Articles | Volume 16, issue 13
Research article 07 Jul 2016
Research article | 07 Jul 2016
Retrieval of aerosol optical depth from surface solar radiation measurements using machine learning algorithms, non-linear regression and a radiative transfer-based look-up table
Jani Huttunen et al.
J. Huttunen, A. Arola, G. Myhre, A. V. Lindfors, T. Mielonen, S. Mikkonen, J. S. Schafer, S. N. Tripathi, M. Wild, M. Komppula, and K. E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6103–6110,
A. Arola, T. F. Eck, J. Huttunen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, A. V. Lindfors, G. Myhre, A. Smirnov, S. N. Tripathi, and H. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7895–7901,
C. A. Randles, S. Kinne, G. Myhre, M. Schulz, P. Stier, J. Fischer, L. Doppler, E. Highwood, C. Ryder, B. Harris, J. Huttunen, Y. Ma, R. T. Pinker, B. Mayer, D. Neubauer, R. Hitzenberger, L. Oreopoulos, D. Lee, G. Pitari, G. Di Genova, J. Quaas, F. G. Rose, S. Kato, S. T. Rumbold, I. Vardavas, N. Hatzianastassiou, C. Matsoukas, H. Yu, F. Zhang, H. Zhang, and P. Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2347–2379,
Antti Lipponen, Ville Kolehmainen, Pekka Kolmonen, Antti Kukkurainen, Tero Mielonen, Neus Sabater, Larisa Sogacheva, Timo H. Virtanen, and Antti Arola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2981–2992,Short summary
We have developed a new computational method to post-process-correct the satellite aerosol retrievals. The proposed method combines the conventional satellite aerosol retrievals relying on physics-based models and machine learning. The results show significantly improved accuracy in the aerosol data over the operational satellite data products. The correction can be applied to the existing satellite aerosol datasets with no need to fully reprocess the much larger original radiance data.
Ioanna Skoulidou, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Myrto Gratsea, Dimitris Balis, Alkiviadis Bais, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Trisevgeni Stavrakou, Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, and Andreas Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5269–5288,Short summary
The performance of LOTOS-EUROS v2.2.001 regional chemical transport model NO2 simulations is investigated over Greece from June to December 2018. Comparison with in situ NO2 measurements shows a spatial correlation coefficient of 0.86, while the model underestimates the concentrations mostly during daytime (12 to 15:00 local time). Further, the simulated tropospheric NO2 columns are evaluated against ground-based MAX-DOAS NO2 measurements and S5P/TROPOMI observations for July and December 2018.
Matthew Ozon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lubna Dada, Aku Seppänen, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Measuring the rate at which aerosol particles are formed is of importance for understanding climate change. We present an analysis method based on Kalman smoothing which retrieves new particle formation and growth rates from size-distribution measurements. We apply it to atmospheric simulation chamber experiments and show that it agrees well with traditional methods. In addition, it provides reliable uncertainty estimates and we suggest instrument design optimization for signal processing.
Nicola Zoppetti, Simone Ceccherini, Bruno Carli, Samuele Del Bianco, Marco Gai, Cecilia Tirelli, Flavio Barbara, Rossana Dragani, Antti Arola, Jukka Kujanpää, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Ronald van der A, and Ugo Cortesi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2041–2053,Short summary
The new platforms for Earth observation from space will provide an enormous amount of data that can be hard to exploit as a whole. The Complete Data Fusion algorithm can reduce the data volume while retaining the information of the full dataset. In this work, we applied the Complete Data Fusion algorithm to simulated ozone profiles, and the results show that the fused products are characterized by higher information content compared to individual L2 products.
Kevin Lamy, Thierry Portafaix, Colette Brogniez, Kaisa Lakkala, Mikko R. A. Pitkänen, Antti Arola, Jean-Baptiste Forestier, Vincent Amelie, Mohamed Abdoulwahab Toihir, and Solofoarisoa Rakotoniaina
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
This study concerns the validation of a new dataset from the measurement of ultraviolet radiation received at the Earth's surface. Cloud cover observations are associated with these radiation measurements. These measurements are carried out for four stations located in the Indian Ocean. The objective is to understand the evolution over time of solar radiation in relation to cloud cover. A good agreement is obtained between satellite or numerical model estimates and ground measurements.
Song Liu, Pieter Valks, Gaia Pinardi, Jian Xu, Ka Lok Chan, Athina Argyrouli, Ronny Lutz, Steffen Beirle, Ehsan Khorsandi, Frank Baier, Vincent Huijnen, Alkiviadis Bais, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Myrto Gratsea, François Hendrick, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Kezia Lange, Ankie J. M. Piters, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, Mark Wenig, and Diego G. Loyola
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
In this work, an improved tropospheric NO2 retrieval algorithm from TROPOMI measurements over Europe is presented. The stratospheric estimation is implemented with correction for the dependency of the stratospheric NO2 on the viewing geometry. The AMF calculation is implemented using improved surface albedo, a priori NO2 profiles, and cloud correction. The improved tropospheric NO2 data show good correlations with ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements.
Antti Arola, William Wandji Nyamsi, Antti Lipponen, Stelios Kazadzis, Nickolay A. Krotkov, and Johanna Tamminen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Methods to estimate surface UV radiation from satellite measurements offer the only means to obtain a global coverage and the development of satellite-based UV algorithms has been on-going since the early 1990s. One of the main challenges in this development has been how to account for the overall effect of absorption by atmospheric aerosols. One such method was suggested roughly a decade ago, and in this study we propose further improvements for that kind of approach.
Panagiotis G. Kosmopoulos, Stelios Kazadzis, Alois W. Schmalwieser, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Kyriakoula Papachristopoulou, Ilias Fountoulakis, Akriti Masoom, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Julia Bilbao, Mario Blumthaler, Axel Kreuter, Anna Maria Siani, Kostas Eleftheratos, Chrysanthi Topaloglou, Julian Gröbner, Bjørn Johnsen, Tove Svendby, Jose Manuel Vilaplana, Lionel Doppler, Ann R. Webb, Marina Khazova, Hugo De Backer, Anu Heikkilä, Kaisa Lakkala, Janusz Jaroslawski, Charikleia Meleti, Henri Diémoz, Gregor Hülsen, Barbara Klotz, John Rimmer, and Charalampos Kontoes
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Large-scale retrievals of the Ultraviolet Index(UVI) in real-time by exploiting the modern Earth Observation data and techniques, are capable of forming operational early warning systems that raise awareness among citizens of the health implications of high UVI doses. To this direction a novel UVI operating system, the so called UVIOS, was introduced for massive outputs, while its performance was tested against ground-based measurements revealing a dependence on the input quality and resolution.
Antti Ruuskanen, Sami Romakkaniemi, Harri Kokkola, Antti Arola, Santtu Mikkonen, Harri Portin, Annele Virtanen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Mika Komppula, and Ari Leskinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1683–1695,Short summary
The study focuses mainly on cloud-scavenging efficiency of absorbing particulate matter (mainly black carbon) but additionally covers cloud-scavenging efficiency of scattering particles and statistics of cloud condensation nuclei. The main findings give insight into how black carbon is distributed in different particle sizes and the sensitivity to cloud scavenged. The main findings are useful for large-scale modelling for evaluating cloud scavenging.
Maria Sand, Bjørn H. Samset, Gunnar Myhre, Jonas Gliß, Susanne E. Bauer, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Paul Ginoux, Zak Kipling, Alf Kirkevåg, Harri Kokkola, Philippe Le Sager, Marianne T. Lund, Hitoshi Matsui, Twan van Noije, Samuel Remy, Michael Schulz, Philip Stier, Camilla W. Stjern, Toshihiko Takemura, Kostas Tsigaridis, Svetlana G. Tsyro, and Duncan Watson-Parris
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Absorption of shortwave radiation by aerosols can modify precipitation and clouds, but are poorly constrained in models. 15 different aerosol models from AeroCom Phase III have reported total aerosol absorption and for the first time 10 these models have reported in a consistent experiment the contributions to absorption from black carbon, dust and organic aerosol. Here, we document the model diversity in aerosol absorption and compare with observations.
Juha Tonttila, Ali Afzalifar, Harri Kokkola, Tomi Raatikainen, Hannele Korhonen, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1035–1048,Short summary
The focus of this study is on rain enhancement by deliberate injection of small particles into clouds (
cloud seeding). The particles, usually released from an aircraft, are expected to enhance cloud droplet growth, but its practical feasibility is somewhat uncertain. To improve upon this, we simulate the seeding effects with a numerical model. The model reproduces the main features seen in field observations, with a strong sensitivity to the total mass of the injected particle material.
Tijl Verhoelst, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Henk J. Eskes, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Ann Mari Fjæraa, José Granville, Sander Niemeijer, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, François Hendrick, Andrea Pazmiño, Alkiviadis Bais, Ariane Bazureau, K. Folkert Boersma, Kristof Bognar, Angelika Dehn, Sebastian Donner, Aleksandr Elokhov, Manuel Gebetsberger, Florence Goutail, Michel Grutter de la Mora, Aleksandr Gruzdev, Myrto Gratsea, Georg H. Hansen, Hitoshi Irie, Nis Jepsen, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Rigel Kivi, Karin Kreher, Pieternel F. Levelt, Cheng Liu, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro Comas, Ankie J. M. Piters, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Thierry Portafaix, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, John Rimmer, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Lidia Saavedra de Miguel, Valery P. Sinyakov, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Michel Van Roozendael, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Thomas Wagner, Folkard Wittrock, Margarita Yela González, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 481–510,Short summary
This paper reports on the ground-based validation of the NO2 data produced operationally by the TROPOMI instrument on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite. Tropospheric, stratospheric, and total NO2 columns are compared to measurements collected from MAX-DOAS, ZSL-DOAS, and PGN/Pandora instruments respectively. The products are found to satisfy mission requirements in general, though negative mean differences are found at sites with high pollution levels. Potential causes are discussed.
Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Michael Schulz, Elisabeth Andrews, Yves Balkanski, Susanne E. Bauer, Anna M. K. Benedictow, Huisheng Bian, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Paul Ginoux, Jan J. Griesfeller, Andreas Heckel, Zak Kipling, Alf Kirkevåg, Harri Kokkola, Paolo Laj, Philippe Le Sager, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Hitoshi Matsui, Gunnar Myhre, David Neubauer, Twan van Noije, Peter North, Dirk J. L. Olivié, Samuel Rémy, Larisa Sogacheva, Toshihiko Takemura, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Svetlana G. Tsyro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 87–128,Short summary
Simulated aerosol optical properties as well as the aerosol life cycle are investigated for 14 global models participating in the AeroCom initiative. Considerable diversity is found in the simulated aerosol species emissions and lifetimes, also resulting in a large diversity in the simulated aerosol mass, composition, and optical properties. A comparison with observations suggests that, on average, current models underestimate the direct effect of aerosol on the atmosphere radiation budget.
Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Carlos Alberti, Marc Allaart, Arnoud Apituley, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Stijn Berkhout, Kristof Bognar, Tim Bösch, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Mirjam den Hoed, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Martina M. Friedrich, Arnoud Frumau, Lou Gast, Clio Gielen, Laura Gomez-Martín, Nan Hao, Arjan Hensen, Bas Henzing, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Karin Kreher, Jonas Kuhn, Johannes Lampel, Ang Li, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Olga Puentedura, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Elena Spinei, Deborah Stein Zweers, Kimberly Strong, Daan Swart, Frederik Tack, Martin Tiefengraber, René van der Hoff, Michel van Roozendael, Tim Vlemmix, Jan Vonk, Thomas Wagner, Yang Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Matthias Wiegner, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1–35,Short summary
Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is a ground-based remote sensing measurement technique that derives atmospheric aerosol and trace gas vertical profiles from skylight spectra. In this study, consistency and reliability of MAX-DOAS profiles are assessed by applying nine different evaluation algorithms to spectral data recorded during an intercomparison campaign in the Netherlands and by comparing the results to colocated supporting observations.
Kaisa Lakkala, Jukka Kujanpää, Colette Brogniez, Nicolas Henriot, Antti Arola, Margit Aun, Frédérique Auriol, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Germar Bernhard, Veerle De Bock, Maxime Catalfamo, Christine Deroo, Henri Diémoz, Luca Egli, Jean-Baptiste Forestier, Ilias Fountoulakis, Katerina Garane, Rosa Delia Garcia, Julian Gröbner, Seppo Hassinen, Anu Heikkilä, Stuart Henderson, Gregor Hülsen, Bjørn Johnsen, Niilo Kalakoski, Angelos Karanikolas, Tomi Karppinen, Kevin Lamy, Sergio F. León-Luis, Anders V. Lindfors, Jean-Marc Metzger, Fanny Minvielle, Harel B. Muskatel, Thierry Portafaix, Alberto Redondas, Ricardo Sanchez, Anna Maria Siani, Tove Svendby, and Johanna Tamminen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6999–7024,Short summary
The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) satellite was launched on 13 October 2017 to provide the atmospheric composition for atmosphere and climate research. Ground-based data from 25 sites located in Arctic, subarctic, temperate, equatorial and Antarctic areas were used for the validation of the TROPOMI surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product. For most sites 60 %–80 % of TROPOMI data was within ± 20 % of ground-based data.
Stephanie Bohlmann, Xiaoxia Shang, Ville Vakkari, Elina Giannakaki, Ari Leskinen, Kari Lehtinen, Sanna Pätsi, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Measurements of the multi-wavelength Raman polarization lidar PollyXT and a HALO Photonics Streamline Doppler lidar have been combined with measurements of pollen type and concentration using a traditional pollen trap at the rural forest site in Vehmasmäki, Finland. Depolarization ratios were measured at three wavelengths. High depolarization ratios were detected during an event with high birch and spruce pollen concentrations and a wavelength dependence of the depolarization ratio was observed.
Eemeli Holopainen, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, and Thomas Kühn
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6215–6235,Short summary
This paper introduces an in-cloud wet deposition scheme for liquid and ice phase clouds for global aerosol–climate models. With the default setup, our wet deposition scheme behaves spuriously and better representation can be achieved with this scheme when black carbon is mixed with soluble compounds at emission time. This work is done as many of the global models fail to reproduce the transport of black carbon to the Arctic, which may be due to the poor representation of wet removal in models.
Johannes Quaas, Antti Arola, Brian Cairns, Matthew Christensen, Hartwig Deneke, Annica M. L. Ekman, Graham Feingold, Ann Fridlind, Edward Gryspeerdt, Otto Hasekamp, Zhanqing Li, Antti Lipponen, Po-Lun Ma, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Athanasios Nenes, Joyce E. Penner, Daniel Rosenfeld, Roland Schrödner, Kenneth Sinclair, Odran Sourdeval, Philip Stier, Matthias Tesche, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15079–15099,Short summary
Anthropogenic pollution particles – aerosols – serve as cloud condensation nuclei and thus increase cloud droplet concentration and the clouds' reflection of sunlight (a cooling effect on climate). This Twomey effect is poorly constrained by models and requires satellite data for better quantification. The review summarizes the challenges in properly doing so and outlines avenues for progress towards a better use of aerosol retrievals and better retrievals of droplet concentrations.
Gaia Pinardi, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Nicolas Theys, Nader Abuhassan, Alkiviadis Bais, Folkert Boersma, Alexander Cede, Jihyo Chong, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Anatoly Dzhola, Henk Eskes, Udo Frieß, José Granville, Jay R. Herman, Robert Holla, Jari Hovila, Hitoshi Irie, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Natalia Kouremeti, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Jianzhong Ma, Enno Peters, Ankie Piters, Oleg Postylyakov, Andreas Richter, Julia Remmers, Hisahiro Takashima, Martin Tiefengraber, Pieter Valks, Tim Vlemmix, Thomas Wagner, and Folkard Wittrock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6141–6174,Short summary
We validate several GOME-2 and OMI tropospheric NO2 products with 23 MAX-DOAS and 16 direct sun instruments distributed worldwide, highlighting large horizontal inhomogeneities at several sites affecting the validation results. We propose a method for quantification and correction. We show the application of such correction reduces the satellite underestimation in almost all heterogeneous cases, but a negative bias remains over the MAX-DOAS and direct sun network ensemble for both satellites.
Nick Schutgens, Andrew M. Sayer, Andreas Heckel, Christina Hsu, Hiren Jethva, Gerrit de Leeuw, Peter J. T. Leonard, Robert C. Levy, Antti Lipponen, Alexei Lyapustin, Peter North, Thomas Popp, Caroline Poulsen, Virginia Sawyer, Larisa Sogacheva, Gareth Thomas, Omar Torres, Yujie Wang, Stefan Kinne, Michael Schulz, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12431–12457,Short summary
We intercompare 14 different datasets of satellite observations of aerosol. Such measurements are challenging but also provide the best opportunity to globally observe an atmospheric component strongly related to air pollution and climate change. Our study shows that most datasets perform similarly well on a global scale but that locally errors can be quite different. We develop a technique to estimate satellite errors everywhere, even in the absence of surface reference data.
Santtu Mikkonen, Zoltán Németh, Veronika Varga, Tamás Weidinger, Ville Leinonen, Taina Yli-Juuti, and Imre Salma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12247–12263,Short summary
We determined decennial statistical time trends and diurnal statistical patterns of atmospheric particle number concentrations in various relevant size fractions in the city centre of Budapest in an interval of 2008–2018. The mean overall decrease rate of particles in different size fractions was approximately −5 % scaled for the 10-year measurement interval. The decline can be interpreted as a consequence of the decreased anthropogenic emissions in the city.
Matthew Ozon, Aku Seppänen, Jari P. Kaipio, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for GMDShort summary
Experimental research has provided large amounts of high quality data on aerosol in the last two decades. However, the inference of the process rates, e.g. the rate at which particles are generated, is still typically done by simple curve-fitting methods, and does not assess the credibility of the estimation. The devised method takes advantage of the Baysesian framework to, not only retrieves the state of the observed aerosol system, but also estimates the process rates, e.g. growth rate.
Jaakko Ahola, Hannele Korhonen, Juha Tonttila, Sami Romakkaniemi, Harri Kokkola, and Tomi Raatikainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11639–11654,Short summary
In this study, we present an improved cloud model that reproduces the behaviour of mixed-phase clouds containing liquid droplets and ice crystals in more detail than before. This model is a convenient computational tool that enables the study of phenomena that cannot fit into a laboratory. These clouds have a significant role in climate, but they are not yet properly understood. Here, we show the advantages of the new model in a case study focusing on Arctic mixed-phase clouds.
Yang Wang, Arnoud Apituley, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Nuria Benavent, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Henning Finkenzeller, Martina M. Friedrich, Udo Frieß, David Garcia-Nieto, Laura Gómez-Martín, François Hendrick, Andreas Hilboll, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Theodore K. Koenig, Karin Kreher, Vinod Kumar, Aleksandra Kyuberis, Johannes Lampel, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Oleg L. Polyansky, Oleg Postylyakov, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Stefan Schmitt, Xin Tian, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Michel Van Roozendael, Rainer Volkamer, Zhuoru Wang, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5087–5116,
Innocent Kudzotsa, Harri Kokkola, Juha Tonttila, Tomi Raatikainen, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
María A. Burgos, Elisabeth Andrews, Gloria Titos, Angela Benedetti, Huisheng Bian, Virginie Buchard, Gabriele Curci, Zak Kipling, Alf Kirkevåg, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, Julie Letertre-Danczak, Marianne T. Lund, Hitoshi Matsui, Gunnar Myhre, Cynthia Randles, Michael Schulz, Twan van Noije, Kai Zhang, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Urs Baltensperger, Anne Jefferson, James Sherman, Junying Sun, Ernest Weingartner, and Paul Zieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10231–10258,Short summary
We investigate how well models represent the enhancement in scattering coefficients due to particle water uptake, and perform an evaluation of several implementation schemes used in ten Earth system models. Our results show the importance of the parameterization of hygroscopicity and model chemistry as drivers of some of the observed diversity amongst model estimates. The definition of dry conditions and the phenomena taking place in this relative humidity range also impact the model evaluation.
Teruyuki Nakajima, Monica Campanelli, Huizheng Che, Victor Estellés, Hitoshi Irie, Sang-Woo Kim, Jhoon Kim, Dong Liu, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Govindan Pandithurai, Vijay Kumar Soni, Boossarasiri Thana, Nas-Urt Tugjsurn, Kazuma Aoki, Sujung Go, Makiko Hashimoto, Akiko Higurashi, Stelios Kazadzis, Pradeep Khatri, Natalia Kouremeti, Rei Kudo, Franco Marenco, Masahiro Momoi, Shantikumar S. Ningombam, Claire L. Ryder, Akihiro Uchiyama, and Akihiro Yamazaki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4195–4218,Short summary
This paper overviews the progress in sky radiometer technology and the development of the network called SKYNET. It is found that the technology has produced useful on-site calibration methods, retrieval algorithms, and data analyses from sky radiometer observations of aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and ozone. The paper also discusses current issues of SKYNET to provide better information for the community.
Steven Compernolle, Tijl Verhoelst, Gaia Pinardi, José Granville, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Sander Niemeijer, Bruno Rino, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Folkert Boersma, John P. Burrows, Isabelle De Smedt, Henk Eskes, Florence Goutail, François Hendrick, Alba Lorente, Andrea Pazmino, Ankie Piters, Enno Peters, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Jos van Geffen, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, and Jean-Christopher Lambert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8017–8045,Short summary
Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 columns from the OMI QA4ECV NO2 satellite product are validated by comparison with ground-based measurements at 11 sites. The OMI stratospheric column has a small negative bias, and the OMI tropospheric column has a stronger negative bias relative to the ground-based data. Discrepancies are attributed to comparison errors (e.g. difference in horizontal smoothing) and measurement errors (e.g. clouds, aerosols, vertical smoothing and a priori proﬁle assumptions).
William Wandji Nyamsi, Antti Lipponen, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Martin Wild, and Antti Arola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3061–3079,Short summary
This paper proposes a novel and accurate method for estimating and reconstructing aerosol optical depth from sunshine duration measurements under cloud-free conditions at any place and time since the late 19th century. The method performs very well when compared to AErosol RObotic NETwork measurements and operates an efficient detection of signals from massive volcanic eruptions. Reconstructed long-term aerosol optical depths are in agreement with the dimming/brightening phenomenon.
Sini Isokääntä, Eetu Kari, Angela Buchholz, Liqing Hao, Siegfried Schobesberger, Annele Virtanen, and Santtu Mikkonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2995–3022,Short summary
Online mass spectrometry produces large amounts of data. These data can be interpreted with statistical methods, enabling scientists to more easily understand the underlying processes. We compared these techniques on car exhaust measurements. We show differences and similarities between the methods and give recommendations on applicability of the methods on certain types of data. We show that applying multiple methods leads to more robust results, thus increasing reliability of the findings.
Margit Aun, Kaisa Lakkala, Ricardo Sanchez, Eija Asmi, Fernando Nollas, Outi Meinander, Larisa Sogacheva, Veerle De Bock, Antti Arola, Gerrit de Leeuw, Veijo Aaltonen, David Bolsée, Klara Cizkova, Alexander Mangold, Ladislav Metelka, Erko Jakobson, Tove Svendby, Didier Gillotay, and Bert Van Opstal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6037–6054,Short summary
In 2017, new measurements of UV radiation started in Marambio, Antarctica, by the Finnish Meteorological Institute in collaboration with the Argentinian Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. The paper presents the results of UV irradiance measurements from March 2017 to March 2019, and it compares them with those from 2000–2008 and also with UV measurements at other Antarctic stations. In 2017/2018, below average UV radiation levels were recorded due to favourable ozone and cloud conditions.
Thomas Kühn, Kaarle Kupiainen, Tuuli Miinalainen, Harri Kokkola, Ville-Veikko Paunu, Anton Laakso, Juha Tonttila, Rita Van Dingenen, Kati Kulovesi, Niko Karvosenoja, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5527–5546,Short summary
We investigate the effects of black carbon (BC) mitigation on Arctic climate and human health, accounting for the concurrent reduction of other aerosol species. While BC is attributed a net warming effect on climate, most other aerosol species cool the planet. We find that the direct radiative effect of mitigating BC induces cooling, while aerosol–cloud effects offset this cooling and introduce large uncertainties. Furthermore, the reduced aerosol emissions reduce human mortality considerably.
Karin Kreher, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Arnoud Apituley, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Thomas Wagner, Johannes Lampel, Nader Abuhassan, Li Ang, Monica Anguas, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Henning Finkenzeller, David Garcia-Nieto, Clio Gielen, Laura Gómez-Martín, Nan Hao, Bas Henzing, Jay R. Herman, Christian Hermans, Syedul Hoque, Hitoshi Irie, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Junaid Khayyam Butt, Fahim Khokhar, Theodore K. Koenig, Jonas Kuhn, Vinod Kumar, Cheng Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Abhishek K. Mishra, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro-Comas, Mareike Ostendorf, Andrea Pazmino, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Manuel Pinharanda, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Oleg Postylyakov, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Vinayak Sinha, Elena Spinei, Kimberly Strong, Frederik Tack, Xin Tian, Martin Tiefengraber, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Jeroen van Gent, Rainer Volkamer, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Shanshan Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua H. Xie, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2169–2208,Short summary
In September 2016, 36 spectrometers from 24 institutes measured a number of key atmospheric pollutants during an instrument intercomparison campaign (CINDI-2) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. Here we report on the outcome of this intercomparison exercise. The three major goals were to characterise the differences between the participating instruments, to define a robust methodology for performance assessment, and to contribute to the harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods.
Kaisa Lakkala, Margit Aun, Ricardo Sanchez, Germar Bernhard, Eija Asmi, Outi Meinander, Fernando Nollas, Gregor Hülsen, Tomi Karppinen, Veijo Aaltonen, Antti Arola, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 947–960,Short summary
A GUV multi-filter radiometer was set up at Marambio, 64° S, 56° W, Antarctica, in 2017. The instrument continuously measures ultraviolet (UV) radiation, visible (VIS) radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The measurements are designed for providing high-quality long-term time series that can be used to assess the impact of global climate change in the Antarctic region. The data from the last 5 d are plotted and updated daily.
Kimmo Korhonen, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, John Falk, Robert Lindgren, Christina Andersen, Ricardo Luis Carvalho, Vilhelm Malmborg, Axel Eriksson, Christoffer Boman, Joakim Pagels, Birgitta Svenningsson, Mika Komppula, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4951–4968,Short summary
Ice-nucleating abilities of particulate emissions from solid-fuel-burning cookstoves were studied using a portable ice nuclei counter in an extensive laboratory experiment campaign. We found that even small changes in combustion conditions may affect the ice-nucleating ability of the emissions significantly. Also six different physico-chemical properties of the emissions were studied, but no clear correlation to their ice-nucleating ability was found.
Larisa Sogacheva, Thomas Popp, Andrew M. Sayer, Oleg Dubovik, Michael J. Garay, Andreas Heckel, N. Christina Hsu, Hiren Jethva, Ralph A. Kahn, Pekka Kolmonen, Miriam Kosmale, Gerrit de Leeuw, Robert C. Levy, Pavel Litvinov, Alexei Lyapustin, Peter North, Omar Torres, and Antti Arola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2031–2056,Short summary
The typical lifetime of a single satellite platform is on the order of 5–15 years; thus, for climate studies the usage of multiple satellite sensors should be considered. Here we introduce and evaluate a monthly AOD merged product and AOD global and regional time series for the period 1995–2017 created from 12 individual satellite AOD products, which provide a long-term perspective on AOD changes over different regions of the globe.
Sebastian Donner, Jonas Kuhn, Michel Van Roozendael, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Steffen Dörner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Ang Li, Jianzhong Ma, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Andreas Richter, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Kimberly Strong, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Yang Wang, Pinhua Xie, Jin Xu, Xiaoyi Zhao, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 685–712,Short summary
The calibration of the elevation angles of MAX-DOAS instruments is important for the correct interpretation of such MAX-DOAS measurements. We present and evaluate different methods for the elevation calibration of MAX-DOAS instruments which were applied during the CINDI-2 field campaign.
Giulia Saponaro, Moa K. Sporre, David Neubauer, Harri Kokkola, Pekka Kolmonen, Larisa Sogacheva, Antti Arola, Gerrit de Leeuw, Inger H. H. Karset, Ari Laaksonen, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1607–1626,Short summary
The understanding of cloud processes is based on the quality of the representation of cloud properties. We compared cloud parameters from three models with satellite observations. We report on the performance of each data source, highlighting strengths and deficiencies, which should be considered when deriving the effect of aerosols on cloud properties.
Andrew M. Sayer, Yves Govaerts, Pekka Kolmonen, Antti Lipponen, Marta Luffarelli, Tero Mielonen, Falguni Patadia, Thomas Popp, Adam C. Povey, Kerstin Stebel, and Marcin L. Witek
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 373–404,Short summary
Satellite measurements of the Earth are routinely processed to estimate useful quantities; one example is the amount of atmospheric aerosols (which are particles such as mineral dust, smoke, volcanic ash, or sea spray). As with all measurements and inferred quantities, there is some degree of uncertainty in this process. There are various methods to estimate these uncertainties. A related question is the following: how reliable are these estimates? This paper presents a method to assess them.
Ville Leinonen, Petri Tiitta, Olli Sippula, Hendryk Czech, Ari Leskinen, Juha Karvanen, Sini Isokääntä, and Santtu Mikkonen
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Santtu Mikkonen, Mikko R. A. Pitkänen, Tuomo Nieminen, Antti Lipponen, Sini Isokääntä, Antti Arola, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12531–12543,Short summary
Atmospheric measurement data never come without measurement error. Too often, these errors are neglected when researchers make inferences from their data. We applied multiple line-fitting methods to simulated data mimicking two central variables in aerosol research. Our results show that an ordinary least squares fit, typically used to describe relationships, underestimates the slope of the fit and that methods taking the measurement uncertainty into account performed significantly better.
Katerina Garane, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Tijl Verhoelst, Christophe Lerot, Klaus-Peter Heue, Vitali Fioletov, Dimitrios Balis, Alkiviadis Bais, Ariane Bazureau, Angelika Dehn, Florence Goutail, Jose Granville, Debora Griffin, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Diego Loyola, Chris McLinden, Andrea Pazmino, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Alberto Redondas, Fabian Romahn, Pieter Valks, Michel Van Roozendael, Jian Xu, Claus Zehner, Christos Zerefos, and Walter Zimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5263–5287,Short summary
The Sentinel-5 Precursor TROPOMI near real time (NRTI) and offline (OFFL) total ozone column (TOC) products are validated against direct-sun and twilight zenith-sky ground-based TOC measurements and other already known spaceborne sensors. The results show that the TROPOMI TOC measurements are in very good agreement with the ground-based measurements and satellite sensor measurements and that they are well within the product requirements.
David Neubauer, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Colombe Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Philip Stier, Daniel G. Partridge, Ina Tegen, Isabelle Bey, Tanja Stanelle, Harri Kokkola, and Ulrike Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3609–3639,Short summary
The global aerosol–climate model ECHAM6.3–HAM2.3 as well as the previous model versions ECHAM5.5–HAM2.0 and ECHAM6.1–HAM2.2 are evaluated. The simulation of clouds has improved in ECHAM6.3–HAM2.3. This has an impact on effective radiative forcing due to aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions and equilibrium climate sensitivity, which are weaker in ECHAM6.3–HAM2.3 than in the previous model versions.
Emilio Cuevas, Pedro Miguel Romero-Campos, Natalia Kouremeti, Stelios Kazadzis, Petri Räisänen, Rosa Delia García, Africa Barreto, Carmen Guirado-Fuentes, Ramón Ramos, Carlos Toledano, Fernando Almansa, and Julian Gröbner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4309–4337,Short summary
A comprehensive comparison of more than 70 000 synchronous 1 min aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from 3 Global Atmosphere Watch precision filter radiometers (GAW-PFR) and 15 Aerosol Robotic Network Cimel radiometers (AERONET-Cimel) was performed for the four
nearwavelengths (380, 440, 500 and 870 nm) in the period 2005–2015. The goal of this study is to assess whether their long term AOD data are comparable and consistent.
Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Väinö Hämäläinen, Grazia Rovelli, Antti Lipponen, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jonathan P. Reid, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9333–9350,Short summary
We assessed how well the organic aerosol particle composition and viscosity can be captured by optimizing process models to match particle evaporation data. We performed the analysis for both artificial and real evaporation data and tested two optimization algorithms. Our findings show that the optimization method yields a good estimate for the studied properties. The timescale of the evaporation data and particle size was found to be important in identifying the volatility of organic compounds.
Ina Tegen, David Neubauer, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Colombe Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Isabelle Bey, Nick Schutgens, Philip Stier, Duncan Watson-Parris, Tanja Stanelle, Hauke Schmidt, Sebastian Rast, Harri Kokkola, Martin Schultz, Sabine Schroeder, Nikos Daskalakis, Stefan Barthel, Bernd Heinold, and Ulrike Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1643–1677,Short summary
We describe a new version of the aerosol–climate model ECHAM–HAM and show tests of the model performance by comparing different aspects of the aerosol distribution with different datasets. The updated version of HAM contains improved descriptions of aerosol processes, including updated emission fields and cloud processes. While there are regional deviations between the model and observations, the model performs well overall.
Mona Kurppa, Antti Hellsten, Pontus Roldin, Harri Kokkola, Juha Tonttila, Mikko Auvinen, Christoph Kent, Prashant Kumar, Björn Maronga, and Leena Järvi
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1403–1422,Short summary
This paper describes the implementation of a sectional aerosol module, SALSA, into the PALM model system 6.0. The first evaluation study shows excellent agreements with measurements. Furthermore, we show that ignoring the dry deposition of aerosol particles can overestimate aerosol number concentrations by 20 %, whereas condensation and dissolutional growth increase the total aerosol mass by over 10 % in this specific urban environment.
Liqing Hao, Olga Garmash, Mikael Ehn, Pasi Miettinen, Paola Massoli, Santtu Mikkonen, Tuija Jokinen, Pontus Roldin, Pasi Aalto, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jorma Joutsensaari, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17705–17716,Short summary
An aerosol mass spectrometer was used to characterize aerosol chemical composition during new particle formation periods. The time profiles of mass concentrations and chemical composition of observed aerosol particles are subjected to joint effects of boundary layer dilution, atmospheric chemistry and aerosol mixing in different boundary layers. During the nighttime, the increase in organic aerosol mass correlated well with the increase in condensed highly oxygenated organic molecules' mass.
Carlos Toledano, Ramiro González, David Fuertes, Emilio Cuevas, Thomas F. Eck, Stelios Kazadzis, Natalia Kouremeti, Julian Gröbner, Philippe Goloub, Luc Blarel, Roberto Román, África Barreto, Alberto Berjón, Brent N. Holben, and Victoria E. Cachorro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14555–14567,Short summary
Most of the ground-based radiometric networks have their reference instruments and/or calibrate them at Mauna Loa or Izaña. The suitability of these high-mountain stations for absolute radiometric calibrations is investigated with the support of 20 years of first-class Sun photometer data from the AERONET and GAW-PFR networks. We analyze the number of calibration days at each site in a climatological sense and investigate the uncertainty of the calibrations based on long-term statistics.
Harri Kokkola, Thomas Kühn, Anton Laakso, Tommi Bergman, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Tero Mielonen, Antti Arola, Scarlet Stadtler, Hannele Korhonen, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Ulrike Lohmann, David Neubauer, Ina Tegen, Colombe Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Martin G. Schultz, Isabelle Bey, Philip Stier, Nikos Daskalakis, Colette L. Heald, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3833–3863,Short summary
In this paper we present a global aerosol–chemistry–climate model with the focus on its representation for atmospheric aerosol particles. In the model, aerosols are simulated using the aerosol module SALSA2.0, which in this paper is compared to satellite, ground, and aircraft-based observations of the properties of atmospheric aerosol. Based on this study, the model simulated aerosol properties compare well with the observations.
Kaisa Lakkala, Antti Arola, Julian Gröbner, Sergio Fabian León-Luis, Alberto Redondas, Stelios Kazadzis, Tomi Karppinen, Juha Matti Karhu, Luca Egli, Anu Heikkilä, Tapani Koskela, Antonio Serrano, and José Manuel Vilaplana
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5167–5180,Short summary
The performance of the cosine error correction method for correcting spectral UV measurements of the Brewer spectroradiometer was studied. The correction depends on the sky radiation distribution, which can change during one spectral scan. The results showed that the correction varied between 4 and 14 %, and that the relative differences between the reference and the Brewer diminished by 10 %. The method is applicable to other instruments as long as the required input parameters are available.
Scarlet Stadtler, Thomas Kühn, Sabine Schröder, Domenico Taraborrelli, Martin G. Schultz, and Harri Kokkola
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3235–3260,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols interact with our climate system and have adverse health effects. Nevertheless, these particles are a source of uncertainty in climate projections and the formation process of secondary aerosols formed by organic gas-phase precursors is particularly not fully understood. In order to gain a deeper understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation, this model system explicitly represents gas-phase and aerosol formation processes. Finally, this allows for process discussion.
Lauri Laakso, Santtu Mikkonen, Achim Drebs, Anu Karjalainen, Pentti Pirinen, and Pekka Alenius
Ocean Sci., 14, 617–632,Short summary
Meteorological observations at Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station, the Baltic Sea, started in 1881 and seawater temperature and salinity observations in 1900. Based on the dataset of more than 100 years of observations, we see an increase in atmospheric temperature after the 1980s, in line with reduced sea ice cover. We also found an increase in seawater temperatures, modulated by changes in salinities. The results indicate that the climate at Utö may have shifted into a new phase.
Jorma Joutsensaari, Matthew Ozon, Tuomo Nieminen, Santtu Mikkonen, Timo Lähivaara, Stefano Decesari, M. Cristina Facchini, Ari Laaksonen, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9597–9615,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) in the atmosphere is globally an important source of aerosol particles. NPF events are typically identified and analyzed manually by researchers from particle size distribution data day by day, which is time consuming and might be inconsistent. We have developed an automatic analysis method based on deep learning for NPF event identification. The developed method can be easily utilized to analyze any long-term datasets more accurately and consistently.
Alberto Redondas, Virgilio Carreño, Sergio F. León-Luis, Bentorey Hernández-Cruz, Javier López-Solano, Juan J. Rodriguez-Franco, José M. Vilaplana, Julian Gröbner, John Rimmer, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Vladimir Savastiouk, Juan R. Moreta, Lamine Boulkelia, Nis Jepsen, Keith M. Wilson, Vadim Shirotov, and Tomi Karppinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9441–9455,Short summary
This work shows an overview of the total ozone comparison of the Brewer instrument during the 10th RBCC-E campaign in a joint effort with the EUBREWNET COST 1207 action. The status of the network after 2 years of calibration shows 16 out of the 21 participating Brewer instruments (76 %) agreed within better than ±1 %, and 10 instruments (50 %) agreed within better than ±0.5 %. After applying the final calibration and the stray light correction all working instruments agreed at the ±0.5 % level.
Ian Boutle, Jeremy Price, Innocent Kudzotsa, Harri Kokkola, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7827–7840,Short summary
Aerosol processes are a key mechanism in the development of fog. Poor representation of aerosol–fog interaction can result in large biases in fog forecasts, such as surface temperatures which are too high and fog which is too deep and long lived. A relatively simple representation of aerosol–fog interaction can actually lead to significant improvements in forecasting. Aerosol–fog interaction can have a large effect on the climate system but is poorly represented in climate models.
Laura Rontu and Anders V. Lindfors
Adv. Sci. Res., 15, 81–90,Short summary
Global radiation forecasts by HARMONIE-AROME numerical weather prediction model were compared to observations over Finland in spring 2017 when convective clouds, rain and snow showers were frequent. In HARMONIE-AROME, three different schemes for parametrization of the atmospheric radiation transfer are available. Differences between the schemes and observations showed up especially as variations in the hourly scale. The results by the schemes were closer to each other than to the observations.
Martin G. Schultz, Scarlet Stadtler, Sabine Schröder, Domenico Taraborrelli, Bruno Franco, Jonathan Krefting, Alexandra Henrot, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Ulrike Lohmann, David Neubauer, Colombe Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Sebastian Wahl, Harri Kokkola, Thomas Kühn, Sebastian Rast, Hauke Schmidt, Philip Stier, Doug Kinnison, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, John J. Orlando, and Catherine Wespes
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1695–1723,Short summary
The chemistry–climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ contains a detailed representation of tropospheric and stratospheric reactive chemistry and state-of-the-art parameterizations of aerosols. It thus allows for detailed investigations of chemical processes in the climate system. Evaluation of the model with various observational data yields good results, but the model has a tendency to produce too much OH in the tropics. This highlights the important interplay between atmospheric chemistry and dynamics.
Pieternel F. Levelt, Joanna Joiner, Johanna Tamminen, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Pawan K. Bhartia, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Bryan N. Duncan, David G. Streets, Henk Eskes, Ronald van der A, Chris McLinden, Vitali Fioletov, Simon Carn, Jos de Laat, Matthew DeLand, Sergey Marchenko, Richard McPeters, Jerald Ziemke, Dejian Fu, Xiong Liu, Kenneth Pickering, Arnoud Apituley, Gonzalo González Abad, Antti Arola, Folkert Boersma, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Martin de Graaf, Janne Hakkarainen, Seppo Hassinen, Iolanda Ialongo, Quintus Kleipool, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Lok Lamsal, Paul Newman, Caroline Nowlan, Raid Suleiman, Lieuwe Gijsbert Tilstra, Omar Torres, Huiqun Wang, and Krzysztof Wargan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5699–5745,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to highlight the many successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) spanning more than 13 years. Data from OMI have been used in a wide range of applications. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. OMI data continue to be used for new research and applications.
Theano Drosoglou, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Natalia Kouremeti, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Irene Zyrichidou, Dimitris Balis, Ronald J. van der A, Jin Xu, and Ang Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2239–2255,Short summary
A diurnal pattern of tropospheric NO2 with two maxima around late morning and late afternoon is revealed, reflecting high anthropogenic emissions, and a minimum at noon, due to photochemical destruction of tropospheric NO2. GOME-2B shows the smallest underestimation despite its large pixel size. The distance between the measurement location and the satellite pixel center affects mostly GOME-2B data selection. The effect of clouds is more profound on the selection of OMI overpass data.
Daniela Meloni, Alcide di Sarra, Gérard Brogniez, Cyrielle Denjean, Lorenzo De Silvestri, Tatiana Di Iorio, Paola Formenti, José L. Gómez-Amo, Julian Gröbner, Natalia Kouremeti, Giuliano Liuzzi, Marc Mallet, Giandomenico Pace, and Damiano M. Sferlazzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4377–4401,Short summary
This study examines how different aerosol optical properties determine the dust longwave radiative effects at the surface, in the atmosphere and at the top of the atmosphere, based on the combination of remote sensing and in situ observations from the ground, from airborne sensors, and from space, by means of radiative transfer modelling. The closure experiment is based on longwave irradiances and spectral brightness temperatures measured during the 2013 ChArMEx–ADRIMED campaign at Lampedusa.
Javier López-Solano, Alberto Redondas, Thomas Carlund, Juan J. Rodriguez-Franco, Henri Diémoz, Sergio F. León-Luis, Bentorey Hernández-Cruz, Carmen Guirado-Fuentes, Natalia Kouremeti, Julian Gröbner, Stelios Kazadzis, Virgilio Carreño, Alberto Berjón, Daniel Santana-Díaz, Manuel Rodríguez-Valido, Veerle De Bock, Juan R. Moreta, John Rimmer, Andrew R. D. Smedley, Lamine Boulkelia, Nis Jepsen, Paul Eriksen, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Vadim Shirotov, José M. Vilaplana, Keith M. Wilson, and Tomi Karppinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3885–3902,Short summary
The European Brewer Network (EUBREWNET, COST Action ES1207) is comprised of close to 50 instruments and currently provides near-real-time ozone and UV data. Aerosols also play key role in the Earth–atmosphere system and introduce a large uncertainty into our understanding of climate change. In this work we describe and validate a method to incorporate the measurement of aerosols in EUBREWNET. We find that this Brewer network can provide reliable aerosol data across Europe in the UV range.
Antti Lipponen, Tero Mielonen, Mikko R. A. Pitkänen, Robert C. Levy, Virginia R. Sawyer, Sami Romakkaniemi, Ville Kolehmainen, and Antti Arola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1529–1547,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols are small solid or liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere and they have a significant effect on the climate. Satellite data are used to get global estimates of atmospheric aerosols. In this work, a statistics-based Bayesian aerosol retrieval algorithm was developed to improve the accuracy and quantify the uncertainties related to the aerosol estimates. The algorithm is tested with NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data.
Stelios Kazadzis, Natalia Kouremeti, Henri Diémoz, Julian Gröbner, Bruce W. Forgan, Monica Campanelli, Victor Estellés, Kathleen Lantz, Joseph Michalsky, Thomas Carlund, Emilio Cuevas, Carlos Toledano, Ralf Becker, Stephan Nyeki, Panagiotis G. Kosmopoulos, Viktar Tatsiankou, Laurent Vuilleumier, Frederick M. Denn, Nozomu Ohkawara, Osamu Ijima, Philippe Goloub, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Michael Milner, Klaus Behrens, Africa Barreto, Giovanni Martucci, Emiel Hall, James Wendell, Bryan E. Fabbri, and Christoph Wehrli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3185–3201,Short summary
Aerosol optical depth measured from ground-based sun photometers is the most important parameter for studying the changes in the Earth's radiation balance due to aerosols. Representatives for various sun photometer types belonging to individual institutions or international aerosol networks gather every 5 years, for 3 weeks, in Davos, Switzerland, in order to compare their aeorosol optical depth retrievals. This work presents the results of the latest (fourth) filter radiometer intercomparison.
Panagiotis-Ioannis Raptis, Stelios Kazadzis, Julian Gröbner, Natalia Kouremeti, Lionel Doppler, Ralf Becker, and Constantinos Helmis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1143–1157,Short summary
The purpose of this work is to retrieve integrated water vapour using spectral measurements from Precision Solar Spectroradiometer (PSR). Two different approaches were developed one using single-channel direct sun irradiance measurements, and the second one integrating at a certain spectral region. The results of the spectral approach are closer to the retrievals of non-photometric techniques (GPS, microwave radiometer and radiosondes), suggesting this method provide more accurate IWV product.
Anders V. Lindfors, Jukka Kujanpää, Niilo Kalakoski, Anu Heikkilä, Kaisa Lakkala, Tero Mielonen, Maarten Sneep, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Antti Arola, and Johanna Tamminen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 997–1008,Short summary
This paper describes the algorithm that will be used for estimating surface UV radiation from TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) measurements. TROPOMI is the only payload of the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P), which is a polar-orbiting satellite mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). The presented algorithm has been tested using input based on previous satellite measurements. These preliminary results indicate that the algorithm is functioning according to expectations.
Ekaterina Ezhova, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2431–2442,Short summary
A condensation sink (CS) quantifies the rate of uptake of condensing vapours by pre-existing aerosol and can be used as well to quantify losses of monomers/clusters. An analytical solution of the condensation equation valid in a wide range of particle diameters is presented. We describe the dynamics of atmospheric CS, test the formulas against field observations and further use them to develop a simplified model of the coupled dynamics of aerosol and condensing vapours in the atmosphere.
Panagiotis G. Kosmopoulos, Stelios Kazadzis, Michael Taylor, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Iphigenia Keramitsoglou, Chris Kiranoudis, and Alkiviadis F. Bais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 907–924,Short summary
Continuous monitoring of solar energy from space is critical for its efficient exploitation and distribution. For this reason we developed neural-network- and function-based real-time models, which are capable of producing massive radiation outputs in high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution. The models' performance against ground-based measurements revealed a dependence on input quality and resolution, and an overall accuracy under cloudless and high solar energy potential conditions.
Stelios Kazadzis, Natalia Kouremeti, Stephan Nyeki, Julian Gröbner, and Christoph Wehrli
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 39–53,Short summary
The World Optical Depth Research Calibration Center (WORCC) has been established after the recommendations of WMO for calibration of aerosol optical depth (AOD) -related sun photometers. WORCC is mandated to initiate homogenization activities among different AOD networks and to run a network (GAW-PFR) of sun photometers. To calibrate such instruments aiming at low measurement uncertainties the quality assurance, quality control and a basic hierarchy have to be defined and followed.
Lukas Pichelstorfer, Dominik Stolzenburg, John Ortega, Thomas Karl, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, James N. Smith, Peter H. McMurry, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1307–1323,Short summary
Quantification of new particle formation as a source of atmospheric aerosol is clearly of importance for climate and health aspects. In our new study we developed two analysis methods that allow retrieval of nanoparticle growth dynamics at much higher precision than it was possible so far. Our results clearly demonstrate that growth rates show much more variation than is currently known and suggest that the Kelvin effect governs growth in the sub-10 nm size range.
William Wandji Nyamsi, Phillipe Blanc, John A. Augustine, Antti Arola, and Lucien Wald
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
This paper proposes a new, fast and accurate method for estimating photosynthetically active radiation at ground level in cloud-free conditions at any place and time. The method performs very well with the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service products as inputs describing the state of the atmosphere. An accuracy that is close to the uncertainty of the measurements themselves is reached. We believe that our research will be widely used in the near future.
William Wandji Nyamsi, Mikko R. A. Pitkänen, Youva Aoun, Philippe Blanc, Anu Heikkilä, Kaisa Lakkala, Germar Bernhard, Tapani Koskela, Anders V. Lindfors, Antti Arola, and Lucien Wald
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4965–4978,Short summary
This paper proposes a new, fast and accurate method for estimating UV fluxes at ground level in cloud-free conditions at any place and time. The method performs very well with the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service products as inputs describing the state of the atmosphere. An accuracy that is close to the uncertainty of the measurements themselves is reached. We believe that our research will be widely used in the near future.
Ilias Fountoulakis, Alberto Redondas, Kaisa Lakkala, Alberto Berjon, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Lionel Doppler, Uwe Feister, Anu Heikkila, Tomi Karppinen, Juha M. Karhu, Tapani Koskela, Katerina Garane, Konstantinos Fragkos, and Volodya Savastiouk
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4491–4505,Short summary
Results of the temperature characterization of the global UV spectral measurements of eight different Brewer spectrophotometers operating in Greece, Finland, Germany and Spain are presented. Different temperature characterization methods are evaluated and an improved methodology for the correction of the measurements for the effects of temperature is presented.
Elham Baranizadeh, Tuomo Nieminen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Ari Leskinen, Mika Komppula, Ari Laaksonen, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13361–13371,Short summary
Extrapolation of the particle formation rates from one measured larger size (e.g., 7 nm) to smaller sizes (e.g., 3 nm) based on simplified growth-scavenging dynamics works fairly well to estimate mean daily formation rates, but it fails to predict the time evolution of the particle population. This points to the challenges in predicting atmospheric nucleation rates for locations where the particle growth and loss rates are size- and time-dependent.
Maria Filioglou, Anna Nikandrova, Sami Niemelä, Holger Baars, Tero Mielonen, Ari Leskinen, David Brus, Sami Romakkaniemi, Elina Giannakaki, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4303–4316,
Peter W. Thorne, Fabio Madonna, Joerg Schulz, Tim Oakley, Bruce Ingleby, Marco Rosoldi, Emanuele Tramutola, Antti Arola, Matthias Buschmann, Anna C. Mikalsen, Richard Davy, Corinne Voces, Karin Kreher, Martine De Maziere, and Gelsomina Pappalardo
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 453–472,Short summary
The term system-of-systems with respect to observational capabilities is frequently used, but what does it mean and how can it be assessed? Here, we define one possible interpretation of a system-of-systems architecture that is based upon demonstrable aspects of observing capabilities. We develop a set of assessment strands and then apply these to a set of atmospheric observational networks to decide which observations may be suitable for characterising satellite platforms in future work.
Panagiotis G. Kosmopoulos, Stelios Kazadzis, Michael Taylor, Eleni Athanasopoulou, Orestis Speyer, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Eleni Marinou, Emmanouil Proestakis, Stavros Solomos, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Vassilis Amiridis, Alkiviadis Bais, and Charalabos Kontoes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2435–2453,Short summary
We study the impact of dust on solar energy using remote sensing data in conjunction with synergistic modelling and forecasting techniques. Under high aerosol loads, we found great solar energy losses of the order of 80 and 50% for concentrated solar power and photovoltaic installations, respectively. The 1-day forecast presented an overall accuracy within 10% in direct comparison to the real conditions under high energy potential, optimising the efficient energy planning and policies.
Sami Romakkaniemi, Zubair Maalick, Antti Hellsten, Antti Ruuskanen, Olli Väisänen, Irshad Ahmad, Juha Tonttila, Santtu Mikkonen, Mika Komppula, and Thomas Kühn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7955–7964,Short summary
Surface topography affects aerosol–cloud interactions in boundary layer clouds. Local topography effects should be screened out from in situ observations before results can be generalised into a larger scale. Here we present modelling and observational results from a measurement station residing in a 75 m tower on top of a 150 m hill, and analyse how landscape affects the cloud formation, and which factors should be taken into account when aerosol effect on cloud droplet formation is studied.
Melina-Maria Zempila, Jos H. G. M. van Geffen, Michael Taylor, Ilias Fountoulakis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Michiel van Weele, Ronald J. van der A, Alkiviadis Bais, Charikleia Meleti, and Dimitrios Balis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7157–7174,Short summary
NILU irradiances at five UV channels were used to produce CIE, vitamin D, and DNA- damage daily doses via a neural network (NN) model. The NN was trained with collocated weighted Brewer spectra and uncertainty in the NILU-derived UV effective doses was 7.5 %. TEMIS UV products were found to be ~ 12.5 % higher than the NILU estimates. The results improve for cloud-free days with differences of 0.57 % for CIE, 1.22 % for vitamin D, and 1.18 % for DNA damage, with standard deviations of ~ 11–13 %.
Anton Laakso, Hannele Korhonen, Sami Romakkaniemi, and Harri Kokkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6957–6974,Short summary
Based on simulations, equatorial stratospheric sulfur injections have shown to be an efficient strategy to counteract ongoing global warming. However, equatorial injections would result in relatively larger cooling in low latitudes than in high latitudes. This together with greenhouse-gas-induced warming would lead to cooling in the Equator and warming in the high latitudes. Results of this study show that a more optimal cooling effect is achieved by varying the injection area seasonally.
Antti Arola, Thomas F. Eck, Harri Kokkola, Mikko R. A. Pitkänen, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5991–6001,Short summary
One of the issues that hinder the measurement-based assessment of aerosol–cloud interactions by remote sensing methods is that typically aerosols and clouds cannot be measured simultaneously by passive remote sensing methods. AERONET includes the SDA product that provides the fine-mode AOD also in mixed cloud–aerosol observations. These measurements have not yet been fully exploited in studies of aerosol–cloud interactions. We applied SDA for this kind of analysis.
Theano Drosoglou, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Irene Zyrichidou, Natalia Kouremeti, Anastasia Poupkou, Natalia Liora, Christos Giannaros, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Dimitris Balis, and Dimitrios Melas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5829–5849,Short summary
We present ground-based tropospheric NO2 measurements performed within the area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The comparisons with OMI/Aura, GOME-2A and GOME-2B data sets have shown a significant underestimation of the NO2 levels over the urban area by the satellite sensors. This finding can be attributed to the strong NO2 gradients. By applying adjustment factors, calculated using an air quality model, on the OMI/Aura observations, the comparison over the urban site has improved significantly.
Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, André Seyler, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, Tim Bösch, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Theano Drosoglou, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Yugo Kanaya, Xiaoyi Zhao, Kimberly Strong, Johannes Lampel, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore Koenig, Ivan Ortega, Olga Puentedura, Mónica Navarro-Comas, Laura Gómez, Margarita Yela González, Ankie Piters, Julia Remmers, Yang Wang, Thomas Wagner, Shanshan Wang, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, David García-Nieto, Carlos A. Cuevas, Nuria Benavent, Richard Querel, Paul Johnston, Oleg Postylyakov, Alexander Borovski, Alexander Elokhov, Ilya Bruchkouski, Haoran Liu, Cheng Liu, Qianqian Hong, Claudia Rivera, Michel Grutter, Wolfgang Stremme, M. Fahim Khokhar, Junaid Khayyam, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 955–978,Short summary
This work is about harmonization of differential optical absorption spectroscopy retrieval codes, which is a remote sensing technique widely used to derive atmospheric trace gas amounts. The study is based on ground-based measurements performed during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany, in summer 2013. In total, 17 international groups working in the field of the DOAS technique participated in this study.
Thomas Carlund, Natalia Kouremeti, Stelios Kazadzis, and Julian Gröbner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 905–923,Short summary
Aerosols play an important role in atmospheric processes. Aerosol optical depth is the most common measure of columnar aerosol load. We present a sunphotometer called UVPFR that is able to measure aerosol optical depth in the ultraviolet range, including the calibration, characterization and validation of the instrument/measurements. The instrument will serve as a reference on the intercalibration of Brewer spectrophotometers that are also able to measure aerosol optical depth in the UV region.
Juha Tonttila, Zubair Maalick, Tomi Raatikainen, Harri Kokkola, Thomas Kühn, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 169–188,Short summary
Novel techniques for modelling the aerosol–cloud interactions are implemented in a cloud-resolving model. The new methods improve the representation of the poorly constrained effects of cloud processing, precipitation and the wet removal of particles on the aerosol population and the associated feedbacks. The detailed representation of these processes yields more realistic simulation of the evolution of boundary layer clouds and fogs, as compared to results obtained using more simple methods.
Tomi Raatikainen, David Brus, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Eija Asmi, Ved P. Sharma, Antti Arola, and Heikki Lihavainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 371–383,Short summary
We have measured black carbon aerosol properties in northern India at two sites: the first site is located at the polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain, while the second site is at the Himalayan foothills in a significantly cleaner environment. The observations show a clear difference in black carbon concentrations, but individual aerosol particles seem to be similar in both sites. Indirect evidence suggests that the particles are highly irregular resembling freshly emitted soot.
Stelios Kazadzis, Panagiotis Raptis, Natalia Kouremeti, Vassilis Amiridis, Antti Arola, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, and Gregory L. Schuster
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5997–6011,Short summary
Aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate. One of the main aerosol properties is the single scattering albedo which is a measure of the aerosol absorption. In this work we have presented a method to retrieve this aerosol property in the ultraviolet and we presented the results for measurements at the urban environment of Athens, Greece. We show that the spectral dependence of the aerosol absorption in the VIS–IR and the UV range depends on the aerosol composition and type.
Colette Brogniez, Frédérique Auriol, Christine Deroo, Antti Arola, Jukka Kujanpää, Béatrice Sauvage, Niilo Kalakoski, Mikko Riku Aleksi Pitkänen, Maxime Catalfamo, Jean-Marc Metzger, Guy Tournois, and Pierre Da Conceicao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15049–15074,Short summary
The atmospheric ozone layer is changing, thus the UV radiation at the surface is changing. Due to both beneficial and adverse effects of UV on the biosphere, monitoring of UV is essential. Satellite sensors provide estimates of UV at the surface with a global coverage. Validation of satellite-sensor UV is therefore needed and this can be done by comparison with ground-based measurements. The present validation in three sites (midlatitude, tropical) shows that OMI and GOME-2 provide reliable UV.
Petri Tiitta, Ari Leskinen, Liqing Hao, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Miika Kortelainen, Julija Grigonyte, Jarkko Tissari, Heikki Lamberg, Anni Hartikainen, Kari Kuuspalo, Aki-Matti Kortelainen, Annele Virtanen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Mika Komppula, Simone Pieber, André S. H. Prévôt, Timothy B. Onasch, Douglas R. Worsnop, Hendryk Czech, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, and Olli Sippula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13251–13269,Short summary
Real-time measurements of OA aging and SOA formation from logwood combustion were conducted under dark and UV oxidation. Substantial SOA formation was observed in all experiments, leading to twice the initial OA mass emphasizing the importance of the burning conditions for the aging processes. The results prove that emissions are subject to intensive chemical processing in the atmosphere; e.g. the most of the POA was found to become oxidized after the ozone addition, forming aged POA.
Aki Pajunoja, Weiwei Hu, Yu J. Leong, Nathan F. Taylor, Pasi Miettinen, Brett B. Palm, Santtu Mikkonen, Don R. Collins, Jose L. Jimenez, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11163–11176,Short summary
The phase state of ambient particles was inferred from bounce measurements conducted at a rural site in central Alabama during the SOAS campaign. The organic-dominated ambient particles are mostly in the liquid phase at summertime conditions but they turn semisolid when dried in the measurement setup. Bounce humidograms reveal that the hygroscopicity and oxidation of the particles decreases the liquefying RH. The effect of oxidation is emphasized by oxidation flow reactor measurements.
Elham Baranizadeh, Benjamin N. Murphy, Jan Julin, Saeed Falahat, Carly L. Reddington, Antti Arola, Lars Ahlm, Santtu Mikkonen, Christos Fountoukis, David Patoulias, Andreas Minikin, Thomas Hamburger, Ari Laaksonen, Spyros N. Pandis, Hanna Vehkamäki, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Ilona Riipinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2741–2754,Short summary
The molecular mechanisms through which new ultrafine (< 100 nm) aerosol particles are formed in the atmosphere have puzzled the scientific community for decades. In the past few years, however, significant progress has been made in unraveling these processes through laboratory studies and computational efforts. In this work we have implemented these new developments to an air quality model and study the implications of anthropogenically driven particle formation for European air quality.
Olli Väisänen, Antti Ruuskanen, Arttu Ylisirniö, Pasi Miettinen, Harri Portin, Liqing Hao, Ari Leskinen, Mika Komppula, Sami Romakkaniemi, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10385–10398,Short summary
In-cloud measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud droplet activation were conducted in Kuopio, Finland. According to the observations, the less hygroscopic accumulation mode particles were present in the non-activated aerosol, whereas the more hygroscopic particles were scavenged into cloud droplets. The results illustrate the sensitivity of cloud droplet formation to varying chemical composition and highlight the need for proper treatment of anthropogenic aerosols in CCN predictions.
Tero Mielonen, Anca Hienola, Thomas Kühn, Joonas Merikanto, Antti Lipponen, Tommi Bergman, Hannele Korhonen, Pekka Kolmonen, Larisa Sogacheva, Darren Ghent, Antti Arola, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Harri Kokkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We studied the temperature dependence of AOD and its radiative effects over the southeastern US. We used spaceborne observations of AOD, LST and tropospheric NO2 with simulations of ECHAM-HAMMOZ. The level of AOD in this region is governed by anthropogenic emissions but the temperature dependency is most likely caused by BVOC emissions. According to the observations and simulations, the regional clear-sky DRE for biogenic aerosols is −0.43 ± 0.88 W/m2/K and −0.86 ± 0.06 W/m2/K, respectively.
Jakke Sakari Mäkelä, Kaisa Lakkala, Tapani Koskela, Tomi Karppinen, Juha Matti Karhu, Vladimir Savastiouk, Hanne Suokanerva, Jussi Kaurola, Antti Arola, Anders Vilhelm Lindfors, Outi Meinander, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Anu Heikkilä
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 193–203,Short summary
We describe the steps that are used at the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) to process spectral ultraviolet (UV) radiation measurements made with its three Brewer spectrophotometers, located in Sodankylä (67° N) and Jokioinen (61° N). Multiple corrections are made to the data in near-real time and quality control is also performed automatically. Several data products are produced, including the near-real-time UV index and various daily dosages, and submitted to databases.
Jenni Kontkanen, Tinja Olenius, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hanna Vehkamäki, Markku Kulmala, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5545–5560,
Ilias Fountoulakis, Alberto Redondas, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Juan José Rodriguez-Franco, Konstantinos Fragkos, and Alexander Cede
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1799–1816,Short summary
The dead time (DT) is characteristic for each Brewer spectrophotometer and non-proper correction of the raw data for its effect may lead to important errors in UV, AOD and TOC measurements. Quantitative estimation of the DT-related uncertainties shown that a 2 ns error in the DT may lead to errors greater than 1 % in TOC. The operational algorithm for the DT calculation and correction is validated and the development of new methods for the estimation of DT is described.
N. I. Kristiansen, A. Stohl, D. J. L. Olivié, B. Croft, O. A. Søvde, H. Klein, T. Christoudias, D. Kunkel, S. J. Leadbetter, Y. H. Lee, K. Zhang, K. Tsigaridis, T. Bergman, N. Evangeliou, H. Wang, P.-L. Ma, R. C. Easter, P. J. Rasch, X. Liu, G. Pitari, G. Di Genova, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, G. S. Faluvegi, H. Kokkola, R. V. Martin, J. R. Pierce, M. Schulz, D. Shindell, H. Tost, and H. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3525–3561,Short summary
Processes affecting aerosol removal from the atmosphere are not fully understood. In this study we investigate to what extent atmospheric transport models can reproduce observed loss of aerosols. We compare measurements of radioactive isotopes, that attached to ambient sulfate aerosols during the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, to 19 models using identical emissions. Results indicate aerosol removal that is too fast in most models, and apply to aerosols that have undergone long-range transport.
Ilias Fountoulakis, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Konstantinos Fragkos, Charickleia Meleti, Kleareti Tourpali, and Melina Maria Zempila
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2493–2505,Short summary
Short- and long-term variability of spectral UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece, is discussed in association with changes in total ozone column, aerosols and cloudiness. The UV data set from two Brewer spectrophotometers is used for the analysis. For the entire period 1994–2014, positive, statistically significant increases of UV irradiance were found, mainly attributable to changes in aerosols. UV irradiance is mainly increased from 1994 to 2006 and remains relatively stable thereafter.
Zak Kipling, Philip Stier, Colin E. Johnson, Graham W. Mann, Nicolas Bellouin, Susanne E. Bauer, Tommi Bergman, Mian Chin, Thomas Diehl, Steven J. Ghan, Trond Iversen, Alf Kirkevåg, Harri Kokkola, Xiaohong Liu, Gan Luo, Twan van Noije, Kirsty J. Pringle, Knut von Salzen, Michael Schulz, Øyvind Seland, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Toshihiko Takemura, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Kai Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2221–2241,Short summary
The vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosol is an important factor in its effects on climate. In this study we use a sophisticated model of the many interacting processes affecting aerosol in the atmosphere to show that the vertical distribution is typically dominated by only a few of these processes. Constraining these physical processes may help to reduce the large differences between models. However, the important processes are not always the same for different types of aerosol.
G. L. Schuster, O. Dubovik, and A. Arola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1565–1585,Short summary
We describe a method of using remote sensing of the refractive index to determine the relative contribution of carbonaceous aerosols and absorbing iron minerals. Monthly climatologies of fine mode soot carbon are low for West Africa and the Middle East, but the southern Africa and South America biomass burning sites have peak values that are much higher; this is consistent with expectations. Hence, refractive index is a practical parameter for quantifying soot carbon in the atmosphere.
G. L. Schuster, O. Dubovik, A. Arola, T. F. Eck, and B. N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1587–1602,Short summary
Some authors have recently suggested that the spectral dependence of aerosol absorption may be used to separate soot carbon absorption from the aerosol absorption associated with organic carbon and dust. We demonstrate that this approach is inconsistent with the underlying assumptions that are required to infer aerosol absorption through remote sensing techniques, and that carbonaceous aerosols can not be differentiated from dust by exclusively using spectral absorption signatures.
J. Kim, L. Ahlm, T. Yli-Juuti, M. Lawler, H. Keskinen, J. Tröstl, S. Schobesberger, J. Duplissy, A. Amorim, F. Bianchi, N. M. Donahue, R. C. Flagan, J. Hakala, M. Heinritzi, T. Jokinen, A. Kürten, A. Laaksonen, K. Lehtipalo, P. Miettinen, T. Petäjä, M. P. Rissanen, L. Rondo, K. Sengupta, M. Simon, A. Tomé, C. Williamson, D. Wimmer, P. M. Winkler, S. Ehrhart, P. Ye, J. Kirkby, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, K. E. J. Lehtinen, J. N. Smith, I. Riipinen, and A. Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 293–304,Short summary
The hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was measured in the presence of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid-dimethylamine, and sulfuric acid-organics derived from α-pinene oxidation during CLOUD7 at CERN in 2012. The hygroscopicity parameter κ decreased with increasing particle size, indicating decreasing acidity of particles.
A. Laakso, H. Kokkola, A.-I. Partanen, U. Niemeier, C. Timmreck, K. E. J. Lehtinen, H. Hakkarainen, and H. Korhonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 305–323,Short summary
We have studied the impacts of a volcanic eruption during solar radiation management (SRM) using an aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM-SALSA and an Earth system model MPI-ESM. A volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur geoengineering would lead to larger particles and smaller amount of new particles than if an volcano erupts in normal atmospheric conditions. Thus, volcanic eruption during SRM would lead to only a small additional cooling which would last for a significantly shorter period.
I. B. Konovalov, M. Beekmann, E. V. Berezin, H. Petetin, T. Mielonen, I. N. Kuznetsova, and M. O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13269–13297,Short summary
(1) The mesoscale evolution of aerosol from open biomass burning (BB) has been successfully simulated using the volatility basis set (VBS) framework. (2) The simulations disregarding semivolatile nature of organic compounds forming BB aerosol are found to be inconsistent with measurements in the region and period affected by the Russian 2010 wildfires. (3) The VBS method enables one to improve the consistency of "top-down" and "bottom-up" estimates of BB aerosol emissions.
A. Arola, G. L. Schuster, M. R. A. Pitkänen, O. Dubovik, H. Kokkola, A. V. Lindfors, T. Mielonen, T. Raatikainen, S. Romakkaniemi, S. N. Tripathi, and H. Lihavainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12731–12740,Short summary
There have been relatively few measurement-based estimates for the direct radiative effect of brown carbon so far. This is first time that the direct radiative effect of brown carbon is estimated by exploiting the AERONET-retrieved imaginary indices. We estimated it for four sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain: Karachi, Lahore, Kanpur and Gandhi College.
H. Eskes, V. Huijnen, A. Arola, A. Benedictow, A.-M. Blechschmidt, E. Botek, O. Boucher, I. Bouarar, S. Chabrillat, E. Cuevas, R. Engelen, H. Flentje, A. Gaudel, J. Griesfeller, L. Jones, J. Kapsomenakis, E. Katragkou, S. Kinne, B. Langerock, M. Razinger, A. Richter, M. Schultz, M. Schulz, N. Sudarchikova, V. Thouret, M. Vrekoussis, A. Wagner, and C. Zerefos
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3523–3543,Short summary
The MACC project is preparing the operational atmosphere service of the European Copernicus Programme, and uses data assimilation to combine atmospheric models with available observations. Our paper provides an overview of the aerosol and trace gas validation activity of MACC. Topics are the validation requirements, the measurement data, the assimilation systems, the upgrade procedure, operational aspects and the scoring methods. A summary is provided of recent results, including special events.
J. Joutsensaari, P. Yli-Pirilä, H. Korhonen, A. Arola, J. D. Blande, J. Heijari, M. Kivimäenpää, S. Mikkonen, L. Hao, P. Miettinen, P. Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, C. L. Faiola, A. Laaksonen, and J. K. Holopainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12139–12157,Short summary
Global warming will induce large-scale insect outbreaks in boreal forests. Our results from field and laboratory experiments, satellite observations and global-scale modelling suggest that more frequent insect outbreaks, in addition to temperature-dependent increases in VOC emissions, could result in substantial increases in biogenic SOA formation and therefore affect both aerosol direct and indirect forcing of climate at regional scales. This should be considered in future climate predictions.
G. Bernhard, A. Arola, A. Dahlback, V. Fioletov, A. Heikkilä, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, T. Svendby, and J. Tamminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7391–7412,Short summary
Surface erythemal UV data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are validated for high northern latitudes (Arctic and Scandinavia) using ground-based measurements. The bias in OMI data caused by incorrect assumptions of the surface albedo are quantified and the mechanism that causes this bias is discussed. Methods to improve the accuracy of OMI data products are presented.
W. Wandji Nyamsi, A. Arola, P. Blanc, A. V. Lindfors, V. Cesnulyte, M. R. A. Pitkänen, and L. Wald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7449–7456,Short summary
A novel model of the absorption of radiation by ozone in the UV bands [283, 307]nm and [307, 328]nm yields improvements in the modeling of the transmissivity in these bands. This model is faster than detailed spectral calculations and is as accurate with maximum errors of respectively 0.0006 and 0.0143. How to practically implement this new parameterization in a radiative transfer model is discussed for the case of libRadtran.
M. A. Thomas, M. Kahnert, C. Andersson, H. Kokkola, U. Hansson, C. Jones, J. Langner, and A. Devasthale
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1885–1898,Short summary
We have showed that a coupled modelling system is beneficial in the sense that more complex processes can be included to better represent the aerosol processes starting from their formation, their interactions with clouds and provide better estimate of radiative forcing. Using this model set up, we estimated an annual mean 'indirect' radiative forcing of -0.64W/m2. This means that aerosols, solely by their capability of altering the microphysical properties of clouds can cool the Earth system.
A. Leskinen, P. Yli-Pirilä, K. Kuuspalo, O. Sippula, P. Jalava, M.-R. Hirvonen, J. Jokiniemi, A. Virtanen, M. Komppula, and K. E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2267–2278,Short summary
A 29 m3 Teflon chamber was characterized and tested with oxidation experiments of toluene. Secondary organic aerosol yields of 12-42 % were obtained. These yields are comparable to those obtained in other laboratories.
E. Giannakaki, A. Pfüller, K. Korhonen, T. Mielonen, L. Laakso, V. Vakkari, H. Baars, R. Engelmann, J. P. Beukes, P. G. Van Zyl, M. Josipovic, P. Tiitta, K. Chiloane, S. Piketh, H. Lihavainen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, and M. Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5429–5442,Short summary
In this study we summarize 1 year of Raman lidar observations over South Africa. The analyses of lidar measurements presented here could assist in bridging existing gaps in the knowledge of vertical distribution of aerosols above South Africa, since limited long-term data of this type are available for this region. For the first time, we have been able to cover the full seasonal cycle on geometrical characteristics and optical properties of free tropospheric aerosol layers in the region.
A.-M. Sundström, A. Nikandrova, K. Atlaskina, T. Nieminen, V. Vakkari, L. Laakso, J. P. Beukes, A. Arola, P. G. van Zyl, M. Josipovic, A. D. Venter, K. Jaars, J. J. Pienaar, S. Piketh, A. Wiedensohler, E. K. Chiloane, G. de Leeuw, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4983–4996,
T. Mielonen, J. F. de Haan, J. C. A. van Peet, M. Eremenko, and J. P. Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 671–687,Short summary
In this paper, we have assessed the sensitivity of the operational Ozone Monitoring Instrument ozone profile retrieval algorithm to a number of a priori and radiative transfer assumptions. We then modified the algorithm to improve the retrieval of tropospheric ozone. We found that the modified retrieval unmasks systematic problems in the radiative transfer/instrument model and is more sensitive to tropospheric ozone variation: it is able to capture the tropospheric ozone morphology better.
C. Andersson, R. Bergström, C. Bennet, L. Robertson, M. Thomas, H. Korhonen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, and H. Kokkola
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 171–189,Short summary
We have integrated the sectional aerosol dynamics model SALSA into the European scale chemistry-transport model MATCH. The combined model reproduces observed higher particle number concentration (PNCs) in central Europe and lower concentrations in remote regions; however, the total PNC is underestimated. The low nucleation rate coefficient used in this study is an important reason for the underestimation.
A.-M. Sundström, A. Arola, P. Kolmonen, Y. Xue, G. de Leeuw, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 505–518,Short summary
In this work, a satellite-based approach to derive the aerosol direct shortwave (SW) radiative effect (ADRE) is studied. The method is based on using coincident satellite observations of SW fluxes and aerosol optical depths (AODs). The key findings of this study are that using normalized values of observed fluxes improves the estimates of ADRE and aerosol-free TOA fluxes as compared to a model. The method was applied over eastern China where the satellite-based mean ADRE of -5Wm-2 was obtained.
M. R. A. Pitkänen, A. Arola, K. Lakkala, T. Koskela, and A. V. Lindfors
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
E. M. Dunne, S. Mikkonen, H. Kokkola, and H. Korhonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13631–13642,Short summary
Marine clouds have a strong effect on the Earth's radiative balance. One proposed climate feedback is that, in a warming climate, marine aerosol emissions will change due to changing wind speeds. We have examined the processes that affect aerosol emissions and removal over 15 years, and high-temporal-resolution output over 2 months. We conclude that wind trends are unlikely to cause a strong feedback in marine regions, but changes in removal processes or transport from continental regions may.
L. Q. Hao, A. Kortelainen, S. Romakkaniemi, H. Portin, A. Jaatinen, A. Leskinen, M. Komppula, P. Miettinen, D. Sueper, A. Pajunoja, J. N. Smith, K. E. J. Lehtinen, D. R. Worsnop, A. Laaksonen, and A. Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13483–13495,Short summary
Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to the unified high-resolution mass spectra organic species with NO+ and NO2+ ions from the measurement in a mixed region between the boreal forestland and the urban area. The PMF analysis succeeded in separating the mixed spectra into three distinct organic factors and one inorganic factor. The particulate organic nitrate was distinguished by PMF for the first time, with a contribution of one-third of the total nitrate mass.
J.-P. Pietikäinen, S. Mikkonen, A. Hamed, A. I. Hienola, W. Birmili, M. Kulmala, and A. Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11711–11729,
A.-I. Partanen, E. M. Dunne, T. Bergman, A. Laakso, H. Kokkola, J. Ovadnevaite, L. Sogacheva, D. Baisnée, J. Sciare, A. Manders, C. O'Dowd, G. de Leeuw, and H. Korhonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11731–11752,Short summary
New parameterizations for the sea spray aerosol source flux and its organic fraction were incorporated into a global aerosol-climate model. The emissions of sea salt were considerably less than previous estimates. This study demonstrates that sea spray aerosol may actually decrease the number of cloud droplets, which has a warming effect on climate. Overall, sea spray aerosol was predicted to have a global cooling effect due to the scattering of solar radiation from sea spray aerosol particles.
T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, A. Arola, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, S. N. Crumeyrolle, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, S. Lolli, A. Lyapustin, Y. Wang, J. S. Schafer, D. M. Giles, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, P. Minnis, K. E. Pickering, C. P. Loughner, A. Smirnov, and A. Sinyuk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11633–11656,
K. Tsigaridis, N. Daskalakis, M. Kanakidou, P. J. Adams, P. Artaxo, R. Bahadur, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, A. Benedetti, T. Bergman, T. K. Berntsen, J. P. Beukes, H. Bian, K. S. Carslaw, M. Chin, G. Curci, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, S. L. Gong, A. Hodzic, C. R. Hoyle, T. Iversen, S. Jathar, J. L. Jimenez, J. W. Kaiser, A. Kirkevåg, D. Koch, H. Kokkola, Y. H Lee, G. Lin, X. Liu, G. Luo, X. Ma, G. W. Mann, N. Mihalopoulos, J.-J. Morcrette, J.-F. Müller, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. L. Ng, D. O'Donnell, J. E. Penner, L. Pozzoli, K. J. Pringle, L. M. Russell, M. Schulz, J. Sciare, Ø. Seland, D. T. Shindell, S. Sillman, R. B. Skeie, D. Spracklen, T. Stavrakou, S. D. Steenrod, T. Takemura, P. Tiitta, S. Tilmes, H. Tost, T. van Noije, P. G. van Zyl, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, Z. Wang, Z. Wang, R. A. Zaveri, H. Zhang, K. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and X. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10845–10895,
J. Huttunen, A. Arola, G. Myhre, A. V. Lindfors, T. Mielonen, S. Mikkonen, J. S. Schafer, S. N. Tripathi, M. Wild, M. Komppula, and K. E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6103–6110,
A. Kreuter, R. Buras, B. Mayer, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Bais, N. Kouremeti, and M. Blumthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5989–6002,
O. Meinander, A. Kontu, A. Virkkula, A. Arola, L. Backman, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserová, O. Järvinen, T. Manninen, J. Svensson, G. de Leeuw, and M. Leppäranta
The Cryosphere, 8, 991–995,
G. W. Mann, K. S. Carslaw, C. L. Reddington, K. J. Pringle, M. Schulz, A. Asmi, D. V. Spracklen, D. A. Ridley, M. T. Woodhouse, L. A. Lee, K. Zhang, S. J. Ghan, R. C. Easter, X. Liu, P. Stier, Y. H. Lee, P. J. Adams, H. Tost, J. Lelieveld, S. E. Bauer, K. Tsigaridis, T. P. C. van Noije, A. Strunk, E. Vignati, N. Bellouin, M. Dalvi, C. E. Johnson, T. Bergman, H. Kokkola, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, G. Luo, A. Petzold, J. Heintzenberg, A. Clarke, J. A. Ogren, J. Gras, U. Baltensperger, U. Kaminski, S. G. Jennings, C. D. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, D. C. S. Beddows, M. Kulmala, Y. Viisanen, V. Ulevicius, N. Mihalopoulos, V. Zdimal, M. Fiebig, H.-C. Hansson, E. Swietlicki, and J. S. Henzing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4679–4713,
K. Korhonen, E. Giannakaki, T. Mielonen, A. Pfüller, L. Laakso, V. Vakkari, H. Baars, R. Engelmann, J. P. Beukes, P. G. Van Zyl, A. Ramandh, L. Ntsangwane, M. Josipovic, P. Tiitta, G. Fourie, I. Ngwana, K. Chiloane, and M. Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4263–4278,
H. Kokkola, P. Yli-Pirilä, M. Vesterinen, H. Korhonen, H. Keskinen, S. Romakkaniemi, L. Hao, A. Kortelainen, J. Joutsensaari, D. R. Worsnop, A. Virtanen, and K. E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1689–1700,
T. Korhola, H. Kokkola, H. Korhonen, A.-I. Partanen, A. Laaksonen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, and S. Romakkaniemi
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 161–174,
V. Cesnulyte, A. V. Lindfors, M. R. A. Pitkänen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, J.-J. Morcrette, and A. Arola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 593–608,
V. F. Sofieva, J. Tamminen, E. Kyrölä, T. Mielonen, P. Veefkind, B. Hassler, and G.E. Bodeker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 283–299,
A. Lipponen, V. Kolehmainen, S. Romakkaniemi, and H. Kokkola
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 2087–2098,
A. I. Partanen, A. Laakso, A. Schmidt, H. Kokkola, T. Kuokkanen, J.-P. Pietikäinen, V.-M. Kerminen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, L. Laakso, and H. Korhonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12059–12071,
M. Lefèvre, A. Oumbe, P. Blanc, B. Espinar, B. Gschwind, Z. Qu, L. Wald, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, C. Hoyer-Klick, A. Arola, A. Benedetti, J. W. Kaiser, and J.-J. Morcrette
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2403–2418,
A. Arola, T. F. Eck, J. Huttunen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, A. V. Lindfors, G. Myhre, A. Smirnov, S. N. Tripathi, and H. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7895–7901,
A. V. Lindfors, N. Kouremeti, A. Arola, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, and A. Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3733–3741,
C. A. Randles, S. Kinne, G. Myhre, M. Schulz, P. Stier, J. Fischer, L. Doppler, E. Highwood, C. Ryder, B. Harris, J. Huttunen, Y. Ma, R. T. Pinker, B. Mayer, D. Neubauer, R. Hitzenberger, L. Oreopoulos, D. Lee, G. Pitari, G. Di Genova, J. Quaas, F. G. Rose, S. Kato, S. T. Rumbold, I. Vardavas, N. Hatzianastassiou, C. Matsoukas, H. Yu, F. Zhang, H. Zhang, and P. Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2347–2379,
Related subject area
Subject: Radiation | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Photovoltaic power potential in West Africa using long-term satellite dataA semi-empirical potential energy surface and line list for H216O extending into the near-ultravioletGlobal distribution and 14-year changes in erythemal irradiance, UV atmospheric transmission, and total column ozone for2005–2018 estimated from OMI and EPIC observationsBiomass-burning-induced surface darkening and its impact on regional meteorology in eastern ChinaAir pollution slows down surface warming over the Tibetan PlateauEstimation of hourly land surface heat fluxes over the Tibetan Plateau by the combined use of geostationary and polar-orbiting satellitesEstimations of global shortwave direct aerosol radiative effects above opaque water clouds using a combination of A-Train satellite sensorsUncertainty of atmospheric microwave absorption model: impact on ground-based radiometer simulations and retrievalsSimulated and observed horizontal inhomogeneities of optical thickness of Arctic stratusNet radiative effects of dust in the tropical North Atlantic based on integrated satellite observations and in situ measurementsComparison of global observations and trends of total precipitable water derived from microwave radiometers and COSMIC radio occultation from 2006 to 2013Characterizing energy budget variability at a Sahelian site: a test of NWP model behaviourScale dependence of cirrus horizontal heterogeneity effects on TOA measurements – Part I: MODIS brightness temperatures in the thermal infraredAerosol scattering effects on water vapor retrievals over the Los Angeles BasinDirectional, horizontal inhomogeneities of cloud optical thickness fields retrieved from ground-based and airbornespectral imagingAirborne observations of far-infrared upwelling radiance in the ArcticMicrowave signatures of ice hydrometeors from ground-based observations above Summit, GreenlandShortwave direct radiative effects of above-cloud aerosols over global oceans derived from 8 years of CALIOP and MODIS observationsRetrieving high-resolution surface solar radiation with cloud parameters derived by combining MODIS and MTSAT dataInstantaneous longwave radiative impact of ozone: an application on IASI/MetOp observationsA method to retrieve super-thin cloud optical depth over ocean background with polarized sunlightAirborne observations and simulations of three-dimensional radiative interactions between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floesDeriving polarization properties of desert-reflected solar spectra with PARASOL dataUsing IASI to simulate the total spectrum of outgoing long-wave radiancesInvestigation of the "elevated heat pump" hypothesis of the Asian monsoon using satellite observationsImproved retrieval of direct and diffuse downwelling surface shortwave flux in cloudless atmosphere using dynamic estimates of aerosol content and type: application to the LSA-SAF projectSurface-sensible and latent heat fluxes over the Tibetan Plateau from ground measurements, reanalysis, and satellite dataInfluence of local surface albedo variability and ice crystal shape on passive remote sensing of thin cirrusCombining MODIS, AVHRR and in situ data for evapotranspiration estimation over heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan PlateauModeling polarized solar radiation from the ocean–atmosphere system for CLARREO inter-calibration applicationsHIRS channel 12 brightness temperature dataset and its correlations with major climate indicesPerformance of the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) for temperature, water vapor, and trace gas retrievals: recent updates evaluated with IASI case studiesMulti-satellite aerosol observations in the vicinity of cloudsCLARA-SAL: a global 28 yr timeseries of Earth's black-sky surface albedoQuantitative comparison of the variability in observed and simulated shortwave reflectanceRegional radiative impact of volcanic aerosol from the 2009 eruption of Mt. RedoubtAirborne hyperspectral observations of surface and cloud directional reflectivity using a commercial digital cameraDirect and semi-direct radiative forcing of smoke aerosols over cloudsValidity of satellite measurements used for the monitoring of UV radiation risk on healthStatistics of vertical backscatter profiles of cirrus cloudsUsing surface remote sensors to derive radiative characteristics of Mixed-Phase Clouds: an example from M-PACEDetermination of land surface heat fluxes over heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan Plateau by using the MODIS and in situ dataCirrus cloud-temperature interactions in the tropical tropopause layer: a case studyCharacteristics of water-vapour inversions observed over the Arctic by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and radiosondesUse of satellite erythemal UV products in analysing the global UV changesEffects of absorbing aerosols in cloudy skies: a satellite study over the Atlantic OceanSpectrally-invariant behavior of zenith radiance around cloud edges simulated by radiative transferAssessment of the calibration performance of satellite visible channels using cloud targets: application to Meteosat-8/9 and MTSAT-1RDownscaling of METEOSAT SEVIRI 0.6 and 0.8 μm channel radiances utilizing the high-resolution visible channelTesting remote sensing on artificial observations: impact of drizzle and 3-D cloud structure on effective radius retrievals
Ina Neher, Susanne Crewell, Stefanie Meilinger, Uwe Pfeifroth, and Jörg Trentmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12871–12888,Short summary
Photovoltaic power is one current option to meet the rising energy demand with low environmental impact. Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) is the fuel for photovoltaic power installations and needs to be evaluated to plan and dimension power plants. In this study, 35 years of satellite-based GHI data are analyzed over West Africa to determine their impact on photovoltaic power generation. The major challenges for the development of a solar-based power system in West Africa are then outlined.
Eamon K. Conway, Iouli E. Gordon, Jonathan Tennyson, Oleg L. Polyansky, Sergei N. Yurchenko, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10015–10027,Short summary
Water vapour has a complex spectrum and absorbs from the microwave to the near-UV where it dissociates. There is limited knowledge of the absorption features in the near-UV, and there is a large disagreement for the available models and experiments. We created a new ab initio model that is in good agreement with observation at 363 nm. At lower wavelengths, our calculations suggest that the latest experiments overestimate absorption. This has implications for trace gas retrievals in the near-UV.
Jay Herman, Alexander Cede, Liang Huang, Jerald Ziemke, Omar Torres, Nickolay Krotkov, Matthew Kowalewski, and Karin Blank
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8351–8380,Short summary
The amount of erythemal irradiance reaching the Earth's surface has been calculated from ozone, aerosol, and reflectivity data obtained from OMI and DSCOVR/EPIC satellite instruments showing areas with high levels of solar UV radiation. Changes in erythemal irradiance, cloud transmission, aerosol transmission, and ozone absorption have been estimated for 14 years 2005–2018 in units of percent per year for 191 locations, mostly large cities, and from EPIC for the entire illuminated Earth.
Rong Tang, Xin Huang, Derong Zhou, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6177–6191,Short summary
Biomass-burning-induced large areas of dark char (i.e.
surface darkening) could influence the radiative energy balance. During the harvest season in eastern China, satellite retrieval shows that surface albedo was significantly decreased. Observational evidence of meteorological perturbations from the surface darkening is identified, which is further examined by model simulation. This work highlights the importance of burning-induced albedo change in weather forecast and regional climate.
Aolin Jia, Shunlin Liang, Dongdong Wang, Bo Jiang, and Xiaotong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 881–899,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays a vital role in regional and global climate change due to its location and orography. After generating a long-term surface radiation (SR) dataset, we characterized the SR spatiotemporal variation along with temperature. Evidence from multiple data sources indicated that the TP dimming was primarily driven by increased aerosols from human activities, and the cooling effect of aerosol loading offsets TP surface warming, revealing the human impact on regional warming.
Lei Zhong, Yaoming Ma, Zeyong Hu, Yunfei Fu, Yuanyuan Hu, Xian Wang, Meilin Cheng, and Nan Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5529–5541,Short summary
Fine-temporal-resolution turbulent heat fluxes at the plateau scale have significant importance for studying diurnal variation characteristics of atmospheric boundary and weather systems in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its surroundings. Time series of land surface heat fluxes with high temporal resolution over the entire TP were derived. The derived surface heat fluxes proved to be in good agreement with in situ measurements and were superior to GLDAS flux products.
Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Mark A. Vaughan, Jens Redemann, Stuart A. Young, Zhaoyan Liu, Yongxiang Hu, Ali H. Omar, Samuel LeBlanc, Yohei Shinozuka, John Livingston, Qin Zhang, and Kathleen A. Powell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4933–4962,Short summary
Significant efforts are required to estimate the direct radiative effects of aerosols above clouds (DAREcloudy). We have used a combination of passive and active A-Train satellite sensors and derive mainly positive global and regional DAREcloudy values (e.g., global seasonal values between 0.13 and 0.26 W m-2). Despite differences in methods and sensors, the DAREcloudy values in this study are generally higher than previously reported. We discuss the primary reasons for these higher estimates.
Domenico Cimini, Philip W. Rosenkranz, Mikhail Y. Tretyakov, Maksim A. Koshelev, and Filomena Romano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15231–15259,Short summary
The paper presents a general approach to quantify the uncertainty related to atmospheric absorption models. These models describe how the atmosphere interacts with radiation, and they have general implications for atmospheric sciences. The presented approach contributes to a better understanding of the total uncertainty affecting atmospheric radiative properties, thus reducing the chances of systematic errors when observations are exploited for weather forecast or climate trend derivations.
Michael Schäfer, Katharina Loewe, André Ehrlich, Corinna Hoose, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13115–13133,Short summary
Airborne observed horizontal fields of cloud optical thickness are compared with semi-idealized large eddy simulations of Arctic stratus. The comparison focuses on horizontal cloud inhomogeneities and directional features of the small-scale cloud structures. Using inhomogeneity parameters and autocorrelation analysis it is investigated, if the observed small-scale cloud inhomogeneities can be represented by the model. Forcings for cloud inhomogeneities are investigated in a sensitivity study.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Seiji Kato, Ping Yang, Peter Colarco, Lorraine A. Remer, and Claire L. Ryder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11303–11322,Short summary
Mineral dust is the most abundant atmospheric aerosol component in terms of dry mass. In this study, we integrate recent aircraft measurements of dust microphysical and optical properties with satellite retrievals of aerosol and radiative fluxes to quantify the dust direct radiative effects on the shortwave and longwave radiation at both the top of the atmosphere and the surface in the tropical North Atlantic during summer months.
Shu-Peng Ho, Liang Peng, Carl Mears, and Richard A. Anthes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 259–274,Short summary
In this study, we compare 7 years of atmospheric total precipitable water (TPW) derived from multiple microwave radiometers to collocated TPW estimates derived from COSMIC radio occultation under various atmospheric conditions over the oceans. Results show that these two TPW trends from independent observations are larger than previous estimates and are a strong indication of the positive water vapor–temperature feedback on a warming planet.
Anna Mackie, Paul I. Palmer, and Helen Brindley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15095–15119,Short summary
We compare the balance of solar and thermal radiation at the surface and the top of the atmosphere from a forecasting model to observations at a site in Niamey, Niger, in the Sahel. To interpret the energy budgets we examine other factors, such as cloud properties, water vapour and aerosols, which we use to understand the differences between the observation and model. We find that some differences are linked to lack of ice in clouds, underestimated aerosol loading and surface temperatures.
Thomas Fauchez, Steven Platnick, Kerry Meyer, Céline Cornet, Frédéric Szczap, and Tamás Várnai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8489–8508,Short summary
This study presents impact of cirrus cloud horizontal heterogeneity on simulated thermal infrared brightness temperatures at the top of the atmosphere for spatial resolutions ranging from 50 m to 10 km. The cirrus is generated by the 3DCLOUD code and the radiative transfer by the 3DMCPOL code. Brightness temperatures are mostly impacted by the horizontal transport effect and plane-parallel bias at high and coarse spatial resolutions, respectively, with a minimum around 100 m–250 m.
Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Qiong Zhang, Vijay Natraj, Jack S. Margolis, Run-Lie Shia, Sally Newman, Dejian Fu, Thomas J. Pongetti, Kam W. Wong, Stanley P. Sander, Paul O. Wennberg, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2495–2508,Short summary
We propose a novel approach to describing the scattering effects of atmospheric aerosols using H2O retrievals in the near infrared. We found that the aerosol scattering effect is the primary contributor to the variations in the wavelength dependence of the H2O SCD retrievals and the scattering effects can be derived using H2O retrievals from multiple bands. This proposed method could potentially contribute towards reducing biases in greenhouse gas retrievals from space.
Michael Schäfer, Eike Bierwirth, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Frank Werner, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2359–2372,Short summary
Cloud optical thickness fields, retrieved from solar spectral radiance measurements, are used to investigate the directional structure of horizontal cloud inhomogeneities with scalar one-dimensional inhomogeneity parameters, two-dimensional auto-correlation functions, and two-dimensional Fourier analysis. The investigations reveal that it is not sufficient to quantify horizontal cloud inhomogeneities by one-dimensional inhomogeneity parameters; two-dimensional parameters are necessary.
Quentin Libois, Liviu Ivanescu, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Hannes Schulz, Heiko Bozem, W. Richard Leaitch, Julia Burkart, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, Amir A. Aliabadi, and Éric Girard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15689–15707,Short summary
The first airborne measurements performed with the FIRR are presented. Vertical profiles of upwelling spectral radiance in the far-infrared are measured in the Arctic atmosphere for the first time. They show the impact of the temperature inversion on the radiative budget of the atmosphere, especially in the far-infrared. The presence of ice clouds also significantly alters the far-infrared budget, highlighting the critical interplay between water vapour and clouds in this very dry region.
Claire Pettersen, Ralf Bennartz, Mark S. Kulie, Aronne J. Merrelli, Matthew D. Shupe, and David D. Turner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4743–4756,Short summary
We examined four summers of data from a ground-based atmospheric science instrument suite at Summit Station, Greenland, to isolate the signature of the ice precipitation. By using a combination of instruments with different specialities, we identified a passive microwave signature of the ice precipitation. This ice signature compares well to models using synthetic data characteristic of the site.
Zhibo Zhang, Kerry Meyer, Hongbin Yu, Steven Platnick, Peter Colarco, Zhaoyan Liu, and Lazaros Oreopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2877–2900,Short summary
The frequency of occurrence and shortwave direct radiative effects (DRE) of above-cloud aerosols (ACAs) over global oceans are investigated using 8 years of collocated CALIOP and MODIS observations. We estimated that ACAs have a global ocean annual mean diurnally averaged cloudy-sky DRE of 0.015 W m−2 (range of −0.03 to 0.06 W m−2) at TOA. The DREs at surface and within atmosphere are −0.15 W m−2 (range of −0.09 to −0.21 W m−2), and 0.17 W m−2 (range of 0.11 to 0.24 W m−2), respectively.
Wenjun Tang, Jun Qin, Kun Yang, Shaomin Liu, Ning Lu, and Xiaolei Niu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2543–2557,Short summary
In this paper, we develop a new method to quickly retrieve high-resolution surface solar radiation (SSR) over China by combining MODIS and MTSAT data. The RMSEs of the retrieved SSR at hourly, daily, and monthly scales are about 98.5, 34.2, and 22.1 W m−2. The accuracy is comparable to or even higher than other two satellite radiation products. Finally, we derive an 8-year high-resolution SSR data set (hourly, 5 km) from 2007 to 2014, which would contribute to studies of land surface processes.
S. Doniki, D. Hurtmans, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, H. M. Worden, K. W. Bowman, and P.-F. Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12971–12987,
W. Sun, R. R. Baize, G. Videen, Y. Hu, and Q. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11909–11918,Short summary
A method is reported for retrieving super-thin cloud optical depth with polarized light. It is found that near-backscatter p-polarized light is sensitive to clouds, but not to ocean conditions. Near-backscatter p-polarized intensity linearly relates to super-thin cloud optical depth. Based on these findings, super-thin cloud optical depth can be retrieved with little effect from surface reflection.
M. Schäfer, E. Bierwirth, A. Ehrlich, E. Jäkel, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8147–8163,
W. Sun, R. R. Baize, C. Lukashin, and Y. Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7725–7734,
E. C. Turner, H.-T. Lee, and S. F. B. Tett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6561–6575,
M. M. Wonsick, R. T. Pinker, and Y. Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8749–8761,
X. Ceamanos, D. Carrer, and J.-L. Roujean
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8209–8232,
Q. Shi and S. Liang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5659–5677,
C. Fricke, A. Ehrlich, E. Jäkel, B. Bohn, M. Wirth, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1943–1958,
Y. Ma, Z. Zhu, L. Zhong, B. Wang, C. Han, Z. Wang, Y. Wang, L. Lu, P. M. Amatya, W. Ma, and Z. Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1507–1515,
W. Sun and C. Lukashin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10303–10324,
L. Shi, C. J. Schreck III, and V. O. John
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6907–6920,
M. J. Alvarado, V. H. Payne, E. J. Mlawer, G. Uymin, M. W. Shephard, K. E. Cady-Pereira, J. S. Delamere, and J.-L. Moncet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6687–6711,
T. Várnai, A. Marshak, and W. Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3899–3908,
A. Riihelä, T. Manninen, V. Laine, K. Andersson, and F. Kaspar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3743–3762,
Y. L. Roberts, P. Pilewskie, B. C. Kindel, D. R. Feldman, and W. D. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3133–3147,
C. L. Young, I. N. Sokolik, and J. Dufek
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3699–3715,
A. Ehrlich, E. Bierwirth, M. Wendisch, A. Herber, and J.-F. Gayet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3493–3510,
E. M. Wilcox
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 139–149,
F. Jégou, S. Godin-Beekman, M. P. Corrêa, C. Brogniez, F. Auriol, V. H. Peuch, M. Haeffelin, A. Pazmino, P. Saiag, F. Goutail, and E. Mahé
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 13377–13394,
P. Veglio and T. Maestri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 12925–12943,
G. de Boer, W. D. Collins, S. Menon, and C. N. Long
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11937–11949,
Y. Ma, L. Zhong, B. Wang, W. Ma, X. Chen, and M. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10461–10469,
J. R. Taylor, W. J. Randel, and E. J. Jensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10085–10095,
A. Devasthale, J. Sedlar, and M. Tjernström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9813–9823,
I. Ialongo, A. Arola, J. Kujanpää, and J. Tamminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9649–9658,
K. Peters, J. Quaas, and N. Bellouin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1393–1404,
J. C. Chiu, A. Marshak, Y. Knyazikhin, and W. J. Wiscombe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11295–11303,
S.-H. Ham and B. J. Sohn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11131–11149,
H. M. Deneke and R. A. Roebeling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9761–9772,
T. Zinner, G. Wind, S. Platnick, and A. S. Ackerman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9535–9549,
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For a good estimate of the current forcing by anthropogenic aerosols, knowledge in past is needed. One option to lengthen time series is to retrieve aerosol optical depth from solar radiation measurements. We have evaluated several methods for this task. Most of the methods produce aerosol optical depth estimates with a good accuracy. However, machine learning methods seem to be the most applicable not to produce any systematic biases, since they do not need constrain the aerosol properties.
For a good estimate of the current forcing by anthropogenic aerosols, knowledge in past is...