 3-year period. Confined for longer time periods by consolidated pack sea ice regions, the Greenland site shows lower ultrafine-mode aerosol concentrations during summer relative to the Svalbard sites. Our study supports international environmental cooperation concerning the Arctic region.
Linlin Wang, Junkai Liu, Zhiqiu Gao, Yubin Li, Meng Huang, Sihui Fan, Xiaoye Zhang, Yuanjian Yang, Shiguang Miao, Han Zou, Yele Sun, Yong Chen, and Ting Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6949–6967,Short summary
Urban boundary layer (UBL) affects the physical and chemical processes of the pollutants, and UBL structure can also be altered by pollutants. This paper presents the interactions between air pollution and the UBL structure by using the field data mainly collected from a 325 m meteorology tower, as well as from a Doppler wind lidar, during a severe heavy pollution event that occurred during 1–4 December 2016 in Beijing.
Dantong Liu, Rutambhara Joshi, Junfeng Wang, Chenjie Yu, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Michael J. Flynn, Conghui Xie, James Lee, Freya Squires, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Xinlei Ge, Yele Sun, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6749–6769,Short summary
This study provides source attribution and characterization of BC in the Beijing urban environment in both winter and summer. For the first time, the physically and chemically based source apportionments are compared to evaluate the primary source contribution and secondary processing of BC-containing particles. A method is proposed to isolate the BC from the transportation sector and coal combustion sources.
Xionghui Qiu, Qi Ying, Shuxiao Wang, Lei Duan, Jian Zhao, Jia Xing, Dian Ding, Yele Sun, Baoxian Liu, Aijun Shi, Xiao Yan, Qingcheng Xu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6737–6747,Short summary
Current chemical transport models cannot capture the diurnal and nocturnal variation in atmospheric nitrate, which may be relative to the missing atmospheric chlorine chemistry. In this work, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with improved chlorine heterogeneous chemistry is applied to simulate the impact of chlorine chemistry on summer nitrate concentrations in Beijing. The results of this work can improve our understanding of nitrate formation.
Yue Liu, Mei Zheng, Mingyuan Yu, Xuhui Cai, Huiyun Du, Jie Li, Tian Zhou, Caiqing Yan, Xuesong Wang, Zongbo Shi, Roy M. Harrison, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6595–6609,Short summary
This study is part of the UK–China APHH campaign. To identify both source types and source regions at the same time, this study developed a combined method including receptor model, footprint model, and air quality model for the first time to investigate sources of PM2.5 during haze episodes in Beijing. It is an expansion of the application of the receptor model and is helpful for formulating effective control strategies to improve air quality in this region.
Jialin Li, Meigen Zhang, Guiqian Tang, Yele Sun, Fangkun Wu, and Yongfu Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6481–6495,Short summary
There are large uncertainties in the sources of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Simulations of SOA concentrations in China with aqueous SOA formation pathway updated and glyoxal simulation improved reveal that dicarbonyl-derived SOA (AAQ) can explain a significant fraction of the unaccounted SOA sources. The mean AAQ can contribute 60.6 % and 64.5 % to the total concentration of SOA in summer and fall, respectively.
Jingyuan Shao, Qianjie Chen, Yuxuan Wang, Xiao Lu, Pengzhen He, Yele Sun, Viral Shah, Randall V. Martin, Sajeev Philip, Shaojie Song, Yue Zhao, Zhouqing Xie, Lin Zhang, and Becky Alexander
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6107–6123,Short summary
Sulfate is a key species contributing to particle formation and growth during wintertime Chinese haze events. This study combines observations and modeling of oxygen isotope signatures in sulfate aerosol to investigate its formation mechanisms, with a focus on heterogeneous production on aerosol surface via H2O2, O3, and NO2 and trace metal catalyzed oxidation. Contributions from different formation pathways are presented.
Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Ivan Kourtchev, Alexander L. Vogel, Emily A. Bruns, Jianhui Jiang, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Markus Kalberer, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5973–5991,Short summary
Here we present the molecular composition of the organic aerosol (OA) at an urban site in Central Europe (Zurich, Switzerland) and compare it to smog chamber wood smoke and ambient biogenic secondary OA (SOA) (Orbitrap analyses). Accordingly, we are able to explain the strong seasonality of the molecular composition by aged wood smoke and biogenic SOA during winter and summer. Our results could also explain the predominance of non-fossil organic carbon at European locations throughout the year.
Zhenying Xu, Mingxu Liu, Minsi Zhang, Yu Song, Shuxiao Wang, Lin Zhang, Tingting Xu, Tiantian Wang, Caiqing Yan, Tian Zhou, Yele Sun, Yuepeng Pan, Min Hu, Mei Zheng, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5605–5613,
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Francis D. Pope, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5679–5694,Short summary
New particle formation events are identified at three sites in southern England, including a roadside and urban background site within London and a rural regional background site. The conditions favouring new particle formation events are identified and compared between the sites. Although a higher degree of pollution presents a greater condensation sink, it appears to be largely compensated for by faster particle growth rates.
David C. S. Beddows and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4863–4876,Short summary
Airborne particles are a cause of illness and premature death. Cost-effective control of particles in the atmosphere depends upon a reliable knowledge of their sources. This paper proposes and tests a new method for attributing particles quantitatively to the sources responsible for their emission or atmospheric formation.
Kate R. Smith, Peter M. Edwards, Peter D. Ivatt, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, Chengliang Dai, Richard E. Peltier, Mat J. Evans, Yele Sun, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1325–1336,Short summary
Clusters of low-cost, low-power atmospheric gas sensors were built into a sensor instrument to monitor NO2 and O3 in Beijing, alongside reference instruments, aiming to improve the reliability of sensor measurements. Clustering identical sensors and using the median sensor signal was used to minimize drift over short and medium timescales. Three different machine learning techniques were used for all the sensor data in an attempt to correct for cross-interferences, which worked to some degree.
Ruihe Lyu, Mohammed S. Alam, Christopher Stark, Ruixin Xu, Zongbo Shi, Yinchang Feng, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2233–2246,Short summary
Organic matter comprises a substantial proportion of the mass of toxic airborne particles which cause poor health and premature death. In this paper, new measurements of three important groups of organic compounds are reported and are analysed to infer their sources and their contributions to airborne particle concentrations.
Shaojie Song, Meng Gao, Weiqi Xu, Yele Sun, Douglas R. Worsnop, John T. Jayne, Yuzhong Zhang, Lei Zhu, Mei Li, Zhen Zhou, Chunlei Cheng, Yibing Lv, Ying Wang, Wei Peng, Xiaobin Xu, Nan Lin, Yuxuan Wang, Shuxiao Wang, J. William Munger, Daniel J. Jacob, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1357–1371,Short summary
Chemistry responsible for sulfate production in northern China winter haze remains mysterious. We propose a potentially key pathway through the reaction of formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide that has not been accounted for in previous studies. The special atmospheric conditions favor the formation and existence of their complex, hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS).
Jun Chen, Zhanqing Li, Min Lv, Yuying Wang, Wei Wang, Yingjie Zhang, Haofei Wang, Xing Yan, Yele Sun, and Maureen Cribb
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1327–1342,Short summary
The hygroscopic growth function of aerosol particles is derived from Raman lidar, whose dependence on aerosol chemical composition is investigated using data from an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) and a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) deployed in China. Two distinct cases were chosen with marked differences in their hygroscopic growth, which was fitted by the Kasten model. The differences were attributed to different amounts of chemical species.
Junfeng Wang, Dantong Liu, Xinlei Ge, Yangzhou Wu, Fuzhen Shen, Mindong Chen, Jian Zhao, Conghui Xie, Qingqing Wang, Weiqi Xu, Jie Zhang, Jianlin Hu, James Allan, Rutambhara Joshi, Pingqing Fu, Hugh Coe, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 447–458,Short summary
This work is part of the UK-China APHH campaign. We used a laser-only Aerodyne soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer, for the first time, to investigate the concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions for those ambient submicron aerosol particles only with black carbon as cores. Our findings are valuable to understand the BC properties and processes in the densely populated megacities.
Qiang Huang, Jiubin Chen, Weilin Huang, John R. Reinfelder, Pingqing Fu, Shengliu Yuan, Zhongwei Wang, Wei Yuan, Hongming Cai, Hong Ren, Yele Sun, and Li He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 315–325,Short summary
Although the specific reactions and mechanisms in fine aerosols could not be explicitly determined from this field study, our results provide isotopic evidence that local daily photochemical reduction of divalent Hg is of critical importance to the fate of PM2.5-Hg in urban atmospheres and that, in addition to variation in sources, photochemical reduction appears to be an important process that affects both the particle mass-specific abundance and isotopic composition of PM2.5-Hg.
Xiaole Pan, Baozhu Ge, Zhe Wang, Yu Tian, Hang Liu, Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Itsushi Uno, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Atsushi Shimizu, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 219–232,
Conghui Xie, Weiqi Xu, Junfeng Wang, Qingqing Wang, Dantong Liu, Guiqian Tang, Ping Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Yingjie Zhang, Wei Zhou, Tingting Han, Qingyun Bian, Jie Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Xinlei Ge, James Allan, Hugh Coe, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 165–179,Short summary
We present the first simultaneous real-time online measurements of aerosol optical properties at ground level and at 260 m on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing in winter. The vertical similarities and differences in scattering and absorption coefficients were characterized. The increases in MAC of BC were mainly associated with the coating materials on rBC. Coal combustion was the dominant source contribution of brown carbon followed by biomass burning and SOA in winter in Beijing.
Roy M. Harrison, David C. S. Beddows, Mohammed S. Alam, Ajit Singh, James Brean, Ruixin Xu, Simone Kotthaus, and Sue Grimmond
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 39–55,Short summary
Particle number size distributions were measured simultaneously at five sites in London during a campaign. Observations are interpreted in terms of both evaporative shrinkage of traffic-generated particles and condensational growth, probably of traffic-generated particles under cool nocturnal conditions, as well as the influence of particles emitted from Heathrow Airport at a distance of about 22 km. The work highlights the highly dynamic behaviour of nanoparticles within the urban atmosphere.
Irina Nikolova, Xiaoming Cai, Mohammed Salim Alam, Soheil Zeraati-Rezaei, Jian Zhong, A. Rob MacKenzie, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17143–17155,Short summary
There are increasing health concerns about the smallest airborne particles found in polluted urban atmospheres. These particles are composed of a mixture of oil-derived substances, but the exact composition is not known and is likely to be very complicated. We provide a way to compute how these particles change as their chemical make-up changes. We also outline the range of particle compositions that reproduce the behaviour of the smallest particles seen in field measurements.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Marsailidh M. Twigg, Nicholas Cowan, Matthew R. Jones, Sarah R. Leeson, William J. Bloss, Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh Crilley, Matthias Sörgel, Meinrat Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16953–16978,Short summary
Understanding the impact of agricultural activities on the atmosphere requires more measurements of inorganic trace gases and associated aerosol counterparts. This research presents 1 month of measurements above agricultural grassland during a period of fertiliser application. It was found that emissions of the important trace gases ammonia and nitrous acid peaked after fertiliser use and that the velocity at which the measured aerosols were deposited was dependent upon their size.
Cristina Carnerero, Noemí Pérez, Cristina Reche, Marina Ealo, Gloria Titos, Hong-Ku Lee, Hee-Ram Eun, Yong-Hee Park, Lubna Dada, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Enrique Mantilla, Miguel Escudero, Francisco J. Gómez-Moreno, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Esther Coz, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, David C. S. Beddows, Roy M. Harrison, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Kang-Ho Ahn, Andrés Alastuey, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16601–16618,Short summary
The vertical distribution of new particle formation events was studied using tethered balloons carrying miniaturized instrumentation. Results show that new particle formation and growth occurs only in the lower layer of the atmosphere, where aerosols are mixed due to convection, especially when the atmosphere is clean. A comparison of urban and suburban surface stations was also made, suggesting that such events may have a significant impact on ultrafine particle concentrations in a wide area.
Yangyang Zhang, Aohan Tang, Dandan Wang, Qingqing Wang, Katie Benedict, Lin Zhang, Duanyang Liu, Yi Li, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Yele Sun, and Xuejun Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16385–16398,Short summary
Our study is the first to continually monitor the vertical concentration profile of NH3 in urban Beijing. Weekly concentrations averaged 13.3 ± 4.8 μg m−3. The highest NH3 concentrations were always observed between 32 and 63 m, decreasing toward the surface and toward higher altitudes. Our results demonstrate a NH3 rich atmosphere in urban Beijing, from the ground to at least 320 m. Regional transport from the south (intensive agricultural regions) contributed high NH3 concentrations in Beijing.
Yingjie Zhang, Wei Du, Yuying Wang, Qingqing Wang, Haofei Wang, Haitao Zheng, Fang Zhang, Hongrong Shi, Yuxuan Bian, Yongxiang Han, Pingqing Fu, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Tong Zhu, Pucai Wang, Zhanqing Li, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14637–14651,Short summary
We have a comprehensive characterization of aerosol chemistry and particle growth events at a downwind site of a highly polluted city in the North China Plain. Aerosol particles at the urban downwind site were highly aged and mainly from secondary formation. New particle growth events were also frequently observed on both clean and polluted days. While both sulfate and SOA played important roles in particle growth during clean periods, SOA was more important than sulfate during polluted events.
Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Urs Baltensperger, David C. S. Beddows, Johan Paul Beukes, Don Collins, Aijun Ding, Roy M. Harrison, Bas Henzing, Rakesh Hooda, Min Hu, Urmas Hõrrak, Niku Kivekäs, Kaupo Komsaare, Radovan Krejci, Adam Kristensson, Lauri Laakso, Ari Laaksonen, W. Richard Leaitch, Heikki Lihavainen, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Zoltán Németh, Wei Nie, Colin O'Dowd, Imre Salma, Karine Sellegri, Birgitta Svenningsson, Erik Swietlicki, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Ville Vakkari, Marko Vana, Alfred Wiedensohler, Zhijun Wu, Annele Virtanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14737–14756,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have diverse effects on air quality, human health, and global climate. One important source of aerosols is their formation via nucleation and growth in the atmosphere. We have analyzed long-term observations of regional new particle formation events around the globe and provide a comprehensive view on the characteristics of this phenomenon in diverse environments. The results are useful in developing more realistic representation of atmospheric aerosols in global models.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dao Huang, Jianmin Chen, Zongbo Shi, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Daizhou Zhang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14681–14693,Short summary
Using transmission electron microscopy, we studied individual cloud droplet residual and interstitial particles collected in cloud events at Mt. Tai in the polluted North China region. We found that individual cloud droplets were an extremely complicated mixture containing abundant refractory soot (i.e., black carbon), fly ash, and metals. The complicated cloud droplets have not been reported in clean continental or marine air before.
Mingjie Kang, Pingqing Fu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Fan Yang, Hongliang Zhang, Zhengchen Zang, Hong Ren, Lujie Ren, Ye Zhao, Yele Sun, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13947–13967,Short summary
Molecular characterization and spatial distribution of biogenic primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the marine atmosphere are not well known. Here, we analysed the organic molecular composition of marine aerosols collected during a marine cruise in the East China Sea during May–June 2014. Our results suggest that the Asian continent can be a natural emitter of biogenic POA and SOA, which can be transported to the downwind marine atmosphere.
Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Diego Aliaga, Marcos Andrade, Hristo Angelov, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Marina Ealo, Paulo Fialho, Harald Flentje, A. Gannet Hallar, Rakesh Hooda, Ivo Kalapov, Radovan Krejci, Neng-Huei Lin, Angela Marinoni, Jing Ming, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Marco Pandolfi, Véronique Pont, Ludwig Ries, Sergio Rodríguez, Gerhard Schauer, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Junying Sun, Peter Tunved, Patricio Velasquez, and Dominique Ruffieux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12289–12313,Short summary
High altitude stations are often emphasized as free tropospheric measuring sites but they remain influenced by atmospheric boundary layer. An ABL-TopoIndex is defined from a topography analysis around the stations. This new index allows ranking stations as a function of the ABL influence due to topography or help to choose a new site to sample FT. The ABL-TopoIndex is validated by aerosol optical properties and number concentration measured at 29 high altitude stations of five continents.
Yuying Wang, Zhanqing Li, Yingjie Zhang, Wei Du, Fang Zhang, Haobo Tan, Hanbing Xu, Tianyi Fan, Xiaoai Jin, Xinxin Fan, Zipeng Dong, Qiuyan Wang, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11739–11752,Short summary
Very different aerosol hygroscopicities and mixing states were found at these sites in the North China Plain. The PDF for 40–200 nm particles showed the particles were highly aged and internally mixed at Xingtai because of high pollution and strong photochemical reactions. A good proxy for the chemical comical composition (kappa = 0.31) in calculating CCN concentration was found. Importantly, our study investigated the influence of industrial emissions on the aerosol properties.
Wei Zhou, Jian Zhao, Bin Ouyang, Archit Mehra, Weiqi Xu, Yuying Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Qi Chen, Conghui Xie, Qingqing Wang, Junfeng Wang, Wei Du, Yingjie Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Penglin Ye, James D. Lee, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas Worsnop, Roderic Jones, Carl J. Percival, Hugh Coe, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11581–11597,Short summary
We present measurements of gas-phase N2O5 and ClNO2 by ToF-CIMS during summer in urban Beijing as part of the APHH campaign. High reactivity of N2O5 indicative of active nocturnal chemistry was observed. The lifetime of N2O5 as a function of aerosol surface area and relative humidity was characterized, and N2O5 uptake coefficients were estimated. We also found that the N2O5 loss in this study is mainly attributed to its indirect loss via reactions of NO3 with VOCs and NO.
Prasad Kasibhatla, Tomás Sherwen, Mathew J. Evans, Lucy J. Carpenter, Chris Reed, Becky Alexander, Qianjie Chen, Melissa P. Sulprizio, James D. Lee, Katie A. Read, William Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, William C. Keene, Alexander A. P. Pszenny, and Alma Hodzic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11185–11203,Short summary
Recent measurements of NOx and HONO suggest that photolysis of particulate nitrate in sea-salt aerosols is important in terms of marine boundary layer oxidant chemistry. We present the first global-scale assessment of the significance of this new chemical pathway for NOx, O3, and OH in the marine boundary layer. We also present a preliminary assessment of the potential impact of photolysis of particulate nitrate associated with other aerosol types on continental boundary layer chemistry.
Kelly L. Pereira, Rachel Dunmore, James Whitehead, M. Rami Alfarra, James D. Allan, Mohammed S. Alam, Roy M. Harrison, Gordon McFiggans, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11073–11096,Short summary
Exhaust emissions from a light-duty diesel engine were introduced into an atmospheric simulation chamber which was used as a holding-cell for sampling, allowing instruments capable of providing detailed chemical speciation of exhaust gas emissions to be used. The effect of different engine conditions on the exhaust gas composition was investigated. The exhaust composition changed considerably due to two influencing factors, engine combustion and diesel oxidative catalyst efficiency.
Sarah S. Steimer, Aurélie Delvaux, Steven J. Campbell, Peter J. Gallimore, Peter Grice, Duncan J. Howe, Dominik Pitton, Magda Claeys, Thorsten Hoffmann, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10973–10983,Short summary
Aerosol particles are a major public health concern, but particle properties contributing to their toxicity are not well known. Oxidising components such as peroxy acids might contribute significantly to particle toxicity. However, there is a lack of analytical methods for their characterisation. We synthesized three peroxy acids, developed an analysis method and showed that degradation affects peracid yield, likely leading to underestimation of their concentration in conventional analyses.
Lindsay D. Yee, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Rebecca A. Wernis, Meng Meng, Ventura Rivera, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Susanne V. Hering, Mads S. Bering, Marianne Glasius, Mary Alice Upshur, Ariana Gray Bé, Regan J. Thomson, Franz M. Geiger, John H. Offenberg, Michael Lewandowski, Ivan Kourtchev, Markus Kalberer, Suzane de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jose L. Jimenez, Yingjun Liu, Karena A. McKinney, Paulo Artaxo, Juarez Viegas, Antonio Manzi, Maria B. Oliveira, Rodrigo de Souza, Luiz A. T. Machado, Karla Longo, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10433–10457,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds react in the atmosphere to form secondary organic aerosol, yet the chemical pathways remain unclear. We collected filter samples and deployed a semi-volatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph in the central Amazon. We measured 30 sesquiterpenes and 4 diterpenes and find them to be important for reactive ozone loss. We estimate that sesquiterpene oxidation contributes at least 0.4–5 % (median 1 %) of observed submicron organic aerosol mass.
Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Qi Zhang, Qi Jiang, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Jie Li, John Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8469–8489,Short summary
We present a 2–year analysis of organic aerosol (OA) from highly time–resolved measurements by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor in the megacity of Beijing. The sources of OA were analyzed with the advanced factor analysis of a multilinear engine (ME-2). Our results showed very different seasonal patterns, relative humidity and temperature dependence, and sources regions among different OA factors. The sources and processes of OA factors, and their roles in haze pollution are elucidated.
Jie Zhang, Sara Lance, Jeffrey M. Freedman, Yele Sun, Brian A. Crandall, Xiuli Wei, and James J. Schwab
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint retractedShort summary
The impact of fireworks (FW) events on air quality was studied using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and collocated instruments during the Independence Day (July 4) holiday. The Independence Day FW events resulted in significant increases in both organic and inorganic (potassium, sulfate, chloride) chemical components, and the contribution from different aerosol sources was discussed.
Marco Pandolfi, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Christo Angelov, Begoña Artiñano, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Paolo Bonasoni, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martine Collaud Coen, Sébastien Conil, Esther Coz, Vincent Crenn, Vadimas Dudoitis, Marina Ealo, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Patrick Ginot, Martin Gysel, Bas Henzing, Andras Hoffer, Adela Holubova Smejkalova, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Chris Lunder, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marcel Moerman, José Nicolas, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean Marc Pichon, Nina Prokopciuk, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Sergio Rodríguez, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Erik Swietlicki, Gloria Titos, Thomas Tuch, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Aditya Vaishya, Milan Vana, Aki Virkkula, Stergios Vratolis, Ernest Weingartner, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877–7911,Short summary
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle light-scattering measurements obtained over the past decade at 28 measuring atmospheric observatories which are part of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure, and most of them belong to the GAW network. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol particles optical properties in Europe.
Mohammed S. Alam, Soheil Zeraati-Rezaei, Zhirong Liang, Christopher Stark, Hongming Xu, A. Rob MacKenzie, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3047–3058,Short summary
Diesel fuel, lubricating oil and diesel exhaust emissions all contain a very complex mixture of chemical compounds with diverse molecular structures. The GC × GC-ToF-MS analytical method is a very powerful way of separating and identifying those compounds. This paper describes the allocation of compounds into groups with similar molecular structures and chemical properties, which facilitates the intercomparison of very complex mixtures such as are found in diesel fuel, oil and emissions.
Shaojie Song, Meng Gao, Weiqi Xu, Jingyuan Shao, Guoliang Shi, Shuxiao Wang, Yuxuan Wang, Yele Sun, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7423–7438,Short summary
Severe haze events occur frequently over northern China, especially in winter. Acidity plays a critical role in the formation of secondary PM2.5 and its toxicity. Using field measurements of gases and particles to critically evaluate two thermodynamic models routinely employed to determine particle acidity, we found that China's winter haze particles are generally within a moderately acidic range (pH 4–5) and not highly acidic (0) or neutral (7) as has been previously reported in the literature.
Jingye Ren, Fang Zhang, Yuying Wang, Don Collins, Xinxin Fan, Xiaoai Jin, Weiqi Xu, Yele Sun, Maureen Cribb, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6907–6921,
Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Gotzon Gangoiti, Noemí Perez, Hong K. Lee, Heeram R. Eun, Yonghee Park, Enrique Mantilla, Miguel Escudero, Gloria Titos, Lucio Alonso, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, Juan R. Moreta, M. Arantxa Revuelta, Pedro Salvador, Begoña Artíñano, Saúl García dos Santos, Mónica Anguas, Alberto Notario, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Roy M. Harrison, Millán Millán, and Kang-Ho Ahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6511–6533,Short summary
We show the main drivers of high O3 episodes in and around Madrid. High levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) are evidenced, but we demonstrate that most O3 arises from the fumigation of high atmospheric layers, whereas UFPs are generated inside the PBL. O3 contributions from the fumigation of the vertical recirculation of regional air masses, hemispheric transport, and horizontally from direct urban plume transport are shown. Complexity arises from the need to quantify them to abate surface O3.
Stuart K. Grange, David C. Carslaw, Alastair C. Lewis, Eirini Boleti, and Christoph Hueglin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6223–6239,Short summary
Weather (meteorology) has a strong effect on air quality; if not accounted for, there is uncertainty surrounding what drives features in air quality time series. We present a machine learning approach to account for meteorology using PM10 data in Switzerland. With the exception of one site, all Swiss normalised PM10 trends were found to significantly decrease, which validates air quality management efforts. The machine learning models were interpreted to investigate interesting processes.
Mike J. Newland, Andrew R. Rickard, Tomás Sherwen, Mathew J. Evans, Luc Vereecken, Amalia Muñoz, Milagros Ródenas, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6095–6120,Short summary
Stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs) are formed in the reaction of alkenes with ozone, both of which are ubiquitous throughout the troposphere. We determine the fate and global distribution of SCI from monoterpene ozonolysis. One major fate of SCI is reaction with H2O, but for a fraction of SCIs, unimolecular reactions dominate. Concentrations of SCIs are high enough regionally to play a key role in the conversion of sulfur dioxide to aerosol, affecting air quality and climate.
Di Liu, Matthias Vonwiller, Jun Li, Junwen Liu, Sönke Szidat, Yanlin Zhang, Chongguo Tian, Yinjun Chen, Zhineng Cheng, Guangcai Zhong, Pingqing Fu, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
James D. Lee, Stephen D. Mobbs, Axel Wellpott, Grant Allen, Stephane J.-B. Bauguitte, Ralph R. Burton, Richard Camilli, Hugh Coe, Rebecca E. Fisher, James L. France, Martin Gallagher, James R. Hopkins, Mathias Lanoiselle, Alastair C. Lewis, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, Ruth M. Purvis, Sebastian O'Shea, John A. Pyle, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1725–1739,Short summary
This work describes measurements, made from an aircraft platform, of the emission of methane and other organic gases from an uncontrolled leak from an oil platform in the North Sea (Total Elgin). The measurements made helped the platform operators to devise a strategy for repairing the leak and serve as a methodology for assessing future similar incidents.
Jacob T. Shaw, Richard T. Lidster, Danny R. Cryer, Noelia Ramirez, Fiona C. Whiting, Graham A. Boustead, Lisa K. Whalley, Trevor Ingham, Andrew R. Rickard, Rachel E. Dunmore, Dwayne E. Heard, Ally C. Lewis, Lucy J. Carpenter, Jacqui F. Hamilton, and Terry J. Dillon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4039–4054,Short summary
The lifetime of a chemical in the atmosphere is largely governed by the rate of its reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Measurements of rates for many of the thousands of identified volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have yet to be determined experimentally. We have developed a new technique for the rapid determination of gas-phase rate coefficients for the simultaneous reactions between multiple VOCs and OH. The method is tasted across a range of scenarios and is used to derive new values.
Wei Zhou, Qingqing Wang, Xiujuan Zhao, Weiqi Xu, Chen Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3951–3968,Short summary
We present a 3-month analysis of submicron aerosols that were measured at 260 m on a meteorological tower in Beijing, China. The sources of organic aerosol (OA) were analyzed by using a multi-linear engine (ME-2). Our results showed significant changes in both primary and secondary OA composition from the non-heating season to the heating season. We also observed a considerable contribution (10–13%) of cooking OA at 260 m and very different OA composition between ground level and 260 m.
Daniel Stone, Tomás Sherwen, Mathew J. Evans, Stewart Vaughan, Trevor Ingham, Lisa K. Whalley, Peter M. Edwards, Katie A. Read, James D. Lee, Sarah J. Moller, Lucy J. Carpenter, Alastair C. Lewis, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3541–3561,Short summary
Halogen chemistry in the troposphere impacts oxidising capacity, but model studies assessing the nature of these impacts can vary according to the model framework used. In this work we present simulations of OH and HO2 radicals using both box and global model frameworks, and compare to observations made at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory. We highlight, and rationalise, differences between the model frameworks.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Wanyu Zhao, Kimitaka Kawamura, Siyao Yue, Lianfang Wei, Hong Ren, Yu Yan, Mingjie Kang, Linjie Li, Lujie Ren, Senchao Lai, Jie Li, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2749–2767,Short summary
In this paper, we investigate the seasonal trends in concentrations and compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C2–C12) and related compounds in fine aerosols (PM2.5) in Beijing. Our study demonstrates that, in addition to the production via photo-oxidation, high abundances of diacids and related compounds in Beijing are largely associated with anthropogenic primary emissions such as biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion and plastic burning.
Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Rachel Dunmore, Jacqueline Hamilton, James R. Hopkins, James D. Lee, Alastair C. Lewis, Paul Williams, Jörg Kleffmann, Sebastian Laufs, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2547–2571,Short summary
This paper presents the first radical observations made in London and subsequent model comparisons. This work highlights that there are uncertainties in the degradation mechanism of complex biogenic and diesel-related VOC species under low-NOx conditions and under high-NOx conditions there is a missing source of RO2 radicals. The impact of these model uncertainties on in situ ozone production as a function of NOx is discussed.
Qingqing Wang, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Wei Du, Libo Zhou, Guiqian Tang, Chen Chen, Xueling Cheng, Xiujuan Zhao, Dongsheng Ji, Tingting Han, Zhe Wang, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2495–2509,Short summary
We conducted the first real-time continuous vertical measurements of particle extinction, NO2, and BC from ground level to 260 m during two severe winter haze episodes in urban Beijing, China. Our results show very complex and dynamic vertical profiles that interact closely with boundary layer and meteorological conditions. Further analysis demonstrate that vertical convection, temperature inversion, and local emissions are three major factors affecting the changes in vertical profiles.
Chao Zhang, Huiwang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Zongbo Shi, Jinhui Shi, Yang Yu, Ling Meng, and Xinyu Guo
Biogeosciences, 15, 749–765,Short summary
This study compares the response of phytoplankton growth in the northwest Pacific to those in the Yellow Sea. In general, larger positive responses of phytoplankton induced by combined nutrients (in the subtropical gyre of the northwest Pacific) than those induced by a single nutrient (in the Kuroshio Extension and the Yellow Sea) from the dust are observed. We also emphasize the importance of an increase in bioavailable P stock for phytoplankton growth following dust addition.
Leigh R. Crilley, Marvin Shaw, Ryan Pound, Louisa J. Kramer, Robin Price, Stuart Young, Alastair C. Lewis, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 709–720,Short summary
The affordability and small size of low-cost particle sensors make them attractive for air pollution experiments that require multiple instruments, or take place in hard-to-access locations or low-income countries. For any sensor to be useful, its accuracy and precision need to be known. We evaluate the Alphasense OPC-N2 for monitoring airborne particles at typical UK urban background sites. The devices were found to be accurate provided they are correctly calibrated.
Santosh Kumar Verma, Kimitaka Kawamura, Jing Chen, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 81–101,Short summary
East Asia has experienced rapid economic development in the last several decades, of which activities emit bioaerosols. The atmospheric particles are transported to downwind regions in the Pacific. To understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of sugar components over Chichijima Island from 2001 to 2013. We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variation of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific.
Larissa Lacher, Ulrike Lohmann, Yvonne Boose, Assaf Zipori, Erik Herrmann, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martin Steinbacher, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15199–15224,Short summary
We characterize the new Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber HINC to measure ambient ice nucleating particle concentrations at mixed‐phase cloud conditions. Results from winter measurements at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch compare well to previous measurements. We find increased ice nucleating particle concentrations during the influence of Saharan dust events and marine events, which highlights the importance of these species on ice nucleation in the free troposphere.
Zheng Fang, Wei Deng, Yanli Zhang, Xiang Ding, Mingjin Tang, Tengyu Liu, Qihou Hu, Ming Zhu, Zhaoyi Wang, Weiqiang Yang, Zhonghui Huang, Wei Song, Xinhui Bi, Jianmin Chen, Yele Sun, Christian George, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14821–14839,Short summary
Primary emissions and aging of open straw burning plumes were characterized in ambient dilution conditions in a chamber. Rich in alkenes, the plumes have high O3 formation potential. The emissions of specific particulate and gaseous compounds were less when the straws were fully burned. Organic aerosol (OA) mass increased by a factor of 2–8 with 3–9 h photo-oxidation, yet > 70 % of the mass cannot be explained by the known precursors. OA gained more O- and N-containing compounds during aging.
Yunjiang Zhang, Lili Tang, Philip L. Croteau, Olivier Favez, Yele Sun, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Zhuang Wang, Florian Couvidat, Alexandre Albinet, Hongliang Zhang, Jean Sciare, André S. H. Prévôt, John T. Jayne, and Douglas R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14501–14517,Short summary
We conducted the first field measurements of non-refractory fine aerosols (NR-PM2.5) in a megacity of eastern China using a PM2.5-ACSM along with a PM1-ACSM measurement. Inter-comparisons demonstrated that the NR-PM2.5 components can be characterized. Substantial mass fractions of aerosol species were observed in the size range of 1–2.5 μm, with sulfate and SOA being the two largest contributors. The impacts of aerosol water driven by secondary inorganic aerosols on SOA formation were explored.
Peter J. Gallimore, Chiara Giorio, Brendan M. Mahon, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14485–14500,Short summary
This work helps to better understand the potential climate and health impacts of airborne aerosol particles. We applied a new technique to provide a diagnostic fingerprint of the organic compounds present in aerosols. We followed changes in this fingerprint over time in lab experiments which mimic the conversion of plant emissions into aerosols. Our results compare well with computer simulations of the reactions and we conclude that the technique merits continuing use and development in future.
Mauro Masiol, Roy M. Harrison, Tuan V. Vu, and David C. S. Beddows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12379–12403,Short summary
Measurements of airborne particulate matter have been conducted using a scanning mobility particle sizer at a site in the vicinity of Heathrow Airport, London. The measured particle size distributions have been assessed both by k means clustering and PMF analysis in conjunction with measurements of meteorological variables and chemical composition. The results give a quantitative estimate of the impact of aircraft and airport emissions on local air quality.
Peter J. Gallimore, Brendan M. Mahon, Francis P. H. Wragg, Stephen J. Fuller, Chiara Giorio, Ivan Kourtchev, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9853–9868,Short summary
Limonene is emitted in substantial quantities by plants, and also has indoor sources from
air freshenersand cleaning products. We studied particle formation from the oxidation of limonene and found substantial quantities of oxidising components which are thought to be associated with the negative health effects of particulates. State-of-the-art measurements of the products of limonene–ozone chemistry were also presented.
Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Yuying Wang, Yingjie Zhang, Qingqing Wang, Weiqi Xu, Chen Chen, Tingting Han, Fang Zhang, Zhanqing Li, Pingqing Fu, Jie Li, Zifa Wang, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6797–6811,Short summary
We conducted the first simultaneous measurements of size-resolved particle number concentrations at ground level and 260 m in urban Beijing. The vertical differences strongly depend on particle sizes, with accumulation-mode particles being highly correlated at the two heights. We further demonstrated that regional emission controls have a dominant impact on accumulation-mode particles, while the influences on Aitken particles were much smaller due to the enhanced NPF events.
Ting Yang, Zifa Wang, Wei Zhang, Alex Gbaguidi, Nobuo Sugimoto, Xiquan Wang, Ichiro Matsui, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6215–6225,Short summary
Predicting air pollution events over megacities requires, notably, continuous and accurate determination of the boundary layer height (BLH). Based on gravity wave theory, a new approach (CRGM) is developed to overcome existing algorithms' weakness in order to accurately reproduce the fluctuations of the BLH under various atmospheric pollution conditions from lidar observation. Comprehensive evaluation highlights strong effectiveness of this new method.
Katie A. Read, Luis M. Neves, Lucy J. Carpenter, Alastair C. Lewis, Zoe L. Fleming, and John Kentisbeer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5393–5406,Short summary
This paper presents 4 years of total gaseous mercury data obtained from measurements made at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory, a subtropical site in the Atlantic Ocean. The data show a clear decreasing trend in the overall concentrations but in air from sub-Saharan Africa the trend is less significant and the data more variable. We attribute this result to an influence from artisanal small-scale gold mining in this region, a source for which there is uncertain information.
Yuying Wang, Fang Zhang, Zhanqing Li, Haobo Tan, Hanbing Xu, Jingye Ren, Jian Zhao, Wei Du, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5239–5251,Short summary
A series of strict emission control measures were implemented in Beijing and the surrounding seven provinces to ensure good air quality during the 2015 China Victory Day parade, rendering a unique opportunity to investigate anthropogenic impact of aerosol properties. Submicron aerosol hygroscopicity and volatility were measured during and after the control period. By comparison we found aerosol particles became more hydrophobic and volatile due to the emission control measures.
Chris Reed, Mathew J. Evans, Leigh R. Crilley, William J. Bloss, Tomás Sherwen, Katie A. Read, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4081–4092,Short summary
The source of ozone-depleting compounds in the remote troposphere has been thought to be long-range transport of secondary pollutants such as organic nitrates. Processing of organic nitrates to nitric acid and subsequent deposition on surfaces in the atmosphere was thought to remove these nitrates from the ozone–NOx–HOx cycle. We found through observation of NOx in the remote tropical troposphere at the Cape Verde Observatory that surface nitrates can be released back into the atmosphere.
Jian Zhao, Wei Du, Yingjie Zhang, Qingqing Wang, Chen Chen, Weiqi Xu, Tingting Han, Yuying Wang, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Zhanqing Li, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3215–3232,Short summary
We conducted aerosol particle composition measurements at ground level and 260 m with two aerosol mass spectrometers in Beijing during the 2015 China Victory Day parade. Our results showed a stronger impact of emission controls on inorganic aerosol than OA. A larger decrease in more oxidized SOA than the less oxidized one during the control period was also observed. Our results indicate that emission controls and the changes in meteorological conditions have affected SOA formation mechanisms.
Xavier Querol, Gotzon Gangoiti, Enrique Mantilla, Andrés Alastuey, Maria Cruz Minguillón, Fulvio Amato, Cristina Reche, Mar Viana, Teresa Moreno, Angeliki Karanasiou, Ioar Rivas, Noemí Pérez, Anna Ripoll, Mariola Brines, Marina Ealo, Marco Pandolfi, Hong-Ku Lee, Hee-Ram Eun, Yong-Hee Park, Miguel Escudero, David Beddows, Roy M. Harrison, Amelie Bertrand, Nicolas Marchand, Andrei Lyasota, Bernat Codina, Miriam Olid, Mireia Udina, Bernat Jiménez-Esteve, María R. Soler, Lucio Alonso, Millán Millán, and Kang-Ho Ahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2817–2838,Short summary
High summer O3 episodes in NE Spain were analysed. We evidence the relevance of local emission of precursors in meteorological scenarios of vertical air mass recirculations, when transboundary contributions are also significant. Forecasting these scenarios and sensitivity analysis of possible O3 precursors drop are key for potential abatement strategies. However, this is a very difficult task due to the complexity of scenarios, the external contributions, and the complex O3 production reactions.
Ajit Singh, William J. Bloss, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2085–2101,Short summary
Reduced visibility can indicate poor air quality. Using long-term visibility measurements, we explore the combined influence of aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology on long-term visibility. The measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. This approach allows for estimation of historic aerosol properties where measurements are not available.
Shurui Chen, Liang Xu, Yinxiao Zhang, Bing Chen, Xinfeng Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Mei Zheng, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1259–1270,Short summary
Many studies have focused on the unusually severe hazes instead of the more frequent light and moderate hazes (22–63 %) in winter in the North China Plain (NCP). The morphology, mixing state, and size of organic aerosols in the L & M hazes were characterized. We conclude that the direct emissions from residential coal stoves without any pollution controls in rural and urban outskirts contribute large amounts of primary OM particles to the regional L & M hazes in winter in the NCP.
Suad S. Al-Kindi, Francis D. Pope, David C. Beddows, William J. Bloss, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15561–15579,Short summary
Oleic acid is a chemical substance which is emitted from cooking processes and is present as tiny particles in the atmosphere. The oleic acid in the particles reacts chemically with atmospheric ozone, causing substantial changes to the composition of the particles. This paper uses new techniques to explore these chemical reactions and the effect of humidity upon them. The significance of the results for the atmosphere is considered.
Mingjin Tang, James Keeble, Paul J. Telford, Francis D. Pope, Peter Braesicke, Paul T. Griffiths, N. Luke Abraham, James McGregor, I. Matt Watson, R. Anthony Cox, John A. Pyle, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15397–15412,Short summary
We have investigated for the first time the heterogeneous hydrolysis of ClONO2 on TiO2 and SiO2 aerosol particles at room temperature and at different relative humidities (RHs), using an aerosol flow tube. The kinetic data reported in our current and previous studies have been included in the UKCA chemistry–climate model to assess the impact of TiO2 injection on stratospheric chemistry and stratospheric ozone in particular.
Biwu Chu, Xiao Zhang, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Yele Sun, Jingkun Jiang, Junhua Li, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14219–14230,Short summary
The interactive effects between inorganic and organic species under highly complex pollution conditions remain uncertain and were studied in a smog chamber. This study indicated that the synergistic formation of secondary inorganic and organic aerosol might increase the secondary aerosol load in the atmosphere and contribute haze pollution in eastern China. These synergistic effects were related to the heterogeneous process on aerosol surface and need to be considered in air quality models.
Pascale S. J. Lakey, Thomas Berkemeier, Manuel Krapf, Josef Dommen, Sarah S. Steimer, Lisa K. Whalley, Trevor Ingham, Maria T. Baeza-Romero, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, Markus Ammann, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13035–13047,Short summary
Chemical oxidation in the atmosphere removes pollutants and greenhouse gases but generates undesirable products such as secondary organic aerosol. Radicals are key intermediates in oxidation, but how they interact with aerosols is still not well understood. Here we use a laser to measure the loss of radicals onto oxidised aerosols generated in a smog chamber. The loss of radicals was controlled by the thickness or viscosity of the aerosols, confirmed by using sugar aerosols of known thickness.
Francis P. H. Wragg, Stephen J. Fuller, Ray Freshwater, David C. Green, Frank J. Kelly, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4891–4900,Short summary
A new portable, online instrument was designed, built and characterised to quantify reactive oxygen species (ROS) in atmospheric aerosols for laboratory and field deployment. ROS are potentially major contributors to the toxicity of particles. Our new instrument allows automated quantification of ROS over days with a detection limit of about 4 nmol [H2O2] equivalents per cubic metre of air, allowing for continuous atmospheric measurements of this important aerosol toxicity parameter.
Laura González Palacios, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Kifle Z. Aregahegn, Sarah S. Steimer, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Barbara Nozière, Christian George, Markus Ammann, and Rainer Volkamer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11823–11836,Short summary
The sources of radicals at aerosol surfaces are highly uncertain. Here we investigate the HO2 radical production from the UV irradiation of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) in bulk aqueous films containing IC and citric acid, as well as IC in ammonium sulfate aerosols. We find that IC is an efficient photosensitizer that forms HO2 radicals from H-donor chemistry. IC is a proxy species for brown carbon in atmospheric aerosols.
Ivan Kourtchev, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Sarah Connors, James G. Levine, Alex T. Archibald, Ana F. L. Godoi, Sarah L. Paralovo, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Antonio O. Manzi, Roger Seco, Steve Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex Guenther, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Scot T. Martin, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11899–11913,
Qiang Huang, Jiubin Chen, Weilin Huang, Pingqing Fu, Benjamin Guinot, Xinbin Feng, Lihai Shang, Zhuhong Wang, Zhongwei Wang, Shengliu Yuan, Hongming Cai, Lianfang Wei, and Ben Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11773–11786,Short summary
Atmospheric airborne mercury is of particular concern because, once inhaled, both Hg and its vectors might have adverse effects on human beings. In this study, we attempted to identify the sources of PM2.5-Hg in Beijing, China, using Hg isotopic composition. Large range and seasonal variations in both mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionations of Hg isotopes in haze particles demonstrate the usefulness of Hg isotopes for directly tracing the sources and its vectors in the atmosphere.
Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Eoin J. McGillicuddy, Johanna K. Esser-Gietl, Roy M. Harrison, and John C. Wenger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9693–9710,Short summary
The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) provides size resolved information on the chemical composition of single particles with high time resolution. Within SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies), continuous measurements of ambient particles were made simultaneously at two urban locations in the city of Barcelona (Spain). We find that organic nitrogen is a considerable fraction of the single particles detected, especially at the traffic-dominated site.
Junfeng Wang, Xinlei Ge, Yanfang Chen, Yafei Shen, Qi Zhang, Yele Sun, Jianzhong Xu, Shun Ge, Huan Yu, and Mindong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9109–9127,Short summary
Highly time- and chemically resolved submicron aerosol properties were characterized online for the first time during springtime in Nanjing by using the Aerodyne SP-AMS. Both chemical and size information of black carbon together with other aerosol species were simultaneously determined. An in-depth analysis of the data elucidates the sources and evolution processes of the fine aerosols in the YRD region. Our findings are valuable for air quality remediation in the densely populated regions.
Yele Sun, Wei Du, Pingqing Fu, Qingqing Wang, Jie Li, Xinlei Ge, Qi Zhang, Chunmao Zhu, Lujie Ren, Weiqi Xu, Jian Zhao, Tingting Han, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8309–8329,Short summary
We have a comprehensive characterization of the sources, variations and processes of submicron aerosols in Beijing in winter using HR-AMS and GC/MS measurements. The primary sources including traffic, cooking, biomass burning and coal combustion emissions, and secondary components were separated and quantified with PMF. Our results elucidated the important roles of primary emissions, particularly coal combustion, and aqueous-phase processing in the formation of severe air pollution in winter.
Chris Reed, Charlotte A. Brumby, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Paul W. Seakins, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2483–2495,Short summary
A new method of measuring nitrous acid (HONO), a potent mediator of air quality in the atmosphere as well as an important indoor pollutant, is presented. The new method relies on simple, proven techniques already widely applied to other atmospheric compounds. The technique can be retrofitted to existing analysers at minimal cost, or developed into instruments capable of very fast measurement which allow for more complex analysis of the behaviour of HONO.
Yan-Lin Zhang, Kimitaka Kawamura, Ping Qing Fu, Suresh K. R. Boreddy, Tomomi Watanabe, Shiro Hatakeyama, Akinori Takami, and Wei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6407–6419,Short summary
Here, based on three aircraft measurements over East Asia, we demonstrate an aqueous-phase mechanism for enhanced SOA production in the troposphere following correlation analysis of oxalic acid in tropospheric aerosols with other measured chemical variables including its precursors and its intermediate as well as biogenic-derived SOA from isoprene, monoterpenes and β-caryophyllene.
Fang Zhang, Zhanqing Li, Yanan Li, Yele Sun, Zhenzhu Wang, Ping Li, Li Sun, Pucai Wang, Maureen Cribb, Chuanfeng Zhao, Tianyi Fan, Xin Yang, and Qingqing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5413–5425,
Christopher R. Hoyle, Clare S. Webster, Harald E. Rieder, Athanasios Nenes, Emanuel Hammer, Erik Herrmann, Martin Gysel, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Ernest Weingartner, Martin Steinbacher, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4043–4061,Short summary
A simple statistical model to predict the number of aerosols which activate to form cloud droplets in warm clouds has been established, based on regression analysis of data from the high-altitude site Jungfraujoch. It is found that cloud droplet formation at the Jungfraujoch is predominantly controlled by the number concentration of aerosol particles. A statistical model based on only the number of particles larger than 80nm can explain 79 % of the observed variance in droplet numbers.
Fulvio Amato, Andrés Alastuey, Angeliki Karanasiou, Franco Lucarelli, Silvia Nava, Giulia Calzolai, Mirko Severi, Silvia Becagli, Vorne L. Gianelle, Cristina Colombi, Celia Alves, Danilo Custódio, Teresa Nunes, Mario Cerqueira, Casimiro Pio, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Evangelia Diapouli, Cristina Reche, María Cruz Minguillón, Manousos-Ioannis Manousakas, Thomas Maggos, Stergios Vratolis, Roy M. Harrison, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3289–3309,Short summary
Harmonized source apportionment of atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) at 5 EU cities (Barcelona, Florence, Milan, Athens and Porto) reveals that vehicle exhaust (excluding nitrate) plus non-exhaust contributes 16–32 % to PM10 and 15–36 % to PM2.5. Secondary PM represents 37–82 % of PM2.5. Biomass burning varies from < 2 to 24 % of PM10, depending on the residential heating fuel. Other sources are local dust (7–19 % of PM10), industries (4–11 % of PM10), shipping, sea salt and Saharan dust.
Wei Deng, Qihou Hu, Tengyu Liu, Xinming Wang, Yanli Zhang, Xiang Ding, Yele Sun, Xinhui Bi, Jianzhen Yu, Weiqiang Yang, Xinyu Huang, Zhou Zhang, Zhonghui Huang, Quanfu He, A. Mellouki, and Christian George
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
D. F. Zhao, A. Buchholz, B. Kortner, P. Schlag, F. Rubach, H. Fuchs, A. Kiendler-Scharr, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, Å. K. Watne, M. Hallquist, J. M. Flores, Y. Rudich, K. Kristensen, A. M. K. Hansen, M. Glasius, I. Kourtchev, M. Kalberer, and Th. F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1105–1121,Short summary
This study investigated the cloud droplet activation behavior and hygroscopic growth of mixed anthropogenic and biogenic SOA (ABSOA) compared to pure biogenic SOA (BSOA) and pure anthropogenic SOA (ASOA). Cloud droplet activation behaviors of different types of SOA were similar. In contrast, the hygroscopicity of ASOA was higher than BSOA and ABSOA. ASOA components enhanced the hygroscopicity of the ABSOA. Yet this enhancement cannot be described by a linear mixing of pure SOA systems.
T. Liu, X. Wang, Q. Hu, W. Deng, Y. Zhang, X. Ding, X. Fu, F. Bernard, Z. Zhang, S. Lü, Q. He, X. Bi, J. Chen, Y. Sun, J. Yu, P. Peng, G. Sheng, and J. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 675–689,Short summary
The formation of SOA and sulfate aerosols from the photooxidation of gasoline vehicle exhaust (GVE) when mixing with SO2 was investigated in a smog chamber. We found that the presence of GVE enhanced the conversion of SO2 to sulfate predominantly through reactions with stabilized Criegee intermediates. On the other hand, the elevated particle acidity enhanced the SOA production from GVE. This study indicated that SO2 and GVE could enhance each other in forming secondary aerosols.
S. Kundu, K. Kawamura, M. Kobayashi, E. Tachibana, M. Lee, P. Q. Fu, and J. Jung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 585–596,Short summary
Chemistry-transport models have predicted a change in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the future atmosphere with a large uncertainty. This study measures diacids, major water-soluble surrogates of SOA, on a sub-decadal scale in atmospheric aerosols in eastern Asia. Diacids are observed to increase by 3.9–47.4 % per year. The increases in the water-soluble organic acid fraction could modify the aerosol organic composition and its sensitivity to climate-relevant physical properties.
A. S. Fonseca, N. Talbot, J. Schwarz, J. Ondráček, V. Ždímal, J. Kozáková, M. Viana, A. Karanasiou, X. Querol, A. Alastuey, T. V. Vu, J. M. Delgado-Saborit, and R. M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
This work assessed the performance of 4 cascade impactors, by means of two intercomparison exercises in 2 European locations. The comparability between the different types of impactors assessed was dependent on particle size and on impactor design characteristics. Particle processes such as particle bounce, dissociation of semi volatiles in the coarser stages and/or particle shrinkage were identified as the main causes for the differences observed in particle mass across size fractions.
A. Ito and Z. Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 85–99,Short summary
A new Fe dissolution scheme is developed and is applied to an atmospheric chemistry transport model to estimate anthropogenic soluble Fe deposition. Our improved model successfully captured an inverse relationship of Fe solubility and total Fe loading. Our model estimated the low end of Fe solubility compared to the previous studies. Our model results suggest that human activities contribute to about half of bioavailable Fe supply to significant portions of the oceans in the Northern Hemisphere.
W. Q. Xu, Y. L. Sun, C. Chen, W. Du, T. T. Han, Q. Q. Wang, P. Q. Fu, Z. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, L. B. Zhou, D. S. Ji, P. C. Wang, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13681–13698,Short summary
We have investigated the response of aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation properties to emission controls during the 2014 Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing. Our results showed substantial changes of aerosol bulk composition during APEC with the most reductions in secondary aerosols in large accumulation modes, demonstrating that that emission controls over regional scales can substantially reduce secondary particulates.
D. M. Lienhard, A. J. Huisman, U. K. Krieger, Y. Rudich, C. Marcolli, B. P. Luo, D. L. Bones, J. P. Reid, A. T. Lambe, M. R. Canagaratna, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, D. R. Worsnop, S. S. Steimer, T. Koop, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13599–13613,Short summary
New data of water diffusivity in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material and organic/inorganic model mixtures is presented over an extensive temperature range. Our data suggest that water diffusion in SOA is sufficiently fast so that it is unlikely to have significant consequences on the direct climatic effect under tropospheric conditions. Glass formation in SOA is unlikely to restrict homogeneous ice nucleation.
W. J. Li, S. R. Chen, Y. S. Xu, X. C. Guo, Y. L. Sun, X. Y. Yang, Z. F. Wang, X. D. Zhao, J. M. Chen, and W. X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13365–13376,Short summary
We found that anthropogenic soot, fly ash, and visible organic particles likely adhere to the surface of secondary inorganic particles larger than 200nm due to coagulation. Biomass burning and coal combustion both constantly contribute to anthropogenic particles in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) background atmosphere. Organic coating and soot on the surface of the aged particles could have different impacts on their hygroscopic and optical properties in the QTP compared to the urban aerosols.
C. Chen, Y. L. Sun, W. Q. Xu, W. Du, L. B. Zhou, T. T. Han, Q. Q. Wang, P. Q. Fu, Z. F. Wang, Z. Q. Gao, Q. Zhang, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12879–12895,Short summary
A comprehensive characterization of submicron aerosol composition and sources at 260m in urban Beijing during APEC 2014 is presented. Aerosol species were shown to decrease substantially by 40–80% during APEC, whereas the bulk composition was relatively similar to the result of synergetic controls of secondary precursors. Our results elucidated that the good air quality during APEC was the combined result of emission controls and meteorological effects, with the former playing the dominant role.
R. Fröhlich, M. J. Cubison, J. G. Slowik, N. Bukowiecki, F. Canonaco, P. L. Croteau, M. Gysel, S. Henne, E. Herrmann, J. T. Jayne, M. Steinbacher, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11373–11398,Short summary
This manuscript presents the first long-term (14-month) and highly time-resolved (10 min) measurements of NR-PM1 aerosol chemical composition at a high-altitude site (JFJ, Switzerland, 3580m a.s.l.). The elevated location allowed the investigation of free tropospheric aerosol year round. Total and relative mass loadings, diurnal variations as well as seasonal variations are discussed together with geographical origin, organic aerosol sources and the influence of the planetary boundary layer.
S. Visser, J. G. Slowik, M. Furger, P. Zotter, N. Bukowiecki, F. Canonaco, U. Flechsig, K. Appel, D. C. Green, A. H. Tremper, D. E. Young, P. I. Williams, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, L. R. Williams, C. Mohr, L. Xu, N. L. Ng, E. Nemitz, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, Z. L. Fleming, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11291–11309,Short summary
Trace element measurements in three particle size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3) were performed with 2h time resolution at kerbside, urban background and rural sites during the ClearfLo winter 2012 campaign in London. The environment-dependent variability of emissions was characterized using the Multilinear Engine implementation of the positive matrix factorization model. A total of nine different factors were resolved from local, regional and natural origin.
W. Du, Y. L. Sun, Y. S. Xu, Q. Jiang, Q. Q. Wang, W. Yang, F. Wang, Z. P. Bai, X. D. Zhao, and Y. C. Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10811–10824,Short summary
A fall field campaign was conducted at a national background site (3295m a.s.l.) over the Tibetan Plateau. The submicron aerosol was dominated by organics (43%) and sulfate (28%). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) dominated OA (85%), 17% of which being aged biomass burning OA. New particle formation and growth events were frequently observed, with an average particle growth rate of 2.0nm per hour. The important role of organics in particle growth in the Tibetan Plateau was also demonstrated.
E. Hammer, N. Bukowiecki, B. P. Luo, U. Lohmann, C. Marcolli, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, and C. R. Hoyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10309–10323,Short summary
An important quantity which determines aerosol activation and cloud formation is the effective peak supersaturation. The box model ZOMM was used to simulate the effective peak supersaturation experienced by an air parcel approaching a high-alpine research station in Switzerland. With the box model the sensitivity of the effective peak supersaturation to key aerosol and dynamical parameters was investigated.
Y. L. Sun, Z. F. Wang, W. Du, Q. Zhang, Q. Q. Wang, P. Q. Fu, X. L. Pan, J. Li, J. Jayne, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10149–10165,Short summary
We conducted the first long-term real-time measurement of submicron aerosol composition in Beijing using an ACSM for 1 year. The seasonal variations of mass concentrations and chemical composition of submicron aerosol were investigated in detail, and the meteorological effects on aerosol chemistry, particularly temperature and relative humidity, were elucidated. Finally, the potential source areas of aerosol species during four seasons were identified.