Articles | Volume 17, issue 3
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2359–2372, 2017

Special issue: VERDI – Vertical ​Distribution of Ice ​in Arctic Clouds...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2359–2372, 2017

Research article 15 Feb 2017

Research article | 15 Feb 2017

Directional, horizontal inhomogeneities of cloud optical thickness fields retrieved from ground-based and airbornespectral imaging

Michael Schäfer1, Eike Bierwirth1,a, André Ehrlich1, Evelyn Jäkel1, Frank Werner2, and Manfred Wendisch1 Michael Schäfer et al.
  • 1Leipzig Institute for Meteorology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
  • 2Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland, 5523 Research Park Drive 320, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
  • anow at: PIER-ELECTRONIC GmbH, Nassaustr. 33–35, 65719 Hofheim-Wallau, Germany

Abstract. Clouds exhibit distinct horizontal inhomogeneities of their optical and microphysical properties, which complicate their realistic representation in weather and climate models. In order to investigate the horizontal structure of cloud inhomogeneities, 2-D horizontal fields of optical thickness (τ) of subtropical cirrus and Arctic stratus are investigated with a spatial resolution of less than 10 m. The 2-D τ-fields are derived from (a) downward (transmitted) solar spectral radiance measurements from the ground beneath four subtropical cirrus and (b) upward (reflected) radiances measured from aircraft above 10 Arctic stratus. The data were collected during two field campaigns: (a) Clouds, Aerosol, Radiation, and tuRbulence in the trade wind regime over BArbados (CARRIBA) and (b) VERtical Distribution of Ice in Arctic clouds (VERDI). One-dimensional and 2-D autocorrelation functions, as well as power spectral densities, are derived from the retrieved τ-fields. The typical spatial scale of cloud inhomogeneities is quantified for each cloud case. Similarly, the scales at which 3-D radiative effects influence the radiance field are identified. In most of the investigated cloud cases considerable cloud inhomogeneities with a prevailing directional structure are found. In these cases, the cloud inhomogeneities favour a specific horizontal direction, while across this direction the cloud is of homogeneous character. The investigations reveal that it is not sufficient to quantify horizontal cloud inhomogeneities using 1-D inhomogeneity parameters; 2-D parameters are necessary.

Short summary
Cloud optical thickness fields, retrieved from solar spectral radiance measurements, are used to investigate the directional structure of horizontal cloud inhomogeneities with scalar one-dimensional inhomogeneity parameters, two-dimensional auto-correlation functions, and two-dimensional Fourier analysis. The investigations reveal that it is not sufficient to quantify horizontal cloud inhomogeneities by one-dimensional inhomogeneity parameters; two-dimensional parameters are necessary.
Final-revised paper