Articles | Volume 21, issue 19
06 Oct 2021
Research article | 06 Oct 2021
Formation of condensable organic vapors from anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is strongly perturbed by NOx in eastern China
Yuliang Liu et al.
No articles found.
Shuhui Zhu, Min Zhou, Liping Qiao, Dan Dan Huang, Qiongqiong Wang, Shan Wang, Yaqin Gao, Shengao Jing, Qian Wang, Hongli Wang, Changhong Chen, Cheng Huang, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Organic aerosol (OA) becomes increasingly important in urban PM2.5 pollution as inorganic ions are getting lower. We investigated chemical characteristics of OA during nine episodes in Shanghai. The unique availability of bi-hourly measured molecular markers revealed that control of local urban sources such as vehicular and cooking emissions would lessen severity of local episodes. Regional control of precursors and biomass burning would reduce PM2.5 episodes influenced by regional transport.
Guangdong Niu, Ximeng Qi, Liangduo Chen, Lian Xue, Shiyi Lai, Xin Huang, Jiaping Wang, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Aijun Ding
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
The reported below-cloud wet scavenging coefficients (BWSCs) are much higher than the theory, but the reason of it remains unclear. Based on the long-term observation, we find the air masses changing during the rainfall events causes the overestimation of BWSCs. Thus, the discrepancy in BWSCs between observation and theory is not as large as currently believed. To obtain reasonable BWSCs and parameterizations from field observations, the effect of air masses changing needs to be considered.
Jingyu An, Cheng Huang, Dandan Huang, Momei Qin, Huan Liu, Rusha Yan, Liping Qiao, Min Zhou, Yingjie Li, Shuhui Zhu, Qian Wang, and Hongli Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 323–344,Short summary
This paper aims to build up an approach to establish a high-resolution emission inventory of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds in city-scale and detailed source categories and incorporate it into the CMAQ model. We believe this approach can be widely applied to improve the simulation of secondary organic aerosol and its source contributions.
Yarong Peng, Hongli Wang, Yaqin Gao, Shengao Jing, Shuhui Zhu, Dandan Huang, Peizhi Hao, Shengrong Lou, Tiantao Cheng, Cheng Huang, and Xuan Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 15–28,Short summary
This work examined the phase partitioning behaviors of organic compounds at hourly resolution in ambient conditions with the use of the CHemical Analysis of aeRosols ONline (CHARON) inlet coupled to a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS). Properly accounting for the neutral losses of small moieties during the molecular feature extraction from PTR mass spectra could significantly reduce uncertainties associated with the gas–particle partitioning measurements.
Chenxi Li, Yuyang Li, Xiaoxiao Li, Runlong Cai, Yaxin Fan, Xiaohui Qiao, Rujing Yin, Chao Yan, Yishuo Guo, Yongchun Liu, Jun Zheng, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, Huayun Xiao, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
New particle formation and growth in polluted environments are not fully understood despite intensive research. We applied a cluster dynamics-multicomponent sectional model to simulate the new particle formation events observed in Beijing, China. The simulation approximately captures how the events evolve. Further diagnosis shows that the oxygenated organic molecules may have been underdetected and modulating their abundance leads to significantly improved simulation-observation agreement.
Chun Xiong, Xueyan Chen, Xiaolei Ding, Binyu Kuang, Xiangyu Pei, Zhengning Xu, Shikuan Yang, Huan Hu, and Zhibin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16123–16135,Short summary
Water surface tension is applied widely in current aerosol–cloud models but could be inappropriate in the presence of atmospheric surfactants. With cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement results of mixed inorganic salt and dicarboxylic acid particles, we concluded that surface tension reduction and phase state should be carefully considered in aerosol–cloud interactions. Our results could help to decease uncertainties in climate models.
Juan Hong, Min Tang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Nan Ma, Shaowen Zhu, Shaobin Zhang, Xihao Pan, Linhong Xie, Guo Li, Uwe Kuhn, Chao Yan, Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Yao He, Wanyun Xu, Runlong Cai, Yaqing Zhou, Zhibin Wang, Guangsheng Zhou, Bin Yuan, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Comprehensive investigation of the characteristics of new particle formation events was conducted at a rural site in the North China Plain (NCP) of China during the wintertime of 2018 by covering the particle number size distribution down to sub-3 nm. Potential mechanisms for NPF under current environment was explored, followed by further discussion on the factors governing the occurring of NPF at this rural site compared with other regions (e.g. urban areas) in NCP.
Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Huang, Diego Aliaga, Otso Peräkylä, Liine Heikkinen, Alkuin Maximilian Koenig, Cheng Wu, Joonas Enroth, Yvette Gramlich, Jing Cai, Samara Carbone, Armin Hansel, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, Victoria Sinclair, Radovan Krejci, Marcos Andrade, Claudia Mohr, and Federico Bianchi
We investigate the chemical composition of atmospheric cluster ions from Jan to May 2018 at high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian Andes. Combined with state-of-the-art mass spectrometers and air mass history analysis, the measured cluster ions exhibited distinct diurnal and seasonal patterns, some of which contributed to new particle formation. Our study will improve the understanding of atmospheric ions and their role in high-altitude new particle formation.
Joschka Pfeifer, Naser G. Mahfouz, Ben Schulze, Serge Mathot, Dominik Stolzenburg, Rima Baalbaki, Zoé Brasseur, Lucia Caudillo, Lubna Dada, Manuel Granzin, Xu-Cheng He, Houssni Lamkaddam, Brandon Lopez, Vladimir Makhmutov, Ruby Marten, Bernhard Mentler, Tatjana Müller, Antti Onnela, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Birte Rörup, Meredith Schervish, Ping Tian, Nsikanabasi S. Umo, Dongyu S. Wang, Mingyi Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Yusheng Wu, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Antonio Amorim, Imad El Haddad, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Tuukka Petäjä, António Tomé, Sander Mirme, Hanna E. Manninen, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Andreas Kürten, Joachim Curtius, and Jasper Kirkby
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Attachment rate coefficients between ions and charged aerosol particles determine their lifetimes, and may also influence cloud dynamics and aerosol processing. Here we present novel experiments that measure ion-aerosol attachment rate coefficients for multiply-charged aerosol particles under atmospheric conditions in the CERN CLOUD chamber. Our results provide experimental discrimination between various theoretical models.
Daniel John Katz, Aroob Abdelhamid, Harald Stark, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Eleanor C. Browne
Ambient ion chemical composition measurements provide insight into trace gases that are precursors for the formation and growth of new aerosol particles. We use a new data analysis approach to increase the chemical information from these measurements. We analyze results from an agricultural region – an understudied land use type that is ~41 % of global land use – and find that the composition of gases important for aerosol formation and growth differ significantly from those in other ecosystems.
Zhenquan Wang, Jian Yuan, Robert Wood, Yifan Chen, and Tiancheng Tong
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
This study develops a novel profile-based algorithm based on the ERA5 to better estimate the inversion strength in the planetary boundary layer than the previous inversion index, which is a key low-cloud controlling factor. This improved measure is more effective at representing the meteorological influence on low cloud variations. It can better constrain the meteorological influence on low clouds, to better isolate cloud responses to aerosols or estimate low cloud feedbacks in climate models.
Jian Zhao, Ella Häkkinen, Frans Graeffe, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Juha Kangasluoma, and Mikael Ehn
Based on the combined measurements of gas- and particle-phase highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM) from α-pinene ozonolysis, enhancement of C16-C19 HOM dimers in particles was observed. Especially, C17H26Oz, which has often been reported by offline measurements, dominates the particle-phase HOM. Our results indicate that these C17 compounds might be closely related to particle-phase HOM formation. These results are important for a better understanding of SOA formation in the atmosphere.
Santeri Tuovinen, Runlong Cai, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, and Jenni Kontkanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15071–15091,Short summary
We compare observed survival probabilities of atmospheric particles from Beijing, China, with survival probabilities based on analytical formulae and model simulations. We find observed survival probabilities under polluted conditions at smaller sizes to be higher, while at larger sizes they are lower than or similar to theoretical survival probabilities. Uncertainties in condensation sink and growth rate are unlikely to explain higher-than-predicted survival probabilities at smaller sizes.
Yiqun Lu, Yingge Ma, Dan Dan Huang, Shengrong Lou, Sheng’ao Jing, Yaqin Gao, Hongli Wang, Yanjun Zhang, Hui Chen, Naiqiang Yan, Jianmin Chen, Christian George, Matthieu Riva, and Cheng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
The N-containing oxygenated organic molecules have been expected as the important precursors of aerosol particles. This study used an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometer coupled with an online sample inlet to accurately measure their molecular composition, concentration level and variation patterns. We demonstrated their formation process and the influencing factors in a Chinese megacity involving various VOC precursors and atmospheric oxidants, and highlight the influence of PM episode.
Yaqin Gao, Hongli Wang, Lingling Yuan, Shengao Jing, Bin Yuan, Guofeng Shen, Liang Zhu, Abigail Koss, Yingjie Li, Qian Wang, Dan Dan Huang, Shuhui Zhu, Shikang Tao, Shengrong Lou, and Cheng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
A near-complete speciation of Reactive organic gases (ROGs) emitted from residential combustion was developed to get more insights into their atmospheric effects. Oxygenated species, higher hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing ones played larger roles in the emissions of residential combustion comparing with the common hydrocarbons. Based on the near-complete speciation, ROG emissions from residential combustion were largely underestimated, leading to more underestimation of their OHR and SOAP.
Rujing Yin, Xiaoxiao Li, Chao Yan, Runlong Cai, Ying Zhou, Juha Kangasluoma, Nina Sarnela, Janne Lampilahti, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Federico Bianchi, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
The negative cluster ions with specific compositions are measured and quantified through the in-situ measurement of an atmospheric pressure interface high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer and a neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer in urban Beijing. The governing factors of atmospheric negative cluster ion concentration and composition at polluted urban sites are revealed and the fate of two representative ions in the urban atmosphere is characterized.
Min Zhou, Guangjie Zheng, Hongli Wang, Liping Qiao, Shuhui Zhu, DanDan Huang, Jingyu An, Shengrong Lou, Shikang Tao, Qian Wang, Rusha Yan, Yingge Ma, Changhong Chen, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, and Cheng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13833–13844,Short summary
The trend of aerosol pH and its drivers is crucial in understanding the multiphase formation pathways of aerosols. We reported the first trend analysis of aerosol pH from 2011 to 2019 in eastern China. Although significant variations of aerosol compositions were observed from 2011 to 2019, the aerosol pH estimated by model only slightly declined by 0.24. Our work shows that the opposite effects of SO42− and non-volatile cation changes play key roles in determining the moderate pH trend.
Melissa J. A. Meder, Otso Peräkylä, Jonathan G. Varelas, Jenny Luo, Runlong Cai, Yanjun Zhang, Theo Kurtén, Matthieu Riva, Matti P. Rissanen, Franz M. Geiger, Regan James Thomson, and Mikael Ehn
This manuscript discusses the formation pathways of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM) from the oxidation of the monoterpene α-pinene. These molecules are very important for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in forested regions, and monoterpenes are the single largest source of SOA globally. The fast reactions leading to HOM remain elusive despite considerable efforts over the last decade. Our focus is on using multiple isotopically labelled precursors to probe these reactions.
Chenjuan Deng, Yiran Li, Chao Yan, Jin Wu, Runlong Cai, Dongbin Wang, Yongchun Liu, Juha Kangasluoma, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13569–13580,Short summary
The size distributions of urban atmospheric particles convey important information on their origins and impacts. This study investigates the characteristics of typical particle size distributions and key gaseous precursors in the long term in urban Beijing. A fitting function is proposed to represent and help interpret size distribution including particles and gaseous precursors. In addition to NPF (new particle formation) as the major source, vehicles can emit sub-3 nm particles as well
Chuanhua Ren, Xin Huang, Tengyu Liu, Yu Song, Zhang Wen, Xuejun Liu, Aijun Ding, and Tong Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Ammonia in the atmosphere has wide impacts on the ecological environment and air quality, and its emission from soil volatilization is highly sensitive to meteorology, making it challenging to be well captured in models. We developed a dynamic emission model capable of calculating ammonia emission interactively with meteorological and soil conditions. Such a coupling of soil emission with meteorology provides a better understanding of ammonia emission and its contribution to atmospheric aerosol.
Ella Häkkinen, Jian Zhao, Frans Graeffe, Nicolas Fauré, Jordan Krechmer, Douglas Worsnop, Hilkka Timonen, Mikael Ehn, and Juha Kangasluoma
Highly oxygenated compounds contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric organic aerosol, and thus impact the global climate. Knowledge of their transformations and fate after condensing into the particle phase has been limited by the lack of suitable detection techniques. Here, we present an online method for measuring highly oxygenated compounds from organic aerosol. We evaluate the performance of the method and demonstrate that the method is applicable to different organic species.
Zhouxing Zou, Qianjie Chen, Men Xia, Qi Yuan, Yi Chen, Yanan Wang, Enyu Xiong, Zhe Wang, and Tao Wang
We present the OH observation and model simulation results at a coastal site in Hong Kong. The model well predicted the OH concentration in high NOx conditions and overpredicted in low NOx conditions. This implies the insufficient understanding of OH chemistry in low NOx conditions. We show evidence of missing OH sinks as a possible cause of the overprediction.
Yishuo Guo, Chenjuan Deng, Aino Ovaska, Feixue Zheng, Chenjie Hua, Junlei Zhan, Yiran Li, Jin Wu, Zongcheng Wang, Jiali Xie, Ying Zhang, Tingyu Liu, Yusheng Zhang, Boying Song, Wei Ma, Yongchun Liu, Chao Yan, Jingkun Jiang, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Men Xia, Tuomo Nieminen, Wei Du, Tom Kokkonen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Using the comprehensive datasets, we investigated the long-term variations of air pollutants during winter Beijing from 2019 to 2022, and analyzed the characteristics of atmospheric pollution cocktail during different short-term special events (e.g. Beijing Winter Olympics, COVID lockdown and Chinese New Year periods) associated with substantial emission reductions. Our results are useful in planning more targeted and sustainable long-term pollution control plans.
Chao Yan, Yicheng Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lubna Dada, Ximeng Qi, Simo Hakala, Anu-Maija Sundström, Yishuo Guo, Antti Lipponen, Tom V. Kokkonen, Jenni Kontkanen, Runlong Cai, Jing Cai, Tommy Chan, Liangduo Chen, Biwu Chu, Chenjuan Deng, Wei Du, Xiaolong Fan, Xu-Cheng He, Juha Kangasluoma, Joni Kujansuu, Mona Kurppa, Chang Li, Yiran Li, Zhuohui Lin, Yiliang Liu, Yuliang Liu, Yiqun Lu, Wei Nie, Jouni Pulliainen, Xiaohui Qiao, Yonghong Wang, Yifan Wen, Ye Wu, Gan Yang, Lei Yao, Rujing Yin, Gen Zhang, Shaojun Zhang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Antti Arola, Johanna Tamminen, Pauli Paasonen, Yele Sun, Lin Wang, Neil M. Donahue, Yongchun Liu, Federico Bianchi, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Aijun Ding, Jingkun Jiang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12207–12220,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is a dominant source of atmospheric ultrafine particles. In urban environments, traffic emissions are a major source of primary pollutants, but their contribution to NPF remains under debate. During the COVID-19 lockdown, traffic emissions were significantly reduced, providing a unique chance to examine their relevance to NPF. Based on our comprehensive measurements, we demonstrate that traffic emissions alone are not able to explain the NPF in Beijing.
Runlong Cai, Ella Häkkinen, Chao Yan, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11529–11541,Short summary
The influences of new particle formation on the climate and air quality are governed by particle survival, which has been under debate due to uncertainties in the coagulation sink. Here we measure the coagulation coefficient of sub-10 nm particles and demonstrate that collisions between the freshly nucleated and background particles can effectively lead to coagulation. We further show that the effective coagulation sink is consistent with the new particle formation measured in urban Beijing.
Qiongqiong Wang, Shan Wang, Yuk Ying Cheng, Hanzhe Chen, Zijing Zhang, Jinjian Li, Dasa Gu, Zhe Wang, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11239–11253,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is often enhanced during fine-particulate-matter (PM2.5) episodes. We examined bi-hourly measurements of SOA molecular tracers in suburban Hong Kong during 11 city-wide PM2.5 episodes. The tracers showed regional characteristics for both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA as well as biomass-burning-derived SOA. Multiple tracers of the same precursor revealed the dominance of low-NOx formation pathways for isoprene SOA and less-aged monoterpene SOA during winter.
Benjamin Foreback, Lubna Dada, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Chao Yan, Lili Wang, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Tom V. Kokkonen, Mona Kurppa, Rosaria E. Pileci, Yonghong Wang, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Lin Zhuohui, Yishou Guo, Chang Li, Rima Baalbaki, Joni Kujansuu, Xiaolong Fan, Zemin Feng, Pekka Rantala, Shahzad Gani, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Yongchun Liu, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11089–11104,Short summary
This study analyzed air quality in Beijing during the Chinese New Year over 7 years, including data from a new in-depth measurement station. This is one of few studies to look at long-term impacts, including the outcome of firework restrictions starting in 2018. Results show that firework pollution has gone down since 2016, indicating a positive result from the restrictions. Results of this study may be useful in making future decisions about the use of fireworks to improve air quality.
Lucía Caudillo, Mihnea Surdu, Brandon Lopez, Mingyi Wang, Markus Thoma, Steffen Bräkling, Angela Buchholz, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Martin Heinritzi, Antonio Amorim, David M. Bell, Zoé Brasseur, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Xu-Cheng He, Houssni Lamkaddam, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Antti Onnela, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Birte Rörup, Wiebke Scholz, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El Haddad, Neil M. Donahue, Alexander L. Vogel, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In this study, we present an intercomparison study of four different techniques for measuring the chemical composition of nanoparticles. The intercomparison was performed based on the observed chemical composition, calculated volatility, and analysis of the thermograms. We found that the methods generally agree on the most important compounds that are found in the nanoparticles. However, they do see different parts of the organic spectrum. We suggest potential explanations for these differences.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Yalin Wang, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We compared non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation under cloud/fog conditions. We showed that the structural features of photosensitizers affect aqSOA formation. We also elucidated potential interactions between photosensitization and ammonium nitrate photolysis. Our findings would be useful for evaluating the importance of photosensitized reactions on aqSOA formation, which could improve aqSOA-predictive models.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Yuliang Liu, Xiaohui Qiao, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhang, Ying Zhou, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Zhuohui Lin, Zemin Feng, Yusheng Zhang, Penggang Zheng, Linhui Tian, Wei Nie, Zhe Wang, Dandan Huang, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Lei Yao, Lubna Dada, Federico Bianchi, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10077–10097,Short summary
Gaseous oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs) are able to form atmospheric aerosols, which will impact on human health and climate change. Here, we find that OOMs in urban Beijing are dominated by anthropogenic sources, i.e. aromatic (29 %–41 %) and aliphatic (26 %–41 %) OOMs. They are also the main contributors to the condensational growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Therefore, the restriction on anthropogenic VOCs is crucial for the reduction of SOAs and haze formation.
Lisa J. Beck, Siegfried Schobesberger, Heikki Junninen, Janne Lampilahti, Antti Manninen, Lubna Dada, Katri Leino, Xu-Cheng He, Iida Pullinen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Anna Franck, Pyry Poutanen, Daniela Wimmer, Frans Korhonen, Mikko Sipilä, Mikael Ehn, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Jonathan Duplissy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8547–8577,Short summary
The presented article introduces an overview of atmospheric ions and their composition above the boreal forest. We provide the results of an extensive airborne measurement campaign with an air ion mass spectrometer and particle measurements, showing their diurnal evolution within the boundary layer and free troposphere. In addition, we compare the airborne dataset with the co-located data from the ground at SMEAR II station, Finland.
Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Lubna Dada, Eija Asmi, Janne Lampilahti, Tommy Chan, Jonathan E. Ferrara, Gustavo E. Copes, German Pérez-Fogwill, Luis Barreira, Minna Aurela, Douglas R. Worsnop, Tuija Jokinen, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8417–8437,Short summary
Understanding how aerosols form is crucial for correctly modeling the climate and improving future predictions. This work provides extensive analysis of aerosol particles and their precursors at Marambio Station, Antarctic Peninsula. We show that sulfuric acid, ammonia, and dimethylamine are key contributors to the frequent new particle formation events observed at the site. We discuss nucleation mechanisms and highlight the need for targeted measurement to fully understand these processes.
Shijie Cui, Dan Dan Huang, Yangzhou Wu, Junfeng Wang, Fuzhen Shen, Jiukun Xian, Yunjiang Zhang, Hongli Wang, Cheng Huang, Hong Liao, and Xinlei Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8073–8096,Short summary
Refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosols are important to air quality and climate change. rBC can mix with many other species, which can significantly change its properties and impacts. We used a specific set of techniques to exclusively characterize rBC-containing (rBCc) particles in Shanghai. We elucidated their composition, sources and size distributions and factors that affect their properties. Our findings are very valuable for advancing the understanding of BC and controlling BC pollution.
Yuanyuan Luo, Olga Garmash, Haiyan Li, Frans Graeffe, Arnaud P. Praplan, Anssi Liikanen, Yanjun Zhang, Melissa Meder, Otso Peräkylä, Josep Peñuelas, Ana María Yáñez-Serrano, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5619–5637,Short summary
Diterpenes were only recently observed in the atmosphere, and little is known of their atmospheric fates. We explored the ozonolysis of the diterpene kaurene in a chamber, and we characterized the oxidation products for the first time using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Our findings highlight similarities and differences between diterpenes and smaller terpenes during their atmospheric oxidation.
Jiandong Wang, Jia Xing, Shuxiao Wang, Rohit Mathur, Jiaping Wang, Yuqiang Zhang, Chao Liu, Jonathan Pleim, Dian Ding, Xing Chang, Jingkun Jiang, Peng Zhao, Shovan Kumar Sahu, Yuzhi Jin, David C. Wong, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5147–5156,Short summary
Aerosols reduce surface solar radiation and change the photolysis rate and planetary boundary layer stability. In this study, the online coupled meteorological and chemistry model was used to explore the detailed pathway of how aerosol direct effects affect secondary inorganic aerosol. The effects through the dynamics pathway act as an equally or even more important route compared with the photolysis pathway in affecting secondary aerosol concentration in both summer and winter.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vihma, Jouni Räisänen, Alexander Baklanov, Sergey Chalov, Igor Esau, Ekaterina Ezhova, Matti Leppäranta, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Jukka Pumpanen, Meinrat O. Andreae, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Jianhui Bai, Igor Bashmachnikov, Boris Belan, Federico Bianchi, Boris Biskaborn, Michael Boy, Jaana Bäck, Bin Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Jonathan Duplissy, Egor Dyukarev, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Martin Forsius, Martin Heimann, Sirkku Juhola, Vladimir Konovalov, Igor Konovalov, Pavel Konstantinov, Kajar Köster, Elena Lapshina, Anna Lintunen, Alexander Mahura, Risto Makkonen, Svetlana Malkhazova, Ivan Mammarella, Stefano Mammola, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Outi Meinander, Eugene Mikhailov, Victoria Miles, Stanislav Myslenkov, Dmitry Orlov, Jean-Daniel Paris, Roberta Pirazzini, Olga Popovicheva, Jouni Pulliainen, Kimmo Rautiainen, Torsten Sachs, Vladimir Shevchenko, Andrey Skorokhod, Andreas Stohl, Elli Suhonen, Erik S. Thomson, Marina Tsidilina, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Petteri Uotila, Aki Virkkula, Nadezhda Voropay, Tobias Wolf, Sayaka Yasunaka, Jiahua Zhang, Yubao Qiu, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Nikolay Kasimov, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4413–4469,Short summary
We summarize results during the last 5 years in the northern Eurasian region, especially from Russia, and introduce recent observations of the air quality in the urban environments in China. Although the scientific knowledge in these regions has increased, there are still gaps in our understanding of large-scale climate–Earth surface interactions and feedbacks. This arises from limitations in research infrastructures and integrative data analyses, hindering a comprehensive system analysis.
Haiyan Li, Thomas Golin Almeida, Yuanyuan Luo, Jian Zhao, Brett B. Palm, Christopher D. Daub, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Jordan E. Krechmer, Theo Kurtén, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1811–1827,Short summary
This work evaluated the potential for PTR-based mass spectrometers to detect ROOR and ROOH peroxides both experimentally and through computations. Laboratory experiments using a Vocus PTR observed only noisy signals of potential dimers during α-pinene ozonolysis and a few small signals of dimeric compounds during cyclohexene ozonolysis. Quantum chemical calculations for model ROOR and ROOH systems showed that most of these peroxides should fragment partially following protonation.
Jingwei Zhang, Chaofan Lian, Weigang Wang, Maofa Ge, Yitian Guo, Haiyan Ran, Yusheng Zhang, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolong Fan, Chao Yan, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Yongchun Liu, Markku Kulmala, and Junling An
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3275–3302,Short summary
This study added six potential HONO sources to the WRF-Chem model, evaluated their impact on HONO and O3 concentrations, including surface and vertical concentrations. The simulations extend our knowledge on atmospheric HONO sources, especially for nitrate photolysis. The study also explains the HONO difference in O3 formation on clean and hazy days, and reveals key potential HONO sources to O3 enhancements in haze-aggravating processes with a co-occurrence of high PM2.5 and O3 concentrations.
Jing Cai, Cheng Wu, Jiandong Wang, Wei Du, Feixue Zheng, Simo Hakala, Xiaolong Fan, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Zemin Feng, Yongchun Liu, Yele Sun, Jun Zheng, Chao Yan, Federico Bianchi, Markku Kulmala, Claudia Mohr, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1251–1269,Short summary
This study investigates the connection between organic aerosol (OA) molecular composition and particle absorptive properties in autumn in Beijing. We find that the molecular properties of OA compounds in different episodes influence particle light absorption properties differently: the light absorption enhancement of black carbon and light absorption coefficient of brown carbon were mostly related to more oxygenated OA (low C number and four O atoms) and aromatics/nitro-aromatics, respectively.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yan Lyu, Yan Ji, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Xue Li, Theodora Nah, Chun Ho Lam, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 273–293,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) is a global phenomenon that releases large quantities of pollutants such as phenols and aromatic carbonyls into the atmosphere. These compounds can form secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) which play an important role in the Earth’s energy budget. In this work, we demonstrated that the direct irradiation of vanillin (VL) could generate aqueous SOA (aqSOA) such as oligomers. In the presence of nitrate, VL photo-oxidation can also form nitrated compounds.
Dalrin Ampritta Amaladhasan, Claudia Heyn, Christopher R. Hoyle, Imad El Haddad, Miriam Elser, Simone M. Pieber, Jay G. Slowik, Antonio Amorim, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Vladimir Makhmutov, Ugo Molteni, Matti Rissanen, Yuri Stozhkov, Robert Wagner, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Rainer Volkamer, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 215–244,Short summary
We use a combination of models for gas-phase chemical reactions and equilibrium gas–particle partitioning of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) informed by dark ozonolysis experiments conducted in the CLOUD chamber. Our predictions cover high to low relative humidities (RHs) and quantify how SOA mass yields are enhanced at high RH as well as the impact of inorganic seeds of distinct hygroscopicities and acidities on the coupled partitioning of water and semi-volatile organics.
Qi En Zhong, Chunlei Cheng, Zaihua Wang, Lei Li, Mei Li, Dafeng Ge, Lei Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Suxia Yang, Duohong Chen, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17953–17967,Short summary
Particulate amines play important roles in new particle formation, aerosol acidity, and hygroscopicity. Most of the field observations did not distinguish the different behavior of each type amine under the same ambient influencing factors. In this study, two amine-containing single particles exhibited different mixing states and disparate enrichment of secondary organics, which provide insight into the discriminated fates of organics during the formation and evolution processes.
Ying Zhou, Simo Hakala, Chao Yan, Yang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Biwu Chu, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Shahzad Gani, Jenni Kontkanen, Pauli Paasonen, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Lubna Dada
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17885–17906,Short summary
We characterized the connection between new particle formation (NPF) events in terms of frequency, intensity and growth at a near-highway location in central Beijing and at a background mountain site 80 km away. Due to the substantial contribution of NPF to the global aerosol budget, identifying the conditions that promote the occurrence of regional NPF events could help understand their contribution on a large scale and would improve their implementation in global models.
Shijie Liu, Dandan Huang, Yiqian Wang, Si Zhang, Xiaodi Liu, Can Wu, Wei Du, and Gehui Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17759–17773,Short summary
A series of chamber experiments was performed to probe the individual and common effects of NH3 and NOx on toluene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation through OH photooxidation. The synergetic effects of NH3 and NOx on the toluene SOA concentration and optical absorption were observed. The higher-volatility products formed in the presence of NOx could precipitate into the particle phase when NH3 was added. The formation pathways of N-containing OAs through NOx or NH3 are also discussed.
Mikko Sipilä, Nina Sarnela, Kimmo Neitola, Totti Laitinen, Deniz Kemppainen, Lisa Beck, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Salla Kuittinen, Tuuli Lehmusjärvi, Janne Lampilahti, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Pasi P. Aalto, Petri Keronen, Erkki Siivola, Pekka A. Rantala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Tuija Jokinen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17559–17576,Short summary
Metallurgical industry in Kola peninsula is a large source of air pollution in the (sub-)Arctic domain. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the ore smelters are transported across large areas. We investigated sulfur dioxide and its transformation to sulfuric acid aerosol particles during winter months in Finnish Lapland, close to Kola industrial areas. We observed intense formation of new aerosol particles despite the low solar radiation intensity, often required for new particle formation elsewhere.
Ditte Taipale, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Mikael Ehn, Markku Kulmala, and Ülo Niinemets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17389–17431,Short summary
Larval feeding and fungal infections of leaves can greatly change the emission of volatile compounds from plants and thereby influence aerosol processes in the air. We developed a model that considers the dynamics of larvae and fungi and the dependency of the emission on the severity of stress. We show that the infections can be highly atmospherically relevant during long periods of time and at times more important to consider than the parameters that are currently used in emission models.
Lucía Caudillo, Birte Rörup, Martin Heinritzi, Guillaume Marie, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Antonio Amorim, Farnoush Ataei, Rima Baalbaki, Barbara Bertozzi, Zoé Brasseur, Randall Chiu, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Xu-Cheng He, Victoria Hofbauer, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Brandon Lopez, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Dario Massabò, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Antti Onnela, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Meredith Schervish, Wiebke Scholz, Benjamin Schulze, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Mihnea Surdu, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Steffen Vogt, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Wang Yonghong, Wu Yusheng, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Kristina Höhler, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Neil M. Donahue, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17099–17114,Short summary
We performed experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN at low temperatures to simulate new particle formation in the upper free troposphere (at −30 ºC and −50 ºC). We measured the particle and gas phase and found that most of the compounds present in the gas phase are detected as well in the particle phase. The major compounds in the particles are C8–10 and C18–20. Specifically, we showed that C5 and C15 compounds are detected in a mixed system with isoprene and α-pinene at −30 ºC, 20 % RH.
Men Xia, Xiang Peng, Weihao Wang, Chuan Yu, Zhe Wang, Yee Jun Tham, Jianmin Chen, Hui Chen, Yujing Mu, Chenglong Zhang, Pengfei Liu, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Jian Gao, Hong Li, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15985–16000,Short summary
ClNO2 is an important precursor of chlorine radical that affects photochemistry. However, its production and impact are not well understood. Our study presents field observations of ClNO2 at three sites in northern China. These observations provide new insights into nighttime processes that produce ClNO2 and the significant impact of ClNO2 on secondary pollutions during daytime. The results improve the understanding of photochemical pollution in the lower part of the atmosphere.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6835–6850,Short summary
Iodide-adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I-CIMS) has been widely used to analyze airborne organics. In this study, I-CIMS sensitivities of isomers within a formula are found to generally vary by 1 and up to 2 orders of magnitude. Comparisons between measured and predicted moles, obtained using a voltage-scanning calibration approach, show that predictions for individual compounds or formulas might carry high uncertainty, yet the summed moles of analytes agree reasonably well.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14275–14291,Short summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid–base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span 4 orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in ambient conditions. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Yongchun Liu, Zemin Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolei Bao, Pengfei Liu, Yanli Ge, Yan Zhao, Tao Jiang, Yunwen Liao, Yusheng Zhang, Xiaolong Fan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Federico Bianchi, Tuukka Petäjä, Yujing Mu, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13269–13286,Short summary
The mechanisms and kinetics of particulate sulfate formation in the atmosphere are still open questions although they have been extensively discussed. We found that uptake of SO2 is the rate-determining step for the conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfate. NH4NO3 plays an important role in AWC, the phase state of aerosol particles, and subsequently the uptake kinetics of SO2 under high-RH conditions. This work is a good example of the feedback between aerosol physics and aerosol chemistry.
Chuan Ping Lee, Mihnea Surdu, David M. Bell, Houssni Lamkaddam, Mingyi Wang, Farnoush Ataei, Victoria Hofbauer, Brandon Lopez, Neil M. Donahue, Josef Dommen, Andre S. H. Prevot, Jay G. Slowik, Dongyu Wang, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5913–5923,Short summary
Extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been deployed for high throughput online detection of particles with minimal fragmentation. Our study elucidates the extraction mechanism between the particles and electrospray (ES) droplets of different properties. The results show that the extraction rate is likely affected by the coagulation rate between the particles and ES droplets. Once coagulated, the particles undergo complete extraction within the ES droplet.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Sander Mirme, Mikael Ehn, Iida Pullinen, Katri Leino, Siegfried Schobesberger, Juha Kangasluoma, Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Riikka Väänänen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Radovan Krejci, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Janne Levula, Aadu Mirme, Stefano Decesari, Ralf Tillmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12649–12663,Short summary
We studied aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different locations (Po Valley, Italy, and Hyytiälä, Finland). The observations consist of airborne measurements on board an instrumented Zeppelin and a small airplane combined with comprehensive ground-based measurements.
Zhuohui Lin, Yonghong Wang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Yishuo Guo, Zemin Feng, Chang Li, Yusheng Zhang, Simo Hakala, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Xiaolong Fan, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Runlong Cai, Tom V. Kokkonen, Putian Zhou, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12173–12187,Short summary
We find that ammonium nitrate and aerosol water content contributed most during low mixing layer height conditions; this may further trigger enhanced formation of sulfate and organic aerosol via heterogeneous reactions. The results of this study contribute towards a more detailed understanding of the aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer feedback that is likely to be responsible for explosive aerosol mass growth events in urban Beijing.
Louise N. Jensen, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Kasper Kristensen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Bernadette Rosati, Ricky Teiwes, Marianne Glasius, Henrik B. Pedersen, Mikael Ehn, and Merete Bilde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11545–11562,Short summary
This work targets the chemical composition of α-pinene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the temperature range from -15 to 20°C. Experiments were conducted in an atmospheric simulation chamber. Positive matrix factorization analysis of data obtained by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer shows that the elemental aerosol composition is controlled by the initial α-pinene concentration and temperature during SOA formation.
Xiaolong Fan, Jing Cai, Chao Yan, Jian Zhao, Yishuo Guo, Chang Li, Kaspar R. Dällenbach, Feixue Zheng, Zhuohui Lin, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Lubna Dada, Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Du, Jenni Kontkanen, Theo Kurtén, Siddhart Iyer, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Federico Bianchi, Yee Jun Tham, Lei Yao, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11437–11452,Short summary
We observed significant concentrations of gaseous HBr and HCl throughout the winter and springtime in urban Beijing, China. Our results indicate that gaseous HCl and HBr are most likely originated from anthropogenic emissions such as burning activities, and the gas–aerosol partitioning may play a crucial role in contributing to the gaseous HCl and HBr. These observations suggest that there is an important recycling pathway of halogen species in inland megacities.
Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Gang Chen, Olga Garmash, Diego Aliaga, Frans Graeffe, Meri Räty, Krista Luoma, Pasi Aalto, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10081–10109,Short summary
In many locations worldwide aerosol particles have been shown to be made up of organic aerosol (OA). The boreal forest is a region where aerosol particles possess a high OA mass fraction. Here, we studied OA composition using the longest time series of OA composition ever obtained from a boreal environment. For this purpose, we tested a new analysis framework and discovered that most of the OA was highly oxidized, with strong seasonal behaviour reflecting different sources in summer and winter.
Wei Huang, Haiyan Li, Nina Sarnela, Liine Heikkinen, Yee Jun Tham, Jyri Mikkilä, Steven J. Thomas, Neil M. Donahue, Markku Kulmala, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8961–8977,Short summary
We show full characterization of gaseous organic compounds in a boreal forest. Molecular composition and volatility of gaseous organic compounds with different oxidation extents (from volatile organic compounds to highly oxygenated organic molecules) were investigated and discussed. We provide a more comprehensive understanding of atmospheric organic compounds in this boreal forest and new insights into interpreting ambient measurements or testing and improving parameterizations in models.
Mingyi Wang, Xu-Cheng He, Henning Finkenzeller, Siddharth Iyer, Dexian Chen, Jiali Shen, Mario Simon, Victoria Hofbauer, Jasper Kirkby, Joachim Curtius, Norbert Maier, Theo Kurtén, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Matti Rissanen, Rainer Volkamer, Yee Jun Tham, Neil M. Donahue, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4187–4202,Short summary
Atmospheric iodine species are often short-lived with low abundance and have thus been challenging to measure. We show that the bromide chemical ionization mass spectrometry, compatible with both the atmospheric pressure and reduced pressure interfaces, can simultaneously detect various gas-phase iodine species. Combining calibration experiments and quantum chemical calculations, we quantify detection sensitivities to HOI, HIO3, I2, and H2SO4, giving detection limits down to < 106 molec. cm-3.
Chenshuo Ye, Bin Yuan, Yi Lin, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Tiange Li, Wei Chen, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, E Zheng, Jordan E. Krechmer, Penglin Ye, Zhanyi Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8455–8478,Short summary
We performed measurements of gaseous and particulate organic compounds using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Using the dataset, we provide a holistic chemical characterization of oxygenated organic compounds in the polluted urban atmosphere, which can serve as a reference for the future field measurements of organic compounds in cities.
Markku Kulmala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Juha Pekkanen, Sami Paatero, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8313–8322,Short summary
The eastern part of China as a whole is practically a gigacity with 650 million inhabitants. The gigacity, with its emissions, processes in the pollution cocktail and numerous feedbacks and interactions, has a crucial and big impact on regional air quality and on global climate. A large-scale research and innovation program is needed to meet the interlinked grand challenges in this gigacity and to serve as a platform for finding pathways for sustainable development of the globe.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3895–3907,Short summary
Measurement techniques that can achieve molecular characterizations are necessary to understand the differences of fate and transport within isomers produced in the atmospheric oxidation process. In this work, we develop an instrument to conduct isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organics. We assess the number of isomers per chemical formula in atmospherically relevant samples and examine the feasibility of extending the use of an existing instrument to a broader range of analytes.
Weiqi Xu, Masayuki Takeuchi, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Conghui Xie, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3693–3705,Short summary
Here we developed a method for estimation of particulate organic nitrates (pON) from the measurements of a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a thermodenuder based on the volatility differences between inorganic nitrate and pON. The results generally had improvements in reducing negative values due to the influences of a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and a constant ratio of NO+ to NO2+ of organic nitrates (RON).
Meri Räty, Otso Peräkylä, Matthieu Riva, Lauriane Quéléver, Olga Garmash, Matti Rissanen, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7357–7372,Short summary
Cyclohexene resembles certain relatively complex compounds in the atmosphere that through oxidation produce vapours that take part in aerosol formation. We studied the highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) formed in cyclohexene ozonolysis, the relationship between their chemical composition and their tendency to condense onto seed aerosol, as well as the effect of NOx pollutants on their signals. Two existing models were also tested for their ability to predict the volatility of the HOMs.
Shibao Wang, Yun Ma, Zhongrui Wang, Lei Wang, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Mingzhi Yao, Yunpeng Li, Qilin Li, Mengxian Wu, Ling Zhang, Yongle Xiao, and Yanxu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7199–7215,Short summary
Mobile monitoring with low-cost sensors is a promising approach to garner high-spatial-resolution observations representative of the community scale. We develop a grid analysis method to obtain 50 m resolution maps of major air pollutants (CO, NO2, and O3) based on GIS technology. Our results demonstrate the sensing power of mobile monitoring for urban air pollution, which provides detailed information for source attribution and accurate traceability at the urban micro-scale.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Chang Li, Wei Ma, Zemin Feng, Ying Zhou, Zhuohui Lin, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Rujing Yin, Jenni Kontkanen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Runlong Cai, Federico Bianchi, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5499–5511,Short summary
Fog, cloud and haze are very common natural phenomena. Sulfuric acid (SA) is one of the key compounds forming those suspended particles, technically called aerosols, through gas-to-particle conversion. Therefore, the concentration level, source and sink of SA is very important. Our results show that ozonolysis of alkenes plays a major role in nighttime SA formation under unpolluted conditions in urban Beijing, and nighttime cluster mode particles are probably driven by SA in urban environments.
Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Ying Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Eleni Karnezi, Spyros N. Pandis, Conghui Xie, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Jiang Zhu, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5463–5476,Short summary
Here aerosol volatility and viscosity at a rural site (Gucheng) and an urban site (Beijing) in the North China Plain (NCP) were investigated in summer and winter. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) in winter in the NCP is more volatile than that in summer due to enhanced primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. We also found that OA existed mainly as a solid in winter in Beijing but as semisolids in Beijing in summer and Gucheng in winter.
Runlong Cai, Yihao Li, Yohann Clément, Dandan Li, Clément Dubois, Marlène Fabre, Laurence Besson, Sebastien Perrier, Christian George, Mikael Ehn, Cheng Huang, Ping Yi, Yingge Ma, and Matthieu Riva
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2377–2387,Short summary
Orbitool is an open-source software tool, mainly coded in Python, with a graphical user interface (GUI), specifically developed to facilitate the analysis of online Orbitrap mass spectrometric data. It is notably optimized for long-term atmospheric measurements and laboratory studies.
Clémence Rose, Matti P. Rissanen, Siddharth Iyer, Jonathan Duplissy, Chao Yan, John B. Nowak, Aurélie Colomb, Régis Dupuy, Xu-Cheng He, Janne Lampilahti, Yee Jun Tham, Daniela Wimmer, Jean-Marc Metzger, Pierre Tulet, Jérôme Brioude, Céline Planche, Markku Kulmala, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4541–4560,Short summary
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is commonly accepted as a key precursor for atmospheric new particle formation. However, direct measurements of [H2SO4] remain challenging, motivating the development of proxies. Using data collected in two different volcanic plumes, we show, under these specific conditions, the good performance of a proxy from the literature and also highlight the benefit of the newly developed proxies for the prediction of the highest [H2SO4] values.
Haiyan Li, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Yanjun Zhang, Steven Thomas, Liine Heikkinen, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Eric Villenave, Emilie Perraudin, Douglas Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4123–4147,Short summary
For the first time, we performed binPMF analysis on the complex mass spectra acquired with the Vocus PTR-TOF in two European pine forests and identified various primary emission sources and secondary oxidation processes of atmospheric organic vapors, i.e., terpenes and their oxidation products, with varying oxidation degrees. Further insights were gained regarding monoterpene and sesquiterpene reactions based on the interpretation results.
Naser G. A. Mahfouz and Neil M. Donahue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3827–3832,Short summary
In this technical note, we show that the limit of the coagulation scavenging enhancement of charged particles is asymptotically 2; that is, at the limit, charged particles are lost at twice the rate of their neutral counterparts. This has serious implications for aerosol particle survivability where ions play a role in nucleation and growth. Such cases can happen readily in experiments and cannot be neglected in the atmosphere.
Michael Priestley, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Stephen D. Worrall, Sungah Kang, Iida Pullinen, Sebastian Schmitt, Ralf Tillmann, Einhard Kleist, Defeng Zhao, Jürgen Wildt, Olga Garmash, Archit Mehra, Asan Bacak, Dudley E. Shallcross, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Åsa M. Hallquist, Mikael Ehn, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Mattias Hallquist, Thomas F. Mentel, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3473–3490,Short summary
A significant fraction of emissions from human activity consists of aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. benzene, which oxidise to form new compounds important for particle growth. Characterisation of benzene oxidation products highlights the range of species produced as well as their chemical properties and contextualises them within relevant frameworks, e.g. MCM. Cluster analysis of the oxidation product time series distinguishes behaviours of CHON compounds that could aid in identifying functionality.
Yanxu Zhang, Xingpei Ye, Shibao Wang, Xiaojing He, Lingyao Dong, Ning Zhang, Haikun Wang, Zhongrui Wang, Yun Ma, Lei Wang, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Mingzhi Yao, Yunpeng Li, Qilin Li, Ling Zhang, and Yongle Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2917–2929,Short summary
Urban air quality varies drastically at street scale, but traditional methods are too coarse to resolve it. We develop a 10 m resolution air quality model and apply it for traffic-related carbon monoxide air quality in Nanjing megacity. The model reveals a detailed geographical dispersion pattern of air pollution in and out of the road network and agrees well with a validation dataset. The model can be a vigorous part of the smart city system and inform urban planning and air quality management.
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Runlong Cai, Chenxi Li, Xu-Cheng He, Chenjuan Deng, Yiqun Lu, Rujing Yin, Chao Yan, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2287–2304,Short summary
Growth rate determines the survival probability of atmospheric new particles and hence their impacts. We clarify the impacts of coagulation on the values retrieved by the appearance time method, which is widely used for growth rate evaluation. A new formula with coagulation correction is proposed based on derivation and tested using both models and atmospheric data. We show that the sub-3 nm particle growth rate in polluted environments may be overestimated without the coagulation correction.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Luis M. F. Barreira, Iida Pullinen, Angela Buchholz, John Jayne, Jordan E. Krechmer, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 355–367,Short summary
FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS enables online volatility measurements of chemical compounds in ambient aerosols. Previously published volatility calibration results however differ from each other significantly. In this study we investigate the reason for this discrepancy. We found a major source of error in the widely used syringe deposition method and propose a new method for volatility calibration by using atomized calibration compounds.
Megan S. Claflin, Demetrios Pagonis, Zachary Finewax, Anne V. Handschy, Douglas A. Day, Wyatt L. Brown, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jose L. Jimenez, Paul J. Ziemann, Joost de Gouw, and Brian M. Lerner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 133–152,Short summary
We have developed a field-deployable gas chromatograph with thermal desorption preconcentration and detector switching between two high-resolution mass spectrometers for in situ measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This system combines chromatography with both proton transfer and electron ionization to offer fast time response and continuous molecular speciation. This technique was applied during the 2018 ATHLETIC campaign to characterize VOC emissions in an indoor environment.
Liqing Hao, Eetu Kari, Ari Leskinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14393–14405,Short summary
Our work presents the observational results of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the presence of ammonia. The particle-phase ammonium was continuously produced even after SOA formation had ceased. The gas-phase organic acids were observed to contribute to the formed particle-phase ammonium salts. This study suggests that the presence of ammonia may change the mass and chemical composition of large-size SOA particles and can potentially alter the aerosol impact on climate change.
Jingsha Xu, Shaojie Song, Roy M. Harrison, Congbo Song, Lianfang Wei, Qiang Zhang, Yele Sun, Lu Lei, Chao Zhang, Xiaohong Yao, Dihui Chen, Weijun Li, Miaomiao Wu, Hezhong Tian, Lining Luo, Shengrui Tong, Weiran Li, Junling Wang, Guoliang Shi, Yanqi Huangfu, Yingze Tian, Baozhu Ge, Shaoli Su, Chao Peng, Yang Chen, Fumo Yang, Aleksandra Mihajlidi-Zelić, Dragana Đorđević, Stefan J. Swift, Imogen Andrews, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Ye Sun, Agung Kramawijaya, Jinxiu Han, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Clarissa Baldo, Siqi Hou, Feixue Zheng, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Chao Yan, Yongchun Liu, Markku Kulmala, Pingqing Fu, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6325–6341,Short summary
An interlaboratory comparison was conducted for the first time to examine differences in water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) measured by 10 labs using ion chromatography (IC) and by two online aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) methods. Major ions including SO42−, NO3− and NH4+ agreed well in 10 IC labs and correlated well with ACSM data. WSII interlab variability strongly affected aerosol acidity results based on ion balance, but aerosol pH computed by ISORROPIA II was very similar.
Chao Peng, Yu Wang, Zhijun Wu, Lanxiadi Chen, Ru-Jin Huang, Weigang Wang, Zhe Wang, Weiwei Hu, Guohua Zhang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13877–13903,
Yongchun Liu, Yusheng Zhang, Chaofan Lian, Chao Yan, Zeming Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolong Fan, Yan Chen, Weigang Wang, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Jing Cai, Wei Du, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Joni Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Xuefei Wang, Bo Hu, Yuesi Wang, Maofa Ge, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13023–13040,Short summary
Understanding of the chemical and physical processes leading to atmospheric aerosol particle formation is crucial to devising effective mitigation strategies to protect the public and reduce uncertainties in climate predictions. We found that the photolysis of nitrous acid could promote the formation of organic and nitrate aerosol and that traffic-related emission is a major contributor to ambient nitrous acid on haze days in wintertime in Beijing.
Jing Cai, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Chao Yan, Liine M. Heikkinen, Feixue Zheng, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Shaojun Zhang, Daoyuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Tom V. Kokkonen, Tommy Chan, Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Pauli Paasonen, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Claudia Mohr, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Yele Sun, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Wei Du, Markku Kulmala, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12721–12740,Short summary
By applying both OA PMF and size PMF at the same urban measurement site in Beijing, similar particle source types, including vehicular emissions, cooking emissions and secondary formation-related sources, were resolved by both frameworks and agreed well. It is also found that in the absence of new particle formation, vehicular and cooking emissions dominate the particle number concentration, while secondary particulate matter governed PM2.5 mass during spring and summer in Beijing.
Kasper Kristensen, Louise N. Jensen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Sigurd Christiansen, Bernadette Rosati, Jonas Elm, Ricky Teiwes, Henrik B. Pedersen, Marianne Glasius, Mikael Ehn, and Merete Bilde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12549–12567,Short summary
Atmospheric particles are important in relation to human health and the global climate. As the global temperature changes, so may the atmospheric chemistry controlling the formation of particles from reactions of naturally emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the current work, we show how temperatures influence the formation and chemical composition of atmospheric particles from α-pinene: a biogenic VOC largely emitted in high-latitude environments such as the boreal forests.
Ying Jiang, Likun Xue, Rongrong Gu, Mengwei Jia, Yingnan Zhang, Liang Wen, Penggang Zheng, Tianshu Chen, Hongyong Li, Ye Shan, Yong Zhao, Zhaoxin Guo, Yujian Bi, Hengde Liu, Aijun Ding, Qingzhu Zhang, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12115–12131,Short summary
We analyzed the characteristics and sources of HONO in the upper boundary layer and lower free troposphere in the North China Plain, based on the field measurements at Mount Tai. Higher-than-expected levels and broad daytime peaks of HONO were observed. Without presence of ground surfaces, aerosol surface plays a key role in the heterogeneous HONO formation at high altitudes. Models without additional HONO sources largely
underestimatedthe oxidation processes in the elevation atmospheres.
Martin Heinritzi, Lubna Dada, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andrea C. Wagner, Lukas Fischer, Lauri R. Ahonen, Stavros Amanatidis, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Bernhard Baumgartner, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, Antonio Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Imad El Haddad, Xucheng He, Johanna Helm, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Juha Kangasluoma, Timo Keber, Changhyuk Kim, Andreas Kürten, Houssni Lamkaddam, Tiia M. Laurila, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna Elina Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy Lee Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Tuomo Nieminen, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Monica Passananti, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Clémence Rose, Siegfried Schobesberger, Wiebke Scholz, Kay Scholze, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Annele Virtanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Rainer Volkamer, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11809–11821,Short summary
With experiments performed at CLOUD, we show how isoprene interferes in monoterpene oxidation via RO2 termination at atmospherically relevant concentrations. This interference shifts the distribution of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) away from C20 class dimers towards C15 class dimers, which subsequently reduces both biogenic nucleation and early growth rates. Our results may help to understand the absence of new-particle formation in isoprene-rich environments.
Lubna Dada, Ilona Ylivinkka, Rima Baalbaki, Chang Li, Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Lei Yao, Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Rujing Yin, Chenjuan Deng, Biwu Chu, Tuomo Nieminen, Yonghong Wang, Zhuohui Lin, Roseline C. Thakur, Jenni Kontkanen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Mikko Sipilä, Tareq Hussein, Pauli Paasonen, Federico Bianchi, Imre Salma, Tamás Weidinger, Michael Pikridas, Jean Sciare, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11747–11766,Short summary
We rely on sulfuric acid measurements in four contrasting environments, Hyytiälä, Finland; Agia Marina, Cyprus; Budapest, Hungary; and Beijing, China, representing semi-pristine boreal forest, rural environment in the Mediterranean area, urban environment, and heavily polluted megacity, respectively, in order to define the sources and sinks of sulfuric acid in these environments and to derive a new sulfuric acid proxy to be utilized in locations and during periods when it is not measured.
Zhenhao Ling, Qianqian Xie, Min Shao, Zhe Wang, Tao Wang, Hai Guo, and Xuemei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11451–11467,Short summary
The observation data from a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta region were analyzed by a photochemical box model with near-explicit chemical mechanisms (i.e., the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM), improvements with reversible and irreversible heterogeneous processes of glyoxal and methylglyoxal, and the gas-particle partitioning of oxidation products in the present study.
Jenni Kontkanen, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Lubna Dada, Ying Zhou, Jing Cai, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Simo Hakala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Zhuohui Lin, Yongchun Liu, Yonghong Wang, Chao Yan, Tuukka Petäjä, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11329–11348,Short summary
To estimate the impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles on air quality, knowledge of size distributions of particles emitted from anthropogenic sources is needed. We introduce a new method for determining size-resolved particle number emissions from measured particle size distributions. We apply our method to data measured in Beijing, China. We find that particle number emissions at our site are dominated by emissions of particles smaller than 30 nm, originating mainly from traffic.
Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Chinmoy Sarkar, Leah Williams, Farzaneh Khalaj, Alex Guenther, John Jayne, Hugh Coe, Douglas Worsnop, Celia Faiola, and Manjula Canagaratna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10953–10965,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Real plant emissions are much more diverse than the few proxies widely used for studies of plant SOA. Here we present the first study of SOA from Californian sage plants and the oxygenated monoterpenes representing their major emissions. We identify SOA products and show the importance of the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules and oligomers.
Tommy Chan, Runlong Cai, Lauri R. Ahonen, Yiliang Liu, Ying Zhou, Joonas Vanhanen, Lubna Dada, Yan Chao, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4885–4898,Short summary
Using a particle size magnifier (PSM; Airmodus, Finland), we determined the particle size distribution using four inversion methods and compared each method to the others to establish their strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, we provided a step-by-step procedure on how to invert measured data using the PSM. Finally, we provided recommendations, code and data related to the data inversion. This is an important paper, as no operating procedure exists regarding how to process measured PSM data.
Archit Mehra, Yuwei Wang, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Francesca Majluf, Melissa A. Morris, Michael Priestley, Thomas J. Bannan, Daniel J. Bryant, Kelly L. Pereira, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Andrew R. Rickard, Mike J. Newland, Harald Stark, Philip Croteau, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Lin Wang, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9783–9803,Short summary
Aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from anthropogenic activity are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Here we present a detailed chemical characterisation of SOA from four C9-aromatic isomers and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). We identify and compare their oxidation products in the gas and particle phases, showing the different relative importance of oxidation pathways and proportions of highly oxygenated organic molecules.
Yuwei Wang, Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Gan Yang, Xiaoyu Hu, Yiqun Lu, Andrew Lambe, Manjula Canagaratna, Jianmin Chen, Douglas Worsnop, Hugh Coe, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9563–9579,Short summary
A series of OH-initiated oxidation experiments of trimethylbenzene were investigated in the absence and presence of NOx. Many C9 products with 1–11 oxygen atoms and C18 products presumably formed from dimerization of C9 peroxy radicals were observed, hinting at the extensive existence of autoxidation and accretion reaction pathways. The presence of NOx would suppress the formation of highly oxygenated C18 molecules and enhance the formation of organonitrates and even dinitrate compounds.
Jill S. Johnson, Leighton A. Regayre, Masaru Yoshioka, Kirsty J. Pringle, Steven T. Turnock, Jo Browse, David M. H. Sexton, John W. Rostron, Nick A. J. Schutgens, Daniel G. Partridge, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Aijun Ding, David D. Cohen, Armand Atanacio, Ville Vakkari, Eija Asmi, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9491–9524,Short summary
We use over 9000 monthly aggregated grid-box measurements of aerosol to constrain the uncertainty in the HadGEM3-UKCA climate model. Measurements of AOD, PM2.5, particle number concentrations, sulfate and organic mass concentrations are compared to 1 million
variantsof the model using an implausibility metric. Despite many compensating effects in the model, the procedure constrains the probability distributions of many parameters, and direct radiative forcing uncertainty is reduced by 34 %.
Mario Simon, Lubna Dada, Martin Heinritzi, Wiebke Scholz, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lukas Fischer, Andrea C. Wagner, Andreas Kürten, Birte Rörup, Xu-Cheng He, João Almeida, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, Anton Bergen, Federico Bianchi, Steffen Bräkling, Sophia Brilke, Lucia Caudillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, António Dias, Danielle C. Draper, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El-Haddad, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Loic Gonzalez-Carracedo, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Jani Hakala, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Changhyuk Kim, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Matti P. Rissanen, Simon Schallhart, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee J. Tham, António R. Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Alexander L. Vogel, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Yusheng Wu, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Xueqin Zhou, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9183–9207,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic compounds (HOMs) have been identified as key vapors involved in atmospheric new-particle formation (NPF). The molecular distribution, HOM yield, and NPF from α-pinene oxidation experiments were measured at the CLOUD chamber over a wide tropospheric-temperature range. This study shows on a molecular scale that despite the sharp reduction in HOM yield at lower temperatures, the reduced volatility counteracts this effect and leads to an overall increase in the NPF rate.
Angela Buchholz, Arttu Ylisirniö, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Manjula Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Siegfried Schobesberger, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7693–7716,Short summary
To understand the role of aerosol particles in the atmosphere, it is necessary to know their detailed chemical composition and physical properties, especially volatility. The thermal desorption data from FIGAERO–CIMS provides both but are difficult to analyse. With positive matrix factorisation, we can separate instrument background from the real signal. Compounds can be classified by their apparent volatility, and the contribution of thermal decomposition in the instrument can be identified.
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Weiqi Xu, Yao He, Yanmei Qiu, Chun Chen, Conghui Xie, Lu Lei, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Junyao Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3205–3219,Short summary
We characterized mass spectral features of organic aerosol (OA) and water-soluble OA (WSOA) from 21 cooking, crop straw, wood, and coal burning experiments using aerosol mass spectrometers with standard and capture vaporizers, and we demonstrated the applications of source spectral profiles in improving source apportionment of ambient OA at a highly polluted rural site in the North China Plain in winter.
Rong Tang, Xin Huang, Derong Zhou, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6177–6191,Short summary
Biomass-burning-induced large areas of dark char (i.e.
surface darkening) could influence the radiative energy balance. During the harvest season in eastern China, satellite retrieval shows that surface albedo was significantly decreased. Observational evidence of meteorological perturbations from the surface darkening is identified, which is further examined by model simulation. This work highlights the importance of burning-induced albedo change in weather forecast and regional climate.
Men Xia, Xiang Peng, Weihao Wang, Chuan Yu, Peng Sun, Yuanyuan Li, Yuliang Liu, Zhengning Xu, Zhe Wang, Zheng Xu, Wei Nie, Aijun Ding, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6147–6158,Short summary
ClNO2 and Cl2 can be photolyzed by sunlight to produce a highly reactive Cl atom which affects air quality and climate. We observed high ClNO2 and Cl2 concentrations during a recent field study in east China. We analyzed the data and proposed a new hypothesis on the Cl2 production mechanism. Yields of ClNO2 and Cl2 from N2O2 uptake were parameterized using observational constraints, and they can be used in air quality models to improve simulations of atmospheric photochemistry and air quality.
Yanjun Zhang, Otso Peräkylä, Chao Yan, Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Qiaozhi Zha, Matthieu Riva, Olga Garmash, Heikki Junninen, Pentti Paatero, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5945–5961,Short summary
By utilizing a new analysis approach, we investigated atmospheric oxidation of biogenic volatile emissions in a Finnish forest, measured by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We identified several new compound groups, including low-volatility accretion products and their formation pathways. Results from this study are important for understanding atmospheric aerosol formation, as well as providing new perspectives on future lab studies and data analysis of short-lived species.
Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Keren Liao, Yaowei Li, Yong Jie Li, Ru-Jin Huang, Weiwei Hu, Ying Liu, Tong Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Qi Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2457–2472,Short summary
This paper provides important information to help researchers to understand the mass quantification and source apportionment by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Angela Buchholz, Claudia Mohr, Zijun Li, Luis Barreira, Andrew Lambe, Celia Faiola, Eetu Kari, Taina Yli-Juuti, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5629–5644,Short summary
We studied the chemical composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from emissions of Scots pines and compared those results to SOA formed from α-pinene and from a sesquiterpene mixture. We found that SOA formed from single precursors cannot capture the properties of SOA formed from real plant emissions.
Yonghong Wang, Matthieu Riva, Hongbin Xie, Liine Heikkinen, Simon Schallhart, Qiaozhi Zha, Chao Yan, Xu-Cheng He, Otso Peräkylä, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5145–5155,Short summary
Chamber experiments were conducted with alpha-pinene and chlorine under low- and high-nitrogen-oxide (NOX) conditions. We estimated the HOM yields from chlorine-initiated oxidation of alpha-pinene under low-NOX conditions to be around 1.8 %, though with a uncertainty range (0.8 %–4 %) due to lack of suitable calibration methods. Our study clearly demonstrates that the chlorine-atom-initiated oxidation of alpha-pinene can produce low-volatility organic compounds.
Dean Chen, Putian Zhou, Tuomo Nieminen, Pontus Roldin, Ximeng Qi, Petri Clusius, Carlton Xavier, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Markku Kulmala, Pekka Rantala, Juho Aalto, Nina Sarnela, Pasi Kolari, Petri Keronen, Matti P. Rissanen, Metin Baykara, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Atmospheric oxidants OH, O3 and NO3 dominate the atmospheric oxidation capacity, and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is considered as a main driver for new particle formation events. We studied how the trends of these atmospheric oxidants and H2SO4 changed in southern Finland during the past 12 years and discussed how these trends related to decreasing emissions of air pollutants in Europe. Our results showed that OH increased by 1.56 % yr−1 at daytime and NO3 decreased by 3.92 % yr−1 at nighttime.
Chuan Yu, Zhe Wang, Men Xia, Xiao Fu, Weihao Wang, Yee Jun Tham, Tianshu Chen, Penggang Zheng, Hongyong Li, Ye Shan, Xinfeng Wang, Likun Xue, Yan Zhou, Dingli Yue, Yubo Ou, Jian Gao, Keding Lu, Steven S. Brown, Yuanhang Zhang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4367–4378,Short summary
This study provides a holistic picture of N2O5 heterogeneous uptake on ambient aerosols and the influencing factors under various climatic and chemical conditions in China, and it proposes an observation-based empirical parameterization. The empirical parameterization can be used in air quality models to improve the prediction of PM2.5 and photochemical pollution in China and similar polluted regions of the world.
Jing Duan, Ru-Jin Huang, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Yang Chen, Chunshui Lin, Haiyan Ni, Meng Wang, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Chunying Chen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Thorsten Hoffmann, Colin O'Dowd, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3793–3807,Short summary
We characterized secondary aerosol formation in Beijing. Our results showed that relative humidity (RH) and Ox have opposite effects on sulfate and nitrate formation in summer and winter. The wintertime more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA) showed a good correlation with aerosol liquid water content (ALWC). Meanwhile, the dependence of less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA) and the mass ratio of LO-OOA to MO-OOA in Ox both degraded when RH > 60 %, suggesting that RH or ALWC may also affect LO-OOA formation.
Philipp G. Eger, Jan Schuladen, Nicolas Sobanski, Horst Fischer, Einar Karu, Jonathan Williams, Matthieu Riva, Qiaozhi Zha, Mikael Ehn, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Simon Schallhart, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3697–3711,Short summary
Pyruvic acid, CH3C(O)C(O)OH, is an organic acid of biogenic origin that plays a crucial role in plant metabolism, is present in tropospheric air in both gas-phase and aerosol-phase, and is implicated in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. From the first gas-phase measurements of pyruvic acid in the Finnish boreal forest in September 2016 we derive its source strength and discuss potential sources and sinks, with a focus on the relevance of gas-phase pyruvic acid for radical chemistry.
Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Matthieu Riva, Krista Luoma, Kaspar Dällenbach, Juho Aalto, Pasi Aalto, Diego Aliaga, Minna Aurela, Helmi Keskinen, Ulla Makkonen, Pekka Rantala, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3151–3180,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air. They are known as a health risk, but they also influence the Earth's climate. The composition of aerosols becomes important when predicting their effect on climate. We show both seasonal and year-to-year variability of aerosol chemical composition in the boreal forest of Finland. We observed a consistent bimodal seasonal trend: a biogenic summertime maximum and an anthropogenic wintertime maximum in the mass concentration.
Lu Lei, Conghui Xie, Dawei Wang, Yao He, Qingqing Wang, Wei Zhou, Wei Hu, Pingqing Fu, Yong Chen, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2877–2890,Short summary
We characterized aerosol composition and sources near two steel plants in a coastal region in fall and spring seasons. Our results showed substantially different aerosol composition and sources between the two seasons. We observed significant impacts of steel plant emissions on aerosol chemistry nearby, and we found that aerosol particles emitted from the steel plants were dominated by ammonium sulfate/bisulfate; NOx/CO and NOx/SO2 were distinct from those in the absence of industrial plumes.
Haiyan Li, Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Liine Heikkinen, Kaspar Daellenbach, Jordan E. Krechmer, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Douglas Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Eric Villenave, Emilie Perraudin, Mikael Ehn, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1941–1959,Short summary
We deployed the recently developed Vocus PTR-TOF in the French Landes forest during summertime to gain insights into terpene chemistry. In addition to isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and the low-volatility diterpenes, various terpene reaction products are characterized. Through the analysis of terpene chemistry, we demonstrate the capability of the Vocus PTR-TOF for the detection of oxidized reaction products, highlighting its importance in investigating atmospheric oxidation processes.
Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yiliang Liu, Yueyun Fu, Juha Kangasluoma, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Federico Bianchi, Tom V. Kokkonen, Yongchun Liu, Joni Kujansuu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1201–1216,Short summary
In this study, we focus on explaining the concentration variations in the observed particle modes, by relating them to the potential aerosol sources and sinks, and on understanding the connections between these modes. Interestingly, even in the atmospheric cocktail in urban Beijing, secondary new particle formation (NPF) drives the particle number concentration, especially in the sub-3 nm range. We found that the total number concentration is ~ 4 times higher on NPF days than on haze days.
Meredith Schervish and Neil M. Donahue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1183–1199,Short summary
Gas-phase autoxidation of organics can generate highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) and thus increase secondary organic aerosol production and enable new-particle formation. Here we explicitly represent the generation of HOMs via peroxy radical chemistry and resolve the products based on volatility and O : C. Using experimentally constrained assumptions about autoxidation and dimerization reactions, we see suppression of HOM formation under low-temperature and high-NOx conditions.
Otso Peräkylä, Matthieu Riva, Liine Heikkinen, Lauriane Quéléver, Pontus Roldin, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 649–669,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules have been suggested to form a large part of secondary organic aerosol. However, with their exotic structures, their volatilities are not well known, making their exact role in particle formation hard to assess. In laboratory experiments, we found the volatility of HOMs formed in the ozonolysis of the monoterpene alpha-pinene to be in the middle of earlier estimates. The volatilities of HOMs could be well explained in terms of their molecular formulae.
Olga Garmash, Matti P. Rissanen, Iida Pullinen, Sebastian Schmitt, Oskari Kausiala, Ralf Tillmann, Defeng Zhao, Carl Percival, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Priestley, Åsa M. Hallquist, Einhard Kleist, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Mattias Hallquist, Torsten Berndt, Gordon McFiggans, Jürgen Wildt, Thomas F. Mentel, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 515–537,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) facilitate aerosol formation in the atmosphere. Using NO3− chemical ionization mass spectrometry we investigated HOM composition and yield in oxidation of aromatic compounds at different reactant concentrations, in the presence of NOx and seed aerosol. Higher OH concentrations increased HOM yield, suggesting multiple oxidation steps, and affected HOM composition, potentially explaining in part discrepancies in published secondary organic aerosol yields.
Tao Li, Zhe Wang, Yaru Wang, Chen Wu, Yiheng Liang, Men Xia, Chuan Yu, Hui Yun, Weihao Wang, Yan Wang, Jia Guo, Hartmut Herrmann, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 391–407,Short summary
This work presents a field study of cloud water chemistry and interactions of cloud, gas, and aerosols in the polluted coastal boundary layer in southern China. Substantial dissolved organic matter in the acidic cloud water was observed, and the gas- and aqueous-phase partitioning of carbonyl compounds was investigated. The results demonstrated the significant role of cloud processing in altering aerosol properties, especially in producing aqueous organics and droplet-mode aerosols.
Yonghong Wang, Miao Yu, Yuesi Wang, Guiqian Tang, Tao Song, Putian Zhou, Zirui Liu, Bo Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Lili Wang, Xiaowan Zhu, Chao Yan, Mikael Ehn, Wenkang Gao, Yuepeng Pan, Jinyuan Xin, Yang Sun, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 45–53,Short summary
We found a positive particle matter-mixing layer height feedback at three observation platforms at the 325 m Beijing meteorology tower, which is characterized by a shallower mixing layer height and a higher particle matter concentration. Measurements of solar radiation, aerosol chemical composition, meteorology parameters, trace gases and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) could explain the feedback mechanism to some extent.
Zheng Xu, Yuliang Liu, Wei Nie, Peng Sun, Xuguang Chi, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6737–6748,Short summary
We evaluated the performance of HONO measurement by a wet-denuder--ion0chromatography system (WD/IC, MARGA). We found significant artificial HONO formed from the reaction of NO2 oxidizing SO2 in the denuder solution. High ambient NH3 would elevate the pH of the denuder solution and promote the overestimation of HONO. A method was established to correct the HONO measurement by WD/IC instruments.
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Krista Luoma, Helmi Keskinen, Pasi P. Aalto, Xuguang Chi, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15483–15502,Short summary
Long-term cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN) data are scarce; there are a lot more data on aerosol optical properties (AOPs). It is therefore valuable to derive parameterizations for estimating NCCN from AOP measurements. With the new parameterization NCCN can be estimated from backscatter fraction, scattering Ångström exponent, and total light-scattering coefficient. The NCCN–AOP relationships depend on the geometric mean diameter and the width of the size distribution.
Alexander Zaytsev, Abigail R. Koss, Martin Breitenlechner, Jordan E. Krechmer, Kevin J. Nihill, Christopher Y. Lim, James C. Rowe, Joshua L. Cox, Joshua Moss, Joseph R. Roscioli, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jesse H. Kroll, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15117–15129,Short summary
Aromatic hydrocarbons contribute significantly to the production of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Here later-generation low-volatility oxygenated products from toluene and 1,2,4-TMB oxidation by OH are detected in the gas and particle phases. We show that these products, previously identified as highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs), are formed in more than one pathway with differing numbers of reaction steps with OH. They also make up a significant fraction of SOA.
Yuliang Liu, Wei Nie, Zheng Xu, Tianyi Wang, Ruoxian Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Lei Wang, Xuguang Chi, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13289–13308,Short summary
We conducted 1-year continuous measurement of HONO at the SORPES station. We obtained seasonal and diurnal variations of HONO and evaluated the contribution of HONO photolysis to OH radical and the missing daytime source of HONO. We separated the sources of nocturnal HONO into four parts: combustion emissions, soil emission, formation on ground and formation on aerosol, and estimate their contribution semi-quantitatively. The results highlighted ever-changing contributions of HONO sources.
Xuan Zhang, Haofei Zhang, Wen Xu, Xiaokang Wu, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, John J. Orlando, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Manjula R. Canagaratna
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5535–5545,Short summary
We develop a new technique to characterize organic nitrates as intact molecules in atmospheric aerosols, and we apply this technique to identify hydroxy nitrates in secondary organic aerosols produced from the photochemical oxidation of isoprene.
Mingjin Tang, Chak K. Chan, Yong Jie Li, Hang Su, Qingxin Ma, Zhijun Wu, Guohua Zhang, Zhe Wang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Hong He, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12631–12686,Short summary
Hygroscopicity is one of the most important properties of aerosol particles, and a number of experimental techniques, which differ largely in principles, configurations and cost, have been developed to investigate hygroscopic properties of atmospherically relevant particles. Our paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of available techniques for aerosol hygroscopicity studies.
Eleni Dovrou, Christopher Y. Lim, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Jesse H. Kroll, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5303–5315,Short summary
Measurement techniques commonly used to analyze particulate matter composition can result in the possible misidentification of sulfur-containing species, especially for the case of sulfate and hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS). The efficiency and limitations of these techniques, along with a method that enables further studies of the contribution of sulfur-containing species, S(IV) versus S(VI), to particulate matter under low-light atmospheric conditions, are described in this work.
Leonid Nichman, Martin Wolf, Paul Davidovits, Timothy B. Onasch, Yue Zhang, Doug R. Worsnop, Janarjan Bhandari, Claudio Mazzoleni, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12175–12194,Short summary
Previous studies showed widespread ice nucleation activity of soot. In this systematic study we investigated the factors that affect the heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of soot surrogates in the cirrus cloud regime. Our observations are consistent with an ice nucleation mechanism of pore condensation followed by freezing. The results show significant variations in ice nucleation activity as a function of size, morphology, and surface chemistry of the black-carbon-containing particles.
Xiaoxiao Li, Shaojie Song, Wei Zhou, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12163–12174,Short summary
Aerosol liquid water is ubiquitous in ambient aerosol. Using long-term aerosol chemical composition to model the aerosol water in Beijing, we found that water absorbed by organics contributes a significant fraction to the total aerosol water. We emphasize the hygroscopicity of organics is highly variable and should be taken into consideration in modelling. A positive feedback loop between organic hygroscopicity and aerosol water was found as one of the driving factors of severe haze in Beijing.
Jun Zhang, Xinfeng Wang, Rui Li, Shuwei Dong, Yingnan Zhang, Penggang Zheng, Min Li, Tianshu Chen, Yuhong Liu, Likun Xue, Wei Nie, Aijun Ding, Mingjin Tang, Xuehua Zhou, Lin Du, Qingzhu Zhang, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
This study presents the concentrations, variation characteristics, and key influencing factors of particulate organic nitrates at four urban and rural sites in eastern China. The effects of anthropogenic activities (i.e. biomass burning and coal combustion) and meteorological conditions (in particular the humidity) on the secondary formation of organic nitrates have been investigated. The results highlight the greater role of SO2 in organic nitrate chemistry than previously assumed.
Aijun Ding, Xin Huang, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi, Zheng Xu, Longfei Zheng, Zhengning Xu, Yuning Xie, Ximeng Qi, Yicheng Shen, Peng Sun, Jiaping Wang, Lei Wang, Jianning Sun, Xiu-Qun Yang, Wei Qin, Xiangzhi Zhang, Wei Cheng, Weijing Liu, Liangbao Pan, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11791–11801,Short summary
Based on continuous measurement at the SORPES statin in Nanjing, eastern China, we report the trend of PM2.5 and relevant chemical species there during 2011–2018. We found significant reduction of PM2.5 in both winter and early summer due to emission reduction of fossil-fuel combustion and open biomass burning, respectively. Reduction of fossil-fuel combustions contributed to 76 % of the wintertime PM2.5 decrease, with the remaining 24 % being caused by the change of meteorology.
Jonathan Liebmann, Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Einar Karu, Heidi Hellén, Hannele Hakola, Qiaozhi Zha, Mikael Ehn, Matthieu Riva, Liine Heikkinen, Jonathan Williams, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10391–10403,Short summary
The formation of alkyl nitrates in the boreal forest was dominated by reactions of the NO3 radical with terpenes, both during the day and the night, with fewer contributions from OH and ozone. The alkyl nitrates formed had lifetimes on the order of 2 h, reflecting efficient loss via uptake to aerosol and deposition.
Jing Duan, Ru-Jin Huang, Chunshui Lin, Wenting Dai, Meng Wang, Yifang Gu, Ying Wang, Haobin Zhong, Yan Zheng, Haiyan Ni, Uli Dusek, Yang Chen, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Colin D. O'Dowd, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10319–10334,Short summary
We present the seasonal distinction of secondary aerosol formation in urban Beijing. Both photochemical oxidation and aqueous-phase processing played important roles in SOA (secondary organic aerosol) formation during all three seasons; while for sulfate formation, gas-phase photochemical oxidation was the major pathway in late summer, aqueous-phase reactions were more responsible during early winter, and both processes had contributions during autumn.
Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Eleni Karnezi, Qi Zhang, Junfeng Wang, Spyros N. Pandis, Xinlei Ge, Jingwei Zhang, Junling An, Qingqing Wang, Jian Zhao, Wei Du, Yanmei Qiu, Wei Zhou, Yao He, Ying Li, Jie Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10205–10216,Short summary
We present the first aerosol volatility measurements in Beijing in summer using a thermodenuder coupled with aerosol mass spectrometers. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) comprised mainly semi-volatile organic compounds in summer, and the freshly oxidized secondary OA was the most volatile component. We also found quite different volatility distributions in black-carbon-containing primary and secondary OA, ambient OA, ambient secondary OA and the WRF-Chem model.
Ka Lok Chan, Zhuoru Wang, Aijun Ding, Klaus-Peter Heue, Yicheng Shen, Jing Wang, Feng Zhang, Yining Shi, Nan Hao, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10051–10071,Short summary
The paper presents long-term observations of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) in Nanjing using a MAX-DOAS instrument. The measurements were performed from April 2013 to February 2017. The MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2 and HCHO are used to validate OMI satellite observations and to investigate the influences of region transport of air pollutants on the air quality in Nanjing.
Sanna Saarikoski, Leah R. Williams, Steven R. Spielman, Gregory S. Lewis, Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez, Minna Aurela, Susanne V. Hering, Kimmo Teinilä, Philip Croteau, John T. Jayne, Thorsten Hohaus, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3907–3920,Short summary
An air-to-air ultrafine particle concentrator (Aerosol Dynamics Inc. concentrator; ADIc) has been tailored for the low (~ 0.08 L min−1) inlet flow of aerosol mass spectrometers, and it provides a factor of 8–21 enrichment in the concentration of particles. The ADIc was evaluated in laboratory and field measurements. The results showed that the concentration factor depends primarily on the ratio between the sample flow and the output flow and is independent of particle size above about 10 nm.
Yanjun Zhang, Otso Peräkylä, Chao Yan, Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Qiaozhi Zha, Matthieu Riva, Olga Garmash, Heikki Junninen, Pentti Paatero, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3761–3776,Short summary
Recent advancements in atmospheric mass spectrometry provide large amounts of new information but at the same time present considerable challenges for the data analysis, for example, in high-resolution peak identification and separation. To address these problems, this study presents a simple and novel method, which succeeds in analyzing both synthetic and ambient datasets. We believe it will become a powerful approach in the data analysis of mass spectra.
Zhuoran He, Xuemei Wang, Zhenhao Ling, Jun Zhao, Hai Guo, Min Shao, and Zhe Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8801–8816,Short summary
In this study, source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their contributions to photochemical O3 formation were analyzed by the positive matrix factorization model and an observation-based model using data collected at a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Furthermore, the policies for controlling VOCs are briefly reviewed. The findings could provide quantitative information for devising appropriate measures against VOCs, NOx and O3 pollution in the PRD.
Qiuji Ding, Jianning Sun, Xin Huang, Aijun Ding, Jun Zou, Xiuqun Yang, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7759–7774,Short summary
Aerosol plays an important role in advection–radiation fog formation in eastern China though stabilizing atmospheric stratification and enhancing onshore flow. For the fog–haze episode in December 2013, the effect of aerosol–radiation interaction overwhelmed that of aerosol–cloud interaction. Light-absorbing aerosol like black carbon was more crucial than scattering aerosols. This paper highlights the importance of interaction among aerosol, regional circulation and boundary layer.
Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Kasper Kristensen, Louise Normann Jensen, Bernadette Rosati, Ricky Teiwes, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Otso Peräkylä, Pontus Roldin, Rossana Bossi, Henrik B. Pedersen, Marianne Glasius, Merete Bilde, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7609–7625,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) form rapidly in oxidation of monoterpenes and have been shown to be crucial for secondary organic aerosol formation. We studied the formation of HOMs under different temperatures, finding a strong dependence on their yields. As temperatures decrease, the isomerization reactions that allow rapid oxidation by molecular oxygen slow down, and competing reaction pathways can suppress the HOM formation almost completely, especially at high VOC loadings.
Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Jordan E. Krechmer, Otso Peräkylä, Yanjun Zhang, Liine Heikkinen, Olga Garmash, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2403–2421,Short summary
The impact of aerosol particles on climate and air quality remains poorly understood due to multiple factors. One of the current limitations is the incomplete understanding of the contribution of oxygenated species, formed from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to aerosol formation. Taking advantage of recent mass spectrometric developments, we have evaluated and compared the capability of multiple state-of-the-art mass spectrometers to detect a wide variety of oxygenated VOCs.
Angela Buchholz, Andrew T. Lambe, Arttu Ylisirniö, Zijun Li, Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Celia Faiola, Eetu Kari, Liqing Hao, Olli Luoma, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Douglas R. Worsnop, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Taina Yli-Juuti, Siegfried Schobesberger, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4061–4073,Short summary
We studied the evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol particles in clean air to derive their volatility from the observed size changes. We found that the particles became more resilient to evaporation with increased oxidative age, possibly increasing their lifetime in the atmosphere. Also, increased relative humidity increased the particle evaporation. Mass spectrometry measurements of the particles at different stages of evaporation revealed some water-induced composition changes.
Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Francesco Canonaco, Liine Heikkinen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, André S. H. Prévôt, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3645–3672,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometry produces large amounts of complex data, the analysis of which necessitates chemometrics – the application of advanced statistical and mathematical tools to chemical data. Here, we perform a data-driven analysis of multiple aerosol mass spectrometric data sets, to show that the traditional separation of organics and inorganics is not necessary. The resulting 7-component aerosol speciation explains 83 % to 96 % of observed variability at our boreal forest experiment site.
Rachel E. O'Brien, Kelsey J. Ridley, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John T. Jayne, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Christopher L. Follett, Daniel J. Repeta, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1659–1671,Short summary
Analysis of the elemental composition of organic mixtures can provide insights into the sources and aging of environmental samples. Here we describe a method that allows characterization of this type of material using micrograms of material by a combination of a small-volume ultrasonic nebulizer and an aerosol mass spectrometer. This technique enables rapid analysis of complex organic mixtures using approximately an order of magnitude less sample than standard analyses.
Ru-Jin Huang, Yichen Wang, Junji Cao, Chunshui Lin, Jing Duan, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Yifang Gu, Jin Yan, Wei Xu, Roman Fröhlich, Francesco Canonaco, Carlo Bozzetti, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El-Haddad, André S. H. Prévôt, and Colin D. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2283–2298,Short summary
We found that in wintertime Shijiazhuang fine PM was mostly from primary emissions without sufficient atmospheric aging. In addition, secondary inorganic and organic aerosol dominated in pollution events under high-RH conditions, likely due to enhanced aqueous-phase chemistry, whereas primary organic aerosol dominated in pollution events under low-RH and stagnant conditions. Our results also highlighted the importance of meteorological conditions for PM pollution in this highly polluted city.
Yiqun Lu, Chao Yan, Yueyun Fu, Yan Chen, Yiliang Liu, Gan Yang, Yuwei Wang, Federico Bianchi, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Rujing Yin, Rima Baalbaki, Olga Garmash, Chenjuan Deng, Weigang Wang, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1971–1983,Short summary
Gaseous sulfuric acid is one of the key precursors for atmospheric new particle formation processes, but its measurement remains challenging. This work develops an estimation method for the gaseous sulfuric acid concentration in an urban environment in China using multiple atmospheric variables that are easier to measure. The consideration of the heterogeneous formation of HONO and the subsequent photo-production of OH radicals improves the performance of the estimation method.
Shaojie Song, Meng Gao, Weiqi Xu, Yele Sun, Douglas R. Worsnop, John T. Jayne, Yuzhong Zhang, Lei Zhu, Mei Li, Zhen Zhou, Chunlei Cheng, Yibing Lv, Ying Wang, Wei Peng, Xiaobin Xu, Nan Lin, Yuxuan Wang, Shuxiao Wang, J. William Munger, Daniel J. Jacob, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1357–1371,Short summary
Chemistry responsible for sulfate production in northern China winter haze remains mysterious. We propose a potentially key pathway through the reaction of formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide that has not been accounted for in previous studies. The special atmospheric conditions favor the formation and existence of their complex, hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS).
Andrew T. Lambe, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Jason R. Casar, Anthony J. Carrasquillo, Jonathan D. Raff, Jose L. Jimenez, and Douglas R. Worsnop
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 299–311,Short summary
This paper is an evaluation of methods used to generate OH radicals under conditions with high concentrations of NO and NO2 to simulate oxidation chemistry in polluted urban atmospheres over equivalent atmospheric timescales of ~ 1 day.
Biwu Chu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Federico Bianchi, Chao Yan, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 115–138,Short summary
The characteristics of new particle formation (NPF) in China, including frequency, formation rate, and particle growth rate, were summarized comprehensively and were compared among observations in different environments. The interactions between air pollution and NPF are discussed, as well as the possible reasons for more frequent NPF under heavy pollution conditions than in our current understanding. Significant and future research directions for NPF studies in China are also summarized.
Xiao Fu, Tao Wang, Li Zhang, Qinyi Li, Zhe Wang, Men Xia, Hui Yun, Weihao Wang, Chuan Yu, Dingli Yue, Yan Zhou, Junyun Zheng, and Rui Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1–14,Short summary
This study has identified the major contributors to the observed high HONO levels during a severe winter pollution episode and highlighted the importance of HONO chemistry in the combined photochemical and haze pollution in a subtropical region. It also highlighted the critical need to include and update HONO sources in regional air quality models in order to predict ozone and other secondary pollutants better during heavy pollution events in southern China and similar regions.
Liqing Hao, Olga Garmash, Mikael Ehn, Pasi Miettinen, Paola Massoli, Santtu Mikkonen, Tuija Jokinen, Pontus Roldin, Pasi Aalto, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jorma Joutsensaari, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17705–17716,Short summary
An aerosol mass spectrometer was used to characterize aerosol chemical composition during new particle formation periods. The time profiles of mass concentrations and chemical composition of observed aerosol particles are subjected to joint effects of boundary layer dilution, atmospheric chemistry and aerosol mixing in different boundary layers. During the nighttime, the increase in organic aerosol mass correlated well with the increase in condensed highly oxygenated organic molecules' mass.
Ningxin Wang, Spiro D. Jorga, Jeffery R. Pierce, Neil M. Donahue, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6577–6588,Short summary
The interaction of particles with the chamber walls has been a significant source of uncertainty when analyzing results of secondary organic aerosol formation experiments performed in Teflon chambers. We evaluated the performance of several particle wall-loss correction methods for aging experiments of α-pinene ozonolysis products. Experimental procedures are proposed for the characterization of particle losses during different stages of these experiments.
Hui Yun, Weihao Wang, Tao Wang, Men Xia, Chuan Yu, Zhe Wang, Steven C. N. Poon, Dingli Yue, and Yan Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17515–17527,Short summary
Based on the data analysis of simultaneous measurement of N2O5 and ClNO2 in a severe winter haze in the Pearl River Delta, this study underscores the importance of N2O5 heterogeneous reactions in nitrate formation and calls for better parameterization of N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry in order to predict haze pollution in China.
Qiaozhi Zha, Chao Yan, Heikki Junninen, Matthieu Riva, Nina Sarnela, Juho Aalto, Lauriane Quéléver, Simon Schallhart, Lubna Dada, Liine Heikkinen, Otso Peräkylä, Jun Zou, Clémence Rose, Yonghong Wang, Ivan Mammarella, Gabriel Katul, Timo Vesala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17437–17450,Short summary
Vertical measurements of highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) below and above the forest canopy were performed for the first time in a boreal forest during September 2016. Our results highlight that near-ground HOM measurements may only be representative of a small fraction of the entire nocturnal boundary layer, which may sequentially influence the growth of newly formed particles and SOA formation close to ground surface, where the majority of measurements are conducted.
Zhen Peng, Lili Lei, Zhiquan Liu, Jianning Sun, Aijun Ding, Junmei Ban, Dan Chen, Xingxia Kou, and Kekuan Chu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17387–17404,Short summary
An EnKF system was developed to simultaneously assimilate multiple surface measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO, via the joint adjustment of ICs and source emissions. Large improvements were achieved in the first 24 h forecast for PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and CO during an extreme haze episode that occurred in early October 2014 over the North China Plain, but no improvements were achieved for NO2 and O3.
Peng Sun, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi, Yuning Xie, Xin Huang, Zheng Xu, Ximeng Qi, Zhengning Xu, Lei Wang, Tianyi Wang, Qi Zhang, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17177–17190,Short summary
A total of 2 years of online measurement of particulate nitrate was conducted at the SORPES station in the western Yangtze River Delta, eastern China. Nitrate was found to be the major driver of haze pollution and behaved differently in different seasons. In summer, thermodynamic equilibrium and photochemical processes controlled nitrate formation. In winter, N2O5 hydrolysis was demonstrated to be a major contributor to the nitrate episodes.
Derong Zhou, Ke Ding, Xin Huang, Lixia Liu, Qiang Liu, Zhengning Xu, Fei Jiang, Congbin Fu, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16345–16361,Short summary
We investigate the vertical distribution, transport characteristics, source contribution and meteorological feedback of dust, biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion aerosols for a unique pollution episode that occurred in late March 2015 in eastern Asia, based on various measurement data and modeling methods. We found that cold front played an important role in the long-range transport of different pollutants and caused a three-layer vertical structure of pollutants over eastern China.
Weihao Wang, Zhe Wang, Chuan Yu, Men Xia, Xiang Peng, Yan Zhou, Dingli Yue, Yubo Ou, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5643–5655,Short summary
This study introduces an in situ experimental approach to direct measurement of N2O5 heterogeneous reactivity in polluted environments. Laboratory tests, model simulations, and field deployment of the method at a polluted site in south China demonstrated its applicability in accurately measuring N2O5 uptake coefficient with high ambient pollutants levels and air mass changes. The introduced method is also applicable to in situ measurement of reactivity of other trace gases on ambient aerosols.
Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Urs Baltensperger, David C. S. Beddows, Johan Paul Beukes, Don Collins, Aijun Ding, Roy M. Harrison, Bas Henzing, Rakesh Hooda, Min Hu, Urmas Hõrrak, Niku Kivekäs, Kaupo Komsaare, Radovan Krejci, Adam Kristensson, Lauri Laakso, Ari Laaksonen, W. Richard Leaitch, Heikki Lihavainen, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Zoltán Németh, Wei Nie, Colin O'Dowd, Imre Salma, Karine Sellegri, Birgitta Svenningsson, Erik Swietlicki, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Ville Vakkari, Marko Vana, Alfred Wiedensohler, Zhijun Wu, Annele Virtanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14737–14756,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have diverse effects on air quality, human health, and global climate. One important source of aerosols is their formation via nucleation and growth in the atmosphere. We have analyzed long-term observations of regional new particle formation events around the globe and provide a comprehensive view on the characteristics of this phenomenon in diverse environments. The results are useful in developing more realistic representation of atmospheric aerosols in global models.
Chao Yan, Lubna Dada, Clémence Rose, Tuija Jokinen, Wei Nie, Siegfried Schobesberger, Heikki Junninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Nina Sarnela, Ulla Makkonen, Olga Garmash, Yonghong Wang, Qiaozhi Zha, Pauli Paasonen, Federico Bianchi, Mikko Sipilä, Mikael Ehn, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13231–13243,Short summary
Ions can play an important role in atmospheric new particle formation by stabilizing the embryonic clusters. Such a process is called ion-induced nucleation (IIN). We found two distinct IIN mechanisms – driven by H2SO4-NH3 clusters and by organic vapors, respectively. The concentration ratio of organic vapors to H2SO4 regulates via which pathway the IIN occur. As the organic vapor concentration is influenced by temperature, a seasonal variation in the main IIN mechanism can be expected.
Yee Jun Tham, Zhe Wang, Qinyi Li, Weihao Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Keding Lu, Nan Ma, Chao Yan, Simonas Kecorius, Alfred Wiedensohler, Yuanhang Zhang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13155–13171,Short summary
This study addresses the limited understanding of heterogeneous N2O5 uptake and ClNO2 production in the polluted environment of China. The results showed that N2O5 uptake and ClNO2 yield cannot be well explained by previous parameterizations and were largely influenced by factors like aerosol water content and biomass burning emission. Our findings illuminate the need to realistically parameterize these heterogeneous processes for better simulation of photochemical and haze pollution in China.
Jorge Saturno, Bruna A. Holanda, Christopher Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Qiaoqiao Wang, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Jeannine Ditas, Thorsten Hoffmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Tobias Könemann, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Jing Ming, Hauke Paulsen, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Patrick Schlag, Hang Su, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Yuxuan Zhang, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12817–12843,Short summary
Biomass burning emits light-absorbing aerosol particles that warm the atmosphere. One of them is the primarily emitted black carbon, which strongly absorbs radiation in the visible and UV spectral regions. Another one is the so-called brown carbon, a fraction of organic aerosol particles that are able to absorb radiation, especially in the UV spectral region. The contribution of both kinds of aerosol particles to light absorption over the Amazon rainforest is studied in this paper.
Ximeng Qi, Aijun Ding, Pontus Roldin, Zhengning Xu, Putian Zhou, Nina Sarnela, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Anton Rusanen, Mikael Ehn, Matti P. Rissanen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11779–11791,Short summary
In this study we simulate the HOM concentrations and discuss their roles in NPF at a remote boreal forest site in Finland and a suburban site in eastern China. We found that sulfuric acid and HOM organonitrate concentrations in the gas phase are significantly higher but other HOM monomers and dimers from monoterpene oxidation are lower in eastern China. This study highlights the need for molecular-scale measurements in improving the understanding of NPF mechanisms in polluted areas.
Wei Zhou, Jian Zhao, Bin Ouyang, Archit Mehra, Weiqi Xu, Yuying Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Qi Chen, Conghui Xie, Qingqing Wang, Junfeng Wang, Wei Du, Yingjie Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Penglin Ye, James D. Lee, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas Worsnop, Roderic Jones, Carl J. Percival, Hugh Coe, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11581–11597,Short summary
We present measurements of gas-phase N2O5 and ClNO2 by ToF-CIMS during summer in urban Beijing as part of the APHH campaign. High reactivity of N2O5 indicative of active nocturnal chemistry was observed. The lifetime of N2O5 as a function of aerosol surface area and relative humidity was characterized, and N2O5 uptake coefficients were estimated. We also found that the N2O5 loss in this study is mainly attributed to its indirect loss via reactions of NO3 with VOCs and NO.
Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Marloes Penning de Vries, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Samara Carbone, David Walter, Nicole Bobrowski, Joel Brito, Xuguang Chi, Alexandra Gutmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Luiz A. T. Machado, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Julian Rüdiger, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Qiaoqiao Wang, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10391–10405,Short summary
This study uses satellite observations to track volcanic emissions in eastern Congo and their subsequent transport across the Atlantic Ocean into the Amazon Basin. Aircraft and ground-based observations are used to characterize the influence of volcanogenic aerosol on the chemical and microphysical properties of Amazonian aerosols. Further, this work is an illustrative example of the conditions and dynamics driving the transatlantic transport of African emissions to South America.
Filippo Xausa, Pauli Paasonen, Risto Makkonen, Mikhail Arshinov, Aijun Ding, Hugo Denier Van Der Gon, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10039–10054,Short summary
Our project describes the feasibility of implementing particle number emissions taken from the GAINS model in global climate modeling through a simulation with the ECHAM-HAM global climate model. The results from the simulations have important implications regarding modeled particle number concentrations and future climate effects. Our findings represent an important starting point for further simulations concerning climate effects derived from anthropogenic particle emissions on a global scale.
Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Florian Ditas, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Xuguang Chi, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Holger Baars, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Birgit Heese, Bruna A. Holanda, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Jing Ming, Mira L. Pöhlker, Nina Ruckteschler, Hang Su, Yaqiang Wang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Zhibin Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10055–10088,Short summary
This study presents multiple years of aerosol coarse mode observations at the remote ATTO site in the Amazon Basin. The results are discussed in light of the frequent and episodic long-range transport of Saharan dust plumes in the early wet season as well as the persistent background bioaerosol cycling in the rain forest ecosystem. This work provides a solid basis for future studies on the dynamic coarse mode aerosol cycling and its biogeochemical relevance in the Amazon.
Yuxuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Haiyan Li, Meng Li, Xin Zhang, Aijun Ding, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9879–9896,Short summary
The light absorption of BC-containing particles strongly depends on their aging process in the atmosphere. Whether and how the aging degree and light absorption capability of BC-containing particles will change with air pollution development is still unclear. Our results reveal that under a more polluted environment, the BC-containing particles are characterized not only by higher BC mass concentrations but also by more coating materials on BC surfaces and thus higher light absorption capacity.
Xiangyu Pei, Mattias Hallquist, Axel C. Eriksson, Joakim Pagels, Neil M. Donahue, Thomas Mentel, Birgitta Svenningsson, William Brune, and Ravi Kant Pathak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9845–9860,Short summary
The findings in this study show that morphological transformation of soot occurs via two key complementary and sequential processes, i.e., void filling in the particle and its diameter growth. To quantify the state of morphological transformation, i.e., the utilization of material for filling and growth during the condensation processes, a framework was developed which can further be utilized to quantify the effect of condensed material on the optical and hygroscopic properties of soot.
Jiaping Wang, Wei Nie, Yafang Cheng, Yicheng Shen, Xuguang Chi, Jiandong Wang, Xin Huang, Yuning Xie, Peng Sun, Zheng Xu, Ximeng Qi, Hang Su, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9061–9074,Short summary
An optimized segregation method is applied to estimate light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) in Nanjing. This study highlights the considerable contribution of BrC to light absorption in the Yangtze River Delta region, China, and depicts its long-term profile in this region for the first time. Lagrangian modeling and the chemical signature observed at the site suggested that open biomass burning and residential emissions are the dominant sources influencing BrC in the two highest BrC seasons.
Yue Zhang, Shachi Katira, Andrew Lee, Andrew T. Lambe, Timothy B. Onasch, Wen Xu, William A. Brooks, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Andrew Freedman, John T. Jayne, Doug R. Worsnop, Paul Davidovits, David Chandler, and Charles E. Kolb
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3479–3490,Short summary
We have adopted a new technique for measuring glass-forming properties of atmospherically relevant organic aerosols at submicron sizes and relatively low mass concentrations. Aerosol particles are deposited in the form of a thin film with interdigitated electrodes using electrostatic precipitation. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is used to measure the kinetically controlled glass transition temperatures of glycerol and citric acid aerosols with three atmospheric relevant cooling rates.
Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Qi Zhang, Qi Jiang, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Jie Li, John Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8469–8489,Short summary
We present a 2–year analysis of organic aerosol (OA) from highly time–resolved measurements by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor in the megacity of Beijing. The sources of OA were analyzed with the advanced factor analysis of a multilinear engine (ME-2). Our results showed very different seasonal patterns, relative humidity and temperature dependence, and sources regions among different OA factors. The sources and processes of OA factors, and their roles in haze pollution are elucidated.
Penglin Ye, Yunliang Zhao, Wayne K. Chuang, Allen L. Robinson, and Neil M. Donahue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6171–6186,Short summary
This work describes experiments to constrain the production of secondary organic aerosol from pinanediol, a semi-volatile oxidation product of α-pinene. Our results and the implications for SOA aging are directly relevant to the atmospheric chemistry community because they connect new-particle formation experiments and SOA formation experiments. The oxidation conditions are typically different and experiments are also influenced in different ways by wall losses of condensible vapors.
Tengyu Liu, Dan Dan Huang, Zijun Li, Qianyun Liu, ManNin Chan, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5677–5689,Short summary
The formation of SOA from toluene on initially dry and wet AS seeds was compared using an OFR at an RH of 68 %. We found that, as OH exposure increased, the SOA yield and ALW of the initially dry seeds approached those of the initially wet seeds while the wet seeds yielded SOA of a higher degree of oxidation at all exposure levels. Our results suggest that AS dry seeds soon at least partially deliquesce during SOA formation; more studies on the interplay of SOA formation and ALW are warranted.
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Jiaping Wang, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Xin Huang, Qiang Liu, Longfei Zheng, Zheng Xu, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Congbin Fu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5265–5292,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were measured at SORPES, a regional background station in Nanjing, China from June 2013 to May 2015. The aerosol was highly scattering. The single-scattering albedo in Nanjing appears to be slightly higher than at several other sites. The data do not suggest any significant contribution to absorption by brown carbon. The sources of high values are mainly in eastern China. During pollution episodes, pollutant concentrations increased gradually but decreased fast.
Han Han, Jane Liu, Huiling Yuan, Bingliang Zhuang, Ye Zhu, Yue Wu, Yuhan Yan, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4251–4276,Short summary
Imported African ozone peaks in the Asian middle and upper troposphere in March. The seasonality of African ozone influence on Asia is mainly driven by the seasonal swing of the ITCZ, the Hadley circulation, and the northern subtropical westerlies. The stronger the ITCZ over Africa in a boreal winter is, the more African ozone is transported to Asia that winter. The convective divergence over the ITCZ and the Somali jet are drivers of interhemispheric transport of African ozone.
Wei Zhou, Qingqing Wang, Xiujuan Zhao, Weiqi Xu, Chen Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3951–3968,Short summary
We present a 3-month analysis of submicron aerosols that were measured at 260 m on a meteorological tower in Beijing, China. The sources of organic aerosol (OA) were analyzed by using a multi-linear engine (ME-2). Our results showed significant changes in both primary and secondary OA composition from the non-heating season to the heating season. We also observed a considerable contribution (10–13%) of cooking OA at 260 m and very different OA composition between ground level and 260 m.
Jonathan Liebmann, Einar Karu, Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Mikael Ehn, Simon Schallhart, Lauriane Quéléver, Heidi Hellen, Hannele Hakola, Thorsten Hoffmann, Jonathan Williams, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3799–3815,Short summary
Using a newly developed experimental setup, we have made the first direct measurements (during autumn 2016) of NO3 reactivity in the Finnish boreal forest. The NO3 reactivity was generally very high (maximum value of 0.94/s) so that daytime reaction with organics was a substantial fraction of the NO3 loss. Observations of biogenic hydrocarbons (BVOCs) suggested a dominant role for monoterpenes in determining the NO3 reactivity, which displayed a strong vertical gradient between 8.5 and 25 m.
Ningxin Wang, Evangelia Kostenidou, Neil M. Donahue, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3589–3601,Short summary
This study investigates aging in the α-pinene ozonolysis system with hydroxyl radicals (OH) through smog chamber experiments. After an equivalent of 2–4 days of typical atmospheric oxidation conditions, homogeneous OH oxidation of the α-pinene ozonolysis products resulted in a 20–40 % net increase in the organic aerosol concentration and an increase in aerosol O : C by up to 0.04. The relative humidity in the 5–50 % range had a minimum effect on aging.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Zilin Wang, Xin Huang, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2821–2834,Short summary
Black carbon has great importance in aerosol–boundary layer interaction (the
dome effect). Key factors like vertical profile and aging of aerosol, and underlying surface, are explored with a meteorology–chemistry coupled model. We found the effect to be sensitive to altitude of aerosol and can be intensified by aging processes. The effect is also more substantial in rural areas. China’s air quality would benefit from black carbon reduction from elevated sources and domestic combustion.
Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Jonathan Duplissy, Chao Yan, Tuomo Nieminen, Mikael Ehn, Siegfried Schobesberger, Martin Heinritzi, Sebastian Ehrhart, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jasmin Tröstl, Mario Simon, Andreas Kürten, Markus Leiminger, Michael J. Lawler, Matti P. Rissanen, Federico Bianchi, Arnaud P. Praplan, Jani Hakala, Antonio Amorim, Marc Gonin, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Josef Dommen, Joachim Curtius, James N. Smith, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Neil M. Donahue, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2363–2380,Short summary
Atmospheric trace gases can form small molecular clusters, which can grow to larger sizes through the condensation of vapours. This process is called new particle formation. In this paper we studied the formation of sulfuric acid and highly oxygenated molecules, the key compounds in atmospheric new particle formation, in chamber experiments and introduced a way to simulate these ozonolysis products of α-pinene in a simple manner.
Andreas Kürten, Chenxi Li, Federico Bianchi, Joachim Curtius, António Dias, Neil M. Donahue, Jonathan Duplissy, Richard C. Flagan, Jani Hakala, Tuija Jokinen, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ari Laaksonen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Vladimir Makhmutov, Antti Onnela, Matti P. Rissanen, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Penglin Ye, and Peter H. McMurry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 845–863,Short summary
A recent laboratory study (CLOUD) showed that new particles nucleate efficiently from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine (DMA). The reanalysis of previously published data reveals that the nucleation rates are even faster than previously assumed, i.e., nucleation can proceed at rates that are compatible with collision-controlled new particle formation for atmospheric conditions. This indicates that sulfuric acid–DMA nucleation is likely an important source of particles in the boundary layer.
Carla Frege, Ismael K. Ortega, Matti P. Rissanen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Gerhard Steiner, Martin Heinritzi, Lauri Ahonen, António Amorim, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Martin Breitenlechner, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El-Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Marc Gonin, Armin Hansel, Christopher R. Hoyle, Tuija Jokinen, Heikki Junninen, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Roy Lee Mauldin, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Tuukka Petäjä, Nina Sarnela, Siegfried Schobesberger, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Dominik Stolzenburg, António Tomé, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Paul M. Winkler, Josef Dommen, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 65–79,Short summary
It was recently shown that biogenic highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) form particles in the absence of sulfuric acid and ions enhance the nucleation rate. Here we compare the molecular composition of positive and negative HOM clusters at 25, 5 and −25 °C. At lower temperatures the HOM average oxygen-to-carbon ratio decreases indicating a reduction in the rate of autoxidation due to rather high activation energy. The experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations.
Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jonathan Duplissy, Tuomo Nieminen, Juha Kangasluoma, Lauri R. Ahonen, Lubna Dada, Jenni Kontkanen, Hanna E. Manninen, Antonio Dias, Antonio Amorim, Paulus S. Bauer, Anton Bergen, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Xuemeng Chen, Danielle C. Draper, Lukas Fischer, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Jani Hakala, Liine Heikkinen, Martin Heinritzi, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Alexander N. Kvashnin, Tiia Laurila, Michael J. Lawler, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Roy L. Mauldin III, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Felix Piel, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Nina Sarnela, Simon Schallhart, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Yrjö Viisanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Mao Xiao, Penglin Ye, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, James N. Smith, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas Worsnop, Mikael Ehn, Mikko Sipilä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15181–15197,
Yunjiang Zhang, Lili Tang, Philip L. Croteau, Olivier Favez, Yele Sun, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Zhuang Wang, Florian Couvidat, Alexandre Albinet, Hongliang Zhang, Jean Sciare, André S. H. Prévôt, John T. Jayne, and Douglas R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14501–14517,Short summary
We conducted the first field measurements of non-refractory fine aerosols (NR-PM2.5) in a megacity of eastern China using a PM2.5-ACSM along with a PM1-ACSM measurement. Inter-comparisons demonstrated that the NR-PM2.5 components can be characterized. Substantial mass fractions of aerosol species were observed in the size range of 1–2.5 μm, with sulfate and SOA being the two largest contributors. The impacts of aerosol water driven by secondary inorganic aerosols on SOA formation were explored.
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Svetlana Mironova, Gregory Mironov, Sergey Vlasenko, Alexey Panov, Xuguang Chi, David Walter, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Martin Heimann, Jost Lavric, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14365–14392,
Federico Bianchi, Olga Garmash, Xucheng He, Chao Yan, Siddharth Iyer, Ida Rosendahl, Zhengning Xu, Matti P. Rissanen, Matthieu Riva, Risto Taipale, Nina Sarnela, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, and Heikki Junninen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13819–13831,Short summary
Naturally charged highly oxidised molecules (HOMs) were characterized using advanced mass spectrometers. Two different classes of compounds, clustered with the nitrate and bisulfate ions, were identified: HOMs containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and nitrogen-containing HOMs or organonitrates (ONs). They exhibit strong diurnal variations where HOMs peak during night and ONs during day. Finally, large clusters containing up to 40 carbon atoms (four oxidized α-pinene units) were observed.
Zhe Wang, Weihao Wang, Yee Jun Tham, Qinyi Li, Hao Wang, Liang Wen, Xinfeng Wang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12361–12378,Short summary
This work addresses unclear roles of heterogeneous N2O5 reactions and chlorine activation processes in the polluted residual layer from a mountaintop measurement in northern China. The results revealed efficient ClNO2 production in the coal-fired plumes in this region, having large impacts on next-morning photochemistry. Fast heterogeneous N2O5 reactions dominate the nocturnal NOx loss and contribute to substantial nitrate formation, which may boost the haze pollution in northern China.
Mingjin Tang, Xin Huang, Keding Lu, Maofa Ge, Yongjie Li, Peng Cheng, Tong Zhu, Aijun Ding, Yuanhang Zhang, Sasho Gligorovski, Wei Song, Xiang Ding, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11727–11777,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive and critical review of laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake of OH, NO3, O3, and their directly related species by mineral dust particles. The atmospheric importance of heterogeneous uptake as sinks for these species is also assessed. In addition, we have outlined major open questions and challenges in this field and discussed research strategies to address them.
Eben S. Cross, Leah R. Williams, David K. Lewis, Gregory R. Magoon, Timothy B. Onasch, Michael L. Kaminsky, Douglas R. Worsnop, and John T. Jayne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3575–3588,Short summary
Low-cost air quality sensor technologies offer new opportunities for fast and distributed measurements of air pollution, but a persistent characterization gap remains when it comes to evaluating sensor performance under realistic environmental sampling conditions. We present results from a newly developed integrated AQ-sensor system (ARISense) and demonstrate the utility of using high-dimensional model representation to improve the conversion of raw sensor signal to ambient concentration.
Caihong Xu, Min Wei, Jianmin Chen, Chao Zhu, Jiarong Li, Ganglin Lv, Xianmang Xu, Lulu Zheng, Guodong Sui, Weijun Li, Bing Chen, Wenxing Wang, Qingzhu Zhang, Aijun Ding, and Abdelwahid Mellouki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11247–11260,Short summary
Fungi are ubiquitous throughout the near-surface atmosphere, where they represent an important component of primary biological aerosol particles. The diversity and composition of the fungal communities varied over the different seasons between the fine (PM2.5) and submicron (PM1) particles at the summit of Mt. Tai located in the North China Plain, China. This work may serve as an important reference for the fungal contribution to primary biological aerosol particles.
Wayne K. Chuang and Neil M. Donahue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10019–10036,Short summary
Experiments on organic aerosol formation are important for our understanding of climate. Recent experiments on the reaction of ozone with alpha-pinene showed high production of extremely low-volatility organics. This appeared to contradict prior volatility distributions derived from equilibrium partitioning. We examined this using a dynamic volatility basis set model and found that the delay between the production and condensation of organics is integral to reconciling this difference.
Jiarong Li, Xinfeng Wang, Jianmin Chen, Chao Zhu, Weijun Li, Chengbao Li, Lu Liu, Caihong Xu, Liang Wen, Likun Xue, Wenxing Wang, Aijun Ding, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9885–9896,Short summary
Cloud events at Mt. Tai were investigated for the chemical composition and size distribution of cloud droplets. An obvious rise in pH was found for elevated NH+4 during the last decade. Higher PM2.5 levels resulted in higher concentrations of water-soluble ions, smaller sizes and higher numbers of cloud droplets. The mechanism of cloud-droplet formation and the mass transfer between aerosol–gas–cloud phases were summarized to enrich the knowledge of cloud chemical and microphysical properties.
Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Philip Croteau, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2897–2921,Short summary
Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) from ARI are used widely to measure the non-refractory species in PM1. Recently, a new capture vapourizer (CV) has been designed to reduce the need for a bounce-related CE correction in the commonly used standard vapourizer (SV) installed in AMS. To test the CV, the fragments, CE and size distributions of four pure inorganic species in the CV-AMS are investigated in various laboratory experiments. Results from the co-located SV-AMS are also shown as a comparison.
Jorge Saturno, Christopher Pöhlker, Dario Massabò, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Florian Ditas, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Daniel Morán-Zuloaga, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, David Walter, Qiaoqiao Wang, Paulo Artaxo, Paolo Prati, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2837–2850,Short summary
Different Aethalometer correction schemes were compared to a multi-wavelength absorption reference measurement. One of the correction schemes was found to artificially increase the short-wavelength absorption coefficients. It was found that accounting for aerosol scattering properties in the correction is crucial to retrieve the proper absorption Ångström exponent (AAE). We found that the raw AAE of uncompensated Aethalometer attenuation significantly correlates with a measured reference AAE.
Georgios Tsagkogeorgas, Pontus Roldin, Jonathan Duplissy, Linda Rondo, Jasmin Tröstl, Jay G. Slowik, Sebastian Ehrhart, Alessandro Franchin, Andreas Kürten, Antonio Amorim, Federico Bianchi, Jasper Kirkby, Tuukka Petäjä, Urs Baltensperger, Michael Boy, Joachim Curtius, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Neil M. Donahue, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8923–8938,Short summary
The H2SO4 vapour pressure plays key role in Earth's and Venus' atmospheres. In regions where RH is low and stabilising bases are scarce, H2SO4 can evaporate from particles; however the H2SO4 vapour pressure at low RH is uncertain. To address this, we measured H2SO4 evaporation versus T and RH in the CLOUD chamber and constrained the equilibrium constants for dissociation and dehydration of H2SO4. This study is important for nucleation, particle growth and H2SO4 formation occurring in atmosphere.
Emilie Öström, Zhou Putian, Guy Schurgers, Mikhail Mishurov, Niku Kivekäs, Heikki Lihavainen, Mikael Ehn, Matti P. Rissanen, Theo Kurtén, Michael Boy, Erik Swietlicki, and Pontus Roldin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8887–8901,Short summary
We used a model to study how biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from the boreal forest contribute to the formation and growth of particles in the atmosphere. Some of these particles are important climate forcers, acting as seeds for cloud droplet fomation. We implemented a new gas chemistry mechanism that describes how the BVOCs are oxidized and form low-volatility highly oxidized organic molecules. With the new mechanism we are able to accurately predict the particle growth.
Andrew Lambe, Paola Massoli, Xuan Zhang, Manjula Canagaratna, John Nowak, Conner Daube, Chao Yan, Wei Nie, Timothy Onasch, John Jayne, Charles Kolb, Paul Davidovits, Douglas Worsnop, and William Brune
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2283–2298,Short summary
This work enables the study of NOx-influenced secondary organic aerosol formation chemistry in oxidation flow reactors to an extent that was not previously possible. The method uses reactions of exited oxygen O(1D) radicals (formed from ozone photolysis at 254 nm or nitrous oxide photolysis at 185 nm) with nitrous oxide (N2O) to produce NO. We demonstrate proof of concept using chemical ionization mass spectrometer measurements to detect gas-phase oxidation products of isoprene and
Yuqin Liu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jiahua Zhang, Putian Zhou, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Olaf Krüger, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5623–5641,Short summary
The aerosol effects on warm cloud parameters over the Yangtze River Delta are systematically examined using multi-sensor retrievals. This study shows that the COT–CDR and CWP–CDR relationships are not unique, but are affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. CDR and cloud fraction show different behaviours for low and high AOD. Aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust. Meteorological conditions play an important role in ACI.
Hilkka Timonen, Panu Karjalainen, Erkka Saukko, Sanna Saarikoski, Päivi Aakko-Saksa, Pauli Simonen, Timo Murtonen, Miikka Dal Maso, Heino Kuuluvainen, Matthew Bloss, Erik Ahlberg, Birgitta Svenningsson, Joakim Pagels, William H. Brune, Jorma Keskinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Risto Hillamo, and Topi Rönkkö
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5311–5329,Short summary
The effect of fuel ethanol content (10–100 %) on primary emissions and the subsequent secondary aerosol formation was investigated for a Euro 5 flex-fuel gasoline vehicle. The emissions were characterized during the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using high time-resolution instruments. The chemical composition of the exhaust particulate matter was studied using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), and the secondary aerosol formation was studied with an oxidation chamber.
Xueqian Wang, Weidong Guo, Bo Qiu, Ye Liu, Jianning Sun, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4989–4996,Short summary
Land use or cover change is a fundamental anthropogenic forcing for climate change. Based on field observations, we quantified the contributions of different factors to surface temperature change and deepened the understanding of its mechanisms. We found evaporative cooling plays the most important role in the temperature change, while radiative forcing, which is traditionally emphasized, is not significant. This study provided firsthand evidence to verify the model results in IPCC AR5.
Juan Hong, Mikko Äijälä, Silja A. K. Häme, Liqing Hao, Jonathan Duplissy, Liine M. Heikkinen, Wei Nie, Jyri Mikkilä, Markku Kulmala, Nønne L. Prisle, Annele Virtanen, Mikael Ehn, Pauli Paasonen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ilona Riipinen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4387–4399,Short summary
Estimates of volatility of secondary organic aerosols was characterized in a boreal forest environment of Hyytiälä, southern Finland. This was done by interpreting field measurements using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) with a kinetic evaporation model and by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer data. About 16 % of the variation can be explained by the linear regression between the results from these two methods.
Ellis Shipley Robinson, Timothy B. Onasch, Douglas Worsnop, and Neil M. Donahue
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1139–1154,
Wei Nie, Juan Hong, Silja A. K. Häme, Aijun Ding, Yugen Li, Chao Yan, Liqing Hao, Jyri Mikkilä, Longfei Zheng, Yuning Xie, Caijun Zhu, Zheng Xu, Xuguang Chi, Xin Huang, Yang Zhou, Peng Lin, Annele Virtanen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, Jianzhen Yu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3659–3672,Short summary
HULIS are demonstrated to be important low-volatility, or even extremely low volatility, compounds in the organic aerosol phase. This sheds new light on the connection between atmospheric HULIS and ELVOCs. The interaction between HULIS and ammonium sulfate was found to decrease the volatility of the HULIS part in HULIS-AS mixed samples, indicating multiphase processes have the potential to lower the volatility of organic compounds in the aerosol phase.
Mikko Äijälä, Liine Heikkinen, Roman Fröhlich, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3165–3197,Short summary
Mass spectrometric measurements commonly yield data on hundreds of variables over thousands of points in time. Refining and synthesising this “raw” data into chemical information necessitates the use of advanced, statistics-based data analysis techniques. Here we present an example of combining data dimensionality reduction (factorisation) with exploratory classification (clustering) and show that the results complement and broaden our current perspectives on aerosol chemical classification.
Jiaping Wang, Aki Virkkula, Yuan Gao, Shuncheng Lee, Yicheng Shen, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Qiang Liu, Zheng Xu, Xin Huang, Tao Wang, Long Cui, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2653–2671,Short summary
Multi-year observations at a coastal station in Hong Kong reveals that aerosol optical properties showed clear temporal variations according to the dominant sources of aerosols. LPDM modeling and correlation analysis gave similar signals about the freshness of aerosols during different seasons. Fresh emissions of particles from nearby cities and ship exhausts affected light optical properties and particle size in summer and aged air mass in winter caused larger variability of light extinction.
Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Herrmann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, and Rahul A. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2103–2162,Short summary
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3 is an important interaction between anthropogenic and natural emissions. This review results from a June 2015 workshop and includes the recent literature on kinetics, mechanisms, organic aerosol yields, and heterogeneous chemistry; advances in analytical instrumentation; the current state NO3-BVOC chemistry in atmospheric models; and critical needs for future research in modeling, field observations, and laboratory studies.
Jenni Kontkanen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri Ahonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Hanna E. Manninen, Jani Hakala, Clémence Rose, Karine Sellegri, Shan Xiao, Lin Wang, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Aijun Ding, Huan Yu, Shanhu Lee, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2163–2187,Short summary
The concentrations of ~1–3 nm particles were investigated at nine sites around the world. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were highest at the sites with strong anthropogenic influence. Electrically neutral particles dominated sub-3 nm particle concentrations in polluted environments and in boreal forest during spring and summer. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were observed to be determined by the availability of precursor vapors rather than the sink caused by preexisting aerosol particles.
Adam T. Ahern, Ramachandran Subramanian, Georges Saliba, Eric M. Lipsky, Neil M. Donahue, and Ryan C. Sullivan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 6117–6137,Short summary
The SP-AMS exhibited a different sensitivity to black carbon vs. potassium as more SOA mass was condensed onto biomass burning particles. The SP-AMS's sensitivity to BC mass did not plateau following successive SOA coatings, despite achieving high OA : BC mass ratios > 9. A laser ablation single-particle mass spectrometer exhibited a positive correlation to the condensed SOA mass on individual soot particles, demonstrating its ability to obtain mass quantitative measurements from complex matrices.
Yee Jun Tham, Zhe Wang, Qinyi Li, Hui Yun, Weihao Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Likun Xue, Keding Lu, Nan Ma, Birger Bohn, Xin Li, Simonas Kecorius, Johannes Größ, Min Shao, Alfred Wiedensohler, Yuanhang Zhang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14959–14977,Short summary
This work addresses the unclear global significance of chlorine activation processes in the troposphere. The first high-quality measurement data set of ClNO2 in northern China revealed strong ClNO2 production in the residual layers, and demonstrated its significant effects on radical budget and ozone production. Our findings imply the widespread effects of ClNO2 over the polluted regions of northern China, which may increase photochemical and haze pollution.
Qiaoqiao Wang, Jorge Saturno, Xuguang Chi, David Walter, Jost V. Lavric, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Florian Ditas, Christopher Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14775–14794,Short summary
We use a chemical transport model to interpret observed aerosol concentrations and absorption over the Amazon Basin during the wet season. With daily temporal resolution for open fire emissions and modified aerosol optical properties, our model successfully captures the observed variation in aerosol concentrations and absorption over the Amazon Basin. The simulation indicates the important influence of open fire mainly from northern South America and from northern Africa in the wet season.
Lei Yao, Ming-Yi Wang, Xin-Ke Wang, Yi-Jun Liu, Hang-Fei Chen, Jun Zheng, Wei Nie, Ai-Jun Ding, Fu-Hai Geng, Dong-Fang Wang, Jian-Min Chen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14527–14543,Short summary
We present the development of a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) method, utilizing protonated ethanol as reagent ions to simultaneously detect atmospheric gaseous amines (C1 to C6) and amides (C1 to C6). Deployment of this ethanol HR-ToF-CIMS has been demonstrated in a field campaign in urban Shanghai, China, detecting amines (from a few pptv to hundreds of pptv) and amides (from tens of pptv to a few ppbv).
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Petri Tiitta, Ari Leskinen, Liqing Hao, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Miika Kortelainen, Julija Grigonyte, Jarkko Tissari, Heikki Lamberg, Anni Hartikainen, Kari Kuuspalo, Aki-Matti Kortelainen, Annele Virtanen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Mika Komppula, Simone Pieber, André S. H. Prévôt, Timothy B. Onasch, Douglas R. Worsnop, Hendryk Czech, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, and Olli Sippula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13251–13269,Short summary
Real-time measurements of OA aging and SOA formation from logwood combustion were conducted under dark and UV oxidation. Substantial SOA formation was observed in all experiments, leading to twice the initial OA mass emphasizing the importance of the burning conditions for the aging processes. The results prove that emissions are subject to intensive chemical processing in the atmosphere; e.g. the most of the POA was found to become oxidized after the ozone addition, forming aged POA.
Xuan Zhang, Jordan E. Krechmer, Michael Groessl, Wen Xu, Stephan Graf, Michael Cubison, John T. Jayne, Jose L. Jimenez, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Manjula R. Canagaratna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12945–12959,Short summary
We develop a novel two-dimensional space to probe the molecular composition of atmospheric organic aerosols.
Chao Yan, Wei Nie, Mikko Äijälä, Matti P. Rissanen, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Paola Massoli, Heikki Junninen, Tuija Jokinen, Nina Sarnela, Silja A. K. Häme, Siegfried Schobesberger, Francesco Canonaco, Lei Yao, André S. H. Prévôt, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Mikko Sipilä, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12715–12731,Short summary
Highly oxidized multifunctional compounds (HOMs) are known to have a significant contribution to secondary aerosol formation, yet their dominating formation pathways remain unclear in the atmosphere. We apply positive matrix factorization (PMF) on HOM data, and successfully retrieve factors representing different formation pathways. The results improve our understanding of HOM formation, and provide new perspectives on using PMF to study the variation of short-lived specie.
Lei Sun, Likun Xue, Tao Wang, Jian Gao, Aijun Ding, Owen R. Cooper, Meiyun Lin, Pengju Xu, Zhe Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Liang Wen, Yanhong Zhu, Tianshu Chen, Lingxiao Yang, Yan Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10637–10650,Short summary
We compiled the available observations of surface O3 at Mt. Tai – the highest mountain in the North China Plain, and found a significant increase of O3 concenrations from 2003 to 2015. The observed O3 increase was mainly due to the increase of O3 precursors, especially VOCs. Our analysis shows that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.
Xin Huang, Aijun Ding, Lixia Liu, Qiang Liu, Ke Ding, Xiaorui Niu, Wei Nie, Zheng Xu, Xuguang Chi, Minghuai Wang, Jianning Sun, Weidong Guo, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10063–10082,Short summary
We conducted a comprehensive modelling work to understand the impact of biomass burning on synoptic weather during agricultural burning season in East China. We demonstrated that the numerical model with fire emission, chemical processes, and aerosol–meteorology online coupled could reproduce the change of air temperature and precipitation induced by air pollution during this event. This study highlights the importance of including human activities in numerical-model-based weather forecast.
Weidong Guo, Xueqian Wang, Jianning Sun, Aijun Ding, and Jun Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9875–9890,Short summary
Basic characteristics of land–atmosphere interactions at four neighboring sites with different underlying surfaces in southern China, a typical monsoon region, are analyzed systematically. Despite the same climate background, the differences in land surface characteristics like albedo and aerodynamic roughness length due to land use/cover change exert distinct influences on the surface radiative budget and energy allocation and result in differences of near-surface micrometeorological elements.
Karoliina Ignatius, Thomas B. Kristensen, Emma Järvinen, Leonid Nichman, Claudia Fuchs, Hamish Gordon, Paul Herenz, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jonathan Duplissy, Sarvesh Garimella, Antonio Dias, Carla Frege, Niko Höppel, Jasmin Tröstl, Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Martin W. Gallagher, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Martin Schnaiter, Antonio Tomé, Annele Virtanen, Douglas Worsnop, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6495–6509,Short summary
Viscous solid or semi-solid secondary organic aerosol (SOA) may influence cloud properties through ice nucleation in the atmosphere. Here, we observed heterogeneous ice nucleation of viscous α-pinene SOA at temperatures between −39 °C and −37.2 °C with ice saturation ratios significantly below the homogeneous freezing limit. Global modelling suggests that viscous biogenic SOA are present in regions where cirrus formation takes place and could contribute to the global ice nuclei budget.
Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Leonid Nichman, Thomas B. Kristensen, Claudia Fuchs, Christopher R. Hoyle, Niko Höppel, Joel C. Corbin, Jill Craven, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El Haddad, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Tuija Jokinen, Peter Kallinger, Jasper Kirkby, Alexei Kiselev, Karl-Heinz Naumann, Tuukka Petäjä, Tamara Pinterich, Andre S. H. Prevot, Harald Saathoff, Thea Schiebel, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Jay G. Slowik, Jasmin Tröstl, Annele Virtanen, Paul Vochezer, Steffen Vogt, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Paul M. Winkler, Chao Yan, Urs Baltensperger, Neil M. Donahue, Rick C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ottmar Möhler, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4423–4438,
Leonid Nichman, Claudia Fuchs, Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Niko Florian Höppel, Antonio Dias, Martin Heinritzi, Mario Simon, Jasmin Tröstl, Andrea Christine Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Chao Yan, Paul James Connolly, James Robert Dorsey, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Christopher Robert Hoyle, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, Gerhard Steiner, Neil McPherson Donahue, Richard Flagan, Martin William Gallagher, Jasper Kirkby, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Martin Schnaiter, Frank Stratmann, and António Tomé
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3651–3664,Short summary
Processes in the atmosphere are often governed by the physical and chemical properties of small cloud particles. Ice, water, and mixed clouds, as well as viscous aerosols, were formed under controlled conditions at the CLOUD-CERN facility. The experimental results show a link between cloud particle properties and their unique optical fingerprints. The classification map presented here allows easier discrimination between various particles such as viscous organic aerosol, salt, ice, and liquid.
Shipeng Zhang, Minghuai Wang, Steven J. Ghan, Aijun Ding, Hailong Wang, Kai Zhang, David Neubauer, Ulrike Lohmann, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Toshihiko Takeamura, Andrew Gettelman, Hugh Morrison, Yunha Lee, Drew T. Shindell, Daniel G. Partridge, Philip Stier, Zak Kipling, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2765–2783,Short summary
The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in several climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes. Regimes with strong large-scale ascent are shown to be as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. AIE over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing. These results point to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.
Xin Huang, Luxi Zhou, Aijun Ding, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Minghuai Wang, Xuguang Chi, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Pontus Roldin, Anton Rusanen, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2477–2492,Short summary
By combining a regional model and a box model, this study simulates new particle formation in Nanjing, China, when the air masses were affected by anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. The simulations reveal that biogenic organic compounds play a vital role in growth of newly formed clusters. This novel combination of two models makes it possible to accomplish new particle formation simulation without direct measurements of all chemical species.
M. Dal Maso, L. Liao, J. Wildt, A. Kiendler-Scharr, E. Kleist, R. Tillmann, M. Sipilä, J. Hakala, K. Lehtipalo, M. Ehn, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Kulmala, D. Worsnop, and T. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1955–1970,Short summary
In this paper, we present the first direct laboratory observations of nanoparticle formation from sulfuric acid and realistic BVOC precursor vapour mixtures performed at atmospherically relevant concentration levels. We found that the formation rate was proportional to the product of sulphuric acid and biogenic VOC emission strength, and that the formation rates were consistent with a mechanism in which nucleating BVOC oxidation products are rapidly formed and activate with sulfuric acid.
C. R. Hoyle, C. Fuchs, E. Järvinen, H. Saathoff, A. Dias, I. El Haddad, M. Gysel, S. C. Coburn, J. Tröstl, A.-K. Bernhammer, F. Bianchi, M. Breitenlechner, J. C. Corbin, J. Craven, N. M. Donahue, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, C. Frege, H. Gordon, N. Höppel, M. Heinritzi, T. B. Kristensen, U. Molteni, L. Nichman, T. Pinterich, A. S. H. Prévôt, M. Simon, J. G. Slowik, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, A. L. Vogel, R. Volkamer, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, A. S. Wexler, C. Williamson, P. M. Winkler, C. Yan, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, M. W. Gallagher, R. C. Flagan, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, M. Kulmala, O. Möhler, F. Stratmann, D. R. Worsnop, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1693–1712,Short summary
A significant portion of sulphate, an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, is formed via the aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone. The rate of this reaction has previously only been measured over a relatively small temperature range. Here, we use the state of the art CLOUD chamber at CERN to perform the first measurements of this reaction rate in super-cooled droplets, confirming that the existing extrapolation of the reaction rate to sub-zero temperatures is accurate.
J. Kim, L. Ahlm, T. Yli-Juuti, M. Lawler, H. Keskinen, J. Tröstl, S. Schobesberger, J. Duplissy, A. Amorim, F. Bianchi, N. M. Donahue, R. C. Flagan, J. Hakala, M. Heinritzi, T. Jokinen, A. Kürten, A. Laaksonen, K. Lehtipalo, P. Miettinen, T. Petäjä, M. P. Rissanen, L. Rondo, K. Sengupta, M. Simon, A. Tomé, C. Williamson, D. Wimmer, P. M. Winkler, S. Ehrhart, P. Ye, J. Kirkby, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, K. E. J. Lehtinen, J. N. Smith, I. Riipinen, and A. Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 293–304,Short summary
The hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was measured in the presence of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid-dimethylamine, and sulfuric acid-organics derived from α-pinene oxidation during CLOUD7 at CERN in 2012. The hygroscopicity parameter κ decreased with increasing particle size, indicating decreasing acidity of particles.
W. K. Chuang and N. M. Donahue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 123–134,Short summary
NOx is formed under high-temperature conditions such as combustion. When NOx enters the atmosphere, it alters the chemistry of organic emissions and can form organonitrates. Depending on the conditions, NOx may increase or decrease resulting aerosol concentrations. We expanded the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) to model organonitrates and the effect on aerosol concentrations. We discuss the mathematical framework of the model and include the code in the Supplement.
M. Kulmala, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Petäjä, T. Kurten, V.-M. Kerminen, Y. Viisanen, P. Hari, S. Sorvari, J. Bäck, V. Bondur, N. Kasimov, V. Kotlyakov, G. Matvienko, A. Baklanov, H. D. Guo, A. Ding, H.-C. Hansson, and S. Zilitinkevich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13085–13096,Short summary
The Pan-European Experiment (PEEX) is introduced. PEEX is a multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research, research infrastructure and capacity-building program. This paper outlines the mission, vision and objectives of PEEX and introduces its main components, including the research agenda, research infrastructure, knowledge transfer and potential impacts on society. The paper also summarizes the main scientific questions that PEEX is going to tackle in the future.
X. M. Qi, A. J. Ding, W. Nie, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, E. Herrmann, Y. N. Xie, L. F. Zheng, H. Manninen, P. Aalto, J. N. Sun, Z. N. Xu, X. G. Chi, X. Huang, M. Boy, A. Virkkula, X.-Q. Yang, C. B. Fu, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12445–12464,Short summary
We report 2 years of measurements of submicron particles at the SORPES station and provide a comprehensive understanding of main factors controlling temporal variation of the aerosol size distribution and NPF in eastern China. The number concentrations of total particles at Nanjing were comparable to other Chinese megacities but the frequency of NPF was much higher. Year-to-year differences of meteorological conditions could significantly influence the seasonal cycle of NPF and growth.
J. Hong, J. Kim, T. Nieminen, J. Duplissy, M. Ehn, M. Äijälä, L. Q. Hao, W. Nie, N. Sarnela, N. L. Prisle, M. Kulmala, A. Virtanen, T. Petäjä, and V.-M. Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11999–12009,
A. Virkkula, X. Chi, A. Ding, Y. Shen, W. Nie, X. Qi, L. Zheng, X. Huang, Y. Xie, J. Wang, T. Petäjä, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4415–4427,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties were measured with a seven-wavelength aethalometer and a three-wavelength nephelometer in Nanjing, China, in September 2013–January 2015. The aethalometer compensation parameter k depended on the backscatter fraction, measured with an independent method, the integrating nephelometer. The compensation parameter decreased with increasing single-scattering albedo.
P. Roldin, L. Liao, D. Mogensen, M. Dal Maso, A. Rusanen, V.-M. Kerminen, T. F. Mentel, J. Wildt, E. Kleist, A. Kiendler-Scharr, R. Tillmann, M. Ehn, M. Kulmala, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10777–10798,Short summary
We used the ADCHAM model to study new particle formation events in the JPAC chamber. The model results show that the new particles may be formed by a kinetic type of nucleation involving both sulphuric acid and organic compounds formed from OH oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The observed particle growth may either be controlled by the condensation of semi- and low-volatililty organic compounds or by the formation of low-volatility compounds (oligomers) at the particle surface.
A. Kürten, S. Münch, L. Rondo, F. Bianchi, J. Duplissy, T. Jokinen, H. Junninen, N. Sarnela, S. Schobesberger, M. Simon, M. Sipilä, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, N. M. Donahue, E. M. Dunne, R. C. Flagan, A. Franchin, J. Kirkby, A. Kupc, V. Makhmutov, T. Petäjä, A. P. Praplan, F. Riccobono, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, G. Tsagkogeorgas, P. E. Wagner, D. Wimmer, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop, and J. Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10701–10721,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is an important atmospheric process. At cold temperatures in the upper troposphere the binary (H2SO4-H2O) and ternary (H2SO4-H2O-NH3) system are thought to be important for NPF. Sulfuric acid monomer (H2SO4) and sulfuric acid dimer ((H2SO4)2) concentrations were measured between 208 and 248K for these systems and dimer evaporation rates were derived. These data will help to better understand and predict binary and ternary nucleation at low temperatures.
L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, A. L. Paciga, K. M. Cerully, A. Nenes, N. M. Donahue, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8301–8313,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is transformed after its initial formation. We explored the effects of this chemical aging on the composition, mass yield, volatility, and hygroscopicity of SOA formed from the photo-oxidation of small aromatic volatile organic compounds. Higher exposure to the hydroxyl radical resulted in different SOA composition, average carbon oxidation state, and mass yield. The vapor pressure of SOA formed under different conditions varied by as much as a factor of 30.
F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, M. Ehn, F. Rubach, E. Kleist, J. Wildt, Th. F. Mentel, A. J. Carrasquillo, K. E. Daumit, J. F. Hunter, J. H. Kroll, D. R. Worsnop, and J. A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7765–7776,Short summary
We measured a large suite organic compounds using a recently developed Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a (HR-ToF-CIMS). The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We find that approximately 50% of the detected particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4, or more, orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured products.