Articles | Volume 20, issue 24
Research article 16 Dec 2020
Research article | 16 Dec 2020
Exploring the drivers of the increased ozone production in Beijing in summertime during 2005–2016
Wenjie Wang et al.
No articles found.
Yihang Yu, Peng Cheng, Huirong Li, Wenda Yang, Baobin Han, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Xinming Wang, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Zhijiong Huang, Zhen Li, Junyu Zheng, Haichao Wang, and Xiaofang Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The research content of this paper is the budget of nitrous acid (HONO) and its impacts on atmospheric oxidation capacity at an urban site in Guangzhou of China. We conducted a comprehensive atmospheric observation at an urban site in Guangzhou in autumn of 2018. The results further showed that the direct and indirect contributions of primary emission to HONO are great at the site both during daytime and nighttime. And HONO contributed significantly to the atmospheric oxidation of Guangzhou.
Mengdi Song, Xin Li, Suding Yang, Xuena Yu, Songxiu Zhou, Yiming Yang, Shiyi Chen, Huabin Dong, Keren Liao, Qi Chen, Keding Lu, Ningning Zhang, Junji Cao, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4939–4958,Short summary
Due to their lower diffusion capacities and higher conversion capacities, urban areas in Xi’an experienced severe ozone pollution in the summer. In this study, a campaign of comprehensive field observations and VOC grid sampling was conducted in Xi’an from 20 June to 20 July 2019. We found that Xi'an has a strong local emission source of VOCs, and vehicle exhaust was the primary VOC source. In addition, alkenes, aromatics, and oxygenated VOCs played a dominant role in secondary transformations.
Wenjie Wang, Jipeng Qi, Jun Zhou, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Sihang Wang, Suxia Yang, Jonathan Williams, Vinayak Sinha, and Min Shao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2285–2298,Short summary
We designed a new reactor for measurements of OH reactivity (i.e., OH radical loss frequency) based on the comparative reactivity method under high-NOx conditions, such as in cities. We performed a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the new reactor. The new reactor was used in the field and performed well in measuring OH reactivity in air influenced by upwind cities.
Ziwei Mo, Ru Cui, Bin Yuan, Huihua Cai, Brian C. McDonald, Meng Li, Junyu Zheng, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
There is a lack of detailed understandings of NMVOCs emissions from the use of Volatile chemical products (VCPs) in China. This study used a mass balance method to compile a long-term emission inventory for solvent use (including coatings, adhesives, inks, pesticides, cleaners and personal care products) in China during 2000–2017. The striking growth and recent trend of solvent use NMVOCs emissions can give important implications for air quality modeling and NMVOCs control strategies in China.
Jingchuan Chen, Zhijun Wu, Jie Chen, Naama Reicher, Xin Fang, Yinon Rudich, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3491–3506,Short summary
Asian mineral dust is a crucial contributor to global ice-nucleating particles (INPs), while its size-resolved information on freezing activity is extremely rare. Here we conducted the first known INP measurements of size-resolved airborne East Asian dust particles. An explicit size dependence of both INP concentration and surface ice-active-site density was observed. The new parameterizations can be widely applied in models to better characterize and predict ice nucleation activities of dust.
Kun Qu, Xuesong Wang, Yu Yan, Jin Shen, Teng Xiao, Huabin Dong, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Typhoons above the Northwest Pacific frequently lead to severe ambient ozone pollution in the Pearl River Delta, China in autumn and summer. However, typhoons do not enhance ozone transport, production and accumulation at the same time, and differences also exist between these influences in two seasons. Through systematic comparisons, we revealed the complex interactions between local meteorology and ozone processes, which is essential to understand the causes of regional ozone pollution.
Hao Yang, Lei Chen, Hong Liao, Jia Zhu, Wenjie Wang, and Xin Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Aerosols can influence O3 through aerosol-radiation interactions, including aerosol-photolysis interaction (API) and aerosol-radiation feedback (ARF). Sensitivity experiments show that the weakened photolysis rates and changed meteorological conditions reduce surface-layer O3 concentrations by up to 11.4 ppb, with API and ARF contributing 74.6 % and 25.4 % of the O3 decrease, respectively. Which indicates that API is the dominant way for O3 reduction related to aerosol-radiation interactions.
Rongzhi Tang, Quanyang Lu, Song Guo, Hui Wang, Kai Song, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kefan Liu, Ruizhe Shen, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Spiro D. Jorga, Zhou Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Shijin Shuai, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2569–2583,Short summary
We performed chassis dynamometer experiments to investigate the emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from an on-road Chinese gasoline vehicle. High IVOC emission factors (EFs) and distinct volatility distribution were recognized. Our results indicate that vehicular IVOCs contribute significantly to SOA, implying the importance of reducing IVOCs when making air pollution control policies in urban areas of China.
Christian Mark Garcia Salvador, Rongzhi Tang, Michael Priestley, Linjie Li, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Michael Le Breton, Wenfei Zhu, Limin Zeng, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Min Hu, Song Guo, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1389–1406,Short summary
High-frequency online measurement of gas- and particle-phase nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) at a rural site in China, heavily influenced by biomass burning events, enabled the analysis of the production pathway of NACs, including an explanation of strong persistence in the daytime. The contribution of secondary processes was significant, even during the dominant wintertime influence of primary emissions, suggesting the important role of regional secondary chemistry, i.e. photochemical smog.
Chunmeng Li, Haichao Wang, Xiaorui Chen, Tianyu Zhai, Shiyi Chen, Xin Li, Limin Zeng, and Keding Lu
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
We present a feasible instrument for the detection of NO2, total peroxy nitrates (PNs, RO2NO2), and total alkyl nitrates (ANs, RONO2) in the atmosphere. The instrument samples sequentially from three channels at different temperature setting and then measures spectrums by one cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer. The concentration are determined by spectral fitting and corrected by lookup table method conveniently. The instrument will promote the study of PNs and ANs.
Kai Song, Song Guo, Haichao Wang, Ying Yu, Hui Wang, Rongzhi Tang, Shiyong Xia, Yuanzheng Gong, Zichao Wan, Daqi Lv, Rui Tan, Wenfei Zhu, Ruizhe Shen, Xin Li, Xuena Yu, Shiyi Chen, Liming Zeng, and Xiaofeng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Nitrated phenols (NPs) are crucial components of brown carbon. To comprehend the constitutes and sources of NPs in winter of Beijing, their concentration was measured by a CI-LToF-MS. The secondary formation process was simulated by a box mode. NPs were mainly influenced by primary emissions and regional transport. Primary emitted phenol rather than benzene oxidation was crucial in the heavy pollution episode in Beijing, which provides more insight into NPs pollution control strategies.
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Steven T. Turnock, Fiona M. O’Connor, Johannes Staehelin, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Naga Oshima, Kostas Tsigaridis, Tongwen Wu, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
The few ozone measurements made before the 1980s indicate that industrial development increased ozone concentrations by a factor of ~2 at northern mid-latitudes, which are now larger than at southern mid-latitudes. This difference was much smaller, and likely reversed, in the natural troposphere. Earth System Models find similar increases, but not higher pre-industrial ozone in the south. This disagreement may indicate that modeled natural ozone sources and/or deposition loss are inadequate.
Huan Song, Xiaorui Chen, Keding Lu, Qi Zou, Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Alfred Wiedensohler, Daniel R. Moon, Dwayne E. Heard, María-Teresa Baeza-Romero, Mei Zheng, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15835–15850,Short summary
Accurate calculation of the HO2 uptake coefficient is one of the key parameters to quantify the co-reduction of both aerosol and ozone pollution. We modelled various lab measurements of γHO2 based on a gas-liquid phase kinetic model and developed a state-of-the-art parameterized equation. Based on a dataset from a comprehensive field campaign in the North China Plain, we proposed that the determination of the heterogeneous uptake process for HO2 should be included in future field campaigns.
Luolin Wu, Jian Hang, Xuemei Wang, Min Shao, and Cheng Gong
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
In order to improve the resolution and numerical accuracy of urban air quality simulation, this study has developed the APFoam-1.0 to examine the micro-scale reactive pollutant formation and dispersion in the urban area. The model has been validated and shows the good agreement with wind tunnel experimental data. Model sensitivity cases reveal that the vehicle emissions, background concentrations and wind conditions are the key factors affecting the photochemical reaction process.
Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Sihang Wang, Wenjie Wang, Bin Yuan, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Hongli Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Weiwei Hu, Shengrong Lou, Chenshuo Ye, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Yibo Huangfu, Yan Xie, Manni Zhu, Junyu Zheng, Xuemei Wang, Bin Jiang, Zhanyi Zhang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14769–14785,Short summary
Based on measurements from an online mass spectrometer, we quantify volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations from numerous ions of the mass spectrometer, using information from laboratory-obtained calibration results. We find that most VOC concentrations are from oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs). We further show that these OVOCs also contribute significantly to OH reactivity. Our results suggest the important role of OVOCs in VOC emissions and chemistry in urban air.
Tianyi Tan, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Gang Zhao, Dongjie Shang, Jing Zheng, Yanhong Qin, Mengren Li, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Every year in the pre-monsoon season, the black carbon (BC) aerosols originated from the biomass burning in southern Asia are easily transported to the Tibetan Plateau (TP) by the convenience of westerly wind. This study reveals that the BC aerosols in the aged biomass burning plumes strongly enhance the total light absorption over the TP, and the aging process during the long-range transport will further strengthen the radiative heating of those BC aerosols.
Sarah E. Benish, Hao He, Xinrong Ren, Sandra J. Roberts, Ross J. Salawitch, Zhanqing Li, Fei Wang, Yuying Wang, Fang Zhang, Min Shao, Sihua Lu, and Russell R. Dickerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14523–14545,Short summary
Airborne observations of ozone and related pollutants show smog was pervasive in spring 2016 over Hebei Province, China. We find high amounts of ozone precursors throughout and even above the PBL, continuing to generate ozone at high rates to be potentially transported downwind. Concentrations even in the rural areas of this highly industrialized province promote widespread ozone production, and we show that to improve air quality over Hebei both NOx and VOCs should be targeted.
Chenshuo Ye, Bin Yuan, Yi Lin, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Tiange Li, Wei Chen, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, E Zheng, Jordan E. Krechmer, Penglin Ye, Zhanyi Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We performed measurements of gaseous and particulate organic compounds using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Using the dataset, we provide a holistic chemical characterization of oxygenated organic compounds in the polluted urban atmosphere, which can serve as a reference for the future field measurements of organic compounds in cities.
Chaomin Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Sihang Wang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Wei Chen, Chenshuo Ye, Wenjie Wang, Yele Sun, Chen Wang, Shan Huang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Suxia Yang, Shenyang Zhang, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Zhanyi Zhang, Bin Jiang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14123–14138,Short summary
We utilized a novel online mass spectrometry method to measure the total concentration of higher alkanes at each carbon number at two different sites in China, allowing us to take into account SOA contributions from all isomers for higher alkanes. We found that higher alkanes account for significant fractions of SOA formation at the two sites. The contributions are comparable to or even higher than single-ring aromatics, the most-recognized SOA precursors in urban air.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions are predictable and explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated to SOA in urban regions.
Ruqian Miao, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Yele Sun, Paul I. Palmer, Manish Shrivastava, Jianping Guo, Qiang Zhang, Yuhan Liu, Zhaofeng Tan, Xuefei Ma, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12265–12284,Short summary
In this study we evaluated the model performances for simulating secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and organic aerosol (OA) in PM2.5 in China against comprehensive datasets. The potential biases from factors related to meteorology, emission, chemistry, and atmospheric removal are systematically investigated. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of modeling PM2.5, which is important for studies on the effectiveness of emission control strategies.
Zhenhao Ling, Qianqian Xie, Min Shao, Zhe Wang, Tao Wang, Hai Guo, and Xuemei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11451–11467,Short summary
The observation data from a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta region were analyzed by a photochemical box model with near-explicit chemical mechanisms (i.e., the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM), improvements with reversible and irreversible heterogeneous processes of glyoxal and methylglyoxal, and the gas-particle partitioning of oxidation products in the present study.
Mingfu Cai, Baoling Liang, Qibin Sun, Shengzhen Zhou, Xiaoyang Chen, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Haobo Tan, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9153–9167,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei activity in marine atmosphere affects cloud formation and the solar radiation balance over ocean. We employed advanced instruments to measure aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition in the northern South China Sea. Our results show that marine aerosols can be affected by local emissions or pollutants from long-range transport. Our study highlights dynamical variations in particle properties and the impact of long-range transport on this region during summertime.
Yuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Putian Zhou, Dan Yao, Dongsheng Ji, Jie Sun, Yinghong Wang, Shuman Zhao, Wei Huang, Shuanghong Yang, Dean Chen, Wenkang Gao, Zirui Liu, Bo Hu, Renjian Zhang, Limin Zeng, Maofa Ge, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8181–8200,
Jingyi Li, Haowen Zhang, Qi Ying, Zhijun Wu, Yanli Zhang, Xinming Wang, Xinghua Li, Yele Sun, Min Hu, Yuanhang Zhang, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7291–7306,Short summary
Large gaps still exist in modeled and observed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass loading and properties. Here we investigated the impacts of water partitioning into organic aerosol and nonideality of the organic–water mixture on SOA over eastern China using a regional 3D model. SOA is increased more significantly in humid and hot environments. Increases in SOA further cause an enhancement of the cooling effects of aerosols. It is crucial to consider the above processes in modeling SOA.
Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Keren Liao, Yaowei Li, Yong Jie Li, Ru-Jin Huang, Weiwei Hu, Ying Liu, Tong Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Qi Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2457–2472,Short summary
This paper provides important information to help researchers to understand the mass quantification and source apportionment by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers.
Chuan Yu, Zhe Wang, Men Xia, Xiao Fu, Weihao Wang, Yee Jun Tham, Tianshu Chen, Penggang Zheng, Hongyong Li, Ye Shan, Xinfeng Wang, Likun Xue, Yan Zhou, Dingli Yue, Yubo Ou, Jian Gao, Keding Lu, Steven S. Brown, Yuanhang Zhang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4367–4378,Short summary
This study provides a holistic picture of N2O5 heterogeneous uptake on ambient aerosols and the influencing factors under various climatic and chemical conditions in China, and it proposes an observation-based empirical parameterization. The empirical parameterization can be used in air quality models to improve the prediction of PM2.5 and photochemical pollution in China and similar polluted regions of the world.
Yu Wang, Ying Chen, Zhijun Wu, Dongjie Shang, Yuxuan Bian, Zhuofei Du, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Rong Su, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Patrick Schlag, Thorsten Hohaus, Aristeidis Voliotis, Keding Lu, Limin Zeng, Chunsheng Zhao, M. Rami Alfarra, Gordon McFiggans, Alfred Wiedensohler, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Yuanhang Zhang, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2161–2175,Short summary
Severe haze events, with high particulate nitrate (pNO3−) burden, frequently prevail in Beijing. In this study, we demonstrate a mutual-promotion effect between aerosol water uptake and pNO3− formation backed up by theoretical calculations and field observations throughout a typical pNO3−-dominated haze event in Beijing wintertime. This self-amplified mutual-promotion effect between aerosol water content and particulate nitrate can rapidly deteriorate air quality and degrade visibility.
Luolin Wu, Ming Chang, Xuemei Wang, Jian Hang, Jinpu Zhang, Liqing Wu, and Min Shao
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 23–40,Short summary
We developed the Real-time On-road Emission (ROE v1.0) model to obtain the street-scale on-road hot emissions by using real-time big data for traffic provided by the Gaode Map navigation application. The results are close to other emission inventories. Meanwhile, we applied our results to a street-level air quality model for studying the impact of the national holiday traffic volume change on air quality. The model can be further extended to more districts in China or other countries.
Yanhua Fang, Chunxiang Ye, Junxia Wang, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Weili Lin, Fanfan Xu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12295–12307,Short summary
Year-long observations of PM2.5, gaseous pollutants, and meteorological parameters in Beijing were analysed to investigate sulfate formation. RH and O3 concentrations above thresholds of 45 % and 35 ppb, respectively, greatly accelerated sulfate formation. Ambient changes in RH and O3 contributed to variations in sulfate formation among different seasons and pollution levels. A shift from gas-phase to multiphase SO2 oxidation contributed to fast sulfate formation under polluted conditions.
Yahui Bian, Zhijiong Huang, Jiamin Ou, Zhuangmin Zhong, Yuanqian Xu, Zhiwei Zhang, Xiao Xiao, Xiao Ye, Yuqi Wu, Xiaohong Yin, Cheng Li, Liangfu Chen, Min Shao, and Junyu Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11701–11719,Short summary
During 2006–2015, emissions of SO2, NOx, PM2.5 and PM10 saw an obvious downtrend. However, most emissions still have large reduction potential. On-road mobile sources and solvent use are the two key sources that should receive more effective control measures in GD. Also, controls measures on VOC and NH3 should be weighted since they still increased in 2006–2015. Since most control measures focused on PRD rather than non-PRD in GD, emissions in non-PRD were increasingly important.
Jingwei Liu, Xin Li, Yiming Yang, Haichao Wang, Yusheng Wu, Xuewei Lu, Mindong Chen, Jianlin Hu, Xiaobo Fan, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4439–4453,Short summary
Incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) has been proven to be a reliable method for measuring glyoxal and methylglyoxal in the atmosphere. However, the commonly overlying strong spectral absorption of nitrogen dioxide hampers the accurate and sensitive resolve of the weak absorption features of glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Here, we report a custom-built IBBCEAS system that could overcome this problem by quantitatively removing nitrogen dioxide from the sample air.
Jianjun Li, Gehui Wang, Qi Zhang, Jin Li, Can Wu, Wenqing Jiang, Tong Zhu, and Limin Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10481–10496,Short summary
In this study, we investigated molecular compositions of organic aerosols (OAs) in summertime PM2.5 at a rural site in the North China Plain. We found that regional emission from field biomass burning (BB) significantly affects the concentration and molecular distribution of aliphatic lipids, sugars, and terpene-derived SOA, but has limited influence on PAHs, hopenes, and phthalates. The contribution of BB to OA increased by more than 50 % during the period influenced by regional open-field BB.
Wenjie Wang, Xin Li, Min Shao, Min Hu, Limin Zeng, Yusheng Wu, and Tianyi Tan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9413–9429,Short summary
We quantitatively evaluated the relationship between photolysis frequencies and AOD based on 4 years of observational data in Beijing. This study concludes that the influence of aerosol on photolysis frequencies and thus on the rate of oxidation of VOCs and NOx to ozone is important for determining the atmospheric effects of controlling the precursor emissions of these two important air pollutants (aerosols and ozone).
Zhuoran He, Xuemei Wang, Zhenhao Ling, Jun Zhao, Hai Guo, Min Shao, and Zhe Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8801–8816,Short summary
In this study, source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their contributions to photochemical O3 formation were analyzed by the positive matrix factorization model and an observation-based model using data collected at a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Furthermore, the policies for controlling VOCs are briefly reviewed. The findings could provide quantitative information for devising appropriate measures against VOCs, NOx and O3 pollution in the PRD.
Run Liu, Lu Mao, Shaw Chen Liu, Yuanhang Zhang, Hong Liao, Huopo Chen, and Yuhang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8563–8568,Short summary
The recent paper by Shen et al. (2018; referred to hereafter as SHEN) made a sweeping statement on the winter haze pollution in Beijing by claiming an
Insignificant effect of climate change on winter haze in Beijing. We argue that the paper contains three serious flaws. Any one of the three flaws can nullify the claim of SHEN.
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Simon O'Doherty, and Peter G. Simmonds
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3383–3394,Short summary
We present a flexible method that employs a power series expansion and Fourier series analysis to characterize the average long-term change and seasonal cycle, respectively, from a time series of observations of a trace atmospheric species. This approach maximizes the statistically significant information derived, including non-linear aspects of the long-term trends, without over fitting the data. Generally, a small set of parameter values (e.g., 7 or 8) provides this characterization.
Liqing Wu, Xuemei Wang, Sihua Lu, Min Shao, and Zhenhao Ling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8141–8161,Short summary
Semi-volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (S–IVOCs) are considered critical precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which is an important component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). In this study, an emission inventory of S–IVOCs in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region was developed for the first time for the year 2010, while the contributions of S–IVOCs to SOA formation was evaluated by the WRF-Chem model.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Yuchen Wang, Jing Zheng, Dongjie Shang, Yudong Yang, Ying Liu, Xiao Li, Rongzhi Tang, Wenfei Zhu, Zhuofei Du, Yusheng Wu, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Shengrong Lou, Mattias Hallquist, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7649–7665,Short summary
Nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs), an important fraction in brown carbon, were comprehensively characterized in Beijing. The oxidation of anthropogenic VOCs represented more dominant sources of NACs than biomass burning. A transition of NO2 from low- to high-NOx regimes was observed. The contribution of aqueous-phase pathways to NAC formation increased at elevated RH. This work highlights secondary formation of NACs and influence factors in high NOx–anthropogenic VOC-dominated urban atmospheres.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Hendrik Fuchs, Birger Bohn, Frank Holland, Yuhan Liu, Franz Rohrer, Min Shao, Kang Sun, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Yinsong Zhang, Qi Zou, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7129–7150,Short summary
Atmospheric OH, HO2, and RO2 radicals; OH reactivity; and trace gases measured in the Pearl River Delta in autumn 2014 are used for radical budget analyses. The RO2 budget suggests that unexplained OH reactivity is due to unmeasured volatile organic compounds. The OH budget points to a missing OH source and that of RO2 to a missing RO2 sink at low NO. This could indicate a common, unknown process that converts RO2 to OH without the involvement of NO, which would reduce ozone production by 30 %.
Shuaixi Liang, Min Qin, Pinhua Xie, Jun Duan, Wu Fang, Yabai He, Jin Xu, Jingwei Liu, Xin Li, Ke Tang, Fanhao Meng, Kaidi Ye, Jianguo Liu, and Wenqing Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2499–2512,Short summary
A home-built instrument of an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer is reported for sensitive detection of CHOCHO and NO2 in China's highly polluted environment. An NO2 spectral profile measured using the same spectrometer is applied as a reference spectral profile in the subsequent atmospheric spectral analysis and retrieval of NO2 and CHOCHO. This will provide an idea for solving the problem of cross-interference of strongly absorbing gases in weakly absorbing gases.
Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Meiqing Jiang, Rong Su, Hongli Wang, Shengrong Lou, Qingyan Fu, Chongzhi Zhai, Qinwen Tan, Dingli Yue, Duohong Chen, Zhanshan Wang, Shaodong Xie, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3493–3513,Short summary
We evaluated the atmospheric oxidation capacity (AOC) in four Chinese megacities during photochemically polluted seasons. The chemical production of ozone and particle nitrate was diagnosed through a box model, which can be attributed to daytime radical chemistry. Our work highlights that the formation of both ozone and fine particles is largely driven by the atmospheric radical chemistry in China. Consequently, we suggest future pollution mitigation strategies should consider the role of AOC.
Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Uwe Kuhn, Rongjuan Xu, Yudong Yang, Hannah Meusel, Zhibin Wang, Nan Ma, Yusheng Wu, Meng Li, Jonathan Williams, Thorsten Hoffmann, Markus Ammann, Ulrich Pöschl, Min Shao, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2209–2232,Short summary
VOCs play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. Emission and deposition on soil have been suggested as important sources and sinks of atmospheric trace gases. The exchange characteristics and heterogeneous chemistry of VOCs on soil, however, are not well understood. We used a newly designed differential coated-wall flow tube system to investigate the long-term variability of bidirectional air–soil exchange of 13 VOCs at ambient air conditions of an urban background site in Beijing.
Dongjie Shang, Min Hu, Jing Zheng, Yanhong Qin, Zhuofei Du, Mengren Li, Jingyao Fang, Jianfei Peng, Yusheng Wu, Sihua Lu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15687–15703,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) activities have a great impact on the particle number size distribution in the upper troposphere of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), which could affect regional and global climate. We found that the cloud condensation nuclei concentration was 2–8 times higher during BB influenced periods than during clean periods on the TP. An unexpectedly low new particle formation frequency was found in clean atmosphere on the TP, due to low concentrations of anthropogenic precursors, i.e., SO2.
Daocheng Gong, Hao Wang, Shenyang Zhang, Yu Wang, Shaw Chen Liu, Hai Guo, Min Shao, Congrong He, Duohong Chen, Lingyan He, Lei Zhou, Lidia Morawska, Yuanhang Zhang, and Boguang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14417–14432,Short summary
The complex air pollution in the air-polluted Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China has significantly elevated the background atmospheric oxidative capacity of the adjacent forests and subsequently lowered the levels of important biogenic volatile organic compounds, such as isoprene, which probably affect the regional air quality and ecological environment in the long term.
Yee Jun Tham, Zhe Wang, Qinyi Li, Weihao Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Keding Lu, Nan Ma, Chao Yan, Simonas Kecorius, Alfred Wiedensohler, Yuanhang Zhang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13155–13171,Short summary
This study addresses the limited understanding of heterogeneous N2O5 uptake and ClNO2 production in the polluted environment of China. The results showed that N2O5 uptake and ClNO2 yield cannot be well explained by previous parameterizations and were largely influenced by factors like aerosol water content and biomass burning emission. Our findings illuminate the need to realistically parameterize these heterogeneous processes for better simulation of photochemical and haze pollution in China.
Weiqiang Yang, Yanli Zhang, Xinming Wang, Sheng Li, Ming Zhu, Qingqing Yu, Guanghui Li, Zhonghui Huang, Huina Zhang, Zhenfeng Wu, Wei Song, Jihua Tan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12663–12682,Short summary
We present observation-based evaluations of the reduction of ambient VOCs under intervention control measures during APEC China 2014 in Beijing and the contributions of emissions from domestic solid fuel burning to ambient VOCs during winter heating. Controlling vehicle exhaust and solvent use was found to be effective in reducing ambient VOCs in non-heating periods, and controlling emissions from residential burning of solid fuels became much more important during winter heating.
Zhaofeng Tan, Franz Rohrer, Keding Lu, Xuefei Ma, Birger Bohn, Sebastian Broch, Huabin Dong, Hendrik Fuchs, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Ying Liu, Yuhan Liu, Anna Novelli, Min Shao, Haichao Wang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12391–12411,Short summary
We present the first wintertime OH, HO2, and RO2 measurements in Beijing, China. OH concentrations are nearly 2-fold larger than those observed in foreign cities during wintertime. The high OH and large OH reactivities indicate photochemical processes can be effective even during wintertime. A box model largely underestimated HO2 and RO2 concentrations during pollution episodes correlated with high NOx, indicating a deficit current chemistry in the high NOx regime.
Xiao-Feng Huang, Bei-Bing Zou, Ling-Yan He, Min Hu, André S. H. Prévôt, and Yuan-Hang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11563–11580,Short summary
A novel multilinear engine (ME-2) model was applied to the PM2.5 dataset observed in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China in 2015 and identified the sources of secondary sulfate (21 %), vehicle emissions (14 %), industrial emissions (13 %), secondary nitrate (11 %), biomass burning (11 %), secondary organic aerosol (7 %), coal burning (6 %), fugitive dust (5 %), ship emissions (3 %) and aged sea salt (2 %). The central PRD area was clearly identified as the key emission area in the PRD.
Jun Duan, Min Qin, Bin Ouyang, Wu Fang, Xin Li, Keding Lu, Ke Tang, Shuaixi Liang, Fanhao Meng, Zhaokun Hu, Pinhua Xie, Wenqing Liu, and Rolf Häsler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4531–4543,Short summary
We report a custom-built instrument for simultaneous unambiguous measurements of HONO and NO2 based on incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS). The current IBBCEAS instrument has made significant improvements in terms of efficient sampling as well as resistance against vibration; temperature change and the measurement precisions (2σ) for HONO are about 180 and 340 ppt in 30 s, respectively. The field inter-comparison and the mobile measurements are present.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Song Guo, Yuchen Wang, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Wenfei Zhu, Rongzhi Tang, Xiao Li, Ying Liu, Michael Le Breton, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Yusheng Wu, Zhijun Wu, Yu Song, Shengrong Lou, Mattias Hallquist, and Jianzhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10693–10713,Short summary
The overall characteristics and concentrations of organosulfates (OSs) and nitrooxy-OSs (NOSs) were determined in summer in Beijing. This study provided direct observational evidence that OSs form via acid-catalyzed aqueous-phase reactions in the presence of acidic sulfate aerosols, and monoterpene NOSs form via nighttime NO3 oxidation. Using OSs and NOSs as examples, this work highlights the formation pathways of SOA via anthropogenic–biogenic interactions and organic–inorganic reactions.
Haichao Wang, Keding Lu, Xiaorui Chen, Qindan Zhu, Zhijun Wu, Yusheng Wu, and Kang Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10483–10495,Short summary
The vertical measurement of NOx and O3 was carried out on a movable carriage on a tower during a winter heavy-haze episode in urban Beijing, China. We found that pNO3- formation via N2O5 uptake was significant at high altitudes (e.g., > 150 m), which was supported by the lower total oxidant (NO2 + O3) level at high altitudes than at ground level. This study highlights the fact that pNO3- formation via N2O5 uptake may be an important source of pNO3- in the urban airshed during wintertime.
Haichao Wang, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Dongjie Shang, Zhaofeng Tan, Yujue Wang, Michael Le Breton, Shengrong Lou, Mingjin Tang, Yusheng Wu, Wenfei Zhu, Jing Zheng, Limin Zeng, Mattias Hallquist, Min Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9705–9721,Short summary
N2O5, ClNO2, and particulate nitrate were measured simultaneously in Beijing, China, in 2016. The elevated N2O5 uptake coefficient and ClNO2 yield were determined, which suggest fast N2O5 uptake in Beijing. We highlight that the NO3 oxidation in nocturnal VOC degradation is efficient, with fast formation of organic nitrates. More studies are needed to investigate NO3–N2O5 chemistry and its contribution to secondary organic aerosol formation.
Zhuofei Du, Min Hu, Jianfei Peng, Wenbin Zhang, Jing Zheng, Fangting Gu, Yanhong Qin, Yudong Yang, Mengren Li, Yusheng Wu, Min Shao, and Shijin Shuai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9011–9023,Short summary
By combining approaches involving chassis dynamometer measurements and environmental chamber simulations, we find that gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles contribute more primary aerosol and secondary organic aerosol than port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles. Our results highlight the considerable potential contribution of GDI vehicles to urban air pollution, since the market share of GDI vehicles will dominate over that of PFI vehicles in the future.
Liwei Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Rongrong Gu, Hao Wang, Lan Yao, Liang Wen, Fanping Zhu, Weihao Wang, Likun Xue, Lingxiao Yang, Keding Lu, Jianmin Chen, Tao Wang, Yuanghang Zhang, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4349–4359,Short summary
This study presents concentrations, variation characteristics, sources and secondary formations of nitrated phenols, a major component of brown carbon, in typical seasons at four sites in northern China. The results highlight the strong influences and contributions of anthropogenic activities, in particular coal combustion and the aging processes, to the atmospheric nitrated phenols in this region.
Rongzhi Tang, Zepeng Wu, Xiao Li, Yujue Wang, Dongjie Shang, Yao Xiao, Mengren Li, Limin Zeng, Zhijun Wu, Mattias Hallquist, Min Hu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4055–4068,Short summary
We used CMB and the tracer yield method to apportion organic sources in Beijing. Vehicular emissions served as the dominant source, and the contributions of all the other primary sources decreased. One interesting result is that in contrast to the SOA from other regions in the world where biogenic SOA was dominant, anthropogenic SOA was the major contributor to SOA, implying that deducting anthropogenic VOC emissions is an efficient way to reduce SOA in Beijing.
Guo Li, Hang Su, Uwe Kuhn, Hannah Meusel, Markus Ammann, Min Shao, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2669–2686,Short summary
Coated-wall flow tube reactors are frequently used to investigate gas uptake and heterogeneous or multiphase reaction kinetics under laminar flow conditions. In previous applications, the effects of coating surface roughness on flow conditions were not well quantified. In this study, a criterion is proposed to eliminate/minimize the potential effects of coating surface roughness on laminar flow in coated-wall flow tube experiments and validate the applications of diffusion correction methods.
Pengfei Liang, Tong Zhu, Yanhua Fang, Yingruo Li, Yiqun Han, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, and Junxia Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13921–13940,Short summary
The generalized linear regression model (GLM), even based only on meteorological parameters, could be satisfactory to estimate the contribution of meteorological conditions in reducing air pollution and hence the contribution of control strategies in reducing air pollution. Using the GLM, we found that the meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies contributed 30 % and 28 % to the reduction of the PM2.5 concentration during APEC 2014 and 38 % and 25 % during Parade 2015.
Hendrik Fuchs, Anna Novelli, Michael Rolletter, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Stephan Kessel, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams, Vincent Michoud, Sebastien Dusanter, Nadine Locoge, Nora Zannoni, Valerie Gros, Francois Truong, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Danny R. Cryer, Charlotte A. Brumby, Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Paul W. Seakins, Dwayne E. Heard, Coralie Schoemaecker, Marion Blocquet, Sebastien Coudert, Sebastien Batut, Christa Fittschen, Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, Cheryl Ernest, Hartwig Harder, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Thomas Elste, Dagmar Kubistin, Stefanie Andres, Birger Bohn, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Qi Zou, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4023–4053,Short summary
Hydroxyl radical reactivity (k(OH)) is closely related to processes that lead to the formation of oxidised, secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosol. In order to compare the performances of instruments measuring k(OH), experiments were conducted in the simulation chamber SAPHIR. Chemical conditions were chosen either to be representative of the atmosphere or to test potential limitations of instruments. Overall, the results show that instruments are capable of measuring k(OH).
Mingjin Tang, Xin Huang, Keding Lu, Maofa Ge, Yongjie Li, Peng Cheng, Tong Zhu, Aijun Ding, Yuanhang Zhang, Sasho Gligorovski, Wei Song, Xiang Ding, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11727–11777,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive and critical review of laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake of OH, NO3, O3, and their directly related species by mineral dust particles. The atmospheric importance of heterogeneous uptake as sinks for these species is also assessed. In addition, we have outlined major open questions and challenges in this field and discussed research strategies to address them.
Jianfei Peng, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Yinhui Wang, Jing Zheng, Wenbin Zhang, Yudong Yang, Yanhong Qin, Rong Zheng, Yao Xiao, Yusheng Wu, Sihua Lu, Zhijun Wu, Song Guo, Hongjun Mao, and Shijin Shuai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10743–10752,Short summary
Through an environmental chamber approach, we find that a small increase in aromatic content in gasoline fuel will result in a large enhancement in the secondary organic aerosol formation from vehicle exhaust. The higher emissions of both monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic organic compounds from the high-aromatic fuel played an essential role. Our findings highlight the importance of more stringent regulation of gasoline aromatic content for air quality in urban areas.
Qingfeng Guo, Min Hu, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Jianfei Peng, and Yusheng Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10395–10403,Short summary
To characterize primary emissions over the eastern coast of China, a series of field campaigns were conducted. The high loadings of both BC and CO implied severe anthropogenic pollution over the areas. The slopes between BC and CO at different areas revealed the vehicular emission as the common source and the distinct fuel structures between North and South China. The comparisons of slopes and correlation coefficient among these areas can indicate the aging extent of BC at the macroscopic level.
Jianfei Peng, Min Hu, Song Guo, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Jing Zheng, Jun Zheng, Limin Zeng, Min Shao, Yusheng Wu, Don Collins, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10333–10348,Short summary
Rapid growth of BC particles was observed in Beijing using a new outdoor chamber, with an average growth rate of 26 ± 11 nm h−1. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounted for more than 90 % of the coating mass. The hygroscopic growth factor of BC particles increased to 1.06–1.08 upon ageing. The κ (kappa) values for BC particles were calculated as only 0.035, indicating that initial photochemical ageing of BC particles does not appreciably alter the particle hygroscopicity in Beijing.
Wei Hu, Min Hu, Wei-Wei Hu, Jing Zheng, Chen Chen, Yusheng Wu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9979–10000,Short summary
Seasonal changes in chemical compositions, sources, and evolution for submicron aerosols in the megacity Beijing were investigated based on high-resolution AMS measurements. Carbonaceous fraction (OA+BC) constituted over 50 % of PM1 in autumn due to primary emissions, while SNA contributed 60 % to PM1 in other seasons. Secondary components (OOA+SNA) contributed ~ 60–80 % to PM1, suggesting that secondary formation played an important role in PM pollution. OA was in a relatively high oxidation state.
Yudong Yang, Min Shao, Stephan Keßel, Yue Li, Keding Lu, Sihua Lu, Jonathan Williams, Yuanhang Zhang, Liming Zeng, Anke C. Nölscher, Yusheng Wu, Xuemei Wang, and Junyu Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7127–7142,Short summary
Total OH reactivity is an important parameter to evaluate understanding of atmospheric chemistry, especially the VOC contribution to air pollution. Measured by comparative reactivity methods, total OH reactivity in Beijing and Heshan revealed significant differences between measured and calculated results, such as missing reactivity, which were related to unmeasured primary or secondary species. This missing reactivity would introduce a 21–30 % underestimation for ozone production efficiency.
Jing Zheng, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Zhaoheng Gong, Yanhong Qin, Jingyao Fang, Fangting Gu, Mengren Li, Jianfei Peng, Jie Li, Yuqia Zhang, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Yusheng Wu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6853–6864,Short summary
By monitoring aerosol properties as a function of high-resolution chemical composition, this study sheds light on the evolution processes of particles in the Tibetan Plateau background environment during the pre-monsoon season. A positive matrix factorization analysis integrated with a mesoscale meteorological model clearly shows that the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau was affected by air pollutants transported from active biomass burning areas in South Asia.
Martin Kaminski, Hendrik Fuchs, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Theo Brauers, Hans-Peter Dorn, Rolf Häseler, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Xin Li, Anna Lutz, Sascha Nehr, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Luc Vereecken, Robert Wegener, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6631–6650,Short summary
Monoterpenes emitted by trees are among the volatile organic compounds with the highest global emission rates. The atmospheric degradation of the monoterpene β-pinene was investigated in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich under low NOx and atmospheric β-pinene concentrations. While the budget of OH was balanced, both OH and HO2 concentrations were underestimated in the simulation results. These observations suggest the existence of unaccounted sources of HO2.
Huan Yao, Yu Song, Mingxu Liu, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Douglas Lowe, Gordon McFiggans, Tingting Xu, Pin Du, Jianfeng Li, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Chun Zhao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5205–5219,
Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Keding Lu, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Birger Bohn, Sebastian Broch, Huabin Dong, Sebastian Gomm, Rolf Häseler, Lingyan He, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Ying Liu, Sihua Lu, Franz Rohrer, Min Shao, Baolin Wang, Ming Wang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Yinsong Zhang, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 663–690,Short summary
In this study, we performed accurate OH measurements as well as selective HO2 and RO2 measurements at a rural site in North China Plain with state-of-the-art instruments newly developed. We confirmed the previous discovery on the enhancement of the OH in low NOx with which little O3 production was associated, and we found a missing RO2 source in high NOx which promoted higher O3 production. Our results are of vital importance for ozone abatement strategies currently under discussion for China.
Hendrik Fuchs, Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Birger Bohn, Sebastian Broch, Steven S. Brown, Huabin Dong, Sebastian Gomm, Rolf Häseler, Lingyan He, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Ying Liu, Sihua Lu, Kyung-Eun Min, Franz Rohrer, Min Shao, Baolin Wang, Ming Wang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Yinson Zhang, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 645–661,Short summary
OH reactivity was measured during a 1-month long campaign at a rural site in the North China Plain in 2014. OH reactivity measurements are compared to calculations using OH reactant measurements. Good agreement is found indicating that all important OH reactants were measured. In addition, the chemical OH budget is analyzed. In contrast to previous campaigns in China in 2006, no significant imbalance between OH production and destruction is found.
Kirsti Ashworth, Serena H. Chung, Karena A. McKinney, Ying Liu, J. William Munger, Scot T. Martin, and Allison L. Steiner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15461–15484,
Yee Jun Tham, Zhe Wang, Qinyi Li, Hui Yun, Weihao Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Likun Xue, Keding Lu, Nan Ma, Birger Bohn, Xin Li, Simonas Kecorius, Johannes Größ, Min Shao, Alfred Wiedensohler, Yuanhang Zhang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14959–14977,Short summary
This work addresses the unclear global significance of chlorine activation processes in the troposphere. The first high-quality measurement data set of ClNO2 in northern China revealed strong ClNO2 production in the residual layers, and demonstrated its significant effects on radical budget and ozone production. Our findings imply the widespread effects of ClNO2 over the polluted regions of northern China, which may increase photochemical and haze pollution.
Wei Hu, Min Hu, Wei-Wei Hu, Hongya Niu, Jing Zheng, Yusheng Wu, Wentai Chen, Chen Chen, Lingyu Li, Min Shao, Shaodong Xie, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13213–13230,Short summary
An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight AMS was deployed at a suburban site in the Sichuan Basin, southwestern China, under high emission intensity, and unique geographical and adverse meteorological conditions. OA was the most abundant component (36 %) in PM1, characterized by a relatively high oxidation state. The contributions of BBOA and BC to PM1 were high in primary emission episodes, highlighting the critical influence of biomass burning.
Yi Zhu, Jiping Zhang, Junxia Wang, Wenyuan Chen, Yiqun Han, Chunxiang Ye, Yingruo Li, Jun Liu, Limin Zeng, Yusheng Wu, Xinfeng Wang, Wenxing Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12551–12565,Short summary
With five repeated experiments using a mobile laboratory, we obtained the spatial distribution of major air pollutants over the surface of the North China Plain (NCP). All the pollutants were at high levels, with pollutant peak values in nearby major cities and along transport routes. With simulated wind fields, we identified the prevalent transport routes of air pollutants on different parts of the NCP, reflecting the transport of air pollution between megacities and surrounding regions.
Yin Wang, Zhongming Chen, Qinqin Wu, Hao Liang, Liubin Huang, Huan Li, Keding Lu, Yusheng Wu, Huabin Dong, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10985–11000,Short summary
Comparison of modeled and measured peroxide concentrations at a rural site in the summer North China Plain demonstrated an underestimation during biomass burning events and an overestimation on haze days, which were related to the direct production of peroxides from biomass burning and the heterogeneous uptake of peroxides by aerosols, respectively. Our findings are of great significance for comprehensively understanding the chemical budget of atmospheric peroxides in detail.
Guo Li, Hang Su, Xin Li, Uwe Kuhn, Hannah Meusel, Thorsten Hoffmann, Markus Ammann, Ulrich Pöschl, Min Shao, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10299–10311,Short summary
Indoor and outdoor formaldehyde (HCHO) are both of considerable concern because of its health effects and its role in atmospheric chemistry. The heterogeneous reactions between gaseous HCHO with soils can pose important impact on both HCHO budget and soil ecosystem. Our results confirms that HCHO uptake by soil is a complex process involving both adsorption/desorption and chemical reactions. Soil and soil-derived airborne particles can either act as a source or a sink for HCHO.
Xuekun Fang, Min Shao, Andreas Stohl, Qiang Zhang, Junyu Zheng, Hai Guo, Chen Wang, Ming Wang, Jiamin Ou, Rona L. Thompson, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3369–3382,Short summary
This is the first study reporting top-down estimates of benzene and toluene emissions in southern China using atmospheric measurement data from a rural site in the area, an atmospheric transport model and an inverse modeling method. This study shows in detail the temporal and spatial differences between the inversion estimate and four different bottom-up emission inventories (RCP, REAS, MEIC; Yin et al., 2015). We propose that more observations are urgently needed in future.
Yaning Kang, Mingxu Liu, Yu Song, Xin Huang, Huan Yao, Xuhui Cai, Hongsheng Zhang, Ling Kang, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoyuan Yan, Hong He, Qiang Zhang, Min Shao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2043–2058,Short summary
The multi-year (1980–2012) comprehensive ammonia emissions inventories were compiled for China on 1 km × 1 km grid. Various realistic parameters (ambient temperature, wind speed, soil acidity, synthetic fertilizer types, etc.) were considered in these inventories to synthetically refine the emission factors of ammonia volatilization according to local agricultural practice. This paper shows the interannual trend and spatial distribution of ammonia emissions in details over recent decades.
K.-E. Min, R. A. Washenfelder, W. P. Dubé, A. O. Langford, P. M. Edwards, K. J. Zarzana, J. Stutz, K. Lu, F. Rohrer, Y. Zhang, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 423–440,Short summary
We have developed a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for field measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO, and NO2 are 34, 350, and 80 parts per trillion (pptv) in 5 s, with accuracy of 5.8, 9.0 and 5.0 %.
Y. R. Yang, X. G. Liu, Y. Qu, J. L. An, R. Jiang, Y. H. Zhang, Y. L. Sun, Z. J. Wu, F. Zhang, W. Q. Xu, and Q. X. Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8165–8178,
Y. Liu, B. Yuan, X. Li, M. Shao, S. Lu, Y. Li, C.-C. Chang, Z. Wang, W. Hu, X. Huang, L. He, L. Zeng, M. Hu, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3045–3062,
M. Wang, M. Shao, W. Chen, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Yuan, Q. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-C. Chang, B. Wang, L. Zeng, M. Hu, Y. Yang, and Y. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1489–1502,
J. Kaiser, G. M. Wolfe, B. Bohn, S. Broch, H. Fuchs, L. N. Ganzeveld, S. Gomm, R. Häseler, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, J. Jäger, X. Li, I. Lohse, K. Lu, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Rohrer, R. Wegener, R. Wolf, T. F. Mentel, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. Wahner, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1289–1298,Short summary
Using measurements acquired from a Zeppelin airship during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign, we show that VOC oxidation alone cannot account for the formaldehyde concentrations observed in the morning over rural Italy. Vertical profiles suggest a ground-level source of HCHO. Incorporating this additional HCHO source into a photochemical model increases calculated O3 production by as much as 12%.
X. Li, F. Rohrer, T. Brauers, A. Hofzumahaus, K. Lu, M. Shao, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12291–12305,
B. Bonn, E. Bourtsoukidis, T. S. Sun, H. Bingemer, L. Rondo, U. Javed, J. Li, R. Axinte, X. Li, T. Brauers, H. Sonderfeld, R. Koppmann, A. Sogachev, S. Jacobi, and D. V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10823–10843,
H. Fuchs, I.-H. Acir, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, H.-P. Dorn, R. Häseler, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, M. Kaminski, X. Li, K. Lu, A. Lutz, S. Nehr, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, R. Wegener, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7895–7908,
Z. J. Lin, Z. S. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Tao, R. J. Zhang, J. J. Cao, S. J. Fan, and Y. H. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7631–7644,
S. Nehr, B. Bohn, H.-P. Dorn, H. Fuchs, R. Häseler, A. Hofzumahaus, X. Li, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6941–6952,
Q. Zhang, B. Yuan, M. Shao, X. Wang, S. Lu, K. Lu, M. Wang, L. Chen, C.-C. Chang, and S. C. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6089–6101,
M. Wang, M. Shao, W. Chen, B. Yuan, S. Lu, Q. Zhang, L. Zeng, and Q. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5871–5891,
M. Li, Q. Zhang, D. G. Streets, K. B. He, Y. F. Cheng, L. K. Emmons, H. Huo, S. C. Kang, Z. Lu, M. Shao, H. Su, X. Yu, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5617–5638,
J. Kaiser, X. Li, R. Tillmann, I. Acir, F. Holland, F. Rohrer, R. Wegener, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1571–1580,
K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, T. Brauers, A. Oebel, R. Dlugi, M. Hu, X. Li, S. R. Lou, M. Shao, T. Zhu, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4979–4999,
W. T. Chen, M. Shao, S. H. Lu, M. Wang, L. M. Zeng, B. Yuan, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3047–3062,
Z. B. Wang, M. Hu, D. Mogensen, D. L. Yue, J. Zheng, R. Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, B. Yuan, X. Li, M. Shao, L. Zhou, Z. J. Wu, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11157–11167,
W. W. Hu, M. Hu, B. Yuan, J. L. Jimenez, Q. Tang, J. F. Peng, W. Hu, M. Shao, M. Wang, L. M. Zeng, Y. S. Wu, Z. H. Gong, X. F. Huang, and L. Y. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10095–10112,
C.-C. Chang, M. Shao, C. C. K. Chou, S.-C. Liu, J.-L. Wang, K.-Z. Lee, C.-H. Lai, T. Zhu, and P.-H. Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
B. Yuan, W. W. Hu, M. Shao, M. Wang, W. T. Chen, S. H. Lu, L. M. Zeng, and M. Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8815–8832,
Y. P. Li, H. Elbern, K. D. Lu, E. Friese, A. Kiendler-Scharr, Th. F. Mentel, X. S. Wang, A. Wahner, and Y. H. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6289–6304,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Trends, composition, and sources of carbonaceous aerosol at the Birkenes Observatory, northern Europe, 2001–2018Enhancement of nanoparticle formation and growth during the COVID-19 lockdown period in urban BeijingChemical composition and source attribution of sub-micrometre aerosol particles in the summertime Arctic lower troposphereIn-depth characterization of submicron particulate matter inter-annual variations at a street canyon site in northern EuropeMeasurement report: Firework impacts on air quality in Metro Manila, Philippines, during the 2019 New Year revelryChemical composition of PM2.5 in October 2017 Northern California wildfire plumesAtmospheric conditions and composition that influence PM2.5 oxidative potential in Beijing, ChinaOrganic aerosol volatility and viscosity in the North China Plain: contrast between summer and winterDisparities in particulate matter (PM10) origins and oxidative potential at a city scale (Grenoble, France) – Part 1: Source apportionment at three neighbouring sitesMeasurement report: Comparison of wintertime individual particles at ground level and above the mixed layer in urban BeijingAerosol characteristics at the Southern Great Plains site during the HI-SCALE campaignA two-component parameterization of marine ice-nucleating particles based on seawater biology and sea spray aerosol measurements in the Mediterranean SeaSeasonal variations in the highly time-resolved aerosol composition, sources and chemical processes of background submicron particles in the North China PlainConcerted measurements of lipids in seawater and on submicrometer aerosol particles at the Cabo Verde islands: biogenic sources, selective transfer and high enrichmentsMeasurement report: Long-range transport patterns into the tropical northwest Pacific during the CAMP2Ex aircraft campaign: chemical composition, size distributions, and the impact of convectionIdentification and source attribution of organic compounds in ultrafine particles near Frankfurt International AirportSource apportionment and impact of long-range transport on carbonaceous aerosol particles in central Germany during HCCT-2010Measurement report: PM2.5-bound nitrated aromatic compounds in Xi'an, Northwest China – seasonal variations and contributions to optical properties of brown carbonCompositions and mixing states of aerosol particles by aircraft observations in the Arctic springtime, 2018Measurement report: Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 during typical biomass burning season at an agricultural site of the North China PlainMeasurement report: Spatial variations in ionic chemistry and water-stable isotopes in the snowpack on glaciers across Svalbard during the 2015–2016 snow accumulation seasonOrganosulfates in atmospheric aerosols in Shanghai, China: seasonal and interannual variability, origin, and formation mechanismsMeasurement report: Hydrolyzed amino acids in fine and coarse atmospheric aerosol in Nanchang, China: concentrations, compositions, sources and possible bacterial degradation stateSulfuric acid–amine nucleation in urban BeijingPersistent residential burning-related primary organic particles during wintertime hazes in North China: insights into their aging and optical changesConcentrations, particle-size distributions, and dry deposition fluxes of aerosol trace elements over the Antarctic Peninsula in austral summerCharacteristics, primary sources and secondary formation of water-soluble organic aerosols in downtown BeijingMeasurement report: Effects of photochemical aging on the formation and evolution of summertime secondary aerosol in BeijingIncreased new particle yields with largely decreased probability of survival to CCN size at the summit of Mt. Tai under reduced SO2 emissionsPhysical and chemical properties of urban aerosols in São Paulo, Brazil: Links between composition and size distribution of submicron particlesEnhancement of secondary aerosol formation by reduced anthropogenic emissions during Spring Festival 2019 and enlightenment for regional PM2.5 control in BeijingLinking marine phytoplankton emissions, meteorological processes, and downwind particle properties with FLEXPARTHighly time-resolved measurements of element concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5: comparison of Delhi, Beijing, London, and KrakowMeasurement report: Molecular composition, optical properties, and radiative effects of water-soluble organic carbon in snowpack samples from Northern Xinjiang, ChinaAtmospheric evolution of emissions from a boreal forest fire: the formation of highly functionalized oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing organic compoundsConcerted measurements of free amino acids at the Cabo Verde islands: high enrichments in submicron sea spray aerosol particles and cloud dropletsInvestigating three patterns of new particles growing to the size of cloud condensation nuclei in Beijing's urban atmosphereCultivable, halotolerant ice nucleating bacteria and fungi in coastal precipitationSubstantial changes of gaseous pollutants and chemical compositions in fine particles in North China Plain during COVID-19 lockdown period: anthropogenic vs meteorological influencesMeasurement report: dual-carbon isotopic characterization of carbonaceous aerosol reveals different primary and secondary sources in Beijing and Xi'an during severe haze eventsNorth Atlantic marine organic aerosol characterized by novel offline thermal desorption mass spectrometry: polysaccharides, recalcitrant material, and secondary organicsSources and characteristics of size-resolved particulate organic acids and methanesulfonate in a coastal megacity: Manila, PhilippinesEffects of AIR pollution on cardiopuLmonary disEaSe in urban and peri-urban reSidents in Beijing: protocol for the AIRLESS studyChemical composition and source apportionment of atmospheric aerosols on the Namibian coastIncrease of secondary organic aerosol over four years in an urban environmentOptical source apportionment and radiative effect of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols in a tropical marine monsoon climate zone: the importance of ship emissionsMeasurement report: Seasonality, distribution and sources of organophosphate esters in PM2.5 from an inland urban city in Southwest ChinaNationwide increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ultrafine particles during winter over China revealed by size-segregated measurementsSize-resolved exposure risk of persistent free radicals (PFRs) in atmospheric aerosols and their potential sourcesSource apportionment of black carbon aerosols from light absorption observation and source-oriented modeling: an implication in a coastal city in China
Karl Espen Yttri, Francesco Canonaco, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Hans Gundersen, Anne-Gunn Hjellbrekke, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, André S. H. Prévôt, David Simpson, Sverre Solberg, Jason Surratt, Kjetil Tørseth, Hilde Uggerud, Marit Vadset, Xin Wan, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7149–7170,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosol sources and trends were studied at the Birkenes Observatory. A large decrease in elemental carbon (EC; 2001–2018) and a smaller decline in levoglucosan (2008–2018) suggest that organic carbon (OC)/EC from traffic/industry is decreasing, whereas the abatement of OC/EC from biomass burning has been less successful. Positive matrix factorization apportioned 72 % of EC to fossil fuel sources and 53 % (PM2.5) and 78 % (PM10–2.5) of OC to biogenic sources.
Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Fangqun Yu, Ying Wang, Junting Zhong, Yangmei Zhang, Xinyao Hu, Can Xia, Sinan Zhang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7039–7052,Short summary
In this work, we revealed the changes of PNSD and NPF events during the COVID-19 lockdown period in Beijing, China, to illustrate the impact of reduced primary emission and elavated atmospheric oxidized capicity on the nucleation and growth processes. The subsequent growth of nucleated particles and their contribution to the aerosol pollution formation were also explored, to highlight the necessity of controlling the nanoparticles in the future air quality management.
Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Megan D. Willis, Hannes Schulz, Daniel Kunkel, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Julia Burkart, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6509–6539,Short summary
We present in situ observations of vertically resolved particle chemical composition in the summertime Arctic lower troposphere. Our analysis demonstrates the strong vertical contrast between particle properties within the boundary layer and aloft. Emissions from vegetation fires and anthropogenic sources in northern Canada, Europe, and East Asia influenced particle composition in the free troposphere. Organics detected in Arctic aerosol particles can partly be identified as dicarboxylic acids.
Luis M. F. Barreira, Aku Helin, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Milla Friman, Leena Kangas, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Anu Kousa, Liisa Pirjola, Topi Rönkkö, Sanna Saarikoski, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6297–6314,Short summary
We present results from the long-term measurements (5 years) of highly time-resolved atmospheric PM1 composition at an urban street canyon site. Overall, the results increased knowledge of the variability of PM1 concentration, composition, and sources in a traffic site and the implications for urban air quality. The investigation of pollution episodes showed that both local and long-range-transported pollutants can still cause elevated PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations in northern Europe.
Genevieve Rose Lorenzo, Paola Angela Bañaga, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Mojtaba AzadiAghdam, Avelino Arellano, Grace Betito, Rachel Braun, Andrea F. Corral, Hossein Dadashazar, Eva-Lou Edwards, Edwin Eloranta, Robert Holz, Gabrielle Leung, Lin Ma, Alexander B. MacDonald, Jeffrey S. Reid, James Bernard Simpas, Connor Stahl, Shane Marie Visaga, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6155–6173,Short summary
Firework emissions change the physicochemical and optical properties of water-soluble particles, which subsequently alters the background aerosol’s respirability, influence on surroundings, ability to uptake gases, and viability as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). There was heavy aerosol loading due to fireworks in the boundary layer. The aerosol constituents were largely water-soluble and submicrometer in size due to both inorganic salts in firework materials and gas-to-particle conversion.
Yutong Liang, Coty N. Jen, Robert J. Weber, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5719–5737,Short summary
This article reports the molecular composition of smoke particles people in SF Bay Area were exposed to during northern California wildfires in Oct. 2017. Major components are sugars, acids, aromatics, and terpenoids. These observations can be used to better understand health impacts of smoke exposure. Tracer compounds indicate which fuels burned, including diterpenoids for softwood and syringyls for hardwood. A statistical analysis reveals a group of secondary compounds formed in daytime aging.
Steven J. Campbell, Kate Wolfer, Battist Utinger, Joe Westwood, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sarah S. Steimer, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Nicholas Straw, Steven Thomson, Atallah Elzein, Yele Sun, Di Liu, Linjie Li, Pingqing Fu, Alastair C. Lewis, Roy M. Harrison, William J. Bloss, Miranda Loh, Mark R. Miller, Zongbo Shi, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5549–5573,Short summary
In this study, we quantify PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP), a metric widely suggested as a potential measure of particle toxicity, in Beijing in summer and winter using four acellular assays. We correlate PM2.5 OP with a comprehensive range of atmospheric and particle composition measurements, demonstrating inter-assay differences and seasonal variation of PM2.5 OP. Using multivariate statistical analysis, we highlight specific particle chemical components and sources that influence OP.
Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Ying Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Eleni Karnezi, Spyros N. Pandis, Conghui Xie, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Jiang Zhu, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5463–5476,Short summary
Here aerosol volatility and viscosity at a rural site (Gucheng) and an urban site (Beijing) in the North China Plain (NCP) were investigated in summer and winter. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) in winter in the NCP is more volatile than that in summer due to enhanced primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. We also found that OA existed mainly as a solid in winter in Beijing but as semisolids in Beijing in summer and Gucheng in winter.
Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Gaëlle Uzu, Véronique Jacob, Trishalee Cañete, Steve Micallef, Cécile Trébuchon, Rémy Slama, Olivier Favez, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5415–5437,Short summary
This study focuses on fully discriminating the origins of particulates by tackling specific secondary organic aerosol (SOA) sources that are difficult to resolve using traditional datasets, especially at a city scale. This is done through the use of additional fit-for-purpose tracers in the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model, which can be obtained using simpler and more targeted techniques, and the comparison of the PMF models from sites in close range but with different urban typologies.
Wenhua Wang, Longyi Shao, Claudio Mazzoleni, Yaowei Li, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Janarjan Bhandari, Jiaoping Xing, Xiaolei Feng, Mengyuan Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5301–5314,Short summary
We compared the characteristics of individual particles at ground level and above the mixed-layer height. We found that the particles above the mixed-layer height during haze periods are more aged compared to ground level. More coal-combustion-related primary organic particles were found above the mixed-layer height. We suggest that the particles above the mixed-layer height are affected by the surrounding areas, and once mixed down to the ground, they might contribute to ground air pollution.
Jiumeng Liu, Liz Alexander, Jerome D. Fast, Rodica Lindenmaier, and John E. Shilling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5101–5116,Short summary
To bridge the gaps in modeling and observational results due to insufficient understanding of aerosol properties, co-located measurements of aerosols and trace gases were conducted at SGP during the HI-SCALE campaign. Organic aerosols at the SGP site exhibited to be highly oxidized, and biogenic emissions appear to largely control the formation of organic aerosols. Seasonal variations of sources and meteorological impacts likely resulted in the highly oxygenated feature of aerosols.
Jonathan V. Trueblood, Alessia Nicosia, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Matteo Rinaldi, Evelyn Freney, Melilotus Thyssen, Ingrid Obernosterer, Julie Dinasquet, Franco Belosi, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Araceli Rodriguez-Romero, Gianni Santachiara, Cécile Guieu, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4659–4676,Short summary
Sea spray aerosols (SSAs) can be an important source of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) that impact cloud properties over the oceans. In the Mediterranean Sea, we found that the INPs in the seawater surface microlayer increased by an order of magnitude after a rain dust event that impacted iron and bacterial abundances. The INP properties of SSA (INPSSA) increased after a 3 d delay. Outside this event, INPSSA could be parameterized as a function of the seawater biogeochemistry.
Jiayun Li, Liming Cao, Wenkang Gao, Lingyan He, Yingchao Yan, Yuexin He, Yuepeng Pan, Dongsheng Ji, Zirui Liu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4521–4539,Short summary
For the first time, we investigated the highly time-resolved chemical characterization, sources and evolution of atmospheric submicron aerosols at a regional background site in the North China Plain (NCP) using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer and evaluated the seasonal differentials of photochemical and aqueous-phase processing on SOA composition and oxidation degree of OA. The results will help to understand air pollution in the NCP on a regional scale.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Sanja Frka, Christian Stolle, Tobias Spranger, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Blaženka Gašparović, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4267–4283,Short summary
To investigate the source of lipids and their representatives in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements of seawater and submicrometer aerosol particle sampling were carried out on the Cabo Verde islands. This field study describes the biogenic sources of lipids, their selective transfer from the ocean into the atmosphere and their enrichment as part of organic matter. A strong enrichment of the studied representatives of the lipid classes on submicrometer aerosol particles was observed.
Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Ewan Crosbie, Michael Shook, Jeffrey S. Reid, Maria Obiminda L. Cambaliza, James Bernard B. Simpas, Luke Ziemba, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Phu Nguyen, F. Joseph Turk, Edward Winstead, Claire E. Robinson, Jian Wang, Jiaoshi Zhang, Yang Wang, Subin Yoon, James Flynn, Sergio L. Alvarez, Ali Behrangi, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3777–3802,Short summary
This study characterizes long-range transport from major Asian pollution sources into the tropical northwest Pacific and the impact of scavenging on these air masses. We combined aircraft observations, HYSPLIT trajectories, reanalysis, and satellite retrievals to reveal distinct composition and size distribution profiles associated with specific emission sources and wet scavenging. The results of this work have implications for international policymaking related to climate and health.
Florian Ungeheuer, Dominik van Pinxteren, and Alexander L. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3763–3775,Short summary
We analysed the chemical composition of ultrafine particles from 10–56 nm near Frankfurt Airport based on cascade impactor samples. We used an offline non-target screening to determine size-resolved molecular fingerprints. Unambiguous attribution of two homologous ester series to jet engine oils enables a new strategy of source attribution and explains the majority of the detected compounds. In addition, we identified additives of jet oils and a detrimental thermal transformation product.
Laurent Poulain, Benjamin Fahlbusch, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Zhijun Wu, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Wolfram Birmili, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3667–3684,Short summary
We present results from source apportionment analysis on the carbonaceous aerosol particles, including organic aerosol (OA) and equivalent black carbon (eBC), allowing us to distinguish local emissions from long-range transport for OA and eBC sources. By merging online chemical measurements and considering particle number size distribution, the different air masses reaching the sampling place were described and discussed, based on their respective chemical composition and size distribution.
Wei Yuan, Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Ting Wang, Jing Duan, Jie Guo, Haiyan Ni, Yang Chen, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Ulrike Dusek, Colin O'Dowd, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3685–3697,Short summary
We characterized the seasonal variations in nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) in composition, sources, and their light absorption contribution to brown carbon (BrC) aerosol in Xi'an, Northwest China. Our results show that secondary formation and vehicular emission were dominant sources in summer (~80 %), and biomass burning and coal combustion were major sources in winter (~75 %), and they indicate that the composition and sources of NACs have a profound impact on the light absorption of BrC
Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Sho Ohata, Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, and Makoto Koike
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3607–3626,Short summary
Aerosol particles influence the Arctic climate by interacting with solar radiation, forming clouds, and melting surface snow and ice. Individual-particle analyses using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and model simulations provide evidence of biomass burning and anthropogenic contributions to the Arctic aerosols by showing a wide range of compositions and mixing states depending on sampling altitude. Our results reveal the aerosol aging processes and climate influences in the Arctic.
Linlin Liang, Guenter Engling, Chang Liu, Wanyun Xu, Xuyan Liu, Yuan Cheng, Zhenyu Du, Gen Zhang, Junying Sun, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3181–3192,Short summary
A unique episode with extreme biomass burning (BB) impact, with daily concentration of levoglucosan as high as 4.37 µg m-3, was captured at an area upwind of Beijing. How this extreme BB pollution event was generated and what were the chemical properties of PM2.5 under this kind severe BB pollution level in the real atmospheric environment were both presented in this measurement report. Moreover, the variation of the ratios of BB tracers during different BB pollution periods was also exhibited.
Elena Barbaro, Krystyna Koziol, Mats P. Björkman, Carmen P. Vega, Christian Zdanowicz, Tonu Martma, Jean-Charles Gallet, Daniel Kępski, Catherine Larose, Bartłomiej Luks, Florian Tolle, Thomas V. Schuler, Aleksander Uszczyk, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3163–3180,Short summary
This paper shows the most comprehensive seasonal snow chemistry survey to date, carried out in April 2016 across 22 sites on 7 glaciers across Svalbard. The dataset consists of the concentration, mass loading, spatial and altitudinal distribution of major ion species (Ca2+, K+, Na2+, Mg2+, NH4+, SO42−, Br−, Cl− and NO3−), together with its stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition (δ18O and δ2H) in the snowpack. This study was part of the larger Community Coordinated Snow Study in Svalbard.
Yao Wang, Yue Zhao, Yuchen Wang, Jian-Zhen Yu, Jingyuan Shao, Ping Liu, Wenfei Zhu, Zhen Cheng, Ziyue Li, Naiqiang Yan, and Huayun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2959–2980,Short summary
Organosulfates (OSs) are important constituents and tracers of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the atmosphere. Here we characterized the OS species in ambient aerosols in Shanghai, China. We find that the contributions of OSs and SOAs to organic aerosols have increased in recent years and that OS production was largely controlled by the oxidant level (Ox), particularly in summer. We infer that mitigation of Ox pollution can effectively reduce the production of OSs and SOAs in eastern China.
Ren-Guo Zhu, Hua-Yun Xiao, Li Luo, Hongwei Xiao, Zequn Wen, Yuwen Zhu, Xiaozheng Fang, Yuanyuan Pan, and Zhenping Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2585–2600,Short summary
Amino acids (AAs), as important organic nitrogen compounds, play key roles in the nitrogen cycles, climate change and public health. The sources and transformation of AAs in two size-segregated aerosol particles were explored. This study presents the first isotopic evidence that the sources of AAs for fine and coarse aerosol particles may be similar. And the potentially significant role of bacterial degradation processes in aerosol protein degradation state was suggested.
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dantong Liu, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zongbo Shi, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2251–2265,Short summary
We found that large numbers of light-absorbing primary organic particles with high viscosity, especially tarballs, from domestic coal and biomass burning occurred in rural and even urban hazes in the winter of North China. For the first time, we characterized the atmospheric aging process of these burning-related primary organic particles by microscopic analysis and further evaluated their light absorption enhancement resulting from the “lensing effect” of secondary inorganic coatings.
Songyun Fan, Yuan Gao, Robert M. Sherrell, Shun Yu, and Kaixuan Bu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2105–2124,Short summary
Aerosol sampling was carried out at Palmer Station in the west Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer of 2016–2017. This study generated new data on the concentrations and particle-size distributions of aerosol trace elements in the marine atmosphere over this region. Measurement data allowed estimating the dry deposition fluxes. The new results are critically important to understanding the properties of aerosol particles and regional biogeochemical cycles.
Qing Yu, Jing Chen, Weihua Qin, Siming Cheng, Yuepeng Zhang, Yuewei Sun, Ke Xin, and Mushtaq Ahmad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1775–1796,Short summary
Water-soluble organic aerosols have significant impacts on haze formation, climate change and human health. This study investigated the characteristics of WSOC in PM2.5 in Beijing to compare the source contributions of different WSOC fractions and the influencing factors for different secondary components in WSOC. Our results help to propose control measures for WSOC during severe haze episodes and underline the importance of SOA properties and heterogeneous reactions in different seasons.
Tianzeng Chen, Jun Liu, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, Peng Zhang, Jinzhu Ma, Yongchun Liu, Cheng Zhong, Pengfei Liu, Yafei Wang, Yujing Mu, and Hong He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1341–1356,Short summary
Effects of photochemical aging on the formation and evolution of summertime secondary aerosol were systematically investigated in a suburb of Beijing. Higher PM1 concentration accompanied longer photochemical age (ta). Sulfate and more-oxidized OOA formation were significantly sensitive to the increase in ta, and their contributions were greatly enhanced at elevated ta levels. Our results suggested that photochemical aging process played a crucial role in PM1 and O3 pollution in summertime.
Yujiao Zhu, Likun Xue, Jian Gao, Jianmin Chen, Hongyong Li, Yong Zhao, Zhaoxin Guo, Tianshu Chen, Liang Wen, Penggang Zheng, Ye Shan, Xinfeng Wang, Tao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1305–1323,Short summary
This work investigates the long-term changes in new particle formation (NPF) events under reduced SO2 emissions at the summit of Mt. Tai during seven campaigns from 2007 to 2018. We found the NPF intensity increased 2- to 3-fold in 2018 compared to 2007. In contrast, the probability of new particles growing to CCN size largely decreased. Changes to biogenic VOCs and anthropogenic emissions are proposed to explain the distinct NPF characteristics.
Djacinto Monteiro dos Santos, Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Samara Carbone, Patrick Schlag, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), with very extensive biofuel use, has unique atmospheric chemistry among world megacities. In this study, we examine the complex relationships between aerosol chemical composition and particle size distribution. Our findings provide a better understanding of the dynamics of the physicochemical properties of submicron particles and highlight the key role of secondary organic aerosol formation in the pollution levels in São Paulo.
Yuying Wang, Zhanqing Li, Qiuyan Wang, Xiaoai Jin, Peng Yan, Maureen Cribb, Yanan Li, Cheng Yuan, Hao Wu, Tong Wu, Rongmin Ren, and Zhaoxin Cai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 915–926,Short summary
The unexpected increase in surface ozone concentration was found along with the reduced anthropogenic emissions during the 2019 Chinese Spring Festival in Beijing. The enhanced atmospheric oxidation capacity could promote the formation of secondary aerosols, especially sulfate, which offset the decrease in PM2.5 mass concentration. This phenomenon was likely to exist throughout the entire Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region to be a contributing factor to the haze during the COVID-19 lockdown.
Kevin J. Sanchez, Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, Georges Saliba, Chia-Li Chen, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Michael A. Shook, Ewan C. Crosbie, Luke D. Ziemba, Matthew D. Brown, Taylor J. Shingler, Claire E. Robinson, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Edward L. Winstead, Carolyn Jordan, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Jack Porter, Thomas G. Bell, Eric S. Saltzman, Michael J. Behrenfeld, and Richard H. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 831–851,Short summary
Models describing atmospheric airflow were combined with satellite measurements representative of marine phytoplankton and other meteorological variables. These combined variables were compared to measured aerosol to identify upwind influences on aerosol concentrations. Results indicate that phytoplankton production rates upwind impact the aerosol mass. Also, results suggest that the condensation of mass onto short-lived large sea spray particles may be a significant sink of aerosol mass.
Pragati Rai, Jay G. Slowik, Markus Furger, Imad El Haddad, Suzanne Visser, Yandong Tong, Atinderpal Singh, Günther Wehrle, Varun Kumar, Anna K. Tobler, Deepika Bhattu, Liwei Wang, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Ru-Jin Huang, Jaroslaw Necki, Junji Cao, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 717–730,Short summary
We present a simple conceptual framework based on elemental size distributions and enrichment factors that allows for a characterization of major sources, site-to-site similarities, and local differences and the identification of key information required for efficient policy development. Absolute concentrations are by far the highest in Delhi, followed by Beijing, and then the European cities.
Yue Zhou, Christopher P. West, Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Xiaoying Niu, Hui Wen, Jiecan Cui, Tenglong Shi, Wei Pu, Xin Wang, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in seasonal snow of northwestern China. We applied complementary multi-modal analytical techniques to investigate bulk and molecular-level composition, optical properties, and sources of WSOC. For the first time, we estimated the extent of radiative forcing due to WSOC in snow using model simulation, and showed profound influences of WSOC on the energy budget of mid-latitude seasonal snowpack.
Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, Tori N. Hass-Mitchell, Samar G. Moussa, Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, Patrick Lee, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 255–267,Short summary
Forest fires are an important source of reactive organic gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. We analyzed organic aerosols collected from an aircraft above a boreal forest fire and reported an increasing contribution from compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur as the plume aged, with sulfide and ring-bound nitrogen functionality. Our results demonstrated chemistry that is important in biomass burning but also in urban/developing regions with high local nitrogen and sulfur emissions.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Anja Engel, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 163–181,Short summary
To investigate the sources of free amino acids (FAAs) in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements (the simultaneous investigation of seawater, size-segregated aerosol particles and cloud water) were performed at the Cabo Verde islands. This study describes the transfer of FAAs as part of organic matter from the ocean into the atmosphere on a molecular level. In the investigated marine environment, a high enrichment of FAAs in submicron aerosol particles and in cloud droplets was observed.
Liya Ma, Yujiao Zhu, Mei Zheng, Yele Sun, Lei Huang, Xiaohuan Liu, Yang Gao, Yanjie Shen, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 183–200,Short summary
In this study, we investigate three patterns of new particles growing to CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) size, i.e., one-stage growth and two-stage growth-A and growth-B patterns. Combining the observations of gaseous pollutants and measured or modeled particulate chemical species, the three growth patterns were discussed regarding the spatial heterogeneity, formation of secondary aerosols, and evaporation of semivolatile particulates as was the survival probability of new particles to CCN size.
Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Meredith A. Fish, Julie Dinasquet, Gavin C. Cornwell, M. Dale Stokes, Michael D. Burkart, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties by triggering droplet freezing at relative humidities below or temperatures above the freezing point of water. The ocean is a significant INP source, yet the specific identities of marine INPs remain largely unknown. Here we identify 14 ice nucleating microbes from aerosol and precipitation samples collected at a coastal site in Southern California, two or more of which are marine.
Rui Li, Yilong Zhao, and Hongbo Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The rapid response to COVID-19 pandemic led to the unprecedented decreases of economic activities, thereby reducing the pollutant emissions. The strict lockdown measures significantly decreased primary components such as Cr (−201 %) and Fe (−154 %) in PM2.5, whereas the higher relative humidity (RH) and NH3 level, and the lower air temperature (T) enhanced the production of secondary aerosol including SO42− (47.2 %), NO3− (38.6 %), and NH4+ (22.7 %).
Haiyan Ni, Ru-Jin Huang, Max M. Cosijn, Lu Yang, Jie Guo, Junji Cao, and Ulrike Dusek
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16041–16053,Short summary
We investigated sources of carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing and Xi'an during severe winter haze. Elemental carbon (EC) was dominated by vehicle emissions in Xi’an and coal burning in Beijing. Organic carbon (OC) increment during haze days was driven by the increase in primary and secondary OC (SOC). SOC was more from fossil sources in Beijing than Xi’an, especially during haze days. In Xi’an, no strong day–night differences in EC or OC sources suggest a large accumulation of particles.
Michael J. Lawler, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Derek J. Coffman, Lucia M. Upchurch, and Eric S. Saltzman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16007–16022,Short summary
This work describes new measurements of aerosol (particles) composition over the North Atlantic Ocean. It provides concentrations of polysaccharide material likely made from organisms in the surface ocean and improves our understanding of the relative importance of such fresh biogenic material compared to more recalcitrant organic carbon in forming marine organic aerosol. We aim ultimately to understand the role that ocean biology plays in cloud formation in marine regions.
Connor Stahl, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Paola Angela Bañaga, Grace Betito, Rachel A. Braun, Mojtaba Azadi Aghdam, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Genevieve Rose Lorenzo, Alexander B. MacDonald, Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Preciosa Corazon Pabroa, John Robin Yee, James Bernard Simpas, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15907–15935,Short summary
Long-term (16-month) high-frequency (weekly) measurements of size-resolved aerosol composition are reported. Important insights are discussed about factors (e.g., transport, fires, precipitation, photo-oxidation) impacting the mass size distributions of organic and sulfonic acids at a coastal megacity with diverse meteorology. The size-resolved nature of the data yielded one such finding that organic acids preferentially adsorb to dust rather than sea salt particles.
Yiqun Han, Wu Chen, Lia Chatzidiakou, Anika Krause, Li Yan, Hanbin Zhang, Queenie Chan, Ben Barratt, Rod Jones, Jing Liu, Yangfeng Wu, Meiping Zhao, Junfeng Zhang, Frank J. Kelly, Tong Zhu, and the AIRLESS team
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15775–15792,Short summary
Panel studies might be the most suitable way to link intensive air monitoring campaigns for a wide range of pollutant species and personal exposure in different micro-environments, together with epidemiological studies of detailed biological changes in humans. Panel studies are intensive, but related papers are very limited. With the successful collection of a rich dataset, we believe AIRLESS sets a good example for the design of a multidisciplinary study.
Danitza Klopper, Paola Formenti, Andreas Namwoonde, Mathieu Cazaunau, Servanne Chevaillier, Anaïs Feron, Cécile Gaimoz, Patrick Hease, Fadi Lahmidi, Cécile Mirande-Bret, Sylvain Triquet, Zirui Zeng, and Stuart J. Piketh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15811–15833,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosol particles is very important as it determines to which extent they can affect the Earth's climate by acting with solar light and modifying the properties of clouds. The South Atlantic region is a remote and under-explored region to date where these effects could be important. The measurements presented in this paper consist in the analysis of samples collected at a coastal site in Namibia. The first long-term source apportionment is presented and discussed.
Marta Via, María Cruz Minguillón, Cristina Reche, Xavier Querol, and Andrés Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Atmospheric pollutants have been measured in an urban environment by means of state-of-the-art tecniques allowing to identify the origin and the sources of pollution. Last years are shown to be increasingly dominated by non-directly emitted particulate matter. Gathered knowledge about the sources of atmospheric pollutants is mandatory to design effective mitigation policies.
Qiyuan Wang, Huikun Liu, Ping Wang, Wenting Dai, Ting Zhang, Youzhi Zhao, Jie Tian, Wenyan Zhang, Yongming Han, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15537–15549,Short summary
Light-absorbing carbonaceous (LAC) aerosol is an important influencing factor for global climate forcing. In this study, we used a receptor model coupling multi-wavelength absorption with chemical species to explore the source-specific LAC optical properties at a tropical marine monsoon climate zone. The results can improve our understanding of the LAC radiative effects caused by ship emissions.
Hongling Yin, Jinfeng Liang, Di Wu, Shiping Li, Yi Luo, and Xu Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14933–14945,Short summary
Samples were collected from six ground-based sites located in Chengdu, a typical rapidly developing metropolitan area in Southwest China, and were analysed for seven OPEs in atmospheric PM2.5 (Σ7 OPEs). The concentrations of Σ7 OPEs were higher in autumn and winter than in summer. In contrast to coastal cities, sustained and stable high local emissions in the inland city studied were identified, which is particularly noteworthy.
Qingqing Yu, Xiang Ding, Quanfu He, Weiqiang Yang, Ming Zhu, Sheng Li, Runqi Zhang, Ruqin Shen, Yanli Zhang, Xinhui Bi, Yuesi Wang, Ping'an Peng, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14581–14595,Short summary
We carried out a 1-year PM concurrent observation at 12 sites across six regions of China, and size-segregated PAHs were measured. We found both PAHs and BaPeq were concentrated in PM1.1, and northern China had higher PAHs' pollution and inhalation cancer risk than southern China. Nationwide increases in both PAH levels and inhalation cancer risk occurred in winter. We suggest reducing coal and biofuel consumption in the residential sector is an important option to mitigate PAHs' health risks.
Qingcai Chen, Haoyao Sun, Wenhuai Song, Fang Cao, Chongguo Tian, and Yan-Lin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14407–14417,Short summary
This study found environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are widely present in atmospheric particles of different particle sizes and exhibit significant particle size distribution characteristics. EPFR concentrations are higher in coarse particles than in fine particles in summer and vice versa in winter. The potential toxicity caused by EPFRs may also vary with particle size and season. Combustion is the most important source of EPFRs (>70 %).
Junjun Deng, Hao Guo, Hongliang Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Xin Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14419–14435,Short summary
One-year source apportionment of BC aerosols in a coastal city in China was conducted with the light-absorption observation-based method and source-oriented model. Source contributions identified by the two source apportionment methods were compared. Temporal variability, potential sources and transport pathways of BC from fossil fuel and biomass burning were characterized. Significant influence of biomass burning in North and East–Central China on BC in the region was highlighted.
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During the past decade, China has devoted very substantial resources to improving the environment. These efforts have improved atmospheric particulate matter loading, but ambient ozone levels have continued to increase. In this paper we investigate the causes of the increasing ozone concentrations through analysis of a data set that is, to our knowledge, unique: a 12-year data set including ground-level O3, NOx, and VOC precursors collected at an urban site in Beijing.
During the past decade, China has devoted very substantial resources to improving the...