Articles | Volume 15, issue 8
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4077–4091, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
21 Apr 2015
Research article | 21 Apr 2015
Ice nucleation by water-soluble macromolecules
B. G. Pummer et al.
J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, T. C. J. Hill, B. G. Pummer, P. Yordanova, G. D. Franc, and U. Pöschl
Biogeosciences, 12, 1057–1071,
S. Augustin, H. Wex, D. Niedermeier, B. Pummer, H. Grothe, S. Hartmann, L. Tomsche, T. Clauss, J. Voigtländer, K. Ignatius, and F. Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10989–11003,
Ovid O. Krüger, Bruna A. Holanda, Sourangsu Chowdhury, Andrea Pozzer, David Walter, Christopher Pöhlker, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, John P. Burrows, Christiane Voigt, Jos Lelieveld, Johannes Quaas, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8683–8699,Short summary
The abrupt reduction in human activities during the first COVID-19 lockdown created unprecedented atmospheric conditions. We took the opportunity to quantify changes in black carbon (BC) as a major anthropogenic air pollutant. Therefore, we measured BC on board a research aircraft over Europe during the lockdown and compared the results to measurements from 2017. With model simulations we account for different weather conditions and find a lockdown-related decrease in BC of 41 %.
Haley M. Royer, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ovid Krüger, Edmund Blades, Peter Sealy, Nurun Nahar Lata, Zezhen Cheng, Swarup China, Andrew P. Ault, Patricia K. Quinn, Paquita Zuidema, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, and Cassandra Gaston
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This paper presents atmospheric particle chemical composition and measurements of aerosol water uptake properties collected at Ragged Point, Barbados during the winter of 2020. The result of this study indicates the importance of small African smoke particles on cloud droplet formation in the tropical North Atlantic and highlights the large spatial and temporal pervasiveness of smoke over the Atlantic Ocean.
Lukas Eickhoff, Maddalena Bayer-Giraldi, Naama Reicher, Yinon Rudich, and Thomas Koop
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
The formation of ice is an important process in Earth’s atmosphere, biosphere and cryosphere, in particular in polar regions. Our research focus was on the influence of the sea ice diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus and of molecules produced by it upon heterogenous ice nucleation. For that purpose, we studied the freezing of tiny droplets containing diatoms in a microfluidic device. Together with previous studies, our results suggest a common freezing behaviour of various sea ice diatoms.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Harlass, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, José L. Gómez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5877–5924,Short summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport, and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Xianda Gong, Enno Bahlmann, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Frank Stratmann, Oliver Wurl, Anja Engel, Heike Wex, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5725–5742,Short summary
A class of marine particles (transparent exopolymer particles, TEPs) that is ubiquitously found in the world oceans was measured for the first time in ambient marine aerosol particles and marine cloud waters in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. TEPs are likely to have good properties for influencing clouds. We show that TEPs are transferred from the ocean to the marine atmosphere via sea-spray formation and our results suggest that they can also form directly in aerosol particles and in cloud water.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Thomas Müller, Silvia Henning, Jens Voigtländer, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5175–5194,Short summary
We conducted 10 yr measurements to characterize the atmospheric aerosol at Cabo Verde. An unsupervised machine learning algorithm, K-means, was implemented to study the aerosol types. Cloud condensation nuclei number concentrations during dust periods were 2.5 times higher than marine periods. The long-term data sets, together with the aerosol classification, can be used as a basis to improve understanding of annual cycles of aerosol, and aerosol-cloud interactions in the North Atlantic.
Jakub L. Nowak, Robert Grosz, Wiebke Frey, Dennis Niedermeier, Jędrzej Mijas, Szymon P. Malinowski, Linda Ort, Silvio Schmalfuß, Frank Stratmann, Jens Voigtländer, and Tadeusz Stacewicz
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
High resolution infrared hygrometer FIRH was adapted to measure humidity and its rapid fluctuations in turbulence inside a moist-air wind tunnel LACIS-T where two air streams of different temperature and humidity are mixed. The measurement was achieved from outside the tunnel through its glass windows and provided an agreement with a reference dew-point hygrometer placed inside. The characterization of humidity complements previous investigations of velocity and temperature fields.
Marco A. Franco, Florian Ditas, Leslie A. Kremper, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro Araújo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Joel F. de Brito, Samara Carbone, Bruna A. Holanda, Fernando G. Morais, Janaína P. Nascimento, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Marta Sá, Jorge Saturno, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3469–3492,Short summary
In Central Amazonia, new particle formation in the planetary boundary layer is rare. Instead, there is the appearance of sub-50 nm aerosols with diameters larger than about 20 nm that eventually grow to cloud condensation nuclei size range. Here, 254 growth events were characterized which have higher predominance in the wet season. About 70 % of them showed direct relation to convective downdrafts, while 30 % occurred partly under clear-sky conditions, evidencing still unknown particle sources.
Xianda Gong, Martin Radenz, Heike Wex, Patric Seifert, Farnoush Ataei, Silvia Henning, Holger Baars, Boris Barja, Albert Ansmann, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
The sources of the ice-nucleating particle (INP) are poorly understood in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We studied INP in the boundary layer in the southern Patagonia region. No seasonal cycle of INP concentrations was observed. The majority of INPs are biogenic particles, likely from local continental sources. INP concentrations are higher when strong precipitation occurs. While previous studies focused on marine INP sources in the SH, we point out the importance of continental sources of INP.
Alexander D. Harrison, Daniel O’Sullivan, Michael P. Adams, Grace C. E. Porter, Edmund Blades, Cherise Brathwaite, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Cassandra Gaston, Rachel Hawker, Ovid O. Krüger, Leslie Neve, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Andrea Sealy, Peter Sealy, Mark D. Tarn, Shanice Whitehall, James B. McQuaid, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joseph M. Prospero, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The formation of ice in clouds fundamentally alters cloud properties, hence it is important we understand the special aerosol particles that can nucleate ice when immersed in supercooled cloud droplets. In this paper we show that African desert dust that has travelled across the Atlantic to the Caribbean nucleates ice much less well than we might have expected.
Marco Wietzoreck, Marios Kyprianou, Benjamin A. Musa Bandowe, Siddika Celik, John N. Crowley, Frank Drewnick, Philipp Eger, Nils Friedrich, Minas Iakovides, Petr Kukučka, Jan Kuta, Barbora Nežiková, Petra Pokorná, Petra Přibylová, Roman Prokeš, Roland Rohloff, Ivan Tadic, Sebastian Tauer, Jake Wilson, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, Ulrich Pöschl, Euripides G. Stephanou, and Gerhard Lammel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A unique dataset of concentrations and sources of PAHs and their alkylated, oxygenated and nitrated derivatives, in total 74 individual species, in the marine atmosphere is presented. Exposure to these substances poses a major health risk. We found very low concentrations over the Arabian Sea, while both local and long-range transported pollution caused elevated levels over the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Gulf.
Kai Tang, Beatriz Sánchez-Parra, Petya Yordanova, Jörn Wehking, Anna T. Backes, Daniel A. Pickersgill, Stefanie Maier, Jean Sciare, Ulrich Pöschl, Bettina Weber, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Biogeosciences, 19, 71–91,Short summary
Metagenomic sequencing and freezing experiments of aerosol samples collected on Cyprus revealed rain-related short-term changes of bioaerosol and ice nuclei composition. Filtration experiments showed a rain-related enhancement of biological ice nuclei > 5 µm and < 0.1 µm. The observed effects of rainfall on the composition of atmospheric bioaerosols and ice nuclei may influence the hydrological cycle as well as the health effects of air particulate matter (pathogens, allergens).
Luiz A. T. Machado, Marco A. Franco, Leslie A. Kremper, Florian Ditas, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Micael A. Cecchini, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ivan Saraiva, Stefan Wolff, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18065–18086,Short summary
Several studies evaluate aerosol–cloud interactions, but only a few attempted to describe how clouds modify aerosol properties. This study evaluates the effect of weather events on the particle size distribution at the ATTO, combining remote sensing and in situ data. Ultrafine, Aitken and accumulation particles modes have different behaviors for the diurnal cycle and for rainfall events. This study opens up new scientific questions that need to be pursued in detail in new field campaigns.
Simon Felix Reifenberg, Anna Martin, Matthias Kohl, Zaneta Hamryszczak, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Daniel J. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Raphael Dörich, John N. Crowley, Laura Tomsche, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Zahn, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna Holanda, Ovid O. Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira Pöhlker, Patrick Jöckel, Marcel Dorf, Ulrich Schumann, Jonathan Williams, Joachim Curtius, Hardwig Harder, Hans Schlager, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
In this work we use a combination of observational data from an aircraft campaign and model results to investigate the effect of the European lockdown due to COVID-19 in spring 2020. Using model results, we show that the largest relative changes to the atmospheric composition caused by the reduced emissionsare located in the upper troposphere, around the aircraft cruise altitude, while largest absolute changes are present at the surface.
Ramon Campos Braga, Barbara Ervens, Daniel Rosenfeld, Meinrat O. Andreae, Jan-David Förster, Daniel Fütterer, Lianet Hernández Pardo, Bruna A. Holanda, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Ovid O. Krüger, Oliver Lauer, Luiz A. T. Machado, Christopher Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17513–17528,Short summary
Interactions of aerosol particles with clouds represent a large uncertainty in estimates of climate change. Properties of aerosol particles control their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Using aerosol measurements in the Amazon, we performed model studies to compare predicted and measured cloud droplet number concentrations at cloud bases. Our results confirm previous estimates of particle hygroscopicity in this region.
Najin Kim, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Thomas F. Mentel, Ovid O. Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6991–7005,Short summary
A broad supersaturation scanning CCN (BS2-CCN) system, in which particles are exposed to a range of supersaturation simultaneously, can measure a broad range of CCN activity distribution with a high time resolution. We describe how the BS2-CCN system can be effectively calibrated and which factors can affect the calibration curve. Intercomparison experiments between typical DMA-CCN and BS2-CCN measurements to evaluate the BS2-CCN system showed high correlation and good agreement.
Julia Burkart, Jürgen Gratzl, Teresa M. Seifried, Paul Bieber, and Hinrich Grothe
Biogeosciences, 18, 5751–5765,Short summary
Extracts of birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleation active and thus impact cloud formation and climate. In this study we develop an extraction method to separate subpollen particles from ice nucleating macromolecules. Our results thereby illustrate that ice nucleating macromolecules can be washed off the subpollen particles and that the ice activity is linked to the presence of proteins.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ovid O. Krüger, Barbara Ervens, Bruna A. Holanda, Manfred Wendisch, Trismono Krisna, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christiane Voigt, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14079–14088,Short summary
Quantifying the precipitation within clouds is crucial for our understanding of the Earth's hydrological cycle. Using in situ measurements of cloud and rain properties over the Amazon Basin and Atlantic Ocean, we show here a linear relationship between the effective radius (re) and precipitation water content near the tops of convective clouds for different pollution states and temperature levels. Our results emphasize the role of re to determine both initiation and amount of precipitation.
Maria Prass, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Paulo Artaxo, Florian Ditas, Wolfgang Elbert, Jan-David Förster, Marco Aurélio Franco, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Thomas Klimach, Leslie Ann Kremper, Eckhard Thines, David Walter, Jens Weber, Bettina Weber, Bernhard M. Fuchs, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Biogeosciences, 18, 4873–4887,Short summary
Bioaerosols in the atmosphere over the Amazon rain forest were analyzed by molecular biological staining and microscopy. Eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal aerosols were quantified in time series and altitude profiles which exhibited clear differences in number concentrations and vertical distributions. Our results provide insights into the sources and dispersion of different Amazonian bioaerosol types as a basis for a better understanding of biosphere–atmosphere interactions.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Minghui Zhang, Ramon Campos Braga, Ovid O. Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, and Barbara Ervens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11723–11740,Short summary
Clouds cool our atmosphere. The role of small aerosol particles in affecting them represents one of the largest uncertainties in current estimates of climate change. Traditionally it is assumed that cloud droplets only form particles of diameters ~ 100 nm (
accumulation mode). Previous studies suggest that this can also occur in smaller particles (
Aitken mode). Our study provides a general framework to estimate under which aerosol and cloud conditions Aitken mode particles affect clouds.
Markus Hartmann, Xianda Gong, Simonas Kecorius, Manuela van Pinxteren, Teresa Vogl, André Welti, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11613–11636,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are not well characterized in the Arctic despite their importance for the Arctic energy budget. Little is known about their nature (mineral or biological) and sources (terrestrial or marine, long-range transport or local). We find indications that, at the beginning of the melt season, a local, biogenic, probably marine source is likely, but significant enrichment of INPs has to take place from the ocean to the aerosol phase.
Haijie Tong, Fobang Liu, Alexander Filippi, Jake Wilson, Andrea M. Arangio, Yun Zhang, Siyao Yue, Steven Lelieveld, Fangxia Shen, Helmi-Marja K. Keskinen, Jing Li, Haoxuan Chen, Ting Zhang, Thorsten Hoffmann, Pingqing Fu, William H. Brune, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Maosheng Yao, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10439–10455,Short summary
We measured radical yields of aqueous PM2.5 extracts and found lower yields at higher concentrations of PM2.5. Abundances of water-soluble transition metals and aromatics in PM2.5 were positively correlated with the relative fraction of •OH but negatively correlated with the relative fraction of C-centered radicals among detected radicals. Composition-dependent reactive species yields may explain differences in the reactivity and health effects of PM2.5 in clean versus polluted air.
Theresa Haller, Eva Sommer, Thomas Steinkogler, Christian Rentenberger, Anna Wonaschuetz, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Hinrich Grothe, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3721–3735,Short summary
Structural changes of carbonaceous aerosol samples during thermal–optical measurement techniques cause a darkening of the sample during the heating procedure which can influence the attribution of the carbonaceous material to organic and elemental carbon. We analyzed structural changes of atmospheric aerosol samples occurring during the EUSAAR2 and NIOSH870 measurement protocols with Raman spectroscopy. We found that the darkening of the sample is not necessarily caused by graphitization.
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Mira L. Pöhlker, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Sergey S. Vlasenko, Ovid O. Krüger, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Christopher Pöhlker, Olga A. Ivanova, Alexey A. Kiselev, Leslie A. Kremper, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6999–7022,Short summary
Subpollen particles are a relatively new subset of atmospheric aerosol particles. When pollen grains rupture, they release cytoplasmic fragments known as subpollen particles (SPPs). We found that SPPs, containing a broad spectrum of biopolymers and hydrocarbons, exhibit abnormally high water uptake. This effect may influence the life cycle of SPPs and the related direct and indirect impacts on radiation budget as well as reinforce their allergic potential.
Patricia K. Quinn, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Derek J. Coffman, Sunil Baidar, Ludovic Bariteau, Timothy S. Bates, Sebastien Bigorre, Alan Brewer, Gijs de Boer, Simon P. de Szoeke, Kyla Drushka, Gregory R. Foltz, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Chris W. Fairall, Cassandra J. Gaston, Friedhelm Jansen, James E. Johnson, Ovid O. Krüger, Richard D. Marchbanks, Kenneth P. Moran, David Noone, Sergio Pezoa, Robert Pincus, Albert J. Plueddemann, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Estefania Quinones Melendez, Haley M. Royer, Malgorzata Szczodrak, Jim Thomson, Lucia M. Upchurch, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, and Paquita Zuidema
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1759–1790,Short summary
ATOMIC took place in the northwestern tropical Atlantic during January and February of 2020 to gather information on shallow atmospheric convection, the effects of aerosols and clouds on the ocean surface energy budget, and mesoscale oceanic processes. Measurements made from the NOAA RV Ronald H. Brown and assets it deployed (instrumented mooring and uncrewed seagoing vehicles) are described herein to advance widespread use of the data by the ATOMIC and broader research communities.
Jake Wilson, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Thomas Berkemeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6175–6198,Short summary
This work explores the gas–particle partitioning of PAHs on soot with a kinetic model. We show that the equilibration timescale depends on PAH molecular structure, temperature, and particle number concentration. We explore scenarios in which the particulate fraction is perturbed from equilibrium by chemical loss and discuss implications for chemical transport models that assume instantaneous equilibration at each model time step.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Sanja Frka, Christian Stolle, Tobias Spranger, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Blaženka Gašparović, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4267–4283,Short summary
To investigate the source of lipids and their representatives in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements of seawater and submicrometer aerosol particle sampling were carried out on the Cabo Verde islands. This field study describes the biogenic sources of lipids, their selective transfer from the ocean into the atmosphere and their enrichment as part of organic matter. A strong enrichment of the studied representatives of the lipid classes on submicrometer aerosol particles was observed.
Manabu Shiraiwa and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1565–1580,Short summary
Mass accommodation is a crucial process in secondary organic aerosol partitioning that depends on volatility, diffusivity, reactivity, and particle penetration depth of the chemical species involved. For efficient kinetic modeling, we introduce an effective mass accommodation coefficient that accounts for the above influencing factors, can be applied in the common Fuchs–Sutugin approximation, and helps to resolve inconsistencies and shortcomings of earlier experimental and model investigations.
Chuchu Chen, Xiaoxiang Wang, Kurt Binder, Mohammad Mehdi Ghahremanpour, David van der Spoel, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Size dependence of succinic acid solvation in the nanoparticles is investigated based on the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and energetic analysis. The results show a stronger surface preference and a weaker internal bulk volume solvation of succinic acid in the smaller droplets, which may explain the previously observed size-dependent phase-state of aerosol nanoparticles containing organic molecules, fundamentally promoting a better understanding of atmospheric aerosols.
Teresa M. Seifried, Paul Bieber, Laura Felgitsch, Julian Vlasich, Florian Reyzek, David G. Schmale III, and Hinrich Grothe
Biogeosciences, 17, 5655–5667,
Guo Li, Hang Su, Nan Ma, Guangjie Zheng, Uwe Kuhn, Meng Li, Thomas Klimach, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6053–6065,Short summary
Aerosol acidity plays an important role in regulating the chemistry, health, and ecological effect of aerosol particles. However, a direct measurement of aerosol pH is very challenging because of its fast transition and equilibrium with adjacent environments. Therefore, most early studies have to use modeled pH, resulting in intensive debates about model uncertainties. Here we developed an optimized approach to measure aerosol pH by using pH-indicator papers combined with RGB-based colorimetry.
Lixia Liu, Yafang Cheng, Siwen Wang, Chao Wei, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Paulo Artaxo, Manish Shrivastava, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13283–13301,Short summary
This modeling paper reveals how aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs) and aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs) induced by biomass burning (BB) aerosols act oppositely on radiation, cloud, and precipitation in the Amazon during the dry season. The varying relative significance of ACIs and ARIs with BB aerosol concentration leads to a nonlinear dependence of the total climate response on BB aerosol loading and features the growing importance of ARIs at high aerosol loading.
Hans-Christian Clemen, Johannes Schneider, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Franziska Köllner, Andreas Hünig, Florian Rubach, Stephan Mertes, Heike Wex, Frank Stratmann, André Welti, Rebecca Kohl, Fabian Frank, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5923–5953,Short summary
We improved the efficiency of a single-particle mass spectrometer with a newly developed aerodynamic lens system, delayed ion extraction, and better electric shielding. The new components result in significantly improved particle analysis and sample statistics. This is particularly important for measurements of low-number-density particles, such as ice-nucleating particles, and for aircraft-based measurements at high altitudes or where high temporal and spatial resolution is required.
Ting Lei, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Thomas Tuch, Xin Wang, Zhibin Wang, Mira Pöhlker, Maofa Ge, Weigang Wang, Eugene Mikhailov, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5551–5567,Short summary
We present the design of a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) apparatus that enables high accuracy and precision in hygroscopic growth measurements of aerosol nanoparticles with diameters less than 10 nm. We further introduce comprehensive methods for system calibration and validation of the performance of the system. We then study the size dependence of the deliquescence and the efflorescence of aerosol nanoparticles for sizes down to 6 nm.
Wei Tao, Hang Su, Guangjie Zheng, Jiandong Wang, Chao Wei, Lixia Liu, Nan Ma, Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11729–11746,Short summary
We simulated the thermodynamic and multiphase reactions in aerosol water during a wintertime haze event over the North China Plain. It was found that aerosol pH exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variability, and multiple oxidation pathways were predominant for particulate sulfate formation in different locations. Sensitivity tests further showed that ammonia, crustal particles, and dissolved transition metal ions were important factors for multiphase chemistry during haze episodes.
Jan-David Förster, Christian Gurk, Mark Lamneck, Haijie Tong, Florian Ditas, Sarah S. Steimer, Peter A. Alpert, Markus Ammann, Jörg Raabe, Markus Weigand, Benjamin Watts, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3717–3729,Short summary
A gas flow system coupled with a microreactor for X-ray microspectroscopy is presented. Its core objective is to mimic the atmospheric processing of aerosol particles under laboratory conditions in a controlled gas-phase environment and allow in situ observations with high spatial and chemical resolution. We here emphasize its analytical capabilities and show initial results from hydration–dehydration experiments and the observation of water ice at low temperature and high relative humidity.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Christian Stolle, Oliver Wurl, Enno Bahlmann, Xianda Gong, Jens Voigtländer, Heike Wex, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Stefan Barthel, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Marie Roveretto, Chunlin Li, Benoit Grosselin, Veronique Daële, Fabian Senf, Dominik van Pinxteren, Malena Manzi, Nicolás Zabalegui, Sanja Frka, Blaženka Gašparović, Ryan Pereira, Tao Li, Liang Wen, Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Jianmin Chen, Björn Fiedler, Wolf von Tümpling, Katie Alana Read, Shalini Punjabi, Alastair Charles Lewis, James Roland Hopkins, Lucy Jane Carpenter, Ilka Peeken, Tim Rixen, Detlef Schulz-Bull, María Eugenia Monge, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Christian George, Frank Stratmann, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6921–6951,Short summary
An introduction to a comprehensive field campaign performed at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory regarding ocean–atmosphere interactions is given. Chemical, physical, biological and meteorological techniques were applied, and measurements of bulk water, the sea surface microlayer, cloud water and ambient aerosol particles took place. Oceanic compounds were found to be transferred to atmospheric aerosol and to the cloud level; however, sea spray contributions to CCN and INPs were limited.
Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Jeannine Ditas, Florian Ditas, Christiane Schulz, Marco Aurélio Franco, Qiaoqiao Wang, Tobias Donth, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Joel Brito, Yafang Cheng, Maximilian Dollner, Johannes W. Kaiser, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Ovid O. Krüger, Daniel Fütterer, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Luiz A. T. Machado, Jing Ming, Fernando G. Morais, Hauke Paulsen, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Johannes Schneider, Hang Su, Bernadett Weinzierl, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4757–4785,Short summary
Biomass burning smoke from African savanna and grassland is transported across the South Atlantic Ocean in defined layers within the free troposphere. The combination of in situ aircraft and ground-based measurements aided by satellite observations showed that these layers are transported into the Amazon Basin during the early dry season. The influx of aged smoke, enriched in black carbon and cloud condensation nuclei, has important implications for the Amazonian aerosol and cloud cycling.
Dennis Niedermeier, Jens Voigtländer, Silvio Schmalfuß, Daniel Busch, Jörg Schumacher, Raymond A. Shaw, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2015–2033,Short summary
In this paper, we present the new moist-air wind tunnel LACIS-T (Turbulent Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator). It is used to study cloud physical processes in general and interactions between turbulence and cloud microphysical processes in particular. The operating principle of LACIS-T is explained, and the first results are depicted from deliquescence and droplet formation experiments observing clear indications on the effect of turbulence on these microphysical processes.
Stefano Decesari, Marco Paglione, Matteo Rinaldi, Manuel Dall'Osto, Rafel Simó, Nicola Zanca, Francesca Volpi, Maria Cristina Facchini, Thorsten Hoffmann, Sven Götz, Christopher Johannes Kampf, Colin O'Dowd, Darius Ceburnis, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, and Emilio Tagliavini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4193–4207,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols in Antarctica contribute to regulate the delicate budget of cloud formation and precipitations. Besides the well-known biogenic production of sulfur-containing aerosol components such as methanesulfonate (MSA), the assessment of biological sources of organic particles in Antarctica remains an active area of research. Here we present the results of aerosol organic characterization during a research cruise performed in the Weddell Sea and in the Southern Ocean in Jan–Feb 2015.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Jennifer M. Comstock, Ralf Weigel, Martina Krämer, Christoph Mahnke, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Charles N. Long, Manfred Wendisch, Luiz A. T. Machado, Beat Schmid, Trismono Krisna, Mikhail Pekour, John Hubbe, Andreas Giez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Martin Zoeger, Mira L. Pöhlker, Hans Schlager, Micael A. Cecchini, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Suzane S. de Sá, Jiwen Fan, Jason Tomlinson, Stephen Springston, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, Christopher Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Andreas Minikin, Armin Afchine, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 661–684,Short summary
In 2014, the US DOE G1 aircraft and the German HALO aircraft overflew the Amazon basin to study how aerosols influence cloud cycles under a clean condition and around a tropical megacity. This paper describes how to meaningfully compare similar measurements from two research aircraft and identify the potential measurement issue. We also discuss the uncertainty range for each measurement for further usage in model evaluation and satellite data validation.
Pascal Polonik, Christoph Knote, Tobias Zinner, Florian Ewald, Tobias Kölling, Bernhard Mayer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Mahnke, Sergej Molleker, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Christiane Voigt, Ralf Weigel, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1591–1605,Short summary
A realistic representation of cloud–aerosol interactions is central to accurate climate projections. Here we combine observations collected during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign with chemistry-transport simulations to evaluate the model’s ability to represent the indirect effects of biomass burning aerosol on cloud microphysics. We find an upper limit for the model sensitivity on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations well below the levels reached during the burning season in the Amazon Basin.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Jens Voigtländer, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Kay Weinhold, Manuela van Pinxteren, Silvia Henning, Thomas Müller, Hartmut Herrmann, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1431–1449,Short summary
We characterized the aerosol particles in Cabo Verde at sea and cloud levels. We found four well-separable types of PNSDs, with the strongest differences between air masses coming from the ocean compared to from the African continent. During the strongest observed dust periods, CCN concentrations were 2.5 higher than during clean marine periods. The hygroscopicity of the particles did not vary much between different periods. Aerosol at sea level and on the mountaintop was well in agreement.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Manuela van Pinxteren, Nadja Triesch, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Jasmin Lubitz, Christian Stolle, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Thomas Müller, Hartmut Herrmann, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1451–1468,Short summary
In this study, we examined number concentrations of ice nucleating particles (INPs) at Cabo Verde in the oceanic sea surface microlayer and underlying seawater, in the air close to both sea level and cloud level, and in cloud water. The results show that most INPs are supermicron in size, that INP number concentrations in air fit well to those in cloud water and that sea spray aerosols at maximum contributed a small fraction of all INPs in the air at Cabo Verde.
Nina Löbs, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Sebastian Brill, David Walter, Florian Ditas, Marta de Oliveira Sá, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Leonardo R. de Oliveira, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Stefan Wolff, Meike Piepenbring, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, and Bettina Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 153–164,Short summary
Bioaerosols are considered to play a relevant role in atmospheric processes, but their sources, properties, and spatiotemporal distribution in the atmosphere are not yet well characterized. Measurement data on the release of fungal spores under natural conditions are also sparse. Here, we present an experimental approach to analyze and quantify the spore release from fungi and other spore-producing organisms under natural and laboratory conditions.
Anna T. Kunert, Mira L. Pöhlker, Kai Tang, Carola S. Krevert, Carsten Wieder, Kai R. Speth, Linda E. Hanson, Cindy E. Morris, David G. Schmale III, Ulrich Pöschl, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Biogeosciences, 16, 4647–4659,Short summary
A screening of more than 100 strains from 65 different species revealed that the ice nucleation activity within the fungal genus Fusarium is more widespread than previously assumed. Filtration experiments suggest that the single cell-free Fusarium IN is smaller than 100 kDa (~ 6 nm) and that aggregates can be formed in solution. Exposure experiments, freeze–thaw cycles, and long-term storage tests demonstrate a high stability of Fusarium IN under atmospherically relevant conditions.
Simonas Kecorius, Teresa Vogl, Pauli Paasonen, Janne Lampilahti, Daniel Rothenberg, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Manuela van Pinxteren, Markus Hartmann, Silvia Henning, Xianda Gong, Andre Welti, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14339–14364,Short summary
Arctic sea-ice retreat, atmospheric new particle formation (NPF), and aerosol–cloud interaction may all be linked via a positive feedback mechanism. Understanding the sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is an important piece in the Arctic amplification puzzle. We show that Arctic newly formed particles do not have to grow beyond the Aitken mode to act as CCN. This is important, because NPF occurrence in the Arctic is expected to increase, making it a significant contributor to CCN budget.
Naama Reicher, Carsten Budke, Lukas Eickhoff, Shira Raveh-Rubin, Ifat Kaplan-Ashiri, Thomas Koop, and Yinon Rudich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11143–11158,Short summary
We characterized size-segregated airborne ice-nucleating particles (INPs) during dust storm events in the eastern Mediterranean. We found that particle size can predict its activity, and in general, larger particles are better INPs. The activity of supermicron particles dominated by desert mineral dust was similar between the different dust events regardless of the high variability of the geographic source desert and atmospheric journey.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Thomas Müller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kristina Höhler, Konrad Kandler, Nan Ma, Barbara Dietel, Thea Schiebel, Ottmar Möhler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10883–10900,Short summary
For the diverse aerosol on Cyprus, we found the following: new particle formation can be a source of cloud condensation nuclei. Particle hygroscopicity showed that particles ~<100 nm contained mostly organic material, while larger ones were more hygroscopic. Two separate methods obtained similar concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INP), with mostly no evidence of a local origin. Different parameterizations overestimated INP concentration in this rather polluted region.
Meng Li, Hang Su, Guo Li, Nan Ma, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10981–11011,Short summary
Aerosols and the ground provide two kinds of surfaces for multiphase reactions in the planetary boundary layer. However, the relative importance of these two surfaces for gas uptake has not been quantified. We compare the uptake fluxes of aerosols and the ground surface for reactive trace gases under various conditions. More studies regarding O3 uptake on liquid organic aerosols and H2O2 uptakes on various aerosols are needed considering their potential important roles in atmospheric chemistry.
Christopher Pöhlker, David Walter, Hauke Paulsen, Tobias Könemann, Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Céline Degrendele, Viviane R. Després, Florian Ditas, Bruna A. Holanda, Johannes W. Kaiser, Gerhard Lammel, Jošt V. Lavrič, Jing Ming, Daniel Pickersgill, Mira L. Pöhlker, Maria Praß, Nina Löbs, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Qiaoqiao Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8425–8470,Short summary
The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been established to monitor the rain forest's biosphere–atmosphere exchange, which experiences the combined pressures from human-made deforestation and progressing climate change. This work is meant to be a reference study, which characterizes various geospatial properties of the ATTO footprint region and shows how the human-made transformation of Amazonia may impact future atmospheric observations at ATTO.
Theresa Haller, Christian Rentenberger, Jannik C. Meyer, Laura Felgitsch, Hinrich Grothe, and Regina Hitzenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3503–3519,Short summary
In thermal–optical measurement techniques – widely used techniques to separate organic and elemental carbon – a filter sample is heated stepwise first in He and then in He+O2. Pyrolysis of organic material occurring during heating in He influences the results but is not fully understood. In this study, structural changes of carbonaceous material during a thermal–optical heating procedure are analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV–VIS and the integrating-sphere method.
Philipp Porada, Alexandra Tamm, Jose Raggio, Yafang Cheng, Axel Kleidon, Ulrich Pöschl, and Bettina Weber
Biogeosciences, 16, 2003–2031,Short summary
The trace gases NO and HONO are crucial for atmospheric chemistry. It has been suggested that biological soil crusts in drylands contribute substantially to global NO and HONO emissions, based on empirical upscaling of laboratory and field observations. Here we apply an alternative, process-based modeling approach to predict these emissions. We find that biological soil crusts emit globally significant amounts of NO and HONO, which also vary depending on the type of biological soil crust.
Heike Wex, Lin Huang, Wendy Zhang, Hayley Hung, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Rebecca J. Sheesley, Claire E. Moffett, Tate E. Barrett, Rossana Bossi, Henrik Skov, Anja Hünerbein, Jasmin Lubitz, Mareike Löffler, Olivia Linke, Markus Hartmann, Paul Herenz, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5293–5311,Short summary
We found an annual cycle for ice-nucleating particles in the Arctic. These particles are important for Arctic clouds, as they can change the lifetime of clouds. We suggest that higher concentrations of these particles in summertime originate from the Arctic biosphere (both marine and terrestrial). With a warming Arctic, these concentrations may increase further, influencing aerosol–cloud interactions and therewith the observed strong warming of the Arctic.
Naruki Hiranuma, Kouji Adachi, David M. Bell, Franco Belosi, Hassan Beydoun, Bhaskar Bhaduri, Heinz Bingemer, Carsten Budke, Hans-Christian Clemen, Franz Conen, Kimberly M. Cory, Joachim Curtius, Paul J. DeMott, Oliver Eppers, Sarah Grawe, Susan Hartmann, Nadine Hoffmann, Kristina Höhler, Evelyn Jantsch, Alexei Kiselev, Thomas Koop, Gourihar Kulkarni, Amelie Mayer, Masataka Murakami, Benjamin J. Murray, Alessia Nicosia, Markus D. Petters, Matteo Piazza, Michael Polen, Naama Reicher, Yinon Rudich, Atsushi Saito, Gianni Santachiara, Thea Schiebel, Gregg P. Schill, Johannes Schneider, Lior Segev, Emiliano Stopelli, Ryan C. Sullivan, Kaitlyn Suski, Miklós Szakáll, Takuya Tajiri, Hans Taylor, Yutaka Tobo, Romy Ullrich, Daniel Weber, Heike Wex, Thomas F. Whale, Craig L. Whiteside, Katsuya Yamashita, Alla Zelenyuk, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4823–4849,Short summary
A total of 20 ice nucleation measurement techniques contributed to investigate the immersion freezing behavior of cellulose particles – natural polymers. Our data showed several types of cellulose are able to nucleate ice as efficiently as some mineral dust samples and cellulose has the potential to be an important atmospheric ice-nucleating particle. Continued investigation/collaboration is necessary to obtain further insight into consistency or diversity of ice nucleation measurements.
Tobias Könemann, Nicole Savage, Thomas Klimach, David Walter, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Hang Su, Ulrich Pöschl, J. Alex Huffman, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1337–1363,Short summary
This study presents a comprehensive assessment of the SIBS, an instrument for spectrally resolved fluorescence detection of single particles. Exemplary ambient data and fluorescence spectra obtained for 16 reference compounds (biofluorophores and PSLs) show that the SIBS has the ability to expand the scope of fluorescent bioaerosol quantification and classification. Detailed technical insights will be broadly beneficial for users of various WIBS generations and other LIF instruments.
Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Uwe Kuhn, Rongjuan Xu, Yudong Yang, Hannah Meusel, Zhibin Wang, Nan Ma, Yusheng Wu, Meng Li, Jonathan Williams, Thorsten Hoffmann, Markus Ammann, Ulrich Pöschl, Min Shao, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2209–2232,Short summary
VOCs play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. Emission and deposition on soil have been suggested as important sources and sinks of atmospheric trace gases. The exchange characteristics and heterogeneous chemistry of VOCs on soil, however, are not well understood. We used a newly designed differential coated-wall flow tube system to investigate the long-term variability of bidirectional air–soil exchange of 13 VOCs at ambient air conditions of an urban background site in Beijing.
Yvonne Boose, Philipp Baloh, Michael Plötze, Johannes Ofner, Hinrich Grothe, Berko Sierau, Ulrike Lohmann, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1059–1076,Short summary
The role non-mineral components play in the freezing behavior of atmospheric desert dust is not well known. In this study, we use chemical imaging methods to investigate this for airborne and surface-collected desert dust samples. We find that in most cases the ice nucleation behavior is determined by the dust mineralogical composition. However, volatile organic material can coat active sites and decrease the dust ice nucleation ability, while biological particles can significantly increase it.
Paul Herenz, Heike Wex, Alexander Mangold, Quentin Laffineur, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Zoë L. Fleming, Marios Panagi, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 275–294,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol particles were observed in Antarctica, at the Belgian Princess Elisabeth station during three austral summers. Possible source regions for the particles were examined. Air that spent more than 90 %; of the time during 10 days over Antarctica had low and stable number concentrations, while the highest (new particle formation) and lowest (scavenging and wet deposition) concentrations were observed for air masses that were more strongly influenced by the Southern Ocean.
Xiaoxiang Wang, Chuchu Chen, Kurt Binder, Uwe Kuhn, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17077–17086,Short summary
The surface tension of aqueous NaCl (σ) is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations from dilute to highly supersaturated solutions. The linear approximation of concentration dependence of σ at molality scale can be extended to the supersaturated NaCl solution until the solute mass fraction (xNaCl) of ~0.39. After that, the σ remains almost unchanged until an xNaCl of ~0.47. Then the σ gradually regains the growing momentum with a tendency to approach the surface tension of molten NaCl.
Anna T. Kunert, Mark Lamneck, Frank Helleis, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira L. Pöhlker, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6327–6337,Short summary
The new Twin-plate Ice Nucleation Assay with infrared detection for high-throughput droplet freezing experiments in microliter-sized droplets is introduced, which was tested and characterized with bacterial and fungal ice nuclei. It was applied to investigate the influence of chemical processing on the activity of biological ice nuclei, and aqueous extracts of atmospheric aerosols were studied for ice nuclei activity.
Paul J. DeMott, Ottmar Möhler, Daniel J. Cziczo, Naruki Hiranuma, Markus D. Petters, Sarah S. Petters, Franco Belosi, Heinz G. Bingemer, Sarah D. Brooks, Carsten Budke, Monika Burkert-Kohn, Kristen N. Collier, Anja Danielczok, Oliver Eppers, Laura Felgitsch, Sarvesh Garimella, Hinrich Grothe, Paul Herenz, Thomas C. J. Hill, Kristina Höhler, Zamin A. Kanji, Alexei Kiselev, Thomas Koop, Thomas B. Kristensen, Konstantin Krüger, Gourihar Kulkarni, Ezra J. T. Levin, Benjamin J. Murray, Alessia Nicosia, Daniel O'Sullivan, Andreas Peckhaus, Michael J. Polen, Hannah C. Price, Naama Reicher, Daniel A. Rothenberg, Yinon Rudich, Gianni Santachiara, Thea Schiebel, Jann Schrod, Teresa M. Seifried, Frank Stratmann, Ryan C. Sullivan, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Miklós Szakáll, Hans P. Taylor, Romy Ullrich, Jesus Vergara-Temprado, Robert Wagner, Thomas F. Whale, Daniel Weber, André Welti, Theodore W. Wilson, Martin J. Wolf, and Jake Zenker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6231–6257,Short summary
The ability to measure ice nucleating particles is vital to quantifying their role in affecting clouds and precipitation. Methods for measuring droplet freezing were compared while co-sampling relevant particle types. Measurement correspondence was very good for ice nucleating particles of bacterial and natural soil origin, and somewhat more disparate for those of mineral origin. Results reflect recently improved capabilities and provide direction toward addressing remaining measurement issues.
Laura Felgitsch, Philipp Baloh, Julia Burkart, Maximilian Mayr, Mohammad E. Momken, Teresa M. Seifried, Philipp Winkler, David G. Schmale III, and Hinrich Grothe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16063–16079,Short summary
Birch trees are possible sources of ice-nucleating macromolecules (INM). Pollen of birch trees are known to be ice nucleation active and were recently shown to release INM. For our work we examined 30 samples of birch branches, consisting of leaves, secondary wood (brown with no photosynthetic activity), and primary wood (green, photosynthetically active). The samples were milled and extracted aqueously. All samples contained INM. Most samples froze at temperatures comparable to birch pollen.
Jörn Lessmeier, Hans Peter Dette, Adelheid Godt, and Thomas Koop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15841–15857,Short summary
We synthesized a compound, a tetraol, which is an atmospheric oxidation product in isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosols, and studied whether the tetraol is liquid or solid depending upon temperature and relative humidity, both in pure form and in mixtures with other compounds. Our results imply a liquid state of isoprene-derived aerosol particles in the lower troposphere at moderate humidity, but a solid state at colder upper tropospheric conditions, thus supporting modeling calculations.
Matthias Hummel, Corinna Hoose, Bernhard Pummer, Caroline Schaupp, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15437–15450,Short summary
How important for clouds is the ability of biological particles to glaciate droplets at little supercooling? In a case study, the regional atmospheric model COSMO–ART is used. Perturbed and control runs are compared. The number of ice particles that are nucleated by biological particles is highest at around −10 °C. No significant influence on the average state of the cloud ice phase was found. However, the number of ice crystals is slightly enhanced in the absence of other ice nucleators.
Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Oliver Appel, Anja Costa, Suzane S. de Sá, Volker Dreiling, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Scot T. Martin, Stephan Mertes, Mira L. Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Bernadett Weinzierl, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Luiz A. T. Machado, Ulrich Pöschl, Manfred Wendisch, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14979–15001,Short summary
Aerosol chemical composition measurements in the tropical upper troposphere over the Amazon region show that 78 % of the aerosol in the upper troposphere consists of organic matter. Up to 20 % of the organic aerosol can be attributed to isoprene epoxydiol secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA). Furthermore, organic nitrates were identified, suggesting a connection to the IEPOX-SOA formation.
Sarah Grawe, Stefanie Augustin-Bauditz, Hans-Christian Clemen, Martin Ebert, Stine Eriksen Hammer, Jasmin Lubitz, Naama Reicher, Yinon Rudich, Johannes Schneider, Robert Staacke, Frank Stratmann, André Welti, and Heike Wex
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13903–13923,Short summary
In this study, coal fly ash particles immersed in supercooled cloud droplets were analyzed concerning their freezing behavior. Additionally, physico-chemical particle properties (morphology, chemical composition, crystallography) were investigated. In combining both aspects, components that potentially contribute to the observed freezing behavior of the ash could be identified. Interactions at the particle-water interface, that depend on suspension time and influence freezing, are discussed.
Jorge Saturno, Bruna A. Holanda, Christopher Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Qiaoqiao Wang, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Jeannine Ditas, Thorsten Hoffmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Tobias Könemann, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Jing Ming, Hauke Paulsen, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Patrick Schlag, Hang Su, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Yuxuan Zhang, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12817–12843,Short summary
Biomass burning emits light-absorbing aerosol particles that warm the atmosphere. One of them is the primarily emitted black carbon, which strongly absorbs radiation in the visible and UV spectral regions. Another one is the so-called brown carbon, a fraction of organic aerosol particles that are able to absorb radiation, especially in the UV spectral region. The contribution of both kinds of aerosol particles to light absorption over the Amazon rainforest is studied in this paper.
Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Marloes Penning de Vries, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Samara Carbone, David Walter, Nicole Bobrowski, Joel Brito, Xuguang Chi, Alexandra Gutmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Luiz A. T. Machado, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Julian Rüdiger, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Qiaoqiao Wang, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10391–10405,Short summary
This study uses satellite observations to track volcanic emissions in eastern Congo and their subsequent transport across the Atlantic Ocean into the Amazon Basin. Aircraft and ground-based observations are used to characterize the influence of volcanogenic aerosol on the chemical and microphysical properties of Amazonian aerosols. Further, this work is an illustrative example of the conditions and dynamics driving the transatlantic transport of African emissions to South America.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Jorge Saturno, Thomas Klimach, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Alessandro C. Araùjo, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Reiner Ditz, Sachin S. Gunthe, Bruna A. Holanda, Konrad Kandler, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Tobias Könemann, Ovid O. Krüger, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Eugene Mikhailov, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Luciana V. Rizzo, Diana Rose, Hang Su, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, Jian Wang, Stefan Wolff, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10289–10331,Short summary
This paper presents the aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) variability for characteristic atmospheric states – such as biomass burning, long-range transport, and pristine rain forest conditions – in the vulnerable and climate-relevant Amazon Basin. It summarizes the key properties of aerosol and CCN and, thus, provides a basis for an in-depth analysis of aerosol–cloud interactions in the Amazon region.
Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Florian Ditas, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Xuguang Chi, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Holger Baars, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Birgit Heese, Bruna A. Holanda, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Jing Ming, Mira L. Pöhlker, Nina Ruckteschler, Hang Su, Yaqiang Wang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Zhibin Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10055–10088,Short summary
This study presents multiple years of aerosol coarse mode observations at the remote ATTO site in the Amazon Basin. The results are discussed in light of the frequent and episodic long-range transport of Saharan dust plumes in the early wet season as well as the persistent background bioaerosol cycling in the rain forest ecosystem. This work provides a solid basis for future studies on the dynamic coarse mode aerosol cycling and its biogeochemical relevance in the Amazon.
Jörn Wehking, Daniel A. Pickersgill, Robert M. Bowers, David Teschner, Ulrich Pöschl, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, and Viviane R. Després
Biogeosciences, 15, 4205–4214,Short summary
Archaea as a third domain of life play an important role in soils and marine environments. Although archaea have been found in air as a part of the atmospheric bioaerosol, little is known about their atmospheric dynamics due to their low number and challenging analysis. Here we present a DNA-based study of airborne archaea, show seasonal dynamics, and discuss anthropogenic influences on the diversity, composition, and abundances of airborne archaea.
Luiz A. T. Machado, Alan J. P. Calheiros, Thiago Biscaro, Scott Giangrande, Maria A. F. Silva Dias, Micael A. Cecchini, Rachel Albrecht, Meinrat O. Andreae, Wagner F. Araujo, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Casey Burleyson, Cristiano W. Eichholz, Jiwen Fan, Zhe Feng, Gilberto F. Fisch, Michael P. Jensen, Scot T. Martin, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Jean-François Ribaud, Daniel Rosenfeld, Jaci M. B. Saraiva, Courtney Schumacher, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6461–6482,Short summary
This overview discuss the main precipitation processes and their sensitivities to environmental conditions in the Central Amazon Basin. It presents a review of the knowledge acquired about cloud processes and rainfall formation in Amazonas. In addition, this study provides a characterization of the seasonal variation and rainfall sensitivities to topography, surface cover, and aerosol concentration. Airplane measurements were evaluated to characterize and contrast cloud microphysical properties.
Paul Herenz, Heike Wex, Silvia Henning, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, Florian Rubach, Anja Roth, Stephan Borrmann, Heiko Bozem, Hannes Schulz, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4477–4496,Short summary
The Arctic climate is changing much faster than other regions on Earth. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the processes that are liable for this phenomena and to document the current situation in the Arctic. Therefore, we measured the number and also the size of aerosol particles. It turned out that we captured the transition from the Arctic spring to the Arctic summer and that the according air masses show differences in particle properties. Also, the particles have a low water receptivity.
Trismono C. Krisna, Manfred Wendisch, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Frank Werner, Ralf Weigel, Stephan Borrmann, Christoph Mahnke, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christiane Voigt, and Luiz A. T. Machado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4439–4462,Short summary
The optical thickness and particle effective radius of a cirrus above liquid water clouds and a DCC topped by an anvil cirrus are retrieved based on SMART and MODIS radiance measurements. For the cirrus, retrieved particle effective radius are validated with corresponding in situ data using a vertical weighting method. This approach allows to assess the measurements, retrieval algorithms, and derived cloud products.
Jie Chen, Zhijun Wu, Stefanie Augustin-Bauditz, Sarah Grawe, Markus Hartmann, Xiangyu Pei, Zirui Liu, Dongsheng Ji, and Heike Wex
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3523–3539,Short summary
The ice nucleation activity of urban aerosols in the atmosphere of Beijing was detected in this study. Results showed that ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations were not influenced by the highly variable numbers of atmospheric particles, both in mass and particle number concentrations, implying that INP concentrations might not be influenced directly by anthropogenic activities, at least not down to roughly −25 °C and maybe even below.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Guo Li, Hang Su, Uwe Kuhn, Hannah Meusel, Markus Ammann, Min Shao, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2669–2686,Short summary
Coated-wall flow tube reactors are frequently used to investigate gas uptake and heterogeneous or multiphase reaction kinetics under laminar flow conditions. In previous applications, the effects of coating surface roughness on flow conditions were not well quantified. In this study, a criterion is proposed to eliminate/minimize the potential effects of coating surface roughness on laminar flow in coated-wall flow tube experiments and validate the applications of diffusion correction methods.
Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel Albrecht, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Micael A. Cecchini, Anja Costa, Maximilian Dollner, Daniel Fütterer, Emma Järvinen, Tina Jurkat, Thomas Klimach, Tobias Konemann, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Trismono Krisna, Luiz A. T. Machado, Stephan Mertes, Andreas Minikin, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Antonio Spanu, Vinicius B. Sperling, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Jian Wang, Bernadett Weinzierl, Manfred Wendisch, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 921–961,Short summary
We made airborne measurements of aerosol particle concentrations and properties over the Amazon Basin. We found extremely high concentrations of very small particles in the region between 8 and 14 km altitude all across the basin, which had been recently formed by gas-to-particle conversion at these altitudes. This makes the upper troposphere a very important source region of atmospheric particles with significant implications for the Earth's climate system.
Hannah Meusel, Alexandra Tamm, Uwe Kuhn, Dianming Wu, Anna Lena Leifke, Sabine Fiedler, Nina Ruckteschler, Petya Yordanova, Naama Lang-Yona, Mira Pöhlker, Jos Lelieveld, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Bettina Weber, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 799–813,Short summary
The photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) forms the OH radical. However, not all sources are known. Recent studies showed that HONO can be emitted from soil but they did not evaluate the importance to the HONO budget. In this work HONO emissions from 43 soil and biological soil crust samples from Cyprus were measured in a dynamic chamber and extrapolated to the real atmosphere. A large fraction of the local missing source (published earlier; Meusel et al., 2016) could be assigned to soil emissions.
Federico Carotenuto, Teodoro Georgiadis, Beniamino Gioli, Christel Leyronas, Cindy E. Morris, Marianna Nardino, Georg Wohlfahrt, and Franco Miglietta
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14919–14936,Short summary
A new model was developed to simulate cultivable bioaerosol emissions. The model is able to reproduce the average daily behavior of a Mediterranean grassland and may help in studying the abundance of such aerosols in the atmosphere and their potential impact on clouds and cloud processes. The model has been developed thanks to a newfound application of an old micrometeorological technique to measurements of cultivable microorganisms.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Manfred Wendisch, Anja Costa, Martina Krämer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Mahnke, Scot T. Martin, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Lianet H. Pardo, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14727–14746,Short summary
This study introduces and explores the concept of gamma phase space. This space is able to represent all possible variations in the cloud droplet size distributions (DSDs). The methodology was applied to recent in situ aircraft measurements over the Amazon. It is shown that the phase space is able to represent several processes occurring in the clouds in a simple manner. The consequences for cloud studies, modeling, and the representation of the transition from warm to mixed phase are discussed.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ralf Weigel, Tina Jurkat, Meinrat O. Andreae, Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, Christiane Voigt, Christoph Mahnke, Stephan Borrmann, Rachel I. Albrecht, Sergej Molleker, Daniel A. Vila, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Lucas Grulich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14433–14456,
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Svetlana Mironova, Gregory Mironov, Sergey Vlasenko, Alexey Panov, Xuguang Chi, David Walter, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Martin Heimann, Jost Lavric, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14365–14392,
Daniel A. Pickersgill, Jörn Wehking, Hauke Paulsen, Eckhard Thines, Ulrich Pöschl, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, and Viviane R. Després
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
To investigate lifestyle dependent sporulation strategies of wind-dispersed fungi, species and genera identified in environmental air samples were grouped according to their lifestyles or ecological niches. Findings revealed unrecognized characteristic patterns in the seasonal occurrence and size distribution of fungal spores for different types of pathogenic and saprophytic fungi growing on herbaceous and woody plants.
Anja Costa, Jessica Meyer, Armin Afchine, Anna Luebke, Gebhard Günther, James R. Dorsey, Martin W. Gallagher, Andre Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Darrel Baumgardner, Heike Wex, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12219–12238,Short summary
The paper presents 38 h of in situ cloud spectrometer observations of microphysical cloud properties in the Arctic, midlatitudes and tropics. The clouds are classified via particle concentrations, size distributions, and – as a novelty – small particle aspherical fractions. Cloud-type profiles are given for different temperatures and locations. The results confine regions where different cloud transformation processes occurred and emphasise the importance of small particle shape detection.
Qing Mu, Gerhard Lammel, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Ying Chen, Petra Přibylová, Monique Teich, Yuxuan Zhang, Guangjie Zheng, Dominik van Pinxteren, Qiang Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Manabu Shiraiwa, Peter Spichtinger, Hang Su, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12253–12267,Short summary
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hazardous pollutants with the largest emissions in East Asia. The regional WRF-Chem-PAH model has been developed to reflect the state-of-the-art understanding of current PAHs studies with several new or updated features. It is able to reasonably well simulate the concentration levels and particulate mass fractions of PAHs near the sources and at a remote outflow region of East Asia, in high spatial and temporal resolutions.
Hannah Meusel, Yasin Elshorbany, Uwe Kuhn, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Christopher J. Kampf, Guo Li, Xiaoxiang Wang, Jos Lelieveld, Ulrich Pöschl, Thorsten Hoffmann, Hang Su, Markus Ammann, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11819–11833,Short summary
In this study we investigated protein nitration and decomposition by light in the presence of NO2 via flow tube measurements. Nitrated proteins have an enhanced allergenic potential but so far nitration was only studied in dark conditions. Under irradiated conditions we found that proteins predominantly decompose while forming nitrous acid (HONO) an important precursor of the OH radical. Unlike other studies on heterogeneous NO2 conversion we found a stable HONO formation over a long period.
Ryan Thalman, Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Mira L. Pöhlker, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Castillo, Douglas A. Day, Chongai Kuang, Antonio Manzi, Nga Lee Ng, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Rodrigo Souza, Stephen Springston, Thomas Watson, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, Scot T. Martin, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11779–11801,Short summary
Particle hygroscopicity, mixing state, and the hygroscopicity of organic components were characterized in central Amazonia for 1 year; their seasonal and diel variations were driven by a combination of primary emissions, photochemical oxidation, and boundary layer development. The relationship between the hygroscopicity of organic components and their oxidation level was examined, and the results help to reconcile the differences among the relationships observed in previous studies.
Monika Burkert-Kohn, Heike Wex, André Welti, Susan Hartmann, Sarah Grawe, Lisa Hellner, Paul Herenz, James D. Atkinson, Frank Stratmann, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11683–11705,Short summary
Several instruments can investigate properties of ice-nucleating particles (INPs), which are crucial to understanding ice cloud formation. We intercompare four online ice nucleation counters and reasonable agreement is found when the same ice nucleation mode is tested. A variable scaling factor was necessary to reconcile condensation freezing results with immersion freezing. Factors related to instrumental setup and aerosol generation are discussed to explain observed differences.
Paul J. DeMott, Thomas C. J. Hill, Markus D. Petters, Allan K. Bertram, Yutaka Tobo, Ryan H. Mason, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Christina S. McCluskey, Ezra J. T. Levin, Gregory P. Schill, Yvonne Boose, Anne Marie Rauker, Anna J. Miller, Jake Zaragoza, Katherine Rocci, Nicholas E. Rothfuss, Hans P. Taylor, John D. Hader, Cedric Chou, J. Alex Huffman, Ulrich Pöschl, Anthony J. Prenni, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11227–11245,Short summary
The consistency and complementarity of different methods for measuring the numbers of particles capable of forming ice in clouds are examined in the atmosphere. Four methods for collecting particles for later (offline) freezing studies are compared to a common instantaneous method. Results support very good agreement in many cases but also biases that require further research. Present capabilities and uncertainties for obtaining global data on these climate-relevant aerosols are thus defined.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat, Christoph Mahnke, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Christiane Voigt, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10037–10050,Short summary
We study the effects of aerosol particles and updraft speed on the warm phase of Amazonian clouds. We expand the sensitivity analysis usually found in the literature by concomitantly considering cloud evolution and the effects on droplet size distribution (DSD) shape. The quantitative results show that particle concentration is the primary driver for the vertical profiles of effective diameter and droplet concentration in the warm phase of Amazonian convective clouds.
Evelyn Jäkel, Manfred Wendisch, Trismono C. Krisna, Florian Ewald, Tobias Kölling, Tina Jurkat, Christiane Voigt, Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Armin Afchine, Anja Costa, Martina Krämer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Tianle Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9049–9066,Short summary
Vertical profiles of the cloud particle phase state in tropical deep convective clouds (DCCs) were investigated using airborne imaging spectrometer measurements during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign, which was conducted over the Brazilian rainforest in September 2014. A phase discrimination retrieval was applied to observations of clouds formed in different aerosol conditions. The profiles were compared to in situ and satellite measurements.
Thomas Berkemeier, Markus Ammann, Ulrich K. Krieger, Thomas Peter, Peter Spichtinger, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Andrew J. Huisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8021–8029,Short summary
Kinetic process models are efficient tools used to unravel the mechanisms governing chemical and physical transformation in multiphase atmospheric chemistry. However, determination of kinetic parameters such as reaction rate or diffusion coefficients from multiple data sets is often difficult or ambiguous. This study presents a novel optimization algorithm and framework to determine these parameters in an automated fashion and to gain information about parameter uncertainty and uniqueness.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ralf Weigel, Tina Jurkat, Meinrat O. Andreae, Manfred Wendisch, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Christiane Voigt, Christoph Mahnke, Stephan Borrmann, Rachel I. Albrecht, Sergej Molleker, Daniel A. Vila, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7365–7386,
Sergey S. Vlasenko, Hang Su, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eugene F. Mikhailov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1269–1280,Short summary
The paper describes a new technique for measuring the hygroscopic properties of laboratory and ambient aerosols. The direct measurements of humidified particle mass allow avoiding complications that occur in the commonly used technique due to poorly defined particle morphology and density. Both test results and field measurements have shown that the system can be applied for aerosol size-resolved mass growth factor measurements in hydration and dehydration modes up to 95 % RH.
Philipp Porada, Ulrich Pöschl, Axel Kleidon, Christian Beer, and Bettina Weber
Biogeosciences, 14, 1593–1602,Short summary
Lichens and bryophytes have been shown to release nitrous oxide, which is a strong greenhouse gas and atmospheric ozone-depleting agent. Here we apply a process-based computer model of lichens and bryophytes at the global scale, to estimate growth and respiration of the organisms. By relating respiration to nitrous oxide release, we simulate global nitrous oxide emissions of 0.27 (0.19–0.35) Tg yr−1. Moreover, we quantify different sources of uncertainty in nitrous oxide emission rates.
Zhibin Wang, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Eugene Mikhailov, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
Emiliano Stopelli, Franz Conen, Caroline Guilbaud, Jakob Zopfi, Christine Alewell, and Cindy E. Morris
Biogeosciences, 14, 1189–1196,Short summary
Based on the analysis of precipitation collected at high altitude, this study provides a relevant advancement in the assessment of the major factors responsible for the abundance and variability of airborne bacterial cells and Pseudomonas syringae in relation to ice nucleators. This is of prime importance to obtain a better understanding of the impact of ice-nucleation-active organisms on the development of precipitation and to determine the dispersal potential of airborne microorganisms.
Thomas Häusler, Lorenz Witek, Laura Felgitsch, Regina Hitzenberger, and Hinrich Grothe
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint retractedShort summary
Clouds play a major role for the Earth's climate system. On this account, it is important to fully understand the mechanisms taking place in a cloud. We are presenting a new approach to efficiently investigate the freezing processes in ice clouds, i.e. the behavior of ice nuclei. The new set-up exhibits its strength in reproducibility and accuracy. Finally, it opens a temperature window down to −37 °C for freezing experiments which was not accessible with many former approaches.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Thomas Klimach, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Alessandro Araújo, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Reiner Ditz, Sachin S. Gunthe, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Tobias Könemann, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Eugene Mikhailov, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Diana Rose, Jorge Saturno, Hang Su, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, Jian Wang, Stefan Wolff, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15709–15740,Short summary
The paper presents a systematic characterization of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration in the central Amazonian atmosphere. Our results show that the CCN population in this globally important ecosystem follows a pollution-related seasonal cycle, in which it mainly depends on changes in total aerosol size distribution and to a minor extent in the aerosol chemical composition. Our results allow an efficient modeling and prediction of the CCN population based on a novel approach.
Marie Ila Gosselin, Chathurika M. Rathnayake, Ian Crawford, Christopher Pöhlker, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Beatrice Schmer, Viviane R. Després, Guenter Engling, Martin Gallagher, Elizabeth Stone, Ulrich Pöschl, and J. Alex Huffman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15165–15184,Short summary
We present an analysis of bioaerosol measurements using two real-time fluorescence instruments in combination with molecular tracer techniques for quantifying airborne fungal spores in a semi-arid forest. Both techniques provide fungal spore concentrations of the order of 104 m−3 and up to 30 % of particle mass. Rainy periods exhibited higher concentrations and stronger correlations between fluorescent bioparticle and molecular tracer measurements. Fungal culture results are also presented.
Hannah Meusel, Uwe Kuhn, Andreas Reiffs, Chinmay Mallik, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Jan Schuladen, Birger Bohn, Uwe Parchatka, John N. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Laura Tomsche, Anna Novelli, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Oscar Hartogensis, Michael Pikridas, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Bettina Weber, Jos Lelieveld, Jonathan Williams, Ulrich Pöschl, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14475–14493,Short summary
There are many studies which show discrepancies between modeled and measured nitrous acid (HONO, precursor of OH radical) in the troposphere but with no satisfactory explanation. Ideal conditions to study the unknown sources of HONO were found on Cyprus, a remote Mediterranean island. Budget analysis of trace gas measurements indicates a common source of NO and HONO, which is not related to anthropogenic activity and is most likely derived from biologic activity in soils and subsequent emission.
Heike Wex, Katrin Dieckmann, Greg C. Roberts, Thomas Conrath, Miguel A. Izaguirre, Susan Hartmann, Paul Herenz, Michael Schäfer, Florian Ditas, Tina Schmeissner, Silvia Henning, Birgit Wehner, Holger Siebert, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14107–14130,Short summary
Aerosol arriving in the eastern Caribbean after passing the Atlantic is characterized, based on ground-based and airborne measurements. We describe the repetitive occurrence of three different types of air masses and relate them to their origin from either Africa or the Atlantic and also draw conclusions about the particle composition. The length of the data series is unprecedented. By a comparison with other studies, we also suggest that the organic fraction in the aerosol depends on season.
Sarah Grawe, Stefanie Augustin-Bauditz, Susan Hartmann, Lisa Hellner, Jan B. C. Pettersson, Andrea Prager, Frank Stratmann, and Heike Wex
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13911–13928,Short summary
In this study the freezing behavior of ash particles immersed in supercooled cloud droplets was investigated. It was found that ash from coal burning initiates freezing well above the limit for homogeneous ice nucleation and may contribute to cloud glaciation and precipitation formation on a regional scale. Furthermore, the experimental results were influenced by a change in sample preparation and/or particle generation which must be accounted for when comparing to previous studies.
Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Georgia Alexandri, Konstantinos A. Kourtidis, Jos Lelieveld, Prodromos Zanis, Ulrich Pöschl, Robert Levy, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, and Athanasios Tsikerdekis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13853–13884,Short summary
In this work, single pixel observations from MODIS Terra and Aqua are analyzed together with data from other satellite sensors, reanalysis projects and a chemistry–aerosol-transport model to study the spatiotemporal variability of different aerosol types. The results are in accordance with previous works and are a good reference for future studies in the area focusing on aerosols, clouds, radiation and the effects of particle pollution on human health.
Andrea M. Arangio, Haijie Tong, Joanna Socorro, Ulrich Pöschl, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13105–13119,Short summary
We have quantified environmentally persistent free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in size-segregated atmospheric aerosol particles. We suggest that ROS were formed by decomposition of secondary organic aerosols interacting with transition metal ions and quinones contained in humic-like substances. The results have significant implications for aqueous-phase and cloud processing of organic aerosols as well as adverse health effects upon respiratory deposition of aerosol particles.
Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Zhibin Wang, Xiaoxiang Wang, Mira L. Pöhlker, Björn Nillius, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5183–5192,Short summary
In cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements, the supersaturation scan is often time-consuming and limits the temporal resolution of CCN measurements. Here we present a new concept, termed the broad supersaturation scanning (BS2) method, in which a range of supersaturation is simultaneously scanned, resulting in fast measurements of CCN activity.
Pascale S. J. Lakey, Thomas Berkemeier, Manuel Krapf, Josef Dommen, Sarah S. Steimer, Lisa K. Whalley, Trevor Ingham, Maria T. Baeza-Romero, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, Markus Ammann, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13035–13047,Short summary
Chemical oxidation in the atmosphere removes pollutants and greenhouse gases but generates undesirable products such as secondary organic aerosol. Radicals are key intermediates in oxidation, but how they interact with aerosols is still not well understood. Here we use a laser to measure the loss of radicals onto oxidised aerosols generated in a smog chamber. The loss of radicals was controlled by the thickness or viscosity of the aerosols, confirmed by using sugar aerosols of known thickness.
Ying Chen, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Ralf Wolke, Stephan Nordmann, Stephanie Schüttauf, Liang Ran, Birgit Wehner, Wolfram Birmili, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Qing Mu, Stefan Barthel, Gerald Spindler, Bastian Stieger, Konrad Müller, Guang-Jie Zheng, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12081–12097,Short summary
Sea salt aerosol (SSA) is important for primary and secondary aerosols on a global scale. During 10–20 September 2013, the SSA mass concentration was overestimated by a factor of 8–20 over central Europe by WRF-Chem model, stem from the uncertainty of its emission scheme. This could facilitate the coarse-mode nitrate formation (~ 140 % but inhibit the fine-mode nitrate formation (~−20 %). A special long-range transport mechanism could broaden this influence of SSA to a larger downwind region.
Xiawei Yu, Zhibin Wang, Minghui Zhang, Uwe Kuhn, Zhouqing Xie, Yafang Cheng, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11337–11348,
Guo Li, Hang Su, Xin Li, Uwe Kuhn, Hannah Meusel, Thorsten Hoffmann, Markus Ammann, Ulrich Pöschl, Min Shao, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10299–10311,Short summary
Indoor and outdoor formaldehyde (HCHO) are both of considerable concern because of its health effects and its role in atmospheric chemistry. The heterogeneous reactions between gaseous HCHO with soils can pose important impact on both HCHO budget and soil ecosystem. Our results confirms that HCHO uptake by soil is a complex process involving both adsorption/desorption and chemical reactions. Soil and soil-derived airborne particles can either act as a source or a sink for HCHO.
A. E. Valsan, R. Ravikrishna, C. V. Biju, C. Pöhlker, V. R. Després, J. A. Huffman, U. Pöschl, and S. S. Gunthe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9805–9830,
Emiliano Stopelli, Franz Conen, Cindy E. Morris, Erik Herrmann, Stephan Henne, Martin Steinbacher, and Christine Alewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8341–8351,Short summary
Knowing the variability of ice nucleating particles (INPs) helps determining their role in the formation of precipitation. Here we describe and predict the concentrations of INPs active at −8 °C in precipitation samples collected at Jungfraujoch (CH, 3580 m a.s.l.). A high abundance of these INPs can be expected whenever a coincidence of high wind speed and first precipitation from an air mass occurs. This expands the set of conditions where such INPs could affect the onset of precipitation.
Sarvesh Garimella, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, Karolina Ignatius, Andre Welti, Jens Voigtländer, Gourihar R. Kulkarni, Frank Sagan, Gregory Lee Kok, James Dorsey, Leonid Nichman, Daniel Alexander Rothenberg, Michael Rösch, Amélie Catharina Ruth Kirchgäßner, Russell Ladkin, Heike Wex, Theodore W. Wilson, Luis Antonio Ladino, Jon P. D. Abbatt, Olaf Stetzer, Ulrike Lohmann, Frank Stratmann, and Daniel James Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2781–2795,Short summary
The SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN) is a commercially available ice nuclei counter manufactured by Droplet Measurement Technologies in Boulder, CO. This study characterizes the SPIN chamber, reporting data from laboratory measurements and quantifying uncertainties. Overall, we report that the SPIN is able to reproduce previous CFDC ice nucleation measurements.
Tom C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Yutaka Tobo, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Bruce F. Moffett, Gary D. Franc, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7195–7211,Short summary
Even though aerosols that trigger the freezing of cloud droplets are rare, they can modify cloud properties and seed precipitation. While soil organic matter is a rich source of ice nucleating particles (INPs), we know little about them. The most active INPs (freeze supercooled water > −12 °C) in Wyoming and Colorado soils were organic, sensitive to heat (105 °C), and possibly fungal proteins in several soils, but they were not known species of ice nucleating bacteria. Many may also be carbohydrates.
Stefanie Augustin-Bauditz, Heike Wex, Cyrielle Denjean, Susan Hartmann, Johannes Schneider, Susann Schmidt, Martin Ebert, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5531–5543,Short summary
In this study, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample with ice active biological material and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Furthermore, we used different methods to investigate the mixing state of our generated aerosol. We found that internally mixed particles, containing ice active biological material, follow the ice nucleation behavior observed for the pure biological particles.
S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. A. T. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Fan, G. Fisch, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. L. Jimenez, U. Pöschl, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785–4797,Short summary
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
Ying Li, Ulrich Pöschl, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3327–3344,
Ying Chen, Ya-Fang Cheng, Stephan Nordmann, Wolfram Birmili, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Nan Ma, Ralf Wolke, Birgit Wehner, Jia Sun, Gerald Spindler, Qing Mu, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1823–1835,Short summary
We evaluated the EC point sources in Germany with high-resolution simulation by WRF-Chem, and find out that point sources contribute too much EC in the coarse mode aerosol mass. The area emissions in Eastern Europe and Russia also allocate too much EC emission in coarse mode in the EUCAARI EC emission inventory. Because of the shorter life time of coarse mode EC, about 20–40 % less EC can be transported to Melpitz from Eastern Europe. Size segregation information is important for EC inventories.
Haijie Tong, Andrea M. Arangio, Pascale S. J. Lakey, Thomas Berkemeier, Fobang Liu, Christopher J. Kampf, William H. Brune, Ulrich Pöschl, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1761–1771,Short summary
We provide experimental evidence that terpene and isoprene SOA form substantial amounts of OH radicals upon interaction with liquid water and iron. Our measurements and model results imply that the chemical reactivity of SOA in the atmosphere, particularly in clouds, can be faster than previously thought. Inhalation and deposition of SOA particles in the human respiratory tract may lead to a substantial release of OH radicals in vivo, causing oxidative stress and adverse aerosol health effects.
D. M. Lienhard, A. J. Huisman, U. K. Krieger, Y. Rudich, C. Marcolli, B. P. Luo, D. L. Bones, J. P. Reid, A. T. Lambe, M. R. Canagaratna, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, D. R. Worsnop, S. S. Steimer, T. Koop, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13599–13613,Short summary
New data of water diffusivity in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material and organic/inorganic model mixtures is presented over an extensive temperature range. Our data suggest that water diffusion in SOA is sufficiently fast so that it is unlikely to have significant consequences on the direct climatic effect under tropospheric conditions. Glass formation in SOA is unlikely to restrict homogeneous ice nucleation.
M. Paramonov, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Gysel, P. P. Aalto, M. O. Andreae, E. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, A. Bougiatioti, D. Brus, G. P. Frank, N. Good, S. S. Gunthe, L. Hao, M. Irwin, A. Jaatinen, Z. Jurányi, S. M. King, A. Kortelainen, A. Kristensson, H. Lihavainen, M. Kulmala, U. Lohmann, S. T. Martin, G. McFiggans, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Nenes, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, T. Petäjä, U. Pöschl, G. C. Roberts, D. Rose, B. Svenningsson, E. Swietlicki, E. Weingartner, J. Whitehead, A. Wiedensohler, C. Wittbom, and B. Sierau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12211–12229,Short summary
The research paper presents the first comprehensive overview of field measurements with the CCN Counter performed at a large number of locations around the world within the EUCAARI framework. The paper sheds light on the CCN number concentrations and activated fractions around the world and their dependence on the water vapour supersaturation ratio, the dependence of aerosol hygroscopicity on particle size, and seasonal and diurnal variation of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties.
M. O. Andreae, O. C. Acevedo, A. Araùjo, P. Artaxo, C. G. G. Barbosa, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Brito, S. Carbone, X. Chi, B. B. L. Cintra, N. F. da Silva, N. L. Dias, C. Q. Dias-Júnior, F. Ditas, R. Ditz, A. F. L. Godoi, R. H. M. Godoi, M. Heimann, T. Hoffmann, J. Kesselmeier, T. Könemann, M. L. Krüger, J. V. Lavric, A. O. Manzi, A. P. Lopes, D. L. Martins, E. F. Mikhailov, D. Moran-Zuloaga, B. W. Nelson, A. C. Nölscher, D. Santos Nogueira, M. T. F. Piedade, C. Pöhlker, U. Pöschl, C. A. Quesada, L. V. Rizzo, C.-U. Ro, N. Ruckteschler, L. D. A. Sá, M. de Oliveira Sá, C. B. Sales, R. M. N. dos Santos, J. Saturno, J. Schöngart, M. Sörgel, C. M. de Souza, R. A. F. de Souza, H. Su, N. Targhetta, J. Tóta, I. Trebs, S. Trumbore, A. van Eijck, D. Walter, Z. Wang, B. Weber, J. Williams, J. Winderlich, F. Wittmann, S. Wolff, and A. M. Yáñez-Serrano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10723–10776,Short summary
This paper describes the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a new atmosphere-biosphere observatory located in the remote Amazon Basin. It presents results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected at the ATTO site during the first 3 years of operation.
D. Chang, Y. Cheng, P. Reutter, J. Trentmann, S. M. Burrows, P. Spichtinger, S. Nordmann, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, and H. Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10325–10348,
E. F. Mikhailov, G. N. Mironov, C. Pöhlker, X. Chi, M. L. Krüger, M. Shiraiwa, J.-D. Förster, U. Pöschl, S. S. Vlasenko, T. I. Ryshkevich, M. Weigand, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, and M. O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8847–8869,Short summary
Our manuscript describes the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the ZOTTO in central Siberia (61º N, 89º E). The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
P. Amato, M. Joly, C. Schaupp, E. Attard, O. Möhler, C. E. Morris, Y. Brunet, and A.-M. Delort
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6455–6465,Short summary
Mortality rate of typical bacterial aerosols (Pseudomonas species) was determined in a cloud simulation chamber. Ice nucleation activity remained unchanged for several hours in aerosolized cells, whether they were viable or not. Cloud increased the specific removal of ice nucleation active cells by precipitation. Survival was negatively impacted by the presence of cloud and by sulfates.
M. Hummel, C. Hoose, M. Gallagher, D. A. Healy, J. A. Huffman, D. O'Connor, U. Pöschl, C. Pöhlker, N. H. Robinson, M. Schnaiter, J. R. Sodeau, M. Stengel, E. Toprak, and H. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6127–6146,
M. J. Tang, M. Shiraiwa, U. Pöschl, R. A. Cox, and M. Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5585–5598,
Z. Wang, H. Su, X. Wang, N. Ma, A. Wiedensohler, U. Pöschl, and Y. Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2161–2172,
G. J. Zheng, F. K. Duan, H. Su, Y. L. Ma, Y. Cheng, B. Zheng, Q. Zhang, T. Huang, T. Kimoto, D. Chang, U. Pöschl, Y. F. Cheng, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2969–2983,
N. Hiranuma, S. Augustin-Bauditz, H. Bingemer, C. Budke, J. Curtius, A. Danielczok, K. Diehl, K. Dreischmeier, M. Ebert, F. Frank, N. Hoffmann, K. Kandler, A. Kiselev, T. Koop, T. Leisner, O. Möhler, B. Nillius, A. Peckhaus, D. Rose, S. Weinbruch, H. Wex, Y. Boose, P. J. DeMott, J. D. Hader, T. C. J. Hill, Z. A. Kanji, G. Kulkarni, E. J. T. Levin, C. S. McCluskey, M. Murakami, B. J. Murray, D. Niedermeier, M. D. Petters, D. O'Sullivan, A. Saito, G. P. Schill, T. Tajiri, M. A. Tolbert, A. Welti, T. F. Whale, T. P. Wright, and K. Yamashita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2489–2518,Short summary
Seventeen ice nucleation measurement techniques contributed to investigate the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX. All data showed a similar temperature trend, but the measured ice nucleation activity was on average smaller for the wet suspended samples and higher for the dry-dispersed aerosol samples at high temperatures. A continued investigation and collaboration is necessary to obtain further insights into consistency or diversity of ice nucleation measurements.
E. K. Bigg, S. Soubeyrand, and C. E. Morris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2313–2326,Short summary
We show that atmospheric load of ice nuclei is enhanced for up to 20 days after key rainfall events. The rate of enhancement decreases exponentially with time. Rainfall quantity and frequency are increased for a similar duration and with similar exponential decreases thereby supporting the notion of rainfall feedback. We reveal series of significant feedback in rainfall patterns across Australia over the past century and marked changes in feedback patterns, and we indicate their locations.
J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, T. C. J. Hill, B. G. Pummer, P. Yordanova, G. D. Franc, and U. Pöschl
Biogeosciences, 12, 1057–1071,
H. Wex, S. Augustin-Bauditz, Y. Boose, C. Budke, J. Curtius, K. Diehl, A. Dreyer, F. Frank, S. Hartmann, N. Hiranuma, E. Jantsch, Z. A. Kanji, A. Kiselev, T. Koop, O. Möhler, D. Niedermeier, B. Nillius, M. Rösch, D. Rose, C. Schmidt, I. Steinke, and F. Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1463–1485,Short summary
Immersion freezing measurements from seven different measurement techniques were intercompared using a biological ice nucleating material from bacteria. Although different techniques examined differently concentrated droplets, it was possible to find a uniform description, which showed that results from all experiments were generally in good agreement and were also in agreement with parameterizations published earlier in literature.
C. Budke and T. Koop
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 689–703,Short summary
A new optical freezing array for the study of heterogeneous ice nucleation in microliter-sized droplets is introduced, tested and applied to the study of immersion freezing in aqueous Snomax suspensions. Using different cooling rates, a small time dependence of ice nucleation induced by two different classes of ice nucleators was detected and the corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient was quantified.
S. Nordmann, Y. F. Cheng, G. R. Carmichael, M. Yu, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, Q. Zhang, P. E. Saide, U. Pöschl, H. Su, W. Birmili, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12683–12699,
T. Berkemeier, M. Shiraiwa, U. Pöschl, and T. Koop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12513–12531,Short summary
Glassy organic particles can serve as ice nuclei at low temperatures. We provide a rationale for these findings using a numerical aerosol diffusion model that describes particle phase state and its kinetics during simulated atmospheric updrafts dependent upon composition, size, updraft velocity, temperature and humidity. Our simulations suggest that aerosols from anthropogenic aromatic organics can be particularly relevant for ice cloud formation.
J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, C. Ruzene Nespoli, D. A. Pickersgill, P. E. Galand, I. Müller-Germann, T. Nunes, J. Gomes Cardoso, S. M. Almeida, C. Pio, M. O. Andreae, R. Conrad, U. Pöschl, and V. R. Després
Biogeosciences, 11, 6067–6079,Short summary
We have investigated the presence of archaea as well as their amoA gene diversity in aerosol particles collected over 1 year in central Europe and found that, within the 16S and amoA gene, Thaumarchaeota prevail and experience a diversity peak in fall, while only few Euryarchaeota were detected primarily in spring. We also compared the results with airborne archaea from Cape Verde and observe that the proportions of Euryarchaeota seem to be enhanced in coastal air compared to continental air.
D. I. Haga, S. M. Burrows, R. Iannone, M. J. Wheeler, R. H. Mason, J. Chen, E. A. Polishchuk, U. Pöschl, and A. K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8611–8630,
M. Shiraiwa, T. Berkemeier, K. A. Schilling-Fahnestock, J. H. Seinfeld, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8323–8341,
M. L. Krüger, S. Mertes, T. Klimach, Y. F. Cheng, H. Su, J. Schneider, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, and D. Rose
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2615–2629,
D. A. Healy, J. A. Huffman, D. J. O'Connor, C. Pöhlker, U. Pöschl, and J. R. Sodeau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8055–8069,
S. Henning, K. Dieckmann, K. Ignatius, M. Schäfer, P. Zedler, E. Harris, B. Sinha, D. van Pinxteren, S. Mertes, W. Birmili, M. Merkel, Z. Wu, A. Wiedensohler, H. Wex, H. Herrmann, and F. Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7859–7868,
H. Wex, P. J. DeMott, Y. Tobo, S. Hartmann, M. Rösch, T. Clauss, L. Tomsche, D. Niedermeier, and F. Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5529–5546,
N. Hiranuma, N. Hoffmann, A. Kiselev, A. Dreyer, K. Zhang, G. Kulkarni, T. Koop, and O. Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2315–2324,
E. Stopelli, F. Conen, L. Zimmermann, C. Alewell, and C. E. Morris
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 129–134,
C. J. Schumacher, C. Pöhlker, P. Aalto, V. Hiltunen, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, U. Pöschl, and J. A. Huffman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11987–12001,
B. G. Pummer, L. Atanasova, H. Bauer, J. Bernardi, I. S. Druzhinina, J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, and H. Grothe
Biogeosciences, 10, 8083–8091,
D. Rose, S. S. Gunthe, Z. Jurányi, M. Gysel, G. P. Frank, J. Schneider, J. Curtius, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
C. Pöhlker, J. A. Huffman, J.-D. Förster, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3369–3392,
S. Augustin, H. Wex, D. Niedermeier, B. Pummer, H. Grothe, S. Hartmann, L. Tomsche, T. Clauss, J. Voigtländer, K. Ignatius, and F. Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10989–11003,
P. Porada, B. Weber, W. Elbert, U. Pöschl, and A. Kleidon
Biogeosciences, 10, 6989–7033,
T. Berkemeier, A. J. Huisman, M. Ammann, M. Shiraiwa, T. Koop, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6663–6686,
J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, P. J. DeMott, C. Pöhlker, R. H. Mason, N. H. Robinson, J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Y. Tobo, V. R. Després, E. Garcia, D. J. Gochis, E. Harris, I. Müller-Germann, C. Ruzene, B. Schmer, B. Sinha, D. A. Day, M. O. Andreae, J. L. Jimenez, M. Gallagher, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. K. Bertram, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6151–6164,
C. E. Morris, D. C. Sands, C. Glaux, J. Samsatly, S. Asaad, A. R. Moukahel, F. L. T. Gonçalves, and E. K. Bigg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4223–4233,
T. Clauss, A. Kiselev, S. Hartmann, S. Augustin, S. Pfeifer, D. Niedermeier, H. Wex, and F. Stratmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1041–1052,
A.-P. Hyvärinen, V. Vakkari, L. Laakso, R. K. Hooda, V. P. Sharma, T. S. Panwar, J. P. Beukes, P. G. van Zyl, M. Josipovic, R. M. Garland, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, and A. Petzold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 81–90,
J. A. Huffman, B. Sinha, R. M. Garland, A. Snee-Pollmann, S. S. Gunthe, P. Artaxo, S. T. Martin, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11997–12019,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Distribution and stable carbon isotopic composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in fresh and aged biomass burning aerosolsTime dependence of heterogeneous ice nucleation by ambient aerosols: laboratory observations and a formulation for modelsLaboratory studies of ice nucleation onto bare and internally mixed soot–sulfuric acid particlesEnhanced soot particle ice nucleation ability induced by aggregate compaction and densificationOpinion: Insights into updating Ambient Air Quality Directive 2008/50/ECOn the evolution of sub- and super-saturated water uptake of secondary organic aerosol in chamber experiments from mixed precursorsHygroscopicity of organic compounds as a function of organic functionality, water solubility, molecular weight, and oxidation levelViscosity and physical state of sucrose mixed with ammonium sulfate dropletsParticle emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine as ice nuclei in immersion freezing mode: a laboratory study on fossil and renewable fuelsComparison of saturation vapor pressures of α-pinene + O3 oxidation products derived from COSMO-RS computations and thermal desorption experimentsPhysical and chemical properties of black carbon and organic matter from different combustion and photochemical sources using aerodynamic aerosol classificationTechnical note: Pyrolysis principles explain time-resolved organic aerosol release from biomass burningThe effect of (NH4)2SO4 on the freezing properties of non-mineral dust ice-nucleating substances of atmospheric relevanceHeterogeneous ice nucleation ability of aerosol particles generated from Arctic sea surface microlayer and surface seawater samples at cirrus temperaturesAerosol formation and growth rates from chamber experiments using Kalman smoothingPhase state of secondary organic aerosol in chamber photo-oxidation of mixed precursorsIce nucleation on surrogates of boreal forest SOA particles: effect of water content and oxidative ageViscosity and phase state of aerosol particles consisting of sucrose mixed with inorganic saltsObservations on hygroscopic growth and phase transitions of mixed 1, 2, 6-hexanetriol ∕ (NH4)2SO4 particles: investigation of the liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) dynamic process and mechanism and secondary LLPS during the dehumidificationBoundary layer structure characteristics under objective classification of persistent pollution weather types in the Beijing areaProperties and emission factors of cloud condensation nuclei from biomass cookstoves – observations of a strong dependency on potassium content in the fuelMeasurement report: Effects of NOx and seed aerosol on highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from cyclohexene ozonolysisInteractions of organosulfates with water vapor under sub- and supersaturated conditionsLaboratory study of the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets – Part I: Influence of relative humiditySize-resolved atmospheric ice-nucleating particles during East Asian dust eventsAqueous-phase behavior of glyoxal and methylglyoxal observed with carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopyBrown carbon's emission factors and optical characteristics in household biomass burning: developing a novel algorithm for estimating the contribution of brown carbonEffect of mixing structure on the water uptake of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and phthalic acid particlesToward closure between predicted and observed particle viscosity over a wide range of temperatures and relative humidityThe effects of morphology, mobility size, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material coating on the ice nucleation activity of black carbon in the cirrus regimeThe ice-nucleating activity of Arctic sea surface microlayer samples and marine algal culturesComparing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) volatility distributions derived from isothermal SOA particle evaporation data and FIGAERO–CIMS measurementsLaboratory studies of fresh and aged biomass burning aerosol emitted from east African biomass fuels – Part 1: Optical propertiesEnhanced growth rate of atmospheric particles from sulfuric acidComposition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from oxidation of real tree emissions compared to simplified volatile organic compound (VOC) systemsEffects of SO2 on optical properties of secondary organic aerosol generated from photooxidation of toluene under different relative humidity conditionsInfluence of the dry aerosol particle size distribution and morphology on the cloud condensation nuclei activation. An experimental and theoretical investigationExperimental investigation into the volatilities of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs)Detection of tar brown carbon with a single particle soot photometer (SP2)Complex refractive indices and single-scattering albedo of global dust aerosols in the shortwave spectrum and relationship to size and iron contentTechnical note: Frenkel, Halsey and Hill analysis of water on clay minerals: toward closure between cloud condensation nuclei activity and water adsorptionLiquid–liquid phase separation and viscosity within secondary organic aerosol generated from diesel fuel vaporsLaboratory study of the heterogeneous ice nucleation on black-carbon-containing aerosolSpecifying the light-absorbing properties of aerosol particles in fresh snow samples, collected at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS), ZugspitzeOptimization of process models for determining volatility distribution and viscosity of organic aerosols from isothermal particle evaporation dataInversely modeling homogeneous H2SO4 − H2O nucleation rate in exhaust-related conditionsThe importance of crystalline phases in ice nucleation by volcanic ashHeterogeneous ice nucleation properties of natural desert dust particles coated with a surrogate of secondary organic aerosolCloud condensation nuclei activity of six pollenkitts and the influence of their surface activityLinks of climate variability in Arctic sea ice, Eurasian teleconnection pattern and summer surface ozone pollution in North China
Minxia Shen, Kin Fai Ho, Wenting Dai, Suixin Liu, Ting Zhang, Qiyuan Wang, Jingjing Meng, Judith C. Chow, John G. Watson, Junji Cao, and Jianjun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7489–7504,Short summary
Looking at characteristics and δ13C compositions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in BB aerosols, we used a combined combustion and aging system to generate fresh and aged aerosols from burning straw. The results showed the emission factors (EFaged) of total diacids of aging experiments were around an order of magnitude higher than EFfresh. This meant that dicarboxylic acids are involved with secondary photochemical processes in the atmosphere rather than primary emissions from BB.
Jonas K. F. Jakobsson, Deepak B. Waman, Vaughan T. J. Phillips, and Thomas Bjerring Kristensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6717–6748,Short summary
Long-lived cold-layer clouds at subzero temperatures are observed to be remarkably persistent in their generation of ice particles and snow precipitation. There is uncertainty about why this is so. This motivates the present lab study to observe the long-term ice-nucleating ability of aerosol samples from the real troposphere. Time dependence of their ice nucleation is observed to be weak in lab experiments exposing the samples to isothermal conditions for up to about 10 h.
Kunfeng Gao, Chong-Wen Zhou, Eszter J. Barthazy Meier, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5331–5364,Short summary
Incomplete combustion of fossil fuel produces carbonaceous particles called soot. These particles can affect cloud formation by acting as centres for droplet or ice formation. The atmospheric residence time of soot particles is of the order of days to weeks, which can result in them becoming coated by various trace species in the atmosphere such as acids. In this study, we quantify the cirrus cloud-forming ability of soot particles coated with the atmospherically ubiquitous sulfuric acid.
Kunfeng Gao, Franz Friebel, Chong-Wen Zhou, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4985–5016,Short summary
Soot particles impact cloud formation and radiative properties in the upper atmosphere where aircraft emit carbonaceous particles. We use cloud chambers to mimic the upper atmosphere temperature and humidity to test the influence of the morphology of the soot particles on ice cloud formation. For particles larger than 200 nm, the compacted (densified) samples have a higher affinity for ice crystal formation in the cirrus regime than the fluffy (un-compacted) soot particles of the same sample.
Joel Kuula, Hilkka Timonen, Jarkko V. Niemi, Hanna E. Manninen, Topi Rönkkö, Tareq Hussein, Pak Lun Fung, Sasu Tarkoma, Mikko Laakso, Erkka Saukko, Aino Ovaska, Markku Kulmala, Ari Karppinen, Lasse Johansson, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4801–4808,Short summary
Modern and up-to-date policies and air quality management strategies are instrumental in tackling global air pollution. As the European Union is preparing to revise Ambient Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC, this paper initiates discussion on selected features of the directive that we believe would benefit from a reassessment. The scientific community has the most recent and deepest understanding of air pollution; thus, its contribution is essential.
Yu Wang, Aristeidis Voliotis, Dawei Hu, Yunqi Shao, Mao Du, Ying Chen, Judith Kleinheins, Claudia Marcolli, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4149–4166,Short summary
Aerosol water uptake plays a key role in atmospheric physicochemical processes. We designed chamber experiments on aerosol water uptake of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from mixed biogenic and anthropogenic precursors with inorganic seed. Our results highlight this chemical composition influences the reconciliation of the sub- and super-saturated water uptake, providing laboratory evidence for understanding the chemical controls of water uptake of the multi-component aerosol.
Shuang Han, Juan Hong, Qingwei Luo, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Qiaoqiao Wang, Jiangchuan Tao, Yaqing Zhou, Long Peng, Yao He, Jingnan Shi, Nan Ma, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3985–4004,Short summary
We present the hygroscopicity of 23 organic species with different physicochemical properties using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) and compare the results with previous studies. Based on the hygroscopicity parameter κ, the influence of different physicochemical properties that potentially drive hygroscopicity, such as the functionality, water solubility, molar volume, and O : C ratio of organics, are examined separately.
Rani Jeong, Joseph Lilek, Andreas Zuend, Rongshuang Xu, Man Nin Chan, Dohyun Kim, Hi Gyu Moon, and Mijung Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this study, the viscosities of particles of sucrose/H2O, AS/H2O, and sucrose/AS/H2O for OIRs of 4 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1 : 4 for decreasing RH, were quantified by poke-and-flow techniques and bead-mobility at 293 ± 1 K. Based on the viscosity results, the particles of binary and ternary systems ranged from liquid to semisolid, and even the solid state depending on the RH. Moreover, we compared the measured viscosities of ternary systems to the predicted viscosities with excellent agreement.
Kimmo Korhonen, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, John Falk, Vilhelm B. Malmborg, Axel Eriksson, Louise Gren, Maja Novakovic, Sam Shamun, Panu Karjalainen, Lassi Markkula, Joakim Pagels, Birgitta Svenningsson, Martin Tunér, Mika Komppula, Ari Laaksonen, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1615–1631,Short summary
We investigated the ice-nucleating abilities of particulate emissions from a modern diesel engine using the portable ice-nuclei counter SPIN, a continuous-flow diffusion chamber instrument. Three different fuels were studied without blending, including fossil diesel and two renewable fuels, testing different emission aftertreatment systems and photochemical aging. We found that the diesel emissions were inefficient ice nuclei, and aging had no or little effect on their ice-nucleating abilities.
Noora Hyttinen, Iida Pullinen, Aki Nissinen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Annele Virtanen, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1195–1208,Short summary
Accurate saturation vapor pressure estimates of atmospherically relevant organic compounds are critical for modeling secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated vapor pressures of highly oxygenated SOA constituents using state-of-the-art computational and experimental methods. We found a good agreement between low and extremely low vapor pressures estimated using the two methods, and the smallest molecules detected in our experiment were likely products of thermal decomposition.
Dawei Hu, M. Rami Alfarra, Kate Szpek, Justin M. Langridge, Michael I. Cotterell, Claire Belcher, Ian Rule, Zixia Liu, Chenjie Yu, Yunqi Shao, Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Brett Smith, Greg Smallwood, Prem Lobo, Dantong Liu, Jim M. Haywood, Hugh Coe, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16161–16182,Short summary
Here, we developed new techniques for investigating these properties in the laboratory and applied these to BC and BrC from different sources, including diesel exhaust, inverted propane flame and wood combustion. These have allowed us to quantify the changes in shape and chemical composition of different soots according to source and variables such as the moisture content of wood.
Mariam Fawaz, Anita Avery, Timothy B. Onasch, Leah R. Williams, and Tami C. Bond
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15605–15618,Short summary
Biomass burning is responsible for 90 % of the emissions of primary organic aerosols to the atmosphere. Emissions from biomass burning sources are considered chaotic. In this work, we developed a controlled experimental approach to understand the controlling factors in emission. Our results showed that emissions are repeatable and deterministic and that emissions from wood can be constrained.
Soleil E. Worthy, Anand Kumar, Yu Xi, Jingwei Yun, Jessie Chen, Cuishan Xu, Victoria E. Irish, Pierre Amato, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14631–14648,Short summary
We studied the effect of (NH4)2SO4 on the immersion freezing of non-mineral dust ice-nucleating substances (INSs) and mineral dusts. (NH4)2SO4 had no effect on the median freezing temperature of 9 of the 10 tested non-mineral dust INSs, slightly decreased that of the other, and increased that of all the mineral dusts. The difference in the response of mineral dust and non-mineral dust INSs to (NH4)2SO4 suggests that they nucleate ice and/or interact with (NH4)2SO4 via different mechanisms.
Robert Wagner, Luisa Ickes, Allan K. Bertram, Nora Els, Elena Gorokhova, Ottmar Möhler, Benjamin J. Murray, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, and Matthew E. Salter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13903–13930,Short summary
Sea spray aerosol particles are a mixture of inorganic salts and organic matter from phytoplankton organisms. At low temperatures in the upper troposphere, both inorganic and organic constituents can induce the formation of ice crystals and thereby impact cloud properties and climate. In this study, we performed experiments in a cloud simulation chamber with particles produced from Arctic seawater samples to quantify the relative contribution of inorganic and organic species in ice formation.
Matthew Ozon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lubna Dada, Aku Seppänen, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12595–12611,Short summary
Measuring the rate at which aerosol particles are formed is of importance for understanding climate change. We present an analysis method based on Kalman smoothing, which retrieves new particle formation and growth rates from size-distribution measurements. We apply it to atmospheric simulation chamber experiments and show that it agrees well with traditional methods. In addition, it provides reliable uncertainty estimates, and we suggest instrument design optimisation for signal processing.
Yu Wang, Aristeidis Voliotis, Yunqi Shao, Taomou Zong, Xiangxinyue Meng, Mao Du, Dawei Hu, Ying Chen, Zhijun Wu, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11303–11316,Short summary
Aerosol phase behaviour plays a profound role in atmospheric physicochemical processes. We designed dedicated chamber experiments to study the phase state of secondary organic aerosol from biogenic and anthropogenic mixed precursors. Our results highlight the key role of the organic–inorganic ratio and relative humidity in phase state, but the sources and organic composition are less important. The result provides solid laboratory evidence for understanding aerosol phase in a complex atmosphere.
Ana A. Piedehierro, André Welti, Angela Buchholz, Kimmo Korhonen, Iida Pullinen, Ilkka Summanen, Annele Virtanen, and Ari Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11069–11078,Short summary
Ice crystals in cirrus clouds contain particles that start ice formation. We study whether particles forming above boreal forests can help in the making of cirrus clouds and if the water content in the particles affects this property. In the laboratory, we made boreal-forest-like particles and cooled and humidified them to measure whether an ice crystal develops. We found that only when dry can these particles form an ice crystal but no better than solution droplets.
Young-Chul Song, Joseph Lilek, Jae Bong Lee, Man Nin Chan, Zhijun Wu, Andreas Zuend, and Mijung Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10215–10228,Short summary
We report viscosity of binary mixtures of organic material / H2O and inorganic salts / H2O, as well as ternary mixtures of organic material / inorganic salts/ H2O, over the atmospheric relative humidity (RH) range. The viscosity measurements indicate that the studied mixed organic–inorganic particles range in phase state from liquid to semi-solid or even solid across the atmospheric RH range at a temperature of 293 K.
Shuaishuai Ma, Zhe Chen, Shufeng Pang, and Yunhong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9705–9717,Short summary
LLPS, efflorescence and deliquescence of aerosol particles can be observed visually and determined quantitatively. Different LLPS mechanisms may dominate successively in mixed organic–inorganic particles. The formation of more concentrated inorganic inclusions may cause secondary LLPS. Furthermore, high inorganic factions may result in an inorganic salt crust enclosing the separated organic phases.
Zhaobin Sun, Xiujuan Zhao, Ziming Li, Guiqian Tang, and Shiguang Miao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8863–8882,Short summary
Different weather types will shape significantly different structures of the pollution boundary layer. The findings of this study allow us to understand the inherent difference among heavy pollution boundary layers; in addition, they reveal the formation mechanism of haze pollution from an integrated synoptic-scale and boundary layer structure perspective.
Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, John Falk, Robert Lindgren, Christina Andersen, Vilhelm B. Malmborg, Axel C. Eriksson, Kimmo Korhonen, Ricardo Luis Carvalho, Christoffer Boman, Joakim Pagels, and Birgitta Svenningsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8023–8044,Short summary
Residential biomass combustion is a major anthropogenic source of aerosol particles on regional and global scales. Nevertheless, little is known about those aerosol particles' ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and thus influence cloud properties and climate. Our study shows a strong link between the potassium content in the fuel and emissions of CCN for different stove technologies. Previous studies may have underestimated the anthropogenic climate impact of these emissions.
Meri Räty, Otso Peräkylä, Matthieu Riva, Lauriane Quéléver, Olga Garmash, Matti Rissanen, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7357–7372,Short summary
Cyclohexene resembles certain relatively complex compounds in the atmosphere that through oxidation produce vapours that take part in aerosol formation. We studied the highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) formed in cyclohexene ozonolysis, the relationship between their chemical composition and their tendency to condense onto seed aerosol, as well as the effect of NOx pollutants on their signals. Two existing models were also tested for their ability to predict the volatility of the HOMs.
Chao Peng, Patricia N. Razafindrambinina, Kotiba A. Malek, Lanxiadi Chen, Weigang Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Yuqing Zhang, Xiang Ding, Maofa Ge, Xinming Wang, Akua A. Asa-Awuku, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7135–7148,Short summary
Organosulfates are important constituents in tropospheric aerosol particles, but their hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activities are not well understood. In our work, three complementary techniques were employed to investigate the interactions of 11 organosulfates with water vapor under sub- and supersaturated conditions.
Alexis Dépée, Pascal Lemaitre, Thomas Gelain, Marie Monier, and Andrea Flossmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6945–6962,Short summary
Present article describe a new In-Cloud Aerosol Scavenging Experiment (In-CASE) that has been conceived to measure the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets. The present article focuses on the influence of phoretic effects on the collection efficiency.
Jingchuan Chen, Zhijun Wu, Jie Chen, Naama Reicher, Xin Fang, Yinon Rudich, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3491–3506,Short summary
Asian mineral dust is a crucial contributor to global ice-nucleating particles (INPs), while its size-resolved information on freezing activity is extremely rare. Here we conducted the first known INP measurements of size-resolved airborne East Asian dust particles. An explicit size dependence of both INP concentration and surface ice-active-site density was observed. The new parameterizations can be widely applied in models to better characterize and predict ice nucleation activities of dust.
Georgia Michailoudi, Jack J. Lin, Hayato Yuzawa, Masanari Nagasaka, Marko Huttula, Nobuhiro Kosugi, Theo Kurtén, Minna Patanen, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2881–2894,Short summary
This study provides insight into hydration of two significant atmospheric compounds, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Using synchrotron radiation excited X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we confirm that glyoxal is fully hydrated in water, and for the first time, we experimentally detect enol structures in aqueous methylglyoxal. Our results support the contribution of these compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation, known to have a large uncertainty in atmospheric models and climate predictions.
Jianzhong Sun, Yuzhe Zhang, Guorui Zhi, Regina Hitzenberger, Wenjing Jin, Yingjun Chen, Lei Wang, Chongguo Tian, Zhengying Li, Rong Chen, Wen Xiao, Yuan Cheng, Wei Yang, Liying Yao, Yang Cao, Duo Huang, Yueyuan Qiu, Jiali Xu, Xiaofei Xia, Xin Yang, Xi Zhang, Zheng Zong, Yuchun Song, and Changdong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2329–2341,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) emission factors from household biomass fuels were measured with an integrating sphere optics approach supported by iterative calculations. A novel algorithm to directly estimate the absorption contribution of BrC relative to that of BrC + black carbon (FBrC) was proposed based purely on the absorption exponent (AAE) (FBrC = 0.5519 lnAAE + 0.0067). The FBrC for household biomass fuels was as high as 50.8 % across the strongest solar spectral range of 350−850 nm.
Weigang Wang, Ting Lei, Andreas Zuend, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Yajun Shi, Maofa Ge, and Mingyuan Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2179–2190,Short summary
Aerosol mixing state regulates the interactions between water molecules and particles and thus controls aerosol activation and hygroscopic growth, which thereby influences visibility degradation, cloud formation, and its radiative forcing. However, there are few studies attempting to investigate their interactions with water molecules. Here, we investigated the effect of organic coatings on the hygroscopic behavior of the inorganic core.
Sabin Kasparoglu, Ying Li, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Markus D. Petters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1127–1141,Short summary
Viscosity is important because it determines the lifetime, impact, and fate of particulate matter. We collected new data to rigorously test a framework that is used to constrain the phase state in global simulations. We find that the framework is accurate as long as appropriate compound specific inputs are available.
Cuiqi Zhang, Yue Zhang, Martin J. Wolf, Leonid Nichman, Chuanyang Shen, Timothy B. Onasch, Longfei Chen, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13957–13984,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is considered the second most important global warming agent. However, the role of BC aerosol–cloud–climate interactions in the cirrus formation remains uncertain. Our study of selected BC types and sizes suggests that increases in diameter, compactness, and/or surface oxidation of BC particles lead to more efficient ice nucleation (IN) via pore condensation freezing (PCF) pathways，and that coatings of common secondary organic aerosol (SOA) materials can inhibit ice formation.
Luisa Ickes, Grace C. E. Porter, Robert Wagner, Michael P. Adams, Sascha Bierbauer, Allan K. Bertram, Merete Bilde, Sigurd Christiansen, Annica M. L. Ekman, Elena Gorokhova, Kristina Höhler, Alexei A. Kiselev, Caroline Leck, Ottmar Möhler, Benjamin J. Murray, Thea Schiebel, Romy Ullrich, and Matthew E. Salter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11089–11117,Short summary
The Arctic is a region where aerosols are scarce. Sea spray might be a potential source of aerosols acting as ice-nucleating particles. We investigate two common phytoplankton species (Melosira arctica and Skeletonema marinoi) and present their ice nucleation activity in comparison with Arctic seawater microlayer samples from different field campaigns. We also aim to understand the aerosolization process of marine biological samples and the potential effect on the ice nucleation activity.
Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Angela Buchholz, Arttu Ylisirniö, Siegfried Schobesberger, Annele Virtanen, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10441–10458,Short summary
We compared the volatility distributions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constituents estimated from isothermal evaporation experiments from either particle size change data, by process modelling and global optimization, or from mass spectrometer data with positive matrix factorization analysis. Our results show that, despite the two very different estimation methods, the volatility distributions are comparable if uncertainties are taken into account.
Damon M. Smith, Marc N. Fiddler, Rudra P. Pokhrel, and Solomon Bililign
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10149–10168,Short summary
Biomass burning aerosol can scatter and absorb light, contributing to the cooling or warming of the planet. The scattering and absorption properties (optical properties) change as aerosol ages and interacts with atmospheric gases. Optical properties also depend on burning conditions, fuel type, and morphology. Africa is a major source of biomass burning aerosols, but there are very few laboratory studies. This study focuses on the optical properties of aerosols from east African biomass fuels.
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Angela Buchholz, Claudia Mohr, Zijun Li, Luis Barreira, Andrew Lambe, Celia Faiola, Eetu Kari, Taina Yli-Juuti, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5629–5644,Short summary
We studied the chemical composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from emissions of Scots pines and compared those results to SOA formed from α-pinene and from a sesquiterpene mixture. We found that SOA formed from single precursors cannot capture the properties of SOA formed from real plant emissions.
Wenyu Zhang, Weigang Wang, Junling Li, Chao Peng, Kun Li, Li Zhou, Bo Shi, Yan Chen, Mingyuan Liu, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4477–4492,Short summary
We investigated the effect of SO2 under different humidities on optical properties of toluene-derived SOA under four conditions with CRDs and PAX at 532 and 375 nm, respectively. Our results showed that SO2 under different humidities can change the refractive complex index of toluene SOA by influencing the multiphase processes and altering the aerosol chemical compositions. Different atmospheric conditions could affect the properties of toluene SOA, as well as the global radiative balance.
Junteng Wu, Alessandro Faccinetto, Symphorien Grimonprez, Sébastien Batut, Jérôme Yon, Pascale Desgroux, and Denis Petitprez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4209–4225,Short summary
Soot particles released during anthropogenic activities may lead to positive direct or negative indirect climate forcing depending on their aging in the atmosphere. The latter occurs whenever soot particles act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and trigger the formation of persistent clouds. Herein, we investigate the impact of the size distribution and morphology of freshly emitted soot particles on their aging process and propose a model to quantitatively predict their efficiency as CCN.
Otso Peräkylä, Matthieu Riva, Liine Heikkinen, Lauriane Quéléver, Pontus Roldin, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 649–669,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules have been suggested to form a large part of secondary organic aerosol. However, with their exotic structures, their volatilities are not well known, making their exact role in particle formation hard to assess. In laboratory experiments, we found the volatility of HOMs formed in the ozonolysis of the monoterpene alpha-pinene to be in the middle of earlier estimates. The volatilities of HOMs could be well explained in terms of their molecular formulae.
Joel C. Corbin and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15673–15690,Short summary
We review the literature to refine the definition of "tar balls" (or tar particles). Then, using a marine-engine data set, we show that a standard SP2 can identify tar particles in two ways, as evaporating and non-incandescing (30 % of tar particles by number) or incandescing particles which scatter more light than soot at incandescence (70 % of tar particles by number). To our knowledge, no other technique can provide in situ, real-time evidence for the presence of tar particles in an aerosol.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Yves Balkanski, Lorenzo Caponi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Emilie Journet, Sophie Nowak, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Thuraya Saeed, Stuart Piketh, David Seibert, Earle Williams, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15503–15531,Short summary
This paper presents a new dataset of laboratory measurements of the shortwave (SW) spectral complex refractive index and single-scattering albedo (SSA) for global mineral dust aerosols of varying origin and composition. Our results show that the dust refractive index and SSA vary strongly from source to source, mostly due to particle iron content changes. We recommend that source-dependent values of the SW spectral refractive index and SSA be used in models and remote sensing applications.
Courtney D. Hatch, Paul R. Tumminello, Megan A. Cassingham, Ann L. Greenaway, Rebecca Meredith, and Matthew J. Christie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13581–13589,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust has been identified as an important contributor to cloud formation and cloud properties that influence the Earth's climate, yet experimental measurements of climate model parameters currently disagree. This study demonstrates current best practices for analyzing water adsorption measurements, resulting in significantly improved agreement among experimental practices. As such, more accurate parameters can be used to improve simulations of aerosol climate effects.
Mijung Song, Adrian M. Maclean, Yuanzhou Huang, Natalie R. Smith, Sandra L. Blair, Julia Laskin, Alexander Laskin, Wing-Sy Wong DeRieux, Ying Li, Manabu Shiraiwa, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12515–12529,
Leonid Nichman, Martin Wolf, Paul Davidovits, Timothy B. Onasch, Yue Zhang, Doug R. Worsnop, Janarjan Bhandari, Claudio Mazzoleni, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12175–12194,Short summary
Previous studies showed widespread ice nucleation activity of soot. In this systematic study we investigated the factors that affect the heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of soot surrogates in the cirrus cloud regime. Our observations are consistent with an ice nucleation mechanism of pore condensation followed by freezing. The results show significant variations in ice nucleation activity as a function of size, morphology, and surface chemistry of the black-carbon-containing particles.
Martin Schnaiter, Claudia Linke, Inas Ibrahim, Alexei Kiselev, Fritz Waitz, Thomas Leisner, Stefan Norra, and Till Rehm
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10829–10844,Short summary
When combustion particles are deposited to the ground, they darken Earth's snow and ice surfaces by even tiny quantities. This darkening reduces the back reflection of sunlight and induces an additional climate warming. Particles from fresh snow samples were investigated according to their light absorption strength. Enhanced absorption was found in the snow that cannot fully be attributed to combustion particles. Dust and biogenic matter are likely the cause of this additional snow darkening.
Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Väinö Hämäläinen, Grazia Rovelli, Antti Lipponen, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jonathan P. Reid, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9333–9350,Short summary
We assessed how well the organic aerosol particle composition and viscosity can be captured by optimizing process models to match particle evaporation data. We performed the analysis for both artificial and real evaporation data and tested two optimization algorithms. Our findings show that the optimization method yields a good estimate for the studied properties. The timescale of the evaporation data and particle size was found to be important in identifying the volatility of organic compounds.
Miska Olin, Jenni Alanen, Marja R. T. Palmroth, Topi Rönkkö, and Miikka Dal Maso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6367–6388,Short summary
The mechanism for new particle formation (NPF) in vehicle exhaust is currently unknown. This study focuses on determining the NPF rate in vehicle exhaust caused by sulfuric acid, which is the most promising candidate involved in the NPF process. The NPF rate function obtained in this study helps in examining the NPF mechanism in exhaust plumes, and it can also be used to improve air quality models. The results also imply that the NPF process cannot be fully explained by sulfuric acid only.
Elena C. Maters, Donald B. Dingwell, Corrado Cimarelli, Dirk Müller, Thomas F. Whale, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5451–5465,Short summary
This experimental study investigates the influence of volcanic ash chemical composition, crystallinity, and mineralogy on its ability to promote freezing of supercooled water. The results indicate that crystals in ash play a key role in this process and suggest that feldspars and perhaps pyroxenes in ash may be highly ice-active. These findings contribute to improving understanding of the potential of ash emissions from different explosive eruptions to impact ice formation in the atmosphere.
Zamin A. Kanji, Ryan C. Sullivan, Monika Niemand, Paul J. DeMott, Anthony J. Prenni, Cédric Chou, Harald Saathoff, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5091–5110,Short summary
The ice nucleation ability of two natural desert dusts coated with a proxy of secondary organic aerosol is presented for temperatures and relative humidity conditions relevant for mixed-phase clouds. We find that at the tested conditions, there is no effect on the ice nucleation ability of the particles due to the organic coating. Furthermore, the two dust samples do not show variability within measurement uncertainty. Particle size and surface area may play a role in any difference observed.
Nønne L. Prisle, Jack J. Lin, Sara Purdue, Haisheng Lin, J. Carson Meredith, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4741–4761,Short summary
We measure surface activity and cloud-forming potential of pollenkitt, an organic mixture coating pollen grains. Cloud droplet formation is affected through both surface tension and bulk depletion, with a consistent particle size-dependent signature. We observe nonideal solution effects in pollenkitt mixtures with ammonium sulfate salt. Our results suggest sensitivity of general water interactions, including cloud formation by pollen and their fragments, to both atmospheric humidity and aging.
Zhicong Yin, Huijun Wang, Yuyan Li, Xiaohui Ma, and Xinyu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3857–3871,Short summary
Summer surface ozone pollution has rapidly intensified recently, damaging human and ecosystem health. This study aims to examine the large-scale atmospheric circulations associated with the interannual variation in summer surface O3 pollution in North China based on long-term meteorological observations. The impacts of Arctic sea ice were also revealed. The outcomes may provide a basis for understanding the interannual variation of 03 pollution and its seasonal to interannual prediction.
Abbatt, J. P. D., Benz, S., Cziczo, D. J., Kanji, Z., Lohmann, U., and Möhler, O.: Solid ammonium sulfate aerosols as ice nuclei: a pathway for cirrus cloud formation, Science, 22, 313, 1770–1773, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1129726, 2006.
Abe, K., Watabe, S., Emori, Y., Watanabe, M., and Arai, S.: An ice nucleation gene of Erwinia ananas, FEBS Lett., 258, 297–300, https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(89)81678-3, 1989.
Attard, E., Yang, H., Delort, A.-M., Amato, P., Pöschl, U., Glaux, C., Koop, T., and Morris, C. E.: Effects of atmospheric conditions on ice nucleation activity of Pseudomonas, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10667–10677, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-10667-2012, 2012.
Augustin, S., Wex, H., Niedermeier, D., Pummer, B., Grothe, H., Hartmann, S., Tomsche, L., Clauss, T., Voigtländer, J., Ignatius, K., and Stratmann, F.: Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10989–11003, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-10989-2013, 2013.
Aunaas, T.: Nucleating agents in the haemolymph of an intertidal mollusc tolerant to freezing, Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 38, 1456–1457, 1982.
Berge, O., Monteil, C. L., Bartoli, C., Chandeysson, C., Guilbaud, C., Sands, D. C., and Morris, C. E.: A user's guide to a data base of the diversity of Pseudomonas syringae and its application to classifying strains in this phylogenetic complex, PLOS ONE, 9, e105547, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105547, 2014.
Berkemeier, T., Shiraiwa, M., Pöschl, U., and Koop, T.: Competition between water uptake and ice nucleation by glassy organic aerosol particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12513–12531, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-12513-2014, 2014.
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