Articles | Volume 13, issue 6
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
The impact of bark beetle infestations on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in western North America
A. R. Berg
Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
C. L. Heald
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering & Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
K. E. Huff Hartz
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, USA
A. G. Hallar
Storm Peak Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, USA
A. J. H. Meddens
Department of Geography, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA
J. A. Hicke
Department of Geography, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, USA
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, USA
No articles found.
Seyed Vahid Mousavi, Khalil Karami, Simone Tilmes, Helene Muri, Lili Xia, and Abolfazl Rezaei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10677–10695,Short summary
Understanding atmospheric dust changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region under future climate scenarios is essential. By injecting sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere, stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) geoengineering reflects some of the incoming sunlight back to space. This study shows that the MENA region would experience lower dust concentration under both SAI and RCP8.5 scenarios compared to the current climate (CTL) by the end of the century.
Christina V. Brodowsky, Timofei Sukhodolov, Gabriel Chiodo, Valentina Aquila, Slimane Bekki, Sandip S. Dhomse, Anton Laakso, Graham W. Mann, Ulrike Niemeier, Ilaria Quaglia, Eugene Rozanov, Anja Schmidt, Takashi Sekiya, Simone Tilmes, Claudia Timmreck, Sandro Vattioni, Daniele Visioni, Pengfei Yu, Yunqian Zhu, and Thomas Peter
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
The aerosol layer is an essential part of the climate system. We characterize the sulfur budget in a volcanically quiescent (background) setting, with a special focus on the sulfate aerosol layer, for the first time using a multi-model approach. The aim is to identify weak points in the representation of the atmospheric sulfur budget in an intercomparison of nine state-of-the-art coupled global circulation models.
Abolfazl Rezaei, Khalil Karami, Simone Tilmes, and John C. Moore
Water storage (WS) plays a profound role in the lives of people in the Middle East and North Africa and Mediterranean climate “hot spots”. Simulated is WS changed by greenhouse gas (GHG) warming with and without stratospheric aerosol intervention (SAI). WS significantly increases in the Arabian Peninsula and decreases around Mediterranean under GHG. While SAI partially ameliorates the GHG impacts, Projected WS increases in dry regions and decreases in wet areas relative to the present climate.
Kevin J. Nihill, Matthew M. Coggon, Christopher Y. Lim, Abigail R. Koss, Bin Yuan, Jordan E. Krechmer, Kanako Sekimoto, Jose L. Jimenez, Joost de Gouw, Christopher D. Cappa, Colette L. Heald, Carsten Warneke, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7887–7899,Short summary
In this work, we collect emissions from controlled burns of biomass fuels that can be found in the western United States into an environmental chamber in order to simulate their oxidation as they pass through the atmosphere. These findings provide a detailed characterization of the composition of the atmosphere downwind of wildfires. In turn, this will help to explore the effects of these changing emissions on downwind populations and will also directly inform atmospheric and climate models.
Duseong S. Jo, Simone Tilmes, Louisa K. Emmons, Siyuan Wang, and Francis Vitt
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 3893–3906,Short summary
A new simple secondary organic aerosol (SOA) scheme has been developed for the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) based on the complex SOA scheme in CAM with detailed chemistry (CAM-chem). The CAM with the new SOA scheme shows better agreements with CAM-chem in terms of aerosol concentrations and radiative fluxes, which ensures more consistent results between different compsets in the Community Earth System Model. The new SOA scheme also has technical advantages for future developments.
Yunqian Zhu, Robert W. Portmann, Douglas Kinnison, Owen B. Toon, Luis Millán, Jun Zhang, Holger Vömel, Simone Tilmes, Charles G. Bardeen, Xinyue Wang, Stephanie Evan, William J. Randel, and Karen H. Rosenlof
The 2022 Hunga Tonga eruption injected a large amount of water into the stratosphere. Ozone depletion was observed inside the volcanic plume. Chlorine and water vapor injected by this eruption exceeded the normal range, which made the ozone chemistry during this event occur at a higher temperature than polar ozone depletion. Unlike polar ozone chemistry where chlorine nitrate is more important, hypochlorous acid plays a large role in the in-plume chlorine balance and heterogeneous processes.
Danny M. Leung, Jasper F. Kok, Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, David M. Lawrence, Simone Tilmes, Erik Kluzek, Martina Klose, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
This study uses a premier Earth system model to evaluate a new desert dust emission scheme proposed in our companion paper. We show that our scheme accounts for more dust emission physics, hence matching better against observations than other existing dust emission schemes do. Our scheme's dust emissions also couple tightly with meteorology, hence likely improving the modeled dust sensitivity to climate change. We believe this work is vital for improving dust representation in climate models.
Abolfazl Rezaei, Khalil Karami, Simone Tilmes, and John C. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5835–5850,Short summary
Teleconnection patterns are important characteristics of the climate system; well-known examples include the El Niño and La Niña events driven from the tropical Pacific. We examined how spatiotemporal patterns that arise in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans behave under stratospheric aerosol geoengineering and greenhouse gas (GHG)-induced warming. In general, geoengineering reverses trends; however, the changes in decadal oscillation for the AMO, NAO, and PDO imposed by GHG are not suppressed.
Wenfu Tang, Simone Tilmes, David M. Lawrence, Fang Li, Cenlin He, Louisa K. Emmons, Rebecca R. Buchholz, and Lili Xia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5467–5486,Short summary
Globally, total wildfire burned area is projected to increase over the 21st century under scenarios without geoengineering and decrease under the two geoengineering scenarios. Geoengineering reduces fire by decreasing surface temperature and wind speed and increasing relative humidity and soil water. However, geoengineering also yields reductions in precipitation, which offset some of the fire reduction.
Daniele Visioni, Ben Kravitz, Alan Robock, Simone Tilmes, Jim Haywood, Olivier Boucher, Mark Lawrence, Peter Irvine, Ulrike Niemeier, Lili Xia, Gabriel Chiodo, Chris Lennard, Shingo Watanabe, John C. Moore, and Helene Muri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5149–5176,Short summary
Geoengineering indicates methods aiming to reduce the temperature of the planet by means of reflecting back a part of the incoming radiation before it reaches the surface or allowing more of the planetary radiation to escape into space. It aims to produce modelling experiments that are easy to reproduce and compare with different climate models, in order to understand the potential impacts of these techniques. Here we assess its past successes and failures and talk about its future.
Wenfu Tang, Louisa K. Emmons, Helen M. Worden, Rajesh Kumar, Cenlin He, Benjamin Gaubert, Zhonghua Zheng, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Sara-Eva Martinez-Alonso, Claire Granier, Antonin Soulie, Kathryn McKain, Bruce Daube, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea Thompson, and Pieternel Levelt
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The new MUSICAv0 model enables the study of atmospheric chemistry across all relevant scales. We develop a MUSICAv0 grid for Africa. We evaluate MUSICAv0 with observations, and compare it with a previously used model – WRF-Chem. Overall, the performance of MUSICAv0 is comparable to WRF-Chem. Based on model-satellite discrepancies, we find that future field campaigns in an East African region (30° E – 45° E, 5° S – 5° N) could substantially improve the predictive skill of air quality models.
Simone Tilmes, Michael J. Mills, Yunqian Zhu, Charles G. Bardeen, Francis Vitt, Pengfei Yu, David Fillmore, Xiaohong Liu, Brian Toon, and Terry Deshler
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We implemented an alternative aerosol scheme in the high and low-top model versions of the Community Earth System Model Version 2 (CESM2) with a more detailed description of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosol size distributions than the existing aerosol model. The development enables the comparison of different aerosol schemes with different complexity in the same model framework and identifies improvements in comparison to a range of observations in both the troposphere and stratosphere.
Hamza Ahsan, Hailong Wang, Jingbo Wu, Mingxuan Wu, Steven J. Smith, Susanne Bauer, Harrison Suchyta, Dirk Olivié, Gunnar Myhre, Hitoshi Matsui, Huisheng Bian, Jean-François Lamarque, Ken Carslaw, Larry Horowitz, Leighton Regayre, Mian Chin, Michael Schulz, Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, Toshihiko Takemura, and Vaishali Naik
We examine the impact of the assumed effective height of SO2 injection, SO2 and BC emissions seasonality, and the assumed fraction of SO2 emissions injected as SO4 on climate and chemistry model results. We find that the SO2 injection height has a large impact on surface SO2 concentrations and, in some models, radiative flux. These assumptions are a “hidden” source of inter-model variability and may be leading to bias in some climate model results.
Khalil Karami, Rolando Garcia, Christoph Jacobi, Jadwiga H. Richter, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3799–3818,Short summary
Alongside mitigation and adaptation efforts, stratospheric aerosol intervention (SAI) is increasingly considered a third pillar to combat dangerous climate change. We investigate the teleconnection between the quasi-biennial oscillation in the equatorial stratosphere and the Arctic stratospheric polar vortex under a warmer climate and an SAI scenario. We show that the Holton–Tan relationship weakens under both scenarios and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for such changes.
Yangxin Chen, Duoying Ji, Qian Zhang, John C. Moore, Olivier Boucher, Andy Jones, Thibaut Lurton, Michael J. Mills, Ulrike Niemeier, Roland Séférian, and Simone Tilmes
Earth Syst. Dynam., 14, 55–79,Short summary
Solar geoengineering has been proposed as a way of counteracting the warming effects of increasing greenhouse gases by reflecting solar radiation. This work shows that solar geoengineering can slow down the northern-high-latitude permafrost degradation but cannot preserve the permafrost ecosystem as that under a climate of the same warming level without solar geoengineering.
Hao Guo, Clare M. Flynn, Michael J. Prather, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Louisa Emmons, Forrest Lacey, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Arlene M. Fiore, Gus Correa, Lee T. Murray, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Michelle Kim, John Crounse, Glenn Diskin, Joshua DiGangi, Bruce C. Daube, Roisin Commane, Kathryn McKain, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Chelsea Thompson, Thomas F. Hanisco, Donald Blake, Nicola J. Blake, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 99–117,Short summary
We have prepared a unique and unusual result from the recent ATom aircraft mission: a measurement-based derivation of the production and loss rates of ozone and methane over the ocean basins. These are the key products of chemistry models used in assessments but have thus far lacked observational metrics. It also shows the scales of variability of atmospheric chemical rates and provides a major challenge to the atmospheric models.
Noah S. Hirshorn, Lauren M. Zuromski, Christopher Rapp, Ian McCubbin, Gerardo Carrillo-Cardenas, Fangqun Yu, and A. Gannet Hallar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15909–15924,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is a source of atmospheric aerosol number concentration that can impact climate by growing to larger sizes and under proper conditions form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Using novel methods, we find that at Storm Peak Laboratory, a remote, mountaintop site in Colorado, NPF is observed to enhance CCN concentrations in the spring by a factor of 1.54 and in the winter by a factor of 1.36 which can occur on a regional scale having important climate implications.
Qing Ye, Matthew B. Goss, Jordan E. Krechmer, Francesca Majluf, Alexander Zaytsev, Yaowei Li, Joseph R. Roscioli, Manjula Canagaratna, Frank N. Keutsch, Colette L. Heald, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16003–16015,Short summary
The atmospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a major natural source of sulfate particles in the atmosphere. However, its mechanism is poorly constrained. In our work, laboratory measurements and mechanistic modeling were conducted to comprehensively investigate DMS oxidation products and key reaction rates. We find that the peroxy radical (RO2) has a controlling effect on product distribution and aerosol yield, with the isomerization of RO2 leading to the suppression of aerosol yield.
Jadwiga H. Richter, Daniele Visioni, Douglas G. MacMartin, David A. Bailey, Nan Rosenbloom, Brian Dobbins, Walker R. Lee, Mari Tye, and Jean-Francois Lamarque
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8221–8243,Short summary
Solar climate intervention using stratospheric aerosol injection is a proposed method of reducing global mean temperatures to reduce the worst consequences of climate change. We present a new modeling protocol aimed at simulating a plausible deployment of stratospheric aerosol injection and reproducibility of simulations using other Earth system models: Assessing Responses and Impacts of Solar climate intervention on the Earth system with stratospheric aerosol injection (ARISE-SAI).
Therese S. Carter, Colette L. Heald, Jesse H. Kroll, Eric C. Apel, Donald Blake, Matthew Coggon, Achim Edtbauer, Georgios Gkatzelis, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Jeff Peischl, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Felix Piel, Nina G. Reijrink, Akima Ringsdorf, Carsten Warneke, Jonathan Williams, Armin Wisthaler, and Lu Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12093–12111,Short summary
Fires emit many gases which can contribute to smog and air pollution. However, the amount and properties of these chemicals are not well understood, so this work updates and expands their representation in a global atmospheric model, including by adding new chemicals. We confirm that this updated representation generally matches measurements taken in several fire regions. We then show that fires provide ~15 % of atmospheric reactivity globally and more than 75 % over fire source regions.
Mari R. Tye, Katherine Dagon, Maria J. Molina, Jadwiga H. Richter, Daniele Visioni, Ben Kravitz, and Simone Tilmes
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1233–1257,Short summary
We examined the potential effect of stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) on extreme temperature and precipitation. SAI may cause daytime temperatures to cool but nighttime to warm. Daytime cooling may occur in all seasons across the globe, with the largest decreases in summer. In contrast, nighttime warming may be greatest at high latitudes in winter. SAI may reduce the frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall. The combined changes may exacerbate drying over parts of the global south.
Anna L. Hodshire, Ezra J. T. Levin, A. Gannet Hallar, Christopher N. Rapp, Dan R. Gilchrist, Ian McCubbin, and Gavin R. McMeeking
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
The new Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber-Ice Activation Spectrometer collected 4 months of ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements at a 5-minute resolution at the mountainside Storm Peak Laboratory. Most long-term INP measurements are at a time resolution of a day or longer: our instrument is a promising advance towards high-resolution long-term INP measurements. We observe higher peak INP concentrations than previous mountain studies, possibly due to the higher time resolution of our data.
Libby Koolik, Michael Roesch, Carmen Dameto de Espana, Christopher Nathan Rapp, Lesly J. Franco Deloya, Chuanyang Shen, A. Gannet Hallar, Ian B. McCubbin, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3213–3222,Short summary
A new inlet for studying the small particles, droplets, and ice crystals that constitute mixed-phase clouds has been constructed and is described here. This new inlet was tested in the laboratory. We present the performance of the new inlet to demonstrate its capability of separating ice, droplets, and small particles.
Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Andy Jones, James Haywood, Roland Séférian, Pierre Nabat, Olivier Boucher, Ewa Monica Bednarz, and Ulrike Niemeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4557–4579,Short summary
This study assesses the impacts of climate interventions, using stratospheric sulfate aerosol and solar dimming on stratospheric ozone, based on three Earth system models with interactive stratospheric chemistry. The climate interventions have been applied to a high emission (baseline) scenario in order to reach global surface temperatures of a medium emission scenario. We find significant increases and decreases in total column ozone, depending on regions and seasons.
Andy Jones, Jim M. Haywood, Adam A. Scaife, Olivier Boucher, Matthew Henry, Ben Kravitz, Thibaut Lurton, Pierre Nabat, Ulrike Niemeier, Roland Séférian, Simone Tilmes, and Daniele Visioni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2999–3016,Short summary
Simulations by six Earth-system models of geoengineering by introducing sulfuric acid aerosols into the tropical stratosphere are compared. A robust impact on the northern wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation is found, exacerbating precipitation reduction over parts of southern Europe. In contrast, the models show no consistency with regard to impacts on the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, although results do indicate a risk that the oscillation could become locked into a permanent westerly phase.
Daniele Visioni, Simone Tilmes, Charles Bardeen, Michael Mills, Douglas G. MacMartin, Ben Kravitz, and Jadwiga H. Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1739–1756,Short summary
Aerosols are simulated in a simplified way in climate models: in the model analyzed here, they are represented in every grid as described by three simple logarithmic distributions, mixing all different species together. The size can evolve when new particles are formed, particles merge together to create a larger one or particles are deposited to the surface. This approximation normally works fairly well. Here we show however that when large amounts of sulfate are simulated, there are problems.
Anna L. Hodshire, Ezra J. T. Levin, A. Gannet Hallar, Christopher N. Rapp, Dan R. Gilchrist, Ian McCubbin, and Gavin R. McMeeking
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The new Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber-Ice Activation Spectrometer collected 4 months of ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements at a 5-minute resolution at the mountainside Storm Peak Laboratory. Most long-term INP measurements are at a time resolution of a day or longer: our instrument is a promising advance towards high-resolution long-term INP measurements. We observe higher peak INP concentrations than previous mountain studies, possibly due to the higher time resolution of our data.
Ka Ming Fung, Colette L. Heald, Jesse H. Kroll, Siyuan Wang, Duseong S. Jo, Andrew Gettelman, Zheng Lu, Xiaohong Liu, Rahul A. Zaveri, Eric C. Apel, Donald R. Blake, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Patrick R. Veres, Timothy S. Bates, John E. Shilling, and Maria Zawadowicz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1549–1573,Short summary
Understanding the natural aerosol burden in the preindustrial era is crucial for us to assess how atmospheric aerosols affect the Earth's radiative budgets. Our study explores how a detailed description of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation (implemented in the Community Atmospheric Model version 6 with chemistry, CAM6-chem) could help us better estimate the present-day and preindustrial concentrations of sulfate and other relevant chemicals, as well as the resulting aerosol radiative impacts.
Nicholas A. Davis, Patrick Callaghan, Isla R. Simpson, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 197–214,Short summary
Specified dynamics schemes attempt to constrain the atmospheric circulation in a climate model to isolate the role of transport in chemical variability, evaluate model physics, and interpret field campaign observations. We show that the specified dynamics scheme in CESM2 erroneously suppresses convection and induces circulation errors that project onto errors in tracers, even using the most optimal settings. Development of a more sophisticated scheme is necessary for future progress.
Anton Laakso, Ulrike Niemeier, Daniele Visioni, Simone Tilmes, and Harri Kokkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 93–118,Short summary
The use of different spatio-temporal sulfur injection strategies with different magnitudes to create an artificial reflective aerosol layer to cool the climate is studied using sectional and modal aerosol schemes in a climate model. There are significant differences in the results depending on the aerosol microphysical module used. Different spatio-temporal injection strategies have a significant impact on the magnitude and zonal distribution of radiative forcing and atmospheric dynamics.
Keith B. Rodgers, Sun-Seon Lee, Nan Rosenbloom, Axel Timmermann, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Clara Deser, Jim Edwards, Ji-Eun Kim, Isla R. Simpson, Karl Stein, Malte F. Stuecker, Ryohei Yamaguchi, Tamás Bódai, Eui-Seok Chung, Lei Huang, Who M. Kim, Jean-François Lamarque, Danica L. Lombardozzi, William R. Wieder, and Stephen G. Yeager
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 1393–1411,Short summary
A large ensemble of simulations with 100 members has been conducted with the state-of-the-art CESM2 Earth system model, using historical and SSP3-7.0 forcing. Our main finding is that there are significant changes in the variance of the Earth system in response to anthropogenic forcing, with these changes spanning a broad range of variables important to impacts for human populations and ecosystems.
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, Anna Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17185–17223,Short summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system the effects of which are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
Yuqiang Zhang, Drew Shindell, Karl Seltzer, Lu Shen, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Jia Xing, Zhe Jiang, and Lei Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16051–16065,Short summary
In this study, we use a global chemical transport model to simulate the effects on global air quality and human health due to emission changes in China from 2010 to 2017. By performing sensitivity analysis, we found that the air pollution control policies not only decrease the air pollutant concentration but also bring significant co-benefits in air quality to downwind regions. The benefits for the improved air pollution are dominated by PM2.5.
Tao Tang, Drew Shindell, Yuqiang Zhang, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Gunnar Myhre, Gregory Faluvegi, Bjørn H. Samset, Timothy Andrews, Dirk Olivié, Toshihiko Takemura, and Xuhui Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13797–13809,Short summary
Previous studies showed that black carbon (BC) could warm the surface with decreased incoming radiation. With climate models, we found that the surface energy redistribution plays a more crucial role in surface temperature compared with other forcing agents. Though BC could reduce the surface heating, the energy dissipates less efficiently, which is manifested by reduced convective and evaporative cooling, thereby warming the surface.
Hao Guo, Clare M. Flynn, Michael J. Prather, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Louisa Emmons, Forrest Lacey, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Arlene M. Fiore, Gus Correa, Lee T. Murray, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Michelle Kim, John Crounse, Glenn Diskin, Joshua DiGangi, Bruce C. Daube, Roisin Commane, Kathryn McKain, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Chelsea Thompson, Thomas F. Hanisco, Donald Blake, Nicola J. Blake, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13729–13746,Short summary
The NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission built a climatology of the chemical composition of tropospheric air parcels throughout the middle of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The level of detail allows us to reconstruct the photochemical budgets of O3 and CH4 over these vast, remote regions. We find that most of the chemical heterogeneity is captured at the resolution used in current global chemistry models and that the majority of reactivity occurs in the
hottest20 % of parcels.
Thierno Doumbia, Claire Granier, Nellie Elguindi, Idir Bouarar, Sabine Darras, Guy Brasseur, Benjamin Gaubert, Yiming Liu, Xiaoqin Shi, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Simone Tilmes, Forrest Lacey, Adrien Deroubaix, and Tao Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4191–4206,Short summary
Most countries around the world have implemented control measures to combat the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in significant changes in economic and personal activities. We developed the CONFORM (COvid-19 adjustmeNt Factors fOR eMissions) dataset to account for changes in emissions during lockdowns. This dataset was created with the intention of being directly applicable to existing global and regional inventories used in chemical transport models.
Daniele Visioni, Douglas G. MacMartin, Ben Kravitz, Olivier Boucher, Andy Jones, Thibaut Lurton, Michou Martine, Michael J. Mills, Pierre Nabat, Ulrike Niemeier, Roland Séférian, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10039–10063,Short summary
A new set of simulations is used to investigate commonalities, differences and sources of uncertainty when simulating the injection of SO2 in the stratosphere in order to mitigate the effects of climate change (solar geoengineering). The models differ in how they simulate the aerosols and how they spread around the stratosphere, resulting in differences in projected regional impacts. Overall, however, the models agree that aerosols have the potential to mitigate the warming produced by GHGs.
Amy Hrdina, Jennifer G. Murphy, Anna Gannet Hallar, John C. Lin, Alexander Moravek, Ryan Bares, Ross C. Petersen, Alessandro Franchin, Ann M. Middlebrook, Lexie Goldberger, Ben H. Lee, Munkh Baasandorj, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8111–8126,Short summary
Wintertime air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley is primarily composed of ammonium nitrate, which is formed when gas-phase ammonia and nitric acid react. The major point in this work is that the chemical composition of snow tells a very different story to what we measured in the atmosphere. With the dust–sea salt cations observed in PM2.5 and particle sizing data, we can estimate how much nitric acid may be lost to dust–sea salt that is not accounted for and how much more PM2.5 this could form.
Fernando Chouza, Thierry Leblanc, Mark Brewer, Patrick Wang, Sabino Piazzolla, Gabriele Pfister, Rajesh Kumar, Carl Drews, Simone Tilmes, Louisa Emmons, and Matthew Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6129–6153,Short summary
The tropospheric ozone lidar at the JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF) was used to investigate the impact of Los Angeles (LA) Basin pollution transport and stratospheric intrusions in the planetary boundary layer on the San Gabriel Mountains. The results of this study indicate a dominant role of the LA Basin pollution on days when high ozone levels were observed at TMF (March–October period).
Ruud H. H. Janssen, Colette L. Heald, Allison L. Steiner, Anne E. Perring, J. Alex Huffman, Ellis S. Robinson, Cynthia H. Twohy, and Luke D. Ziemba
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4381–4401,Short summary
Bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have the potential to affect cloud formation, as well as human and ecosystem health. However, their emissions are not well quantified, which hinders the assessment of their role in atmospheric processes. Here, we develop two new emission schemes for fungal spores based on multi-annual datasets of spore counts. We find that our modeled global emissions and burden are an order of magnitude lower than previous estimates.
Ben Kravitz, Douglas G. MacMartin, Daniele Visioni, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Jim Haywood, Andy Jones, Thibaut Lurton, Pierre Nabat, Ulrike Niemeier, Alan Robock, Roland Séférian, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4231–4247,Short summary
This study investigates multi-model response to idealized geoengineering (high CO2 with solar reduction) across two different generations of climate models. We find that, with the exception of a few cases, the results are unchanged between the different generations. This gives us confidence that broad conclusions about the response to idealized geoengineering are robust.
Paul T. Griffiths, Lee T. Murray, Guang Zeng, Youngsub Matthew Shin, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Ian E. Galbally, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, James Keeble, Jane Liu, Omid Moeini, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Naga Oshima, David Tarasick, Simone Tilmes, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, Paul J. Young, and Prodromos Zanis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4187–4218,Short summary
We analyse the CMIP6 Historical and future simulations for tropospheric ozone, a species which is important for many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. We show that the current generation of models agrees well with observations, being particularly successful in capturing trends in surface ozone and its vertical distribution in the troposphere. We analyse the factors that control ozone and show that they evolve over the period of the CMIP6 experiments.
Chaim I. Garfinkel, Ohad Harari, Shlomi Ziskin Ziv, Jian Rao, Olaf Morgenstern, Guang Zeng, Simone Tilmes, Douglas Kinnison, Fiona M. O'Connor, Neal Butchart, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Andrea Pozzer, and Sean Davis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3725–3740,Short summary
Water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, and El Niño is the dominant mode of variability in the ocean–atmosphere system. The connection between El Niño and water vapor above ~ 17 km is unclear, with single-model studies reaching a range of conclusions. This study examines this connection in 12 different models. While there are substantial differences among the models, all models appear to capture the fundamental physical processes correctly.
Peter Sherman, Meng Gao, Shaojie Song, Alex T. Archibald, Nathan Luke Abraham, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew Shindell, Gregory Faluvegi, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3593–3605,Short summary
The aims here are to assess the role of aerosols in India's monsoon precipitation and to determine the relative contributions from Chinese and Indian emissions using CMIP6 models. We find that increased sulfur emissions reduce precipitation, which is primarily dynamically driven due to spatial shifts in convection over the region. A significant increase in precipitation (up to ~ 20 %) is found only when both Indian and Chinese sulfate emissions are regulated.
Duseong S. Jo, Alma Hodzic, Louisa K. Emmons, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Michael J. Mills, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Rahul A. Zaveri, Richard C. Easter, Balwinder Singh, Zheng Lu, Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, John E. Shilling, Armin Wisthaler, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3395–3425,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a major component of submicron particulate matter, but there are a lot of uncertainties in the future prediction of SOA. We used CESM 2.1 to investigate future IEPOX SOA concentration changes. The explicit chemistry predicted substantial changes in IEPOX SOA depending on the future scenario, but the parameterization predicted weak changes due to simplified chemistry, which shows the importance of correct physicochemical dependencies in future SOA prediction.
Margot Clyne, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Michael J. Mills, Myriam Khodri, William Ball, Slimane Bekki, Sandip S. Dhomse, Nicolas Lebas, Graham Mann, Lauren Marshall, Ulrike Niemeier, Virginie Poulain, Alan Robock, Eugene Rozanov, Anja Schmidt, Andrea Stenke, Timofei Sukhodolov, Claudia Timmreck, Matthew Toohey, Fiona Tummon, Davide Zanchettin, Yunqian Zhu, and Owen B. Toon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3317–3343,Short summary
This study finds how and why five state-of-the-art global climate models with interactive stratospheric aerosols differ when simulating the aftermath of large volcanic injections as part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP). We identify and explain the consequences of significant disparities in the underlying physics and chemistry currently in some of the models, which are problems likely not unique to the models participating in this study.
Claudia Tebaldi, Kevin Debeire, Veronika Eyring, Erich Fischer, John Fyfe, Pierre Friedlingstein, Reto Knutti, Jason Lowe, Brian O'Neill, Benjamin Sanderson, Detlef van Vuuren, Keywan Riahi, Malte Meinshausen, Zebedee Nicholls, Katarzyna B. Tokarska, George Hurtt, Elmar Kriegler, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Gerald Meehl, Richard Moss, Susanne E. Bauer, Olivier Boucher, Victor Brovkin, Young-Hwa Byun, Martin Dix, Silvio Gualdi, Huan Guo, Jasmin G. John, Slava Kharin, YoungHo Kim, Tsuyoshi Koshiro, Libin Ma, Dirk Olivié, Swapna Panickal, Fangli Qiao, Xinyao Rong, Nan Rosenbloom, Martin Schupfner, Roland Séférian, Alistair Sellar, Tido Semmler, Xiaoying Shi, Zhenya Song, Christian Steger, Ronald Stouffer, Neil Swart, Kaoru Tachiiri, Qi Tang, Hiroaki Tatebe, Aurore Voldoire, Evgeny Volodin, Klaus Wyser, Xiaoge Xin, Shuting Yang, Yongqiang Yu, and Tilo Ziehn
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 253–293,Short summary
We present an overview of CMIP6 ScenarioMIP outcomes from up to 38 participating ESMs according to the new SSP-based scenarios. Average temperature and precipitation projections according to a wide range of forcings, spanning a wider range than the CMIP5 projections, are documented as global averages and geographic patterns. Times of crossing various warming levels are computed, together with benefits of mitigation for selected pairs of scenarios. Comparisons with CMIP5 are also discussed.
Sabine Robrecht, Bärbel Vogel, Simone Tilmes, and Rolf Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2427–2455,Short summary
Column ozone protects life on Earth from radiation damage. Stratospheric chlorine compounds cause immense ozone loss in polar winter. Whether similar loss processes can occur in the lower stratosphere above North America today or in future is a matter of debate. We show that these ozone loss processes are very unlikely today or in future independently of whether sulfate geoengineering is applied and that less than 0.1 % of column ozone would be destroyed by this process in any future scenario.
Andy Jones, Jim M. Haywood, Anthony C. Jones, Simone Tilmes, Ben Kravitz, and Alan Robock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1287–1304,Short summary
Two different methods of simulating a geoengineering scenario are compared using data from two different Earth system models. One method is very idealised while the other includes details of a plausible mechanism. The results from both models agree that the idealised approach does not capture an impact found when detailed modelling is included, namely that geoengineering induces a positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation which leads to warmer, wetter winters in northern Europe.
Marc von Hobe, Felix Ploeger, Paul Konopka, Corinna Kloss, Alexey Ulanowski, Vladimir Yushkov, Fabrizio Ravegnani, C. Michael Volk, Laura L. Pan, Shawn B. Honomichl, Simone Tilmes, Douglas E. Kinnison, Rolando R. Garcia, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1267–1285,Short summary
The Asian summer monsoon (ASM) is known to foster transport of polluted tropospheric air into the stratosphere. To test and amend our picture of ASM vertical transport, we analyse distributions of airborne trace gas observations up to 20 km altitude near the main ASM vertical conduit south of the Himalayas. We also show that a new high-resolution version of the global chemistry climate model WACCM is able to reproduce the observations well.
Gillian Thornhill, William Collins, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Alex Archibald, Susanne Bauer, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Stephanie Fiedler, Gerd Folberth, Ada Gjermundsen, Larry Horowitz, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Jane Mulcahy, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Fabien Paulot, Michael Schulz, Catherine E. Scott, Roland Séférian, Chris Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, and James Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1105–1126,Short summary
We find that increased temperatures affect aerosols and reactive gases by changing natural emissions and their rates of removal from the atmosphere. Changing the composition of these species in the atmosphere affects the radiative budget of the climate system and therefore amplifies or dampens the climate response of climate models of the Earth system. This study found that the largest effect is a dampening of climate change as warmer temperatures increase the emissions of cooling aerosols.
Gillian D. Thornhill, William J. Collins, Ryan J. Kramer, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Fiona M. O'Connor, Nathan Luke Abraham, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Piers M. Forster, Larry W. Horowitz, Ben Johnson, James Keeble, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Michael J. Mills, Jane P. Mulcahy, Gunnar Myhre, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Naga Oshima, Michael Schulz, Christopher J. Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Tongwen Wu, Guang Zeng, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 853–874,Short summary
This paper is a study of how different constituents in the atmosphere, such as aerosols and gases like methane and ozone, affect the energy balance in the atmosphere. Different climate models were run using the same inputs to allow an easy comparison of the results and to understand where the models differ. We found the effect of aerosols is to reduce warming in the atmosphere, but this effect varies between models. Reactions between gases are also important in affecting climate.
Benjamin Gaubert, Louisa K. Emmons, Kevin Raeder, Simone Tilmes, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Avelino F. Arellano Jr., Nellie Elguindi, Claire Granier, Wenfu Tang, Jérôme Barré, Helen M. Worden, Rebecca R. Buchholz, David P. Edwards, Philipp Franke, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Marielle Saunois, Jason Schroeder, Jung-Hun Woo, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, Simone Meinardi, Paul O. Wennberg, John Crounse, Alex Teng, Michelle Kim, Russell R. Dickerson, Hao He, Xinrong Ren, Sally E. Pusede, and Glenn S. Diskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14617–14647,Short summary
This study investigates carbon monoxide pollution in East Asia during spring using a numerical model, satellite remote sensing, and aircraft measurements. We found an underestimation of emission sources. Correcting the emission bias can improve air quality forecasting of carbon monoxide and other species including ozone. Results also suggest that controlling VOC and CO emissions, in addition to widespread NOx controls, can improve ozone pollution over East Asia.
Steven T. Turnock, Robert J. Allen, Martin Andrews, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Louisa Emmons, Peter Good, Larry Horowitz, Jasmin G. John, Martine Michou, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, David Neubauer, Fiona M. O'Connor, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Michael Schulz, Alistair Sellar, Sungbo Shim, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, Tongwen Wu, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14547–14579,Short summary
A first assessment is made of the historical and future changes in air pollutants from models participating in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Substantial benefits to future air quality can be achieved in future scenarios that implement measures to mitigate climate and involve reductions in air pollutant emissions, particularly methane. However, important differences are shown between models in the future regional projection of air pollutants under the same scenario.
Camilla W. Stjern, Bjørn H. Samset, Olivier Boucher, Trond Iversen, Jean-François Lamarque, Gunnar Myhre, Drew Shindell, and Toshihiko Takemura
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13467–13480,Short summary
The span between the warmest and coldest temperatures over a day is a climate parameter that influences both agriculture and human health. Using data from 10 models, we show how individual climate drivers such as greenhouse gases and aerosols produce distinctly different responses in this parameter in high-emission regions. Given the high uncertainty in future aerosol emissions, this improved understanding of the temperature responses may ultimately help these regions prepare for future changes.
Augustin Mortier, Jonas Gliß, Michael Schulz, Wenche Aas, Elisabeth Andrews, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Paul Ginoux, Jenny Hand, Brent Holben, Hua Zhang, Zak Kipling, Alf Kirkevåg, Paolo Laj, Thibault Lurton, Gunnar Myhre, David Neubauer, Dirk Olivié, Knut von Salzen, Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, Toshihiko Takemura, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13355–13378,Short summary
We present a multiparameter analysis of the aerosol trends over the last 2 decades in the different regions of the world. In most of the regions, ground-based observations show a decrease in aerosol content in both the total atmospheric column and at the surface. The use of climate models, assessed against these observations, reveals however an increase in the total aerosol load, which is not seen with the sole use of observation due to partial coverage in space and time.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Sarah Strode, Simone Tilmes, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13011–13022,Short summary
Decadal trends and variations in OH are critical for understanding atmospheric CH4 evolution. We quantify the impacts of OH trends and variations on the CH4 budget by conducting CH4 inversions on a decadal scale with an ensemble of OH fields. We find the negative OH anomalies due to enhanced fires can reduce the optimized CH4 emissions by up to 10 Tg yr−1 during El Niño years and the positive OH trend from 1986 to 2010 results in a ∼ 23 Tg yr−1 additional increase in optimized CH4 emissions.
David S. Stevenson, Alcide Zhao, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Simone Tilmes, Guang Zeng, Lee T. Murray, William J. Collins, Paul T. Griffiths, Sungbo Shim, Larry W. Horowitz, Lori T. Sentman, and Louisa Emmons
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12905–12920,Short summary
We present historical trends in atmospheric oxidizing capacity (OC) since 1850 from the latest generation of global climate models and compare these with estimates from measurements. OC controls levels of many key reactive gases, including methane (CH4). We find small model trends up to 1980, then increases of about 9 % up to 2014, disagreeing with (uncertain) measurement-based trends. Major drivers of OC trends are emissions of CH4, NOx, and CO; these will be important for future CH4 trends.
Xiaoning Xie, Gunnar Myhre, Xiaodong Liu, Xinzhou Li, Zhengguo Shi, Hongli Wang, Alf Kirkevåg, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Drew Shindell, Toshihiko Takemura, and Yangang Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11823–11839,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) enhance precipitation minus evaporation (P–E) of Asian summer monsoon (ASM). Further analysis reveals distinct mechanisms controlling BC- and GHG-induced ASM P–E increases. The change in ASM P–E by BC is dominated by the dynamic effect of enhanced large-scale monsoon circulation, the GHG-induced change by the thermodynamic effect of increasing atmospheric water vapor. This results from different atmospheric temperature feedbacks due to BC and GHGs.
Wenfu Tang, Benjamin Gaubert, Louisa Emmons, Yonghoon Choi, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Xiaomei Xu, Cenlin He, Helen Worden, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca Buchholz, Hannah S. Halliday, and Avelino F. Arellano
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A specific demonstration of the potential use of correlative information from carbon monoxide to refine estimates of regional carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion.
Matt Amos, Paul J. Young, J. Scott Hosking, Jean-François Lamarque, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Markus Kunze, Marion Marchand, David A. Plummer, David Saint-Martin, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, and Yousuke Yamashita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9961–9977,Short summary
We present an updated projection of Antarctic ozone hole recovery using an ensemble of chemistry–climate models. To do so, we employ a method, more advanced and skilful than the current multi-model mean standard, which is applicable to other ensemble analyses. It calculates the performance and similarity of the models, which we then use to weight the model. Calculating model similarity allows us to account for models which are constructed from similar components.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Robert J. Allen, Steven Turnock, Pierre Nabat, David Neubauer, Ulrike Lohmann, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Martine Michou, Tongwen Wu, Jie Zhang, Toshihiko Takemura, Michael Schulz, Kostas Tsigaridis, Susanne E. Bauer, Louisa Emmons, Larry Horowitz, Vaishali Naik, Twan van Noije, Tommi Bergman, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Prodromos Zanis, Ina Tegen, Daniel M. Westervelt, Philippe Le Sager, Peter Good, Sungbo Shim, Fiona O'Connor, Dimitris Akritidis, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Makoto Deushi, Lori T. Sentman, Jasmin G. John, Shinichiro Fujimori, and William J. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9641–9663,
Yangyang Xu, Lei Lin, Simone Tilmes, Katherine Dagon, Lili Xia, Chenrui Diao, Wei Cheng, Zhili Wang, Isla Simpson, and Lorna Burnell
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 673–695,Short summary
Two geoengineering schemes to mitigate global warming, (a) capturing atmospheric CO2 and (b) injecting stratospheric sulfur gas, are compared. Based on two sets of large-ensemble model experiments, we show that sulfur injection will effectively mitigate projected terrestrial drying over the Americas, and the mitigation benefit will emerge more quickly than with carbon capture. Innovative means of sulfur injection should continue to be explored as one potential low-cost climate solution.
Ulrike Niemeier, Jadwiga H. Richter, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8975–8987,Short summary
Artificial injections of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere show an impact on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Different numerical models show only qualitatively but not quantitatively consistent impacts. We show for two models that the response of the QBO is similar when a similar stratospheric heating rate is induced by SO2 injections of different amounts. The reason is very different vertical advection in the two models resulting in different aerosol burden and heating of the aerosols.
Tao Tang, Drew Shindell, Yuqiang Zhang, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Gunnar Myhre, Camilla W. Stjern, Gregory Faluvegi, and Bjørn H. Samset
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8251–8266,Short summary
By using climate simulations, we found that both CO2 and black carbon aerosols could reduce low-level cloud cover, which is mainly due to changes in relative humidity, cloud water, dynamics, and stability. Because the impact of cloud on solar radiation is in effect only during daytime, such cloud reduction could enhance solar heating, thereby raising the daily maximum temperature by 10–50 %, varying by region, which has great implications for extreme climate events and socioeconomic activity.
Simone Tilmes, Douglas G. MacMartin, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Leo van Kampenhout, Laura Muntjewerf, Lili Xia, Cheryl S. Harrison, Kristen M. Krumhardt, Michael J. Mills, Ben Kravitz, and Alan Robock
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 579–601,Short summary
This paper introduces new geoengineering model experiments as part of a larger model intercomparison effort, using reflective particles to block some of the incoming solar radiation to reach surface temperature targets. Outcomes of these applications are contrasted based on a high greenhouse gas emission pathway and a pathway with strong mitigation and negative emissions after 2040. We compare quantities that matter for societal and ecosystem impacts between the different scenarios.
Javier Alejandro Barrera, Rafael Pedro Fernandez, Fernando Iglesias-Suarez, Carlos Alberto Cuevas, Jean-Francois Lamarque, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8083–8102,Short summary
The inclusion of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSLBr) in the CAM-chem model improves the model–satellite agreement of the total ozone columns at mid-latitudes and drives a persistent hemispheric asymmetry in lowermost stratospheric ozone loss. The seasonal VSLBr impact on mid-latitude lowermost stratospheric ozone is influenced by the heterogeneous reactivation processes of inorganic chlorine on ice crystals, with a clear increase in ozone destruction during spring and winter.
Katherine R. Travis, Colette L. Heald, Hannah M. Allen, Eric C. Apel, Stephen R. Arnold, Donald R. Blake, William H. Brune, Xin Chen, Róisín Commane, John D. Crounse, Bruce C. Daube, Glenn S. Diskin, James W. Elkins, Mathew J. Evans, Samuel R. Hall, Eric J. Hintsa, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Prasad S. Kasibhatla, Michelle J. Kim, Gan Luo, Kathryn McKain, Dylan B. Millet, Fred L. Moore, Jeffrey Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Tomás Sherwen, Alexander B. Thames, Kirk Ullmann, Xuan Wang, Paul O. Wennberg, Glenn M. Wolfe, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7753–7781,Short summary
Atmospheric models overestimate the rate of removal of trace gases by the hydroxyl radical (OH). This is a concern for studies of the climate and air quality impacts of human activities. Here, we evaluate the performance of a commonly used model of atmospheric chemistry against data from the NASA Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom) over the remote oceans where models have received little validation. The model is generally successful, suggesting that biases in OH may be a concern over land.
Daniele Visioni, Giovanni Pitari, Vincenzo Rizi, Marco Iarlori, Irene Cionni, Ilaria Quaglia, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martin Chipperfield, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rolando Garcia, Patrick Joeckel, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-François Lamarque, Marion Marchand, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Tatsuya Nagashima, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, David Plummer, Eugene Rozanov, David Saint-Martin, Robyn Schofield, John Scinocca, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Simone Tilmes, Holger Tost, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
In this work we analyse the trend in ozone profiles taken at L'Aquila (Italy, 42.4° N) for seventeen years, between 2000 and 2016 and compare them against already available measured ozone trends. We try to understand and explain the observed trends at various heights in light of the simulations from seventeen different model, highlighting the contribution of changes in circulation and chemical ozone loss during this time period.
Sam J. Silva, Colette L. Heald, and Alex B. Guenther
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2569–2585,Short summary
Simulating the influence of the biosphere on atmospheric chemistry has traditionally been computationally intensive. We describe a surrogate canopy physics model parameterized using a statistical learning technique and specifically designed for use in large-scale chemical transport models. Our surrogate model reproduces a more detailed model to within 10 % without a large computational demand, improving the process representation of biosphere–atmosphere exchange.
Alma Hodzic, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas A. Day, Karl D. Froyd, Bernd Heinold, Duseong S. Jo, Joseph M. Katich, John K. Kodros, Benjamin A. Nault, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Eric Ray, Jacob Schacht, Gregory P. Schill, Jason C. Schroder, Joshua P. Schwarz, Donna T. Sueper, Ina Tegen, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, Pengfei Yu, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4607–4635,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) is a key source of uncertainty in aerosol climate effects. We present the first pole-to-pole OA characterization during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography aircraft mission. OA has a strong seasonal and zonal variability, with the highest levels in summer and over fire-influenced regions and the lowest ones in the southern high latitudes. We show that global models predict the OA distribution well but not the relative contribution of OA emissions vs. chemical production.
Oliver Wild, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Fiona O'Connor, Jean-François Lamarque, Edmund M. Ryan, and Lindsay Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4047–4058,Short summary
Global models of tropospheric chemistry and transport show a persistent diversity in results that has not been fully explained. We demonstrate the first use of global sensitivity analysis consistently across three independent models to explore these differences and reveal both clear similarities and surprising differences which have important implications for our assessment of future atmospheric composition change.
Libby Koolik, Michael Roesch, Lesly J. Franco Deloya, Chuanyang Shen, A. Gannet Hallar, Ian B. McCubbin, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The phaSe seParation Inlet for Droplets icE residuals and inteRstitial aerosols (SPIDER) combines an omni-directional inlet, a Large-Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor, a flow tube evaporation chamber, and a Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor to separate droplets, ice crystals, and interstitial aerosols for simultaneous sampling. This new inlet for studying mixed-phase clouds is described here, with laboratory verification tests and a deployment at a mountain-top research facility.
Daniel M. Westervelt, Nora R. Mascioli, Arlene M. Fiore, Andrew J. Conley, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew T. Shindell, Greg Faluvegi, Michael Previdi, Gustavo Correa, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3009–3027,Short summary
We use three Earth system models to estimate the impact of regional air pollutant emissions reductions on global and regional surface temperature. We find that removing human-caused air pollutant emissions from certain world regions (such as the USA) results in warming of up to 0.15 °C. We use our model output to calculate simple climate metrics that will allow for regional-scale climate impact estimates without the use of computationally demanding computer models.
Sidhant J. Pai, Colette L. Heald, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Salvatore C. Farina, Eloise A. Marais, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Ann M. Middlebrook, Hugh Coe, John E. Shilling, Roya Bahreini, Justin H. Dingle, and Kennedy Vu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2637–2665,Short summary
Aerosols in the atmosphere have significant health and climate impacts. Organic aerosol (OA) accounts for a large fraction of the total aerosol burden, but models have historically struggled to accurately simulate it. This study compares two very different OA model schemes and evaluates them against a suite of globally distributed airborne measurements with the goal of providing insight into the strengths and weaknesses of each approach across different environments.
Therese S. Carter, Colette L. Heald, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Yutaka Kondo, Nobuhiro Moteki, Joshua P. Schwarz, Christine Wiedinmyer, Anton S. Darmenov, Arlindo M. da Silva, and Johannes W. Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2073–2097,Short summary
Fires and the smoke they emit impact air quality, health, and climate, but the abundance and properties of smoke remain uncertain and poorly constrained. To explore this, we compare model simulations driven by four commonly-used fire emission inventories with surface, aloft, and satellite observations. We show that across inventories smoke emissions differ by factors of 4 to 7 over North America, challenging our ability to accurately characterize the impact of smoke on air quality and climate.
Julie M. Nicely, Bryan N. Duncan, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Ross J. Salawitch, Makoto Deushi, Amund S. Haslerud, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas E. Kinnison, Andrew Klekociuk, Michael E. Manyin, Virginie Marécal, Olaf Morgenstern, Lee T. Murray, Gunnar Myhre, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, Andrea Pozzer, Ilaria Quaglia, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Susan Strahan, Simone Tilmes, Holger Tost, Daniel M. Westervelt, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1341–1361,Short summary
Differences in methane lifetime among global models are large and poorly understood. We use a neural network method and simulations from the Chemistry Climate Model Initiative to quantify the factors influencing methane lifetime spread among models and variations over time. UV photolysis, tropospheric ozone, and nitrogen oxides drive large model differences, while the same factors plus specific humidity contribute to a decreasing trend in methane lifetime between 1980 and 2015.
Le Kuai, Kevin W. Bowman, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Makoto Deushi, Laura Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Fabien Paulot, Sarah Strode, Andrew Conley, Jean-François Lamarque, Patrick Jöckel, David A. Plummer, Luke D. Oman, Helen Worden, Susan Kulawik, David Paynter, Andrea Stenke, and Markus Kunze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 281–301,Short summary
The tropospheric ozone increase from pre-industrial to the present day leads to a radiative forcing. The top-of-atmosphere outgoing fluxes at the ozone band are controlled by ozone, water vapor, and temperature. We demonstrate a method to attribute the models’ flux biases to these key players using satellite-constrained instantaneous radiative kernels. The largest spread between models is found in the tropics, mainly driven by ozone and then water vapor.
Elizabeth Asher, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Britton B. Stephens, Doug Kinnison, Eric J. Morgan, Ralph F. Keeling, Elliot L. Atlas, Sue M. Schauffler, Simone Tilmes, Eric A. Kort, Martin S. Hoecker-Martínez, Matt C. Long, Jean-François Lamarque, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Alan J. Hills, and Eric C. Apel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14071–14090,Short summary
Halogenated organic trace gases, which are a source of reactive halogens to the atmosphere, exert a disproportionately large influence on atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reports novel aircraft observations of halogenated compounds over the Southern Ocean in summer and evaluates hypothesized regional sources and emissions of these trace gases through their relationships to additional aircraft observations.
Maria A. Zawadowicz, Karl D. Froyd, Anne E. Perring, Daniel M. Murphy, Dominick V. Spracklen, Colette L. Heald, Peter R. Buseck, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13859–13870,Short summary
We report measurements of small particles of biological origin (for example, fragments of bacteria, pollen, or fungal spores) in the atmosphere over the continental United States. We use a recently developed identification technique based on airborne mass spectrometry in conjunction with an extensive aircraft dataset. We show that biological particles are present at altitudes up to 10 km and we quantify typical concentrations.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Didier A. Hauglustaine, Sophie Szopa, Ann R. Stavert, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alex T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Virginie Marécal, Fiona M. O'Connor, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Sarah Strode, Simone Tilmes, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13701–13723,Short summary
The role of hydroxyl radical changes in methane trends is debated, hindering our understanding of the methane cycle. This study quantifies how uncertainties in the hydroxyl radical may influence methane abundance in the atmosphere based on the inter-model comparison of hydroxyl radical fields and model simulations of CH4 abundance with different hydroxyl radical scenarios during 2000–2016. We show that hydroxyl radical changes could contribute up to 54 % of model-simulated methane biases.
William C. Porter and Colette L. Heald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13367–13381,Short summary
In this paper we explore the connection between changes in surface temperature and changes in ozone pollution. While explanations for this connection have been proposed in the past, we attempt to better quantify them using models and statistics. We find that some of the most commonly cited mechanisms, including biogenic emissions and temperature-dependent chemical processes, can explain less than half of the O3–T correlation. Meteorology is identified as the most likely driver for the remainder.
Wenxiu Sun, Peter Hess, Gang Chen, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12917–12933,Short summary
Using both observations and a chemistry climate–model we establish that in most locations changes in the waviness of the 500 hPa flow field, as measured by the local anticyclonic wave activity (AWA), explain a significant fraction of the interannual variability in surface ozone over the United States. In addition, we find that the change in AWA in a future climate (circa 2100) is predicted to cause a change in surface ozone ranging between –6 ppb and 6 ppb.
Øivind Hodnebrog, Gunnar Myhre, Bjørn H. Samset, Kari Alterskjær, Timothy Andrews, Olivier Boucher, Gregory Faluvegi, Dagmar Fläschner, Piers M. Forster, Matthew Kasoar, Alf Kirkevåg, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Dirk Olivié, Thomas B. Richardson, Dilshad Shawki, Drew Shindell, Keith P. Shine, Philip Stier, Toshihiko Takemura, Apostolos Voulgarakis, and Duncan Watson-Parris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12887–12899,Short summary
Different greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2) and aerosols (e.g. black carbon) impact the Earth’s water cycle differently. Here we investigate how various gases and particles impact atmospheric water vapour and its lifetime, i.e., the average number of days that water vapour stays in the atmosphere after evaporation and before precipitation. We find that this lifetime could increase substantially by the end of this century, indicating that important changes in precipitation patterns are excepted.
Ohad Harari, Chaim I. Garfinkel, Shlomi Ziskin Ziv, Olaf Morgenstern, Guang Zeng, Simone Tilmes, Douglas Kinnison, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Andrea Pozzer, Fiona M. O'Connor, and Sean Davis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9253–9268,Short summary
Ozone depletion in the Antarctic has been shown to influence surface conditions, but the effects of ozone depletion in the Arctic on surface climate are unclear. We show that Arctic ozone does influence surface climate in both polar regions and tropical regions, though the proximate cause of these surface impacts is not yet clear.
Huang Yang, Darryn W. Waugh, Clara Orbe, Guang Zeng, Olaf Morgenstern, Douglas E. Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, David A. Plummer, Patrick Jöckel, Susan E. Strahan, Kane A. Stone, and Robyn Schofield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5511–5528,Short summary
We evaluate the performance of a suite of models in simulating the large-scale transport from the northern midlatitudes to the Arctic using a CO-like idealized tracer. We find a large multi-model spread of the Arctic concentration of this CO-like tracer that is well correlated with the differences in the location of the midlatitude jet as well as the northern Hadley Cell edge. Our results suggest the Hadley Cell is key and zonal-mean transport by surface meridional flow needs better constraint.
Douglas H. Lowenthal, A. Gannet Hallar, Robert O. David, Ian B. McCubbin, Randolph D. Borys, and Gerald G. Mace
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5387–5401,Short summary
Snow and liquid cloud particles were measured during the StormVEx and IFRACS programs at Storm Peak Lab to better understand snow formation in wintertime mountain clouds. We found significant interactions between the ice and liquid phases of the cloud. A relationship between large droplet and small ice crystal concentrations suggested snow formation by droplet freezing. Blowing snow can bias surface measurements, but its effect was ambiguous, calling for further work on this issue.
Junxi Zhang, Yang Gao, L. Ruby Leung, Kun Luo, Huan Liu, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Jianren Fan, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, and Tatsuya Nagashima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 887–900,Short summary
ACCMIP simulations were used to study NOy deposition over East Asia in the future. Both dry and wet NOy deposition show significant decreases in the 2100s under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 due to large anthropogenic emission reduction. The changes in climate only significantly affect the wet deposition primarily linked to changes in precipitation. Over the coastal seas of China, weaker transport of NOy from land due to emission reduction infers a larger impact from shipping and lightning emissions.
Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Michael J. Prather, Clare M. Flynn, Lee T. Murray, Arlene M. Fiore, Gustavo Correa, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Jonathan Guth, Béatrice Josse, Johannes Flemming, Vincent Huijnen, N. Luke Abraham, and Alex T. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16809–16828,Short summary
Photolysis (J rates) initiates and drives atmospheric chemistry, and Js are perturbed by factors of 2 by clouds. The NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) Mission provides the first comprehensive observations on how clouds perturb Js through the remote Pacific and Atlantic basins. We compare these cloud-perturbation J statistics with those from nine global chemistry models. While basic patterns agree, there is a large spread across models, and all lack some basic features of the observations.
Laura E. Revell, Andrea Stenke, Fiona Tummon, Aryeh Feinberg, Eugene Rozanov, Thomas Peter, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Neal Butchart, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Robyn Schofield, Kane Stone, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16155–16172,Short summary
Global models such as those participating in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) consistently simulate biases in tropospheric ozone compared with observations. We performed an advanced statistical analysis with one of the CCMI models to understand the cause of the bias. We found that emissions of ozone precursor gases are the dominant driver of the bias, implying either that the emissions are too large, or that the way in which the model handles emissions needs to be improved.
Xinyi Dong, Joshua S. Fu, Qingzhao Zhu, Jian Sun, Jiani Tan, Terry Keating, Takashi Sekiya, Kengo Sudo, Louisa Emmons, Simone Tilmes, Jan Eiof Jonson, Michael Schulz, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Yanko Davila, Daven Henze, Toshihiko Takemura, Anna Maria Katarina Benedictow, and Kan Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15581–15600,Short summary
We have applied the HTAP phase II multi-model data to investigate the long-range transport impacts on surface concentration and column density of PM from Europe and Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine to eastern Asia, with a special focus on the long-range transport contribution during haze episodes in China. We found that long-range transport plays a more important role in elevating the background concentration of surface PM during the haze days.
Daniele Visioni, Giovanni Pitari, Glauco di Genova, Simone Tilmes, and Irene Cionni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14867–14887,Short summary
Many side effects of sulfate geoengineering have to be analyzed before the world can even consider deploying this method of solar radiation management. In particular, we show that ice clouds in the upper troposphere are modified by a sulfate injection, producing a change that (by allowing for more planetary radiation to escape to space) would produce a further cooling. This might be important when considering the necessary amount of sulfate that needs to be injected to achieve a certain target.
Benjamin Brown-Steiner, Noelle E. Selin, Ronald Prinn, Simone Tilmes, Louisa Emmons, Jean-François Lamarque, and Philip Cameron-Smith
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4155–4174,Short summary
We conduct three simulations of atmospheric chemistry using chemical mechanisms of different levels of complexity and compare their results to observations. We explore situations in which the simplified mechanisms match the output of the most complex mechanism, as well as when they diverge. We investigate how concurrent utilization of chemical mechanisms of different complexities can further our atmospheric-chemistry understanding at various scales and give some strategies for future research.
Shan S. Zhou, Amos P. K. Tai, Shihan Sun, Mehliyar Sadiq, Colette L. Heald, and Jeffrey A. Geddes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14133–14148,Short summary
Surface ozone pollution harms vegetation. As plants play key roles shaping air quality, the plant damage may further worsen air pollution. We use various computer models to examine such feedback effects, and find that ozone-induced decline in leaf density can lead to much higher ozone levels in forested regions, mostly due to the reduced ability of leaves to absorb pollutants. This study highlights the importance of considering the two-way interactions between plants and air pollution.
Harri Kokkola, Thomas Kühn, Anton Laakso, Tommi Bergman, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Tero Mielonen, Antti Arola, Scarlet Stadtler, Hannele Korhonen, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Ulrike Lohmann, David Neubauer, Ina Tegen, Colombe Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Martin G. Schultz, Isabelle Bey, Philip Stier, Nikos Daskalakis, Colette L. Heald, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3833–3863,Short summary
In this paper we present a global aerosol–chemistry–climate model with the focus on its representation for atmospheric aerosol particles. In the model, aerosols are simulated using the aerosol module SALSA2.0, which in this paper is compared to satellite, ground, and aircraft-based observations of the properties of atmospheric aerosol. Based on this study, the model simulated aerosol properties compare well with the observations.
Daniel M. Westervelt, Andrew J. Conley, Arlene M. Fiore, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew T. Shindell, Michael Previdi, Nora R. Mascioli, Greg Faluvegi, Gustavo Correa, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12461–12475,Short summary
Small particles in Earth's atmosphere (also referred to as atmospheric aerosols) emitted by human activities impact Earth's climate in complex ways and play an important role in Earth's water cycle. We use a climate modeling approach and find that aerosols from the United States and Europe can have substantial effects on rainfall in far-away regions such as Africa's Sahel or the Mediterranean. Air pollution controls in these regions may help reduce the likelihood and severity of Sahel drought.
Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Diego Aliaga, Marcos Andrade, Hristo Angelov, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Marina Ealo, Paulo Fialho, Harald Flentje, A. Gannet Hallar, Rakesh Hooda, Ivo Kalapov, Radovan Krejci, Neng-Huei Lin, Angela Marinoni, Jing Ming, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Marco Pandolfi, Véronique Pont, Ludwig Ries, Sergio Rodríguez, Gerhard Schauer, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Junying Sun, Peter Tunved, Patricio Velasquez, and Dominique Ruffieux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12289–12313,Short summary
High altitude stations are often emphasized as free tropospheric measuring sites but they remain influenced by atmospheric boundary layer. An ABL-TopoIndex is defined from a topography analysis around the stations. This new index allows ranking stations as a function of the ABL influence due to topography or help to choose a new site to sample FT. The ABL-TopoIndex is validated by aerosol optical properties and number concentration measured at 29 high altitude stations of five continents.
Jiani Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Frank Dentener, Jian Sun, Louisa Emmons, Simone Tilmes, Johannes Flemming, Toshihiko Takemura, Huisheng Bian, Qingzhao Zhu, Cheng-En Yang, and Terry Keating
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12223–12240,Short summary
Have contributions of hemispheric air pollution to deposition at global scale been overlooked in the past years? How do we assess the critical load for the acid deposition when we look for the demand of forest and crop? This study highlights the significant impact of hemispheric transport on deposition in coastal regions, open ocean and low-emission regions. Further research is proposed for improving ecosystem and human health in these regions, with regards to the enhanced hemispheric transport.
Pakawat Phalitnonkiat, Peter G. M. Hess, Mircea D. Grigoriu, Gennady Samorodnitsky, Wenxiu Sun, Ellie Beaudry, Simone Tilmes, Makato Deushi, Beatrice Josse, David Plummer, and Kengo Sudo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11927–11948,Short summary
The co-occurrence of heat waves and pollution events and the resulting high mortality rates emphasize the importance of the co-occurrence of pollution and temperature extremes. We analyze ozone and temperature extremes and their joint occurrence over the United States during the summer months (JJA) in measurement data and in model simulations of the present and future climates.
Luke D. Schiferl, Colette L. Heald, and David Kelly
Biogeosciences, 15, 4301–4315,Short summary
To understand future food security, it is critical to develop realistic crop models with reliable sensitivity to environmental factors. We find that particulate matter (PM) causes a significant, but smaller, enhancement for global wheat and rice production than estimated without nutrient and physiological limitations imposed by a crop model. In contrast, maize grows near its physiological maximum, with little enhancement from PM. Nitrogen deposition leads to a small increase in crop production.
Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, Frank J. Dentener, Yanko Davila, Louisa K. Emmons, Johannes Flemming, Gerd A. Folberth, Daven K. Henze, Jan E. Jonson, Terry J. Keating, Sudo Kengo, Meiyun Lin, Marianne Lund, Simone Tilmes, and Fiona M. O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8953–8978,Short summary
A simple parameterisation was developed in this study to provide a rapid assessment of the impacts and uncertainties associated with future emission control strategies by predicting changes to surface ozone air quality and near-term climate forcing of ozone. Future emissions scenarios based on currently implemented legislation are shown to worsen surface ozone air quality and enhance near-term climate warming, with changes in methane becoming increasingly important in the future.
Benjamin Brown-Steiner, Noelle E. Selin, Ronald G. Prinn, Erwan Monier, Simone Tilmes, Louisa Emmons, and Fernando Garcia-Menendez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8373–8388,Short summary
Detecting signals in observations and simulations of atmospheric chemistry is difficult due to the underlying variability in the chemistry, meteorology, and climatology. Here we examine the scale dependence of ozone variability and explore strategies for reducing or averaging this variability and thereby enhancing ozone signal detection capabilities. We find that 10–15 years of temporal averaging, and some level of spatial averaging, reduces the risk of overconfidence in ozone signals.
Tao Tang, Drew Shindell, Bjørn H. Samset, Oliviér Boucher, Piers M. Forster, Øivind Hodnebrog, Gunnar Myhre, Jana Sillmann, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Timothy Andrews, Gregory Faluvegi, Dagmar Fläschner, Trond Iversen, Matthew Kasoar, Viatcheslav Kharin, Alf Kirkevåg, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Dirk Olivié, Thomas Richardson, Camilla W. Stjern, and Toshihiko Takemura
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8439–8452,
Sandip S. Dhomse, Douglas Kinnison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Ross J. Salawitch, Irene Cionni, Michaela I. Hegglin, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alex T. Archibald, Ewa M. Bednarz, Slimane Bekki, Peter Braesicke, Neal Butchart, Martin Dameris, Makoto Deushi, Stacey Frith, Steven C. Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, Rong-Ming Hu, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Oliver Kirner, Stefanie Kremser, Ulrike Langematz, Jared Lewis, Marion Marchand, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8409–8438,Short summary
We analyse simulations from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) to estimate the return dates of the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion by anthropogenic chlorine and bromine. The simulations from 20 models project that global column ozone will return to 1980 values in 2047 (uncertainty range 2042–2052). Return dates in other regions vary depending on factors related to climate change and importance of chlorine and bromine. Column ozone in the tropics may continue to decline.
Xiaokang Wu, Huang Yang, Darryn W. Waugh, Clara Orbe, Simone Tilmes, and Jean-Francois Lamarque
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7439–7452,Short summary
The seasonal and interannual variability of transport times from northern mid-latitudes into the southern hemisphere is examined using simulations of
agetracers. The largest variability occurs near the surface close to the tropical convergence zones, but the peak is further south and there is a smaller tropical–extratropical contrast for tracers with more rapid loss. Hence the variability of trace gases in the southern extratropics will vary with their chemical lifetime.
Clara Orbe, Huang Yang, Darryn W. Waugh, Guang Zeng, Olaf Morgenstern, Douglas E. Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, David A. Plummer, John F. Scinocca, Beatrice Josse, Virginie Marecal, Patrick Jöckel, Luke D. Oman, Susan E. Strahan, Makoto Deushi, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Kohei Yoshida, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Yousuke Yamashita, Andreas Stenke, Laura Revell, Timofei Sukhodolov, Eugene Rozanov, Giovanni Pitari, Daniele Visioni, Kane A. Stone, Robyn Schofield, and Antara Banerjee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7217–7235,Short summary
In this study we compare a few atmospheric transport properties among several numerical models that are used to study the influence of atmospheric chemistry on climate. We show that there are large differences among models in terms of the timescales that connect the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes, where greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances are emitted, to the Southern Hemisphere. Our results may have important implications for how models represent atmospheric composition.
Jiani Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Frank Dentener, Jian Sun, Louisa Emmons, Simone Tilmes, Kengo Sudo, Johannes Flemming, Jan Eiof Jonson, Sylvie Gravel, Huisheng Bian, Yanko Davila, Daven K. Henze, Marianne T. Lund, Tom Kucsera, Toshihiko Takemura, and Terry Keating
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6847–6866,Short summary
We study the distributions of sulfur and nitrogen deposition, which are associated with current environmental issues such as formation of acid rain and ecosystem eutrophication and result in widespread problems such as loss of environmental diversity, harming the crop yield and even food insecurity. According to our study, both the amount and distribution of sulfate and nitrogen deposition have changed significantly in the last decade, particularly in East Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia.
Michael J. Prather, Clare M. Flynn, Xin Zhu, Stephen D. Steenrod, Sarah A. Strode, Arlene M. Fiore, Gustavo Correa, Lee T. Murray, and Jean-Francois Lamarque
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2653–2668,Short summary
A new protocol for merging in situ atmospheric chemistry measurements with 3-D models is developed. This technique can identify the most reactive air parcels in terms of tropospheric production/loss of O3 & CH4. This approach highlights differences in 6 global chemistry models even with composition specified. Thus in situ measurements from, e.g., NASA's ATom mission can be used to develop a chemical climatology of, not only the key species, but also the rates of key reactions in each air parcel.
Luke D. Schiferl and Colette L. Heald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5953–5966,Short summary
Global population growth and industrialization have contributed to poor air quality worldwide, and increasing population will put pressure on global food production. We therefore assess how air pollution may impact crop growth. Ozone has previously been shown to damage crops. We demonstrate that the impact of particles associated with enhanced light scattering promotes growth, offsetting much, if not all, ozone damage. This has implications for air quality management and global food security.
Lauren Marshall, Anja Schmidt, Matthew Toohey, Ken S. Carslaw, Graham W. Mann, Michael Sigl, Myriam Khodri, Claudia Timmreck, Davide Zanchettin, William T. Ball, Slimane Bekki, James S. A. Brooke, Sandip Dhomse, Colin Johnson, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Allegra N. LeGrande, Michael J. Mills, Ulrike Niemeier, James O. Pope, Virginie Poulain, Alan Robock, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Timofei Sukhodolov, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Fiona Tummon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2307–2328,Short summary
We use four global aerosol models to compare the simulated sulfate deposition from the 1815 Mt. Tambora eruption to ice core records. Inter-model volcanic sulfate deposition differs considerably. Volcanic sulfate deposited on polar ice sheets is used to estimate the atmospheric sulfate burden and subsequently radiative forcing of historic eruptions. Our results suggest that deriving such relationships from model simulations may be associated with greater uncertainties than previously thought.
Xuan Wang, Colette L. Heald, Jiumeng Liu, Rodney J. Weber, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Joshua P. Schwarz, and Anne E. Perring
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 635–653,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) contributes significantly to uncertainty in estimating the global direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols. We develop a global model simulation of BrC and test it against BrC absorption measurements from two aircraft campaigns in the continental United States. We suggest that BrC DRE has been overestimated previously due to the lack of observational constraints from direct measurements and omission of the effects of photochemical whitening.
David H. Hagan, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Jonathan P. Franklin, Lisa M. M. Wallace, Benjamin D. Kocar, Colette L. Heald, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 315–328,Short summary
The use of low-cost sensors for air pollution research has outpaced our understanding of their capabilities and limitations under real-world conditions. Here we describe the deployment, calibration and evaluation of electrochemical sensors on the Island of Hawai‘i. We obtain excellent performance (RMSE < 7 ppb, r2 = 0.997) across a wide dynamic range (1 ppb–2 ppm). We introduce a hybrid regression algorithm which works across a large dynamic range and shows little decay in sensitivity over time.
Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, Sunil Baidar, Barbara Dix, Siyuan Wang, Daniel C. Anderson, Ross J. Salawitch, Pamela A. Wales, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Mathew J. Evans, Tomás Sherwen, Daniel J. Jacob, Johan Schmidt, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-François Lamarque, Eric C. Apel, James C. Bresch, Teresa Campos, Frank M. Flocke, Samuel R. Hall, Shawn B. Honomichl, Rebecca Hornbrook, Jørgen B. Jensen, Richard Lueb, Denise D. Montzka, Laura L. Pan, J. Michael Reeves, Sue M. Schauffler, Kirk Ullmann, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Elliot L. Atlas, Valeria Donets, Maria A. Navarro, Daniel Riemer, Nicola J. Blake, Dexian Chen, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Thomas F. Hanisco, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15245–15270,Short summary
Tropospheric inorganic bromine (BrO and Bry) shows a C-shaped profile over the tropical western Pacific Ocean, and supports previous speculation that marine convection is a source for inorganic bromine from sea salt to the upper troposphere. The Bry profile in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is complex, suggesting that the total Bry budget in the TTL is not closed without considering aerosol bromide. The implications for atmospheric composition and bromine sources are discussed.
Maria Sand, Bjørn H. Samset, Yves Balkanski, Susanne Bauer, Nicolas Bellouin, Terje K. Berntsen, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Thomas Diehl, Richard Easter, Steven J. Ghan, Trond Iversen, Alf Kirkevåg, Jean-François Lamarque, Guangxing Lin, Xiaohong Liu, Gan Luo, Gunnar Myhre, Twan van Noije, Joyce E. Penner, Michael Schulz, Øyvind Seland, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Philip Stier, Toshihiko Takemura, Kostas Tsigaridis, Fangqun Yu, Kai Zhang, and Hua Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12197–12218,Short summary
The role of aerosols in the changing polar climate is not well understood and the aerosols are poorly constrained in the models. In this study we have compared output from 16 different aerosol models with available observations at both poles. We show that the model median is representative of the observations, but the model spread is large. The Arctic direct aerosol radiative effect over the industrial area is positive during spring due to black carbon and negative during summer due to sulfate.
Lili Xia, Peer J. Nowack, Simone Tilmes, and Alan Robock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11913–11928,Short summary
Ozone is a key air pollutant. We model two geoengineering schemes, stratospheric sulfur injection and solar irradiance reduction, to compare their impacts on atmospheric ozone concentrations. With the nearly identical global mean surface temperature reduction, solar dimming increases global average surface ozone concentration, while sulfate injection decreases it. This difference is due to different stratosphere–troposphere exchange of ozone and tropospheric ozone chemistry in the two scenarios.
Daniele Visioni, Giovanni Pitari, Valentina Aquila, Simone Tilmes, Irene Cionni, Glauco Di Genova, and Eva Mancini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11209–11226,Short summary
Sulfate geoengineering (SG), the sustained injection of SO2 in the lower stratosphere, is being discussed as a way to counterbalance surface warming, mimicking volcanic eruptions. In this paper, we analyse results from two models part of the GeoMIP project in order to understand the effect SG might have on the concentration and lifetime of methane, which acts in the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas. Understanding possible side effects of SG is a crucial step if its viability is to be assessed.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Ray Weiss, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11135–11161,Short summary
Following the Global Methane Budget 2000–2012 published in Saunois et al. (2016), we use the same dataset of bottom-up and top-down approaches to discuss the variations in methane emissions over the period 2000–2012. The changes in emissions are discussed both in terms of trends and quasi-decadal changes. The ensemble gathered here allows us to synthesise the robust changes in terms of regional and sectorial contributions to the increasing methane emissions.
Benjamin M. Sanderson, Yangyang Xu, Claudia Tebaldi, Michael Wehner, Brian O'Neill, Alexandra Jahn, Angeline G. Pendergrass, Flavio Lehner, Warren G. Strand, Lei Lin, Reto Knutti, and Jean Francois Lamarque
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 827–847,Short summary
We present the results of a set of climate simulations designed to simulate futures in which the Earth's temperature is stabilized at the levels referred to in the 2015 Paris Agreement. We consider the necessary future emissions reductions and the aspects of extreme weather which differ significantly between the 2 and 1.5 °C climate in the simulations.
Maria A. Navarro, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Elliot Atlas, Xavier Rodriguez-Lloveras, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, Troy Thornberry, Andrew Rollins, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, and Fred L. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9917–9930,Short summary
Inorganic bromine (Bry) plays an important role in ozone layer depletion. Based on aircraft observations of organic bromine species and chemistry simulations, we model the Bry abundances over the Pacific tropical tropopause. Our results show BrO and Br as the dominant species during daytime hours, and BrCl and BrONO2 as the nighttime dominant species over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The difference in the partitioning is due to changes in the abundance of O3, NO2, and Cly.
Wolfgang Knorr, Frank Dentener, Jean-François Lamarque, Leiwen Jiang, and Almut Arneth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9223–9236,Short summary
Wildfires cause considerable air pollution, and climate change is usually expected to increase both wildfire activity and air pollution from those fires. This study takes a closer look at the problem by examining the role of demographic changes in addition to climate change. It finds that demographics will be the main driver of changes in wildfire activity in many parts of the developing world. Air pollution from wildfires will remain significant, with major implications for air quality policy.
Michael J. Prather, Xin Zhu, Clare M. Flynn, Sarah A. Strode, Jose M. Rodriguez, Stephen D. Steenrod, Junhua Liu, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Arlene M. Fiore, Larry W. Horowitz, Jingqiu Mao, Lee T. Murray, Drew T. Shindell, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9081–9102,Short summary
We present a new approach for comparing atmospheric chemistry models with measurements based on what these models are used to do, i.e., calculate changes in ozone and methane, prime greenhouse gases. This method anticipates a new type of measurements from the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission. In comparing the mixture of species within air parcels, we focus on those responsible for key chemical changes and weight these parcels by their chemical reactivity.
Alex R. Baker, Maria Kanakidou, Katye E. Altieri, Nikos Daskalakis, Gregory S. Okin, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Frank Dentener, Mitsuo Uematsu, Manmohan M. Sarin, Robert A. Duce, James N. Galloway, William C. Keene, Arvind Singh, Lauren Zamora, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Shital S. Rohekar, and Joseph M. Prospero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8189–8210,Short summary
Man's activities have greatly increased the amount of nitrogen emitted into the atmosphere. Some of this nitrogen is transported to the world's oceans, where it may affect microscopic marine plants and cause ecological problems. The huge size of the oceans makes direct monitoring of nitrogen inputs impossible, so computer models must be used to assess this issue. We find that current models reproduce observed nitrogen deposition to the oceans reasonably well and recommend future improvements.
Molly B. Smith, Natalie M. Mahowald, Samuel Albani, Aaron Perry, Remi Losno, Zihan Qu, Beatrice Marticorena, David A. Ridley, and Colette L. Heald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3253–3278,Short summary
Using different meteorology reanalyses to drive dust in climate modeling can produce dissimilar global dust distributions, especially in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). It may therefore not be advisable for SH dust studies to base results on simulations driven by one reanalysis. Northern Hemisphere dust varies mostly on seasonal timescales, while SH dust varies on interannual timescales. Dust is an important part of climate modeling, and we hope this contributes to understanding these simulations.
Nathan F. Taylor, Don R. Collins, Douglas H. Lowenthal, Ian B. McCubbin, A. Gannet Hallar, Vera Samburova, Barbara Zielinska, Naresh Kumar, and Lynn R. Mazzoleni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2555–2571,Short summary
The impacts of aerosols on health, visibility, and climate are very sensitive to their ability to take up water under subsaturated conditions and to serve as cloud condensation nuclei. These hydration properties are tightly linked to aerosol composition. This report finds that water soluble organic compounds contribute significantly to atmospheric aerosol hydration both as an independent fraction of aerosol mass and through complementary interactions with common inorganic aerosol constituents.
Olaf Morgenstern, Michaela I. Hegglin, Eugene Rozanov, Fiona M. O'Connor, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rolando R. Garcia, Steven C. Hardiman, Larry W. Horowitz, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Michael E. Manyin, Marion Marchand, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, David Saint-Martin, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Simone Tilmes, Yousuke Yamashita, Kohei Yoshida, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 639–671,Short summary
We present a review of the make-up of 20 models participating in the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). In comparison to earlier such activities, most of these models comprise a whole-atmosphere chemistry, and several of them include an interactive ocean module. This makes them suitable for studying the interactions of tropospheric air quality, stratospheric ozone, and climate. The paper lays the foundation for other studies using the CCMI simulations for scientific analysis.
William J. Collins, Jean-François Lamarque, Michael Schulz, Olivier Boucher, Veronika Eyring, Michaela I. Hegglin, Amanda Maycock, Gunnar Myhre, Michael Prather, Drew Shindell, and Steven J. Smith
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 585–607,Short summary
We have designed a set of climate model experiments called the Aerosol Chemistry Model Intercomparison Project (AerChemMIP). These are designed to quantify the climate and air quality impacts of aerosols and chemically reactive gases in the climate models that are used to simulate past and future climate. We hope that many climate modelling centres will choose to run these experiments to help understand the contribution of aerosols and chemistry to climate change.
Rafael P. Fernandez, Douglas E. Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1673–1688,Short summary
The inclusion of biogenic very-short lived bromine (VSLBr) in a chemistry-climate model produces an expansion of the ozone hole area of ~ 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the reduction of anthropogenic CFCs and halons. The maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, but does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels.
Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, John M. C. Plane, Carlos A. Cuevas, Anoop S. Mahajan, Jean-François Lamarque, and Douglas E. Kinnison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15593–15604,Short summary
Electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reconcile measurements and models. The reactions NO3 + HOI and I2 + NO3 are included in two models to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism, leading to a reduction of nighttime HOI and I2. This chemistry can have a large impact on NO3 levels in the MBL, and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
David A. Ridley, Colette L. Heald, Jasper F. Kok, and Chun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15097–15117,Short summary
Mineral dust aerosol affects climate through interaction with radiation and clouds, human health through contribution to particulate matter, and ecosystem health through nutrient transport and deposition. In this study, we use satellite and in situ retrievals to derive an observational estimate of the global dust AOD with which evaluate modeled dust AOD. Differences in the seasonality and regional distribution of dust AOD between observations and models are highlighted.
Colette L. Heald and Jeffrey A. Geddes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14997–15010,Short summary
Humans have altered the surface of the Earth since preindustrial times. These changes (largely expansion of croplands and pasturelands) have modified biosphere–atmosphere fluxes. In this study we use a global model to assess the impact of these changes on the formation of secondary particulate matter and troposphere ozone. We find that there are significant air quality and climate impacts associated with these changes.
Camilla Weum Stjern, Bjørn Hallvard Samset, Gunnar Myhre, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Yanko Davila, Frank Dentener, Louisa Emmons, Johannes Flemming, Amund Søvde Haslerud, Daven Henze, Jan Eiof Jonson, Tom Kucsera, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Michael Schulz, Kengo Sudo, Toshihiko Takemura, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13579–13599,Short summary
Air pollution can reach distant regions through intercontinental transport. Here we first present results from the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 exercise, where many models performed the same set of coordinated emission-reduction experiments. We find that mitigations have considerable extra-regional effects, and show that this is particularly true for black carbon emissions, as long-range transport elevates aerosols to higher levels where their radiative influence is stronger.
Xuan Wang, Colette L. Heald, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Thomas B. Watson, Allison C. Aiken, Stephen R. Springston, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12733–12752,Short summary
We describe a new approach to estimate the absorption of brown carbon (BrC) from multiple-wavelength absorption measurements. By applying this method to column and surface observations globally, we find that BrC contributes up to 40 % of the absorption measured at 440 nm. The analysis of two surface sites also suggests that BrC absorptivity decreases with photochemical aging in biomass burning plumes, but not in typical urban conditions.
Luke D. Schiferl, Colette L. Heald, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Cathy Clerbaux, Pierre-François Coheur, John B. Nowak, J. Andrew Neuman, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, and Scott J. Eilerman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12305–12328,Short summary
This study combines new observations and a simulation to assess the interannual variability of atmospheric ammonia concentrations over the United States. The model generally underrepresents the observed variability. Nearly two-thirds of the simulated variability is caused by meteorology, twice that caused by regulations on fossil fuel combustion emissions. Adding ammonia emissions variability does not substantially improve the simulation and has little impact on summer particle concentrations.
Brian C. O'Neill, Claudia Tebaldi, Detlef P. van Vuuren, Veronika Eyring, Pierre Friedlingstein, George Hurtt, Reto Knutti, Elmar Kriegler, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Jason Lowe, Gerald A. Meehl, Richard Moss, Keywan Riahi, and Benjamin M. Sanderson
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3461–3482,Short summary
The Scenario Model Intercomparison Project (ScenarioMIP) will provide multi-model climate projections based on alternative scenarios of future emissions and land use changes produced with integrated assessment models. The design consists of eight alternative 21st century scenarios plus one large initial condition ensemble and a set of long-term extensions. Climate model projections will facilitate integrated studies of climate change as well as address targeted scientific questions.
Sam J. Silva, Colette L. Heald, Jeffrey A. Geddes, Kemen G. Austin, Prasad S. Kasibhatla, and Miriam E. Marlier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10621–10635,Short summary
We investigate the impacts of current (2010) and future (2020) oil palm plantations across Southeast Asia on surface–atmosphere exchange and air quality using satellite data, land maps, and a chemical transport model. These changes lead to increases in surface ozone and particulate matter. Oil palm plantations are likely to continue to degrade regional air quality in the coming decade and hinder efforts to achieve air quality regulations in major urban areas such as Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.
Nicholas A. Davis, Dian J. Seidel, Thomas Birner, Sean M. Davis, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10083–10095,Short summary
In the Hadley cells, air rises at the Equator and sinks over the subtropics, drying the air and creating deserts on land. We investigated simple climate model experiments and found that the Hadley cells expand in response to increasing carbon dioxide. The climate of some models warms more than others, and these models also have greater Hadley cell expansion. This expansion could shift deserts toward more populated areas, with potentially major impacts on water resources and surface climate.
Raquel A. Silva, J. Jason West, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew T. Shindell, William J. Collins, Stig Dalsoren, Greg Faluvegi, Gerd Folberth, Larry W. Horowitz, Tatsuya Nagashima, Vaishali Naik, Steven T. Rumbold, Kengo Sudo, Toshihiko Takemura, Daniel Bergmann, Philip Cameron-Smith, Irene Cionni, Ruth M. Doherty, Veronika Eyring, Beatrice Josse, Ian A. MacKenzie, David Plummer, Mattia Righi, David S. Stevenson, Sarah Strode, Sophie Szopa, and Guang Zengast
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9847–9862,Short summary
Using ozone and PM2.5 concentrations from the ACCMIP ensemble of chemistry-climate models for the four Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCPs), together with projections of future population and baseline mortality rates, we quantify the human premature mortality impacts of future ambient air pollution in 2030, 2050 and 2100, relative to 2000 concentrations. We also estimate the global mortality burden of ozone and PM2.5 in 2000 and each future period.
Matthew Kasoar, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew T. Shindell, Nicolas Bellouin, William J. Collins, Greg Faluvegi, and Kostas Tsigaridis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9785–9804,Short summary
Computer models are our primary tool to investigate how fossil-fuel emissions are affecting the climate. Here, we used three different climate models to see how they simulate the response to removing sulfur dioxide emissions from China. We found that the models disagreed substantially on how large the climate effect is from the emissions in this region. This range of outcomes is concerning if scientists or policy makers have to rely on any one model when performing their own studies.
Matthew J. Alvarado, Chantelle R. Lonsdale, Helen L. Macintyre, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, David A. Ridley, Colette L. Heald, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Bruce E. Anderson, Michael J. Cubison, Jose L. Jimenez, Yutaka Kondo, Lokesh K. Sahu, Jack E. Dibb, and Chien Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9435–9455,Short summary
Understanding the scattering and absorption of light by aerosols is necessary for understanding air quality and climate change. We used data from the 2008 ARCTAS campaign to evaluate aerosol optical property models using a closure methodology that separates errors in these models from other errors in aerosol emissions, chemistry, or transport. We find that the models on average perform reasonably well, and make suggestions for how remaining biases could be reduced.
Ryan Reynolds Neely III, Andrew J. Conley, Francis Vitt, and Jean-François Lamarque
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2459–2470,Short summary
We describe an updated scheme for prescribing stratospheric aerosol in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). The inadequate response of the CESM1 to large volcanic disturbances to the stratospheric aerosol layer (such as the 1991 Pinatubo eruption) in comparison to observations motivates the need for a new parameterization. Simulations utilizing the new scheme successfully reproduce the observed global mean and local stratospheric temperature response to the Pinatubo eruption.
Sarah A. Strode, Helen M. Worden, Megan Damon, Anne R. Douglass, Bryan N. Duncan, Louisa K. Emmons, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Michael Manyin, Luke D. Oman, Jose M. Rodriguez, Susan E. Strahan, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7285–7294,Short summary
We use global models to interpret trends in MOPITT observations of CO. Simulations with time-dependent emissions reproduce the observed trends over the eastern USA and Europe, suggesting that the emissions are reasonable for these regions. The simulations produce a positive trend over eastern China, contrary to the observed negative trend. This may indicate that the assumed emission trend over China is too positive. However, large variability in the overhead ozone column also contributes.
Simone Tilmes, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Louisa K. Emmons, Doug E. Kinnison, Dan Marsh, Rolando R. Garcia, Anne K. Smith, Ryan R. Neely, Andrew Conley, Francis Vitt, Maria Val Martin, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Isobel Simpson, Don R. Blake, and Nicola Blake
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1853–1890,Short summary
The state of the art Community Earth System Model, CESM1 CAM4-chem has been used to perform reference and sensitivity simulations as part of the Chemistry Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). Specifics of the model and details regarding the setup of the simulations are described. In additions, the main behavior of the model, including selected chemical species have been evaluated with climatological datasets. This paper is therefore a references for studies that use the provided model results.
Bonne Ford and Colette L. Heald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3499–3523,Short summary
As motivation for air quality research, many studies cite the fact that exposure to particulate matter is associated with premature mortality. Recently, more studies have also tried to quantify this burden; however, there are many data sets that can be used and many different methodological choices to be made. In this paper, we seek to explain the different sources of uncertainty in health impact assessments through the example of using model and satellite-based PM2.5 concentrations.
Jeffrey A. Geddes, Colette L. Heald, Sam J. Silva, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2323–2340,Short summary
Land use and land cover changes driven by anthropogenic activities or natural causes (e.g., forestry management, agriculture, wildfires) can impact climate and air quality in many complex ways. Using a state-of-the-art chemistry model, we investigate how tree mortality in the US due to insect infestation and disease outbreak may impact atmospheric composition. We find that the surface concentrations of ozone and aerosol can be altered due to changing background emissions and loss processes.
L. Xia, A. Robock, S. Tilmes, and R. R. Neely III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1479–1489,Short summary
Climate model simulations show that stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. Enhanced downward diffuse radiation, combined with cooling, could stimulate plants to grow more and absorb more carbon dioxide. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.
X. Liu, P.-L. Ma, H. Wang, S. Tilmes, B. Singh, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, and P. J. Rasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 505–522,Short summary
In this study, we describe and evaluate a new four-mode version of the Modal Aerosol Module (MAM4) in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Compared to the current three-mode version of MAM in CAM5, MAM4 significantly improves the simulation of seasonal variation of BC concentrations in the polar regions, by increasing the BC concentrations in all seasons and particularly in cold seasons.
F. Yu, G. Luo, S. C. Pryor, P. R. Pillai, S. H. Lee, J. Ortega, J. J. Schwab, A. G. Hallar, W. R. Leaitch, V. P. Aneja, J. N. Smith, J. T. Walker, O. Hogrefe, and K. L. Demerjian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13993–14003,Short summary
The role of low-volatility organics in new particle formation (NPF) in the atmosphere is assessed. An empirical formulation in which formation rate is a function of the concentrations of sulfuric acid and low-volatility organics significantly overpredicts NPF in the summer. Two different schemes predict quite different nucleation rates (including their spatial patterns), concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol first indirect radiative forcing in North America.
J. He, Y. Zhang, S. Tilmes, L. Emmons, J.-F. Lamarque, T. Glotfelty, A. Hodzic, and F. Vitt
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3999–4025,Short summary
The global simulations with CB05_GE and MOZART-4x predict similar chemical profiles for major gases compared to aircraft measurements, with better agreement for the NOy profile by CB05_GE. The SOA concentrations of SOA at four sites in CONUS and organic carbon over the IMPROVE sites are better predicted by MOZART-4x. The two simulations result in a global average difference of 0.5W m-2 in simulated shortwave cloud radiative forcing, with up to 13.6W m-2 over subtropical regions.
A. G. Hallar, R. Petersen, E. Andrews, J. Michalsky, I. B. McCubbin, and J. A. Ogren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13665–13679,Short summary
The atmospheric seasonal impact of dust and biomass burning is considered for the western United States from 1999 to 2014. Median contributions to spring and summer aerosol optical depth (AOD) from dust and biomass-burning aerosols are comparable, with more frequent and short duration high AOD measurements due to biomass-burning episodes in summer than in spring. This data set highlights the wide scale implications of a warmer, drier climate on visibility in the western US.
Y. Zheng, N. Unger, A. Hodzic, L. Emmons, C. Knote, S. Tilmes, J.-F. Lamarque, and P. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13487–13506,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) play an important but complex role in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In this study we update the SOA scheme in a global 3-D chemistry-climate model by implementing a 4-product volatility basis set (VBS) framework with NOx-dependent yields and simplified aging parameterizations. We find that the SOA decrease in response to a 50% reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions is limited due to the buffering in different chemical pathways.
B. Kravitz, A. Robock, S. Tilmes, O. Boucher, J. M. English, P. J. Irvine, A. Jones, M. G. Lawrence, M. MacCracken, H. Muri, J. C. Moore, U. Niemeier, S. J. Phipps, J. Sillmann, T. Storelvmo, H. Wang, and S. Watanabe
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3379–3392,
M. Gil-Ojeda, M. Navarro-Comas, L. Gómez-Martín, J. A. Adame, A. Saiz-Lopez, C. A. Cuevas, Y. González, O. Puentedura, E. Cuevas, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Kinninson, and S. Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10567–10579,Short summary
The NO2 seasonal evolution in the free troposphere (FT) has been established for the first time, based on a remote sensing technique (MAXDOAS) and thus avoiding the problems of the local pollution of in situ instruments. A clear seasonality has been found, with background levels of 20-40pptv. Evidence has been found on fast, direct injection of surface air into the free troposphere. This result might have implications on the FT distribution of halogens and other species with marine sources.
W. C. Porter, C. L. Heald, D. Cooley, and B. Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10349–10366,
L. K. Emmons, S. R. Arnold, S. A. Monks, V. Huijnen, S. Tilmes, K. S. Law, J. L. Thomas, J.-C. Raut, I. Bouarar, S. Turquety, Y. Long, B. Duncan, S. Steenrod, S. Strode, J. Flemming, J. Mao, J. Langner, A. M. Thompson, D. Tarasick, E. C. Apel, D. R. Blake, R. C. Cohen, J. Dibb, G. S. Diskin, A. Fried, S. R. Hall, L. G. Huey, A. J. Weinheimer, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, J. Nowak, J. Peischl, J. M. Roberts, T. Ryerson, C. Warneke, and D. Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6721–6744,Short summary
Eleven 3-D tropospheric chemistry models have been compared and evaluated with observations in the Arctic during the International Polar Year (IPY 2008). Large differences are seen among the models, particularly related to the model chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and reactive nitrogen (NOx, PAN, HNO3) partitioning. Consistency among the models in the underestimation of CO, ethane and propane indicates the emission inventory is too low for these compounds.
S. R. Arnold, L. K. Emmons, S. A. Monks, K. S. Law, D. A. Ridley, S. Turquety, S. Tilmes, J. L. Thomas, I. Bouarar, J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, J. Mao, B. N. Duncan, S. Steenrod, Y. Yoshida, J. Langner, and Y. Long
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6047–6068,Short summary
The extent to which forest fires produce the air pollutant and greenhouse gas ozone (O3) in the atmosphere at high latitudes in not well understood. We have compared how fire emissions produce O3 and its precursors in several models of atmospheric chemistry. We find enhancements in O3 in air dominated by fires in all models, which increase on average as fire emissions age. We also find that in situ O3 production in the Arctic is sensitive to details of organic chemistry and vertical lifting.
S. Tilmes, J.-F. Lamarque, L. K. Emmons, D. E. Kinnison, P.-L. Ma, X. Liu, S. Ghan, C. Bardeen, S. Arnold, M. Deeter, F. Vitt, T. Ryerson, J. W. Elkins, F. Moore, J. R. Spackman, and M. Val Martin
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1395–1426,Short summary
The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), version 5, is now coupled to extensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, called CAM5-chem, and is available in addition to CAM4-chem in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1.2. Both configurations are well suited as tools for atmospheric chemistry modeling studies in the troposphere and lower stratosphere.
P. H. Lauritzen, A. J. Conley, J.-F. Lamarque, F. Vitt, and M. A. Taylor
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1299–1313,Short summary
This test extends the evaluation of transport schemes from prescribed advection of inert scalars to reactive species. It consists of transporting two reacting chlorine-like species in an idealized flow field. The sources/sinks are given by a simple but non-linear toy chemistry that mimics photolysis-driven processes near the solar terminator. As a result, strong gradients in the spatial distribution of the species develop near the edge of the terminator.
S. A. Monks, S. R. Arnold, L. K. Emmons, K. S. Law, S. Turquety, B. N. Duncan, J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, S. Tilmes, J. Langner, J. Mao, Y. Long, J. L. Thomas, S. D. Steenrod, J. C. Raut, C. Wilson, M. P. Chipperfield, G. S. Diskin, A. Weinheimer, H. Schlager, and G. Ancellet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3575–3603,Short summary
Multi-model simulations of Arctic CO, O3 and OH are evaluated using observations. Models show highly variable concentrations but the relative importance of emission regions and types is robust across the models, demonstrating the importance of biomass burning as a source. Idealised tracer experiments suggest that some of the model spread is due to variations in simulated transport from Europe in winter and from Asia throughout the year.
M. Val Martin, C. L. Heald, J.-F. Lamarque, S. Tilmes, L. K. Emmons, and B. A. Schichtel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2805–2823,Short summary
We present for the first time the relative effect of climate, emissions, and land use change on ozone and PM25 over the United States, focusing on the national parks. Air quality in 2050 will likely be dominated by emission patterns, but climate and land use changes alone can lead to a substantial increase in air pollution over most of the US, with important implications for O3 air quality, visibility and ecosystem health degradation in the national parks.
C. Prados-Roman, C. A. Cuevas, R. P. Fernandez, D. E. Kinnison, J-F. Lamarque, and A. Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2215–2224,
C. Prados-Roman, C. A. Cuevas, T. Hay, R. P. Fernandez, A. S. Mahajan, S.-J. Royer, M. Galí, R. Simó, J. Dachs, K. Großmann, D. E. Kinnison, J.-F. Lamarque, and A. Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 583–593,
S. Tilmes, M. J. Mills, U. Niemeier, H. Schmidt, A. Robock, B. Kravitz, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Pitari, and J. M. English
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 43–49,Short summary
A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment “G4 specified stratospheric aerosols” (G4SSA) is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmosphere, chemistry, dynamics, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the model, a prescribed aerosol forcing file is provided to the community, to be consistently applied to future model experiments.
R. P. Fernandez, R. J. Salawitch, D. E. Kinnison, J.-F. Lamarque, and A. Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13391–13410,Short summary
We propose the existence of a daytime “tropical ring of atomic bromine” surrounding the tropics at a height between 15 and 19km. Our simulations show that VSL bromocarbons produce increases of 3pptv for inorganic bromine and 2pptv for organic bromine in the tropical TTL on an annual average, resulting in a total stratospheric bromine injection of 5pptv. This result suggests that the inorganic bromine injected into the stratosphere may be larger than that from VSL bromocarbons.
A. Saiz-Lopez, R. P. Fernandez, C. Ordóñez, D. E. Kinnison, J. C. Gómez Martín, J.-F. Lamarque, and S. Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13119–13143,
B. H. Samset, G. Myhre, A. Herber, Y. Kondo, S.-M. Li, N. Moteki, M. Koike, N. Oshima, J. P. Schwarz, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, J. E. Penner, M. Schulz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, and K. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12465–12477,Short summary
Far from black carbon (BC) emission sources, present climate models are unable to reproduce flight measurements. By comparing recent models with data, we find that the atmospheric lifetime of BC may be overestimated in models. By adjusting modeled BC concentrations to measurements in remote regions - over oceans and at high altitudes - we arrive at a reduced estimate for BC radiative forcing over the industrial era.
X. Wang, C. L. Heald, D. A. Ridley, J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, A. E. Perring, H. Coe, D. Liu, and A. D. Clarke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10989–11010,
K. Tsigaridis, N. Daskalakis, M. Kanakidou, P. J. Adams, P. Artaxo, R. Bahadur, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, A. Benedetti, T. Bergman, T. K. Berntsen, J. P. Beukes, H. Bian, K. S. Carslaw, M. Chin, G. Curci, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, S. L. Gong, A. Hodzic, C. R. Hoyle, T. Iversen, S. Jathar, J. L. Jimenez, J. W. Kaiser, A. Kirkevåg, D. Koch, H. Kokkola, Y. H Lee, G. Lin, X. Liu, G. Luo, X. Ma, G. W. Mann, N. Mihalopoulos, J.-J. Morcrette, J.-F. Müller, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. L. Ng, D. O'Donnell, J. E. Penner, L. Pozzoli, K. J. Pringle, L. M. Russell, M. Schulz, J. Sciare, Ø. Seland, D. T. Shindell, S. Sillman, R. B. Skeie, D. Spracklen, T. Stavrakou, S. D. Steenrod, T. Takemura, P. Tiitta, S. Tilmes, H. Tost, T. van Noije, P. G. van Zyl, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, Z. Wang, Z. Wang, R. A. Zaveri, H. Zhang, K. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and X. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10845–10895,
A. Khodayari, S. Tilmes, S. C. Olsen, D. B. Phoenix, D. J. Wuebbles, J.-F. Lamarque, and C.-C. Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9925–9939,
K. Sindelarova, C. Granier, I. Bouarar, A. Guenther, S. Tilmes, T. Stavrakou, J.-F. Müller, U. Kuhn, P. Stefani, and W. Knorr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9317–9341,
D. V. Spracklen and C. L. Heald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9051–9059,
D. A. Ridley, C. L. Heald, and J. M. Prospero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5735–5747,
C. L. Heald, D. A. Ridley, J. H. Kroll, S. R. H. Barrett, K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. J. Alvarado, and C. D. Holmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5513–5527,
M. Van Damme, L. Clarisse, C. L. Heald, D. Hurtmans, Y. Ngadi, C. Clerbaux, A. J. Dolman, J. W. Erisman, and P. F. Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2905–2922,
P. H. Lauritzen, P. A. Ullrich, C. Jablonowski, P. A. Bosler, D. Calhoun, A. J. Conley, T. Enomoto, L. Dong, S. Dubey, O. Guba, A. B. Hansen, E. Kaas, J. Kent, J.-F. Lamarque, M. J. Prather, D. Reinert, V. V. Shashkin, W. C. Skamarock, B. Sørensen, M. A. Taylor, and M. A. Tolstykh
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 105–145,
Y. Zhao, A. G. Hallar, and L. R. Mazzoleni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12343–12362,
B. Friedman, A. Zelenyuk, J. Beranek, G. Kulkarni, M. Pekour, A. Gannet Hallar, I. B. McCubbin, J. A. Thornton, and D. J Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11839–11851,
Y. Gao, J. S. Fu, J. B. Drake, J.-F. Lamarque, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9607–9621,
B. Ford and C. L. Heald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9269–9283,
J.-F. Lamarque, F. Dentener, J. McConnell, C.-U. Ro, M. Shaw, R. Vet, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Dalsoren, R. Doherty, G. Faluvegi, S. J. Ghan, B. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, D. Plummer, D. T. Shindell, R. B. Skeie, D. S. Stevenson, S. Strode, G. Zeng, M. Curran, D. Dahl-Jensen, S. Das, D. Fritzsche, and M. Nolan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7997–8018,
V. V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, P. Novelli, D. M. Etheridge, I. Levin, Z. Wang, T. Blunier, J. Chappellaz, J. Kaiser, P. Lang, L. P. Steele, S. Hammer, J. Mak, R. L. Langenfelds, J. Schwander, J. P. Severinghaus, E. Witrant, G. Petron, M. O. Battle, G. Forster, W. T. Sturges, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Steffen, and J. W. C. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7567–7585,
M. Val Martin, C. L. Heald, B. Ford, A. J. Prenni, and C. Wiedinmyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7429–7439,
V. Naik, A. Voulgarakis, A. M. Fiore, L. W. Horowitz, J.-F. Lamarque, M. Lin, M. J. Prather, P. J. Young, D. Bergmann, P. J. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W. J. Collins, S. B. Dalsøren, R. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, G. A. Folberth, B. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, T. P. C. van Noije, D. A. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, R. Skeie, D. T. Shindell, D. S. Stevenson, S. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5277–5298,
K. W. Bowman, D. T. Shindell, H. M. Worden, J.F. Lamarque, P. J. Young, D. S. Stevenson, Z. Qu, M. de la Torre, D. Bergmann, P. J. Cameron-Smith, W. J. Collins, R. Doherty, S. B. Dalsøren, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, L. W. Horowitz, B. M. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, G. Myhre, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, D. A. Plummer, S. T. Rumbold, R. B. Skeie, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, A. Voulgarakis, G. Zeng, S. S. Kulawik, A. M. Aghedo, and J. R. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4057–4072,
A. J. Conley, J.-F. Lamarque, F. Vitt, W. D. Collins, and J. Kiehl
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 469–476,
D. T. Shindell, J.-F. Lamarque, M. Schulz, M. Flanner, C. Jiao, M. Chin, P. J. Young, Y. H. Lee, L. Rotstayn, N. Mahowald, G. Milly, G. Faluvegi, Y. Balkanski, W. J. Collins, A. J. Conley, S. Dalsoren, R. Easter, S. Ghan, L. Horowitz, X. Liu, G. Myhre, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, S. T. Rumbold, R. Skeie, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, T. Takemura, A. Voulgarakis, J.-H. Yoon, and F. Lo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2939–2974,
D. S. Stevenson, P. J. Young, V. Naik, J.-F. Lamarque, D. T. Shindell, A. Voulgarakis, R. B. Skeie, S. B. Dalsoren, G. Myhre, T. K. Berntsen, G. A. Folberth, S. T. Rumbold, W. J. Collins, I. A. MacKenzie, R. M. Doherty, G. Zeng, T. P. C. van Noije, A. Strunk, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, D. A. Plummer, S. A. Strode, L. Horowitz, Y. H. Lee, S. Szopa, K. Sudo, T. Nagashima, B. Josse, I. Cionni, M. Righi, V. Eyring, A. Conley, K. W. Bowman, O. Wild, and A. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3063–3085,
Y. H. Lee, J.-F. Lamarque, M. G. Flanner, C. Jiao, D. T. Shindell, T. Berntsen, M. M. Bisiaux, J. Cao, W. J. Collins, M. Curran, R. Edwards, G. Faluvegi, S. Ghan, L. W. Horowitz, J. R. McConnell, J. Ming, G. Myhre, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, S. T. Rumbold, R. B. Skeie, K. Sudo, T. Takemura, F. Thevenon, B. Xu, and J.-H. Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2607–2634,
D. T. Shindell, O. Pechony, A. Voulgarakis, G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Bowman, G. Milly, B. Kovari, R. Ruedy, and G. A. Schmidt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2653–2689,
A. Voulgarakis, V. Naik, J.-F. Lamarque, D. T. Shindell, P. J. Young, M. J. Prather, O. Wild, R. D. Field, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W. J. Collins, S. B. Dalsøren, R. M. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, G. A. Folberth, L. W. Horowitz, B. Josse, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, D. A. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, D. S. Stevenson, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2563–2587,
B. H. Samset, G. Myhre, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, N. Bellouin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, T. Iversen, S. Kinne, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, J. E. Penner, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, and K. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2423–2434,
P. J. Young, A. T. Archibald, K. W. Bowman, J.-F. Lamarque, V. Naik, D. S. Stevenson, S. Tilmes, A. Voulgarakis, O. Wild, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W. J. Collins, S. B. Dalsøren, R. M. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, L. W. Horowitz, B. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, D. A. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, R. B. Skeie, D. T. Shindell, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2063–2090,
J.-F. Lamarque, D. T. Shindell, B. Josse, P. J. Young, I. Cionni, V. Eyring, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, W. J. Collins, R. Doherty, S. Dalsoren, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, S. J. Ghan, L. W. Horowitz, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, D. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, M. Schulz, R. B. Skeie, D. S. Stevenson, S. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, A. Voulgarakis, and G. Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 179–206,
A. Asmi, M. Collaud Coen, J. A. Ogren, E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, A. Jefferson, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, N. Bukowiecki, H. Lihavainen, N. Kivekäs, E. Asmi, P. P. Aalto, M. Kulmala, A. Wiedensohler, W. Birmili, A. Hamed, C. O'Dowd, S. G Jennings, R. Weller, H. Flentje, A. M. Fjaeraa, M. Fiebig, C. L. Myhre, A. G. Hallar, E. Swietlicki, A. Kristensson, and P. Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 895–916,
M. Sand, T. K. Berntsen, J. E. Kay, J. F. Lamarque, Ø. Seland, and A. Kirkevåg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 211–224,
L. K. Emmons, P. G. Hess, J.-F. Lamarque, and G. G. Pfister
Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 1531–1542,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling and Data Analysis | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Evolution of atmospheric age of particles and its implications for the formation of a severe haze event in eastern ChinaA multimodel evaluation of the potential impact of shipping on particle species in the Mediterranean SeaHow does tropospheric VOC chemistry affect climate? An investigation of preindustrial control simulations using the Community Earth System Model version 2Anthropogenic amplification of biogenic secondary organic aerosol productionA dynamic parameterization of sulfuric acid–dimethylamine nucleation and its application in three-dimensional modelingModeling dust mineralogical composition: sensitivity to soil mineralogy atlases and their expected climate impactsAssessment of the impacts of cloud chemistry on surface SO2 and sulfate levels in typical regions of ChinaImpact of Landes forest fires on air quality in France during the 2022 summerGlobal nitrogen and sulfur deposition mapping using a measurement–model fusion approachComprehensive simulations of new particle formation events in Beijing with a cluster dynamics–multicomponent sectional modelImplications of differences between recent anthropogenic aerosol emission inventories for diagnosed AOD and radiative forcing from 1990 to 2019Unbalanced emission reductions of different species and sectors in China during COVID-19 lockdown derived by multi-species surface observation assimilationSimulating organic aerosol in Delhi with WRF-Chem using the volatility-basis-set approach: exploring model uncertainty with a Gaussian process emulatorModelling wintertime sea-spray aerosols under Arctic haze conditionsImpact of solar geoengineering on wildfires in the 21st century in CESM2/WACCM6Reactive Organic Carbon Air Emissions from Mobile Sources in the United StatesLinking gas, particulate, and toxic endpoints to air emissions in the Community Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Multiphase Mechanism (CRACMM)Development and evaluation of processes affecting simulation of diel fine particulate matter variation in the GEOS-Chem modelDynamics-based estimates of decline trend with fine temporal variations in China's PM2.5 emissionsContribution of regional aerosol nucleation to low-level CCN in an Amazonian deep convective environment: results from a regionally nested global modelDevelopment of an integrated model framework for multi-air-pollutant exposure assessments in high-density cities and the implications for epidemiological researchCoarse particulate matter air quality in East Asia: implications for fine particulate nitrateForeign emissions exacerbate PM2.5 pollution in China through nitrate chemistryAnalysis of new particle formation events and comparisons to simulations of particle number concentrations based on GEOS-Chem–advanced particle microphysics in Beijing, ChinaSimulation of organic aerosol, its precursors, and related oxidants in the Landes pine forest in southwestern France: accounting for domain-specific land use and physical conditionsSubstantially positive contributions of new particle formation to Cloud Condensation Nuclei under low supersaturation in China based on numerical model improvementsModelling the European wind-blown dust emissions and their impact on particulate matter (PM) concentrationsImpacts of estimated plume rise on PM2.5 exceedance prediction during extreme wildfire events: a comparison of three schemes (Briggs, Freitas, and Sofiev)Effects of Secondary Organic Aerosol Water on fine PM levels and composition over USStrong particle production and condensational growth in the upper troposphere sustained by biogenic VOCs from the canopy of the Amazon BasinSources of organic aerosols in eastern China: a modeling study with high-resolution intermediate-volatility and semivolatile organic compound emissionsComposited analyses of the chemical and physical characteristics of co-polluted days by ozone and PM2.5 over 2013–2020 in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regionObservation-based constraints on modeled aerosol surface area: implications for heterogeneous chemistryOligomer formation from the gas-phase reactions of Criegee intermediates with hydroperoxide esters: mechanism and kineticsModelling SO2 conversion into sulfates in the mid-troposphere with a 3D chemistry transport model: the case of Mount Etna's eruption on 12 April 2012Global distribution of Asian, Middle Eastern, and North African dust simulated by CESM1/CARMAOpinion: Coordinated development of emission inventories for climate forcers and air pollutantsSeasonal modeling analysis of nitrate formation pathways in Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaModeling radiative and climatic effects of brown carbon aerosols with the ARPEGE-Climat global climate modelNumerical simulation of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on tropospheric composition and aerosol radiative forcing in EuropeEvaluation of the WRF and CHIMERE models for the simulation of PM2.5 in large East African urban conurbationsImpact of urban heat island on inorganic aerosol in the lower free troposphere: a case study in Hangzhou, ChinaStatistical and machine learning methods for evaluating trends in air quality under changing meteorological conditionsSimulating the radiative forcing of oceanic dimethylsulfide (DMS) in Asia based on machine learning estimatesQuantifying the effects of mixing state on aerosol optical propertiesSecondary organic aerosol formation via multiphase reaction of hydrocarbons in urban atmospheres using CAMx integrated with the UNIPAR modelContrasting source contributions of Arctic black carbon to atmospheric concentrations, deposition flux, and atmospheric and snow radiative effectsEffect of dust on rainfall over the Red Sea coast based on WRF-Chem model simulationsA new assessment of global and regional budgets, fluxes, and lifetimes of atmospheric reactive N and S gases and aerosolsLimitations in representation of physical processes prevent successful simulation of PM2.5 during KORUS-AQ
Xiaodong Xie, Jianlin Hu, Momei Qin, Song Guo, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Hongli Wang, Shengrong Lou, Cheng Huang, Chong Liu, Hongliang Zhang, Qi Ying, Hong Liao, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10563–10578,Short summary
The atmospheric age of particles reflects how long particles have been formed and suspended in the atmosphere, which is closely associated with the evolution processes of particles. An analysis of the atmospheric age of PM2.5 provides a unique perspective on the evolution processes of different PM2.5 components. The results also shed lights on how to design effective emission control actions under unfavorable meteorological conditions.
Lea Fink, Matthias Karl, Volker Matthias, Sonia Oppo, Richard Kranenburg, Jeroen Kuenen, Sara Jutterström, Jana Moldanova, Elisa Majamäki, and Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10163–10189,Short summary
The Mediterranean Sea is a heavily trafficked shipping area, and air quality monitoring stations in numerous cities along the Mediterranean coast have detected high levels of air pollutants originating from shipping emissions. The current study investigates how existing restrictions on shipping-related emissions to the atmosphere ensure compliance with legislation. Focus was laid on fine particles and particle species, which were simulated with five different chemical transport models.
Noah A. Stanton and Neil F. Tandon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9191–9216,Short summary
Chemistry in Earth’s atmosphere has a potentially strong but very uncertain impact on climate. Past attempts to fully model chemistry in Earth’s troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere) typically simplified the representation of Earth’s surface, which in turn limited the ability to simulate changes in climate. The cutting-edge model that we use in this study does not require such simplification, and we use it to examine the climate effects of chemical interactions in the troposphere.
Yiqi Zheng, Larry W. Horowitz, Raymond Menzel, David J. Paynter, Vaishali Naik, Jingyi Li, and Jingqiu Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8993–9007,Short summary
Biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) account for a large fraction of fine aerosol at the global scale. Using long-term measurements and a climate model, we investigate anthropogenic impacts on biogenic SOA at both decadal and centennial timescales. Results show that despite reductions in biogenic precursor emissions, SOA has been strongly amplified by anthropogenic emissions since the preindustrial era and exerts a cooling radiative forcing.
Yuyang Li, Jiewen Shen, Bin Zhao, Runlong Cai, Shuxiao Wang, Yang Gao, Manish Shrivastava, Da Gao, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8789–8804,Short summary
We set up a new parameterization for 1.4 nm particle formation rates from sulfuric acid–dimethylamine (SA–DMA) nucleation, fully including the effects of coagulation scavenging and cluster stability. Incorporating the new parameterization into 3-D chemical transport models, we achieved better consistencies between simulation results and observation data. This new parameterization provides new insights into atmospheric nucleation simulations and its effects on atmospheric pollution or health.
María Gonçalves Ageitos, Vincenzo Obiso, Ron L. Miller, Oriol Jorba, Martina Klose, Matt Dawson, Yves Balkanski, Jan Perlwitz, Sara Basart, Enza Di Tomaso, Jerónimo Escribano, Francesca Macchia, Gilbert Montané, Natalie M. Mahowald, Robert O. Green, David R. Thompson, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8623–8657,Short summary
Dust aerosols affect our climate differently depending on their mineral composition. We include dust mineralogy in an atmospheric model considering two existing soil maps, which still have large associated uncertainties. The soil data and the distribution of the minerals in different aerosol sizes are key to our model performance. We find significant regional variations in climate-relevant variables, which supports including mineralogy in our current models and the need for improved soil maps.
Jianyan Lu, Sunling Gong, Jian Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Lei Zhang, and Chunhong Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8021–8037,Short summary
WRF/CUACE was used to assess the cloud chemistry contribution in China. Firstly, the CUACE cloud chemistry scheme was found to reproduce well the cloud processing and consumption of H2O2, O3, and SO2, as well as the increase of sulfate. Secondly, during cloud availability in December under a heavy pollution episode, sulfate production increased 60–95 % and SO2 was reduced by over 80 %. This study provides a way to analyze the phenomenon of overestimation of SO2 in many chemical transport models.
Laurent Menut, Arineh Cholakian, Guillaume Siour, Rémy Lapere, Romain Pennel, Sylvain Mailler, and Bertrand Bessagnet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7281–7296,Short summary
This study is about the wildfires occurring in France during the summer 2022. We study the forest fires that took place in the Landes during the summer of 2022. We show the direct impact of these fires on the air quality, especially downstream of the smoke plume towards the Paris region. We quantify the impact of these fires on the pollutants peak concentrations and the possible exceedance of thresholds.
Hannah J. Rubin, Joshua S. Fu, Frank Dentener, Rui Li, Kan Huang, and Hongbo Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7091–7102,Short summary
We update the 2010 global deposition budget for nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) with new regional wet deposition measurements, improving the ensemble results of 11 global chemistry transport models from HTAP II. Our study demonstrates that a global measurement–model fusion approach can substantially improve N and S deposition model estimates at a regional scale and represents a step forward toward the WMO goal of global fusion products for accurately mapping harmful air pollution.
Chenxi Li, Yuyang Li, Xiaoxiao Li, Runlong Cai, Yaxin Fan, Xiaohui Qiao, Rujing Yin, Chao Yan, Yishuo Guo, Yongchun Liu, Jun Zheng, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, Huayun Xiao, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6879–6896,Short summary
New particle formation and growth in polluted environments are not fully understood despite intensive research. We applied a cluster dynamics–multicomponent sectional model to simulate the new particle formation events observed in Beijing, China. The simulation approximately captures how the events evolve. Further diagnosis shows that the oxygenated organic molecules may have been under-detected, and modulating their abundance leads to significantly improved simulation–observation agreement.
Marianne Tronstad Lund, Gunnar Myhre, Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, Bjørn Hallvard Samset, and Zbigniew Klimont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6647–6662,Short summary
Here we show that differences, in magnitude and trend, between recent global anthropogenic emission inventories have a notable influence on simulated regional abundances of anthropogenic aerosol over the 1990–2019 period. This, in turn, affects estimates of radiative forcing. Our findings form a basis for comparing existing and upcoming studies on anthropogenic aerosols using different emission inventories.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Meng Gao, Huangjian Wu, Miaomiao Lu, Qian Wu, Shuyuan Huang, Wenxuan Sui, Jie Li, Xiaole Pan, Lin Wu, Hajime Akimoto, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6217–6240,Short summary
A multi-air-pollutant inversion system has been developed in this study to estimate emission changes in China during COVID-19 lockdown. The results demonstrate that the lockdown is largely a nationwide road traffic control measure with NOx emissions decreasing by ~40 %. Emissions of other species only decreased by ~10 % due to smaller effects of lockdown on other sectors. Assessment results further indicate that the lockdown only had limited effects on the control of PM2.5 and O3 in China.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Douglas Lowe, Jill S. Johnson, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael Flynn, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Ying Chen, Oliver Wild, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Alex Archibald, Siddhartha Singh, Manish Shrivastava, Rahul A. Zaveri, Vikas Singh, Gufran Beig, Ranjeet Sokhi, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5763–5782,Short summary
Organic aerosols (OAs), their sources and their processes remain poorly understood. The volatility basis set (VBS) approach, implemented in air quality models such as WRF-Chem, can be a useful tool to describe primary OA (POA) production and aging. However, the main disadvantage is its complexity. We used a Gaussian process simulator to reproduce model results and to estimate the sources of model uncertainty. We do this by comparing the outputs with OA observations made at Delhi, India, in 2018.
Eleftherios Ioannidis, Kathy S. Law, Jean-Christophe Raut, Louis Marelle, Tatsuo Onishi, Rachel M. Kirpes, Lucia M. Upchurch, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Andreas Massling, Henrik Skov, Patricia K. Quinn, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5641–5678,Short summary
Remote and local anthropogenic emissions contribute to wintertime Arctic haze, with enhanced aerosol concentrations, but natural sources, which also contribute, are less well studied. Here, modelled wintertime sea-spray aerosols are improved in WRF-Chem over the wider Arctic by including updated wind speed and temperature-dependent treatments. As a result, anthropogenic nitrate aerosols are also improved. Open leads are confirmed to be the main source of sea-spray aerosols over northern Alaska.
Wenfu Tang, Simone Tilmes, David M. Lawrence, Fang Li, Cenlin He, Louisa K. Emmons, Rebecca R. Buchholz, and Lili Xia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5467–5486,Short summary
Globally, total wildfire burned area is projected to increase over the 21st century under scenarios without geoengineering and decrease under the two geoengineering scenarios. Geoengineering reduces fire by decreasing surface temperature and wind speed and increasing relative humidity and soil water. However, geoengineering also yields reductions in precipitation, which offset some of the fire reduction.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Darrell Sonntag, Karl M. Seltzer, Havala O. T. Pye, Christine Allen, Evan Murray, Claudia Toro, Drew R. Gentner, Cheng Huang, Shantanu H. Jathar, Li Li, Andrew A. May, and Allen L. Robinson
We update methods for calculating organic particle and vapor emissions from mobile sources in the U.S. Conventionally, particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic carbon (VOC) are speciated without consideration of primary semivolatile emissions. Our methods integrate state-of-the-science speciation profiles and correct for common artifacts when sampling emissions in a laboratory. We quantify impacts of the emission updates on ambient pollution with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model.
Havala O. T. Pye, Bryan K. Place, Benjamin N. Murphy, Karl M. Seltzer, Emma L. D'Ambro, Christine Allen, Ivan R. Piletic, Sara Farrell, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Matthew M. Coggon, Emily Saunders, Lu Xu, Golam Sarwar, William T. Hutzell, Kristen M. Foley, George Pouliot, Jesse Bash, and William R. Stockwell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5043–5099,Short summary
Chemical mechanisms describe how emissions from vehicles, vegetation, and other sources are chemically transformed in the atmosphere to secondary products including criteria and hazardous air pollutants. The Community Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Multiphase Mechanism integrates gas-phase radical chemistry with pathways to fine-particle mass. New species were implemented, resulting in a bottom-up representation of organic aerosol, which is required for accurate source attribution of pollutants.
Yanshun Li, Randall V. Martin, Chi Li, Brian L. Boys, Aaron van Donkelaar, Jun Meng, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
We developed and evaluated processes affecting within-day (diel) variability in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) over the US. We find that diel variability in PM2.5 is driven by 1) early morning accumulation into a shallow mixed layer, 2) decreases from mid-morning through afternoon with mixed-layer growth, 3) increases from mid-afternoon through evening as the mixed-layer collapses, and 4) decreases overnight as emissions decrease.
Zhen Peng, Lili Lei, Zhe-Min Tan, Meigen Zhang, Aijun Ding, and Xingxia Kou
Annual PM2.5 emission in China consistently decreases about 3 % to 5 % from 2017 to 2020 with spatial variations and seasonal dependences. High temporal-resolution and dynamics-based PM2.5 emission estimates provide quantitative diurnal variations for each season. Significant reduction of PM2.5 emissions in the north China plain and northeast of China in 2020 are caused by COVID-19.
Xuemei Wang, Hamish Gordon, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4431–4461,Short summary
New particle formation in the upper troposphere is important for the global boundary layer aerosol population, and they can be transported downward in Amazonia. We use a global and a regional model to quantify the number of aerosols that are formed at high altitude and transported downward in a 1000 km region. We find that the majority of the aerosols are from outside the region. This suggests that the 1000 km region is unlikely to be a
closed loopfor aerosol formation, transport and growth.
Zhiyuan Li, Kin-Fai Ho, Harry Fung Lee, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
This study developed an integrated model framework for accurate multi-air-pollutant exposure assessments in high-density and high-rise cities. Following the proposed integrated model framework, we established multi-air-pollutant exposure models for four major PM10 chemical species as well as four criteria air pollutants with R2 values ranging from 0.73 to 0.93. The proposed framework serves an important tool for combined exposure assessment and the corresponding epidemiological studies.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Drew C. Pendergrass, Nadia K. Colombi, Viral Shah, Laura Hyesung Yang, Qiang Zhang, Shuxiao Wang, Hwajin Kim, Yele Sun, Jin-Soo Choi, Jin-Soo Park, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Jack E. Dibb, Taehyoung Lee, Jin-Seok Han, Bruce E. Anderson, Ke Li, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4271–4281,Short summary
Anthropogenic fugitive dust in East Asia not only causes severe coarse particulate matter air pollution problems, but also affects fine particulate nitrate. Due to emission control efforts, coarse PM decreased steadily. We find that the decrease of coarse PM is a major driver for a lack of decrease of fine particulate nitrate, as it allows more nitric acid to form fine particulate nitrate. The continuing decrease of coarse PM requires more stringent ammonia and nitrogen oxides emission controls.
Jun-Wei Xu, Jintai Lin, Gan Luo, Jamiu Adeniran, and Hao Kong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4149–4163,Short summary
Research on the sources of Chinese PM2.5 pollution has focused on the contributions of China’s domestic emissions. However, the impact of foreign anthropogenic emissions has typically been simplified or neglected. Here we find that foreign anthropogenic emissions play an important role in Chinese PM2.5 pollution through chemical interactions between foreign-transported pollutants and China’s local emissions. Thus, foreign emission reductions are essential for improving Chinese air quality.
Kun Wang, Xiaoyan Ma, Rong Tian, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4091–4104,Short summary
From 12 March to 6 April 2016 in Beijing, there were 11 typical new particle formation days, 13 non-event days, and 2 undefined days. We first analyzed the favorable background of new particle formation in Beijing and then conducted the simulations using four nucleation schemes based on a global chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem) to understand the nucleation mechanism.
Arineh Cholakian, Matthias Beekmann, Guillaume Siour, Isabelle Coll, Manuela Cirtog, Elena Ormeño, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Emilie Perraudin, and Eric Villenave
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3679–3706,Short summary
This article revolves around the simulation of biogenic secondary organic aerosols in the Landes forest (southwestern France). Several sensitivity cases involving biogenic emission factors, land cover data, anthropogenic emissions, and physical or meteorological parameters were performed and each compared to measurements both in the forest canopy and around the forest. The chemistry behind the formation of these aerosols and their production and transport in the forest canopy is discussed.
Chupeng Zhang, Shangfei Hai, Yang Gao, Yuhang Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Bin Zhao, Shuxiao Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Xin Huang, Aura Lupascu, Manish Shrivastava, Jerome D. Fast, Wenxuan Cheng, Xiuwen Guo, Ming Chu, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Qiaoqiao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
New particle formation is one of the important sources of atmospheric particles, exerting critical influences on global climate. Numerical models are vital tools for understanding the evolution of atmospheric particles, however, their usefulness may be large discounted due to the existence of model biases. In this study, we first improve the model behavior through parametrization adjustments. Utilizing the improved model, we find substantial contributions of newly formed particles on climate.
Marina Liaskoni, Peter Huszar, Lukáš Bartík, Alvaro Patricio Prieto Perez, Jan Karlický, and Ondřej Vlček
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3629–3654,Short summary
Wind-blown dust (WBD) emissions emitted from European soils are estimated for the 2007–2016 period, and their impact on the total particulate matter (PM) concentration is calculated. We found a considerable increase in PM concentrations due to such emissions, especially on selected days (rather than on a seasonal average). We also found that WBD emissions are strongest over western Europe, and the highest impacts on PM are calculated for this region.
Yunyao Li, Daniel Tong, Siqi Ma, Saulo R. Freitas, Ravan Ahmadov, Mikhail Sofiev, Xiaoyang Zhang, Shobha Kondragunta, Ralph Kahn, Youhua Tang, Barry Baker, Patrick Campbell, Rick Saylor, Georg Grell, and Fangjun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3083–3101,Short summary
Plume height is important in wildfire smoke dispersion and affects air quality and human health. We assess the impact of plume height on wildfire smoke dispersion and the exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. A higher plume height predicts lower pollution near the source region, but higher pollution in downwind regions, due to the faster spread of the smoke once ejected, affects pollution exceedance forecasts and the early warning of extreme air pollution events.
Stylianos Kakavas, Spyros Pandis, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Water uptake from organic species in aerosol can affect the partitioning of semi-volatile inorganic compounds, but are not considered in global and chemical transport models. We address this with a version of the PM-CAMx model that considers such organic water effects and use it to carry out year-long aerosol simulations over the continental US. We show that such organic water impacts can have an important impact on dry PM1 levels when RH levels and PM1 concentrations are high.
Yunfan Liu, Hang Su, Siwen Wang, Chao Wei, Wei Tao, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid O. Krüger, Thorsten Hoffmann, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 251–272,Short summary
The origins of the abundant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the upper troposphere (UT) of the Amazon remain unclear. With model developments of new secondary organic aerosol schemes and constrained by observation, we show that strong aerosol nucleation and condensation in the UT is triggered by biogenic organics, and organic condensation is key for UT CCN production. This UT CCN-producing mechanism may prevail over broader vegetation canopies and deserves emphasis in aerosol–climate feedback.
Jingyu An, Cheng Huang, Dandan Huang, Momei Qin, Huan Liu, Rusha Yan, Liping Qiao, Min Zhou, Yingjie Li, Shuhui Zhu, Qian Wang, and Hongli Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 323–344,Short summary
This paper aims to build up an approach to establish a high-resolution emission inventory of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds in city-scale and detailed source categories and incorporate it into the CMAQ model. We believe this approach can be widely applied to improve the simulation of secondary organic aerosol and its source contributions.
Huibin Dai, Hong Liao, Ke Li, Xu Yue, Yang Yang, Jia Zhu, Jianbing Jin, Baojie Li, and Xingwen Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 23–39,Short summary
We apply the 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to simulate co-polluted days by O3 and PM2.5 (O3–PM2.5PDs) in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei in 2013–2020 and investigate the chemical and physical characteristics of O3–PM2.5PDs by composited analyses of such days that are captured by both the observations and the model. We report for the first time the unique features in vertical distributions of aerosols during O3–PM2.5PDs and the physical and chemical characteristics of O3–PM2.5PDs.
Rachel A. Bergin, Monica Harkey, Alicia Hoffman, Richard H. Moore, Bruce Anderson, Andreas Beyersdorf, Luke Ziemba, Lee Thornhill, Edward Winstead, Tracey Holloway, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15449–15468,Short summary
Correctly predicting aerosol surface area concentrations is important for determining the rate of heterogeneous reactions in chemical transport models. Here, we compare aircraft measurements of aerosol surface area with a regional model. In polluted air masses, we show that the model underpredicts aerosol surface area by a factor of 2. Despite this disagreement, the representation of heterogeneous chemistry still dominates the overall uncertainty in the loss rate of molecules such as N2O5.
Long Chen, Yu Huang, Yonggang Xue, Zhihui Jia, and Wenliang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14529–14546,Short summary
Quantum chemical methods are applied to gain insight into the oligomerization reaction mechanisms and kinetics of distinct stabilized Criegee intermediate (SCI) reactions with hydroperoxide esters, where calculations show that SCI addition reactions with hydroperoxide esters proceed through the successive insertion of SCIs to form oligomers that involve SCIs as the repeating unit. The saturated vapor pressure of the formed oligomers decreases monotonically with the increasing number of SCIs.
Mathieu Lachatre, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, Arineh Cholakian, Pasquale Sellitto, Guillaume Siour, Henda Guermazi, Giuseppe Salerno, and Salvatore Giammanco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13861–13879,Short summary
In this study, we have evaluated the predominance of various pathways of volcanic SO2 conversion to sulfates in the upper troposphere. We show that the main conversion pathway was gaseous oxidation by OH, although the liquid pathways were expected to be predominant. These results are interesting with respect to a better understanding of sulfate formation in the middle and upper troposphere and are an important component to help evaluate particulate matter radiative forcing.
Siying Lian, Luxi Zhou, Daniel M. Murphy, Karl D. Froyd, Owen B. Toon, and Pengfei Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13659–13676,Short summary
Parameterizations of dust lifting and microphysical properties of dust in climate models are still subject to large uncertainty. Here we use a sectional aerosol climate model to investigate the global vertical distributions of the dust. Constrained by a suite of observations, the model suggests that, although North African dust dominates global dust mass loading at the surface, the relative contribution of Asian dust increases with altitude and becomes dominant in the upper troposphere.
Steven J. Smith, Erin E. McDuffie, and Molly Charles
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13201–13218,Short summary
Emissions into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants, quantified in emission inventories, impact human health, ecosystems, and the climate. We review how air pollutant and GHG inventory activities have historically been structured and their different uses and requirements. We discuss the benefits of increasing coordination between air pollutant and GHG inventory development efforts, but also caution that there are differences in appropriate methodologies and applications.
Jinjin Sun, Momei Qin, Xiaodong Xie, Wenxing Fu, Yang Qin, Li Sheng, Lin Li, Jingyi Li, Ishaq Dimeji Sulaymon, Lei Jiang, Lin Huang, Xingna Yu, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12629–12646,Short summary
NO3- has become the dominant and the least reduced chemical component of fine particulate matter in China. NO3- formation is mostly in the NH3-rich regime in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). OH + NO2 contributes 60 %–83 % of the TNO3 production rates, and the N2O5 heterogeneous pathway contributes 10 %–36 %. The N2O5 heterogeneous pathway becomes more important in cold seasons. Local emissions and regional transportation contribute 50 %–62 % and 38 %–50 % to YRD NO3- concentrations, respectively.
Thomas Drugé, Pierre Nabat, Marc Mallet, Martine Michou, Samuel Rémy, and Oleg Dubovik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12167–12205,Short summary
This study presents the implementation of brown carbon in the atmospheric component of the CNRM global climate model and particularly in its aerosol scheme TACTIC. Several simulations were carried out with this climate model, over the period 2000–2014, to evaluate the model by comparison with different reference datasets (PARASOL-GRASP, OMI-OMAERUVd, MACv2, FMI_SAT, AERONET) and to analyze the brown carbon radiative and climatic effects.
Simon F. Reifenberg, Anna Martin, Matthias Kohl, Sara Bacer, Zaneta Hamryszczak, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Daniel J. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Raphael Dörich, John N. Crowley, Laura Tomsche, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Zahn, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira Pöhlker, Patrick Jöckel, Marcel Dorf, Ulrich Schumann, Jonathan Williams, Birger Bohn, Joachim Curtius, Hardwig Harder, Hans Schlager, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10901–10917,Short summary
In this work we use a combination of observational data from an aircraft campaign and model results to investigate the effect of the European lockdown due to COVID-19 in spring 2020. Using model results, we show that the largest relative changes to the atmospheric composition caused by the reduced emissions are located in the upper troposphere around aircraft cruise altitude, while the largest absolute changes are present at the surface.
Andrea Mazzeo, Michael Burrow, Andrew Quinn, Eloise A. Marais, Ajit Singh, David Ng'ang'a, Michael J. Gatari, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10677–10701,Short summary
A modelling system for meteorology and chemistry transport processes, WRF–CHIMERE, has been tested and validated for three East African conurbations using the most up-to-date anthropogenic emissions available. Results show that the model is able to reproduce hourly and daily temporal variabilities in aerosol concentrations that are close to observations in both urban and rural environments, encouraging the adoption of numerical modelling as a tool for air quality management in East Africa.
Hanqing Kang, Bin Zhu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Bu Yu, Ronald J. van der A, and Wen Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10623–10634,Short summary
This study quantified the contribution of each urban-induced meteorological effect (temperature, humidity, and circulation) to aerosol concentration. We found that the urban heat island (UHI) circulation dominates the UHI effects on aerosol. The UHI circulation transports aerosol and its precursor gases from the warmer lower boundary layer to the colder lower free troposphere and promotes the secondary formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol in the cold atmosphere.
Minghao Qiu, Corwin Zigler, and Noelle E. Selin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10551–10566,Short summary
Evaluating impacts of emission changes on air quality requires accounting for meteorological variability. Many studies use simple regression methods to correct for meteorology, but little is known about their performance. Using cases in the US and China, we show that widely used regression models do not perform well and can lead to biased estimates of emission-driven trends. We propose a novel machine learning method with lower bias and provide recommendations to policymakers and researchers.
Junri Zhao, Weichun Ma, Kelsey R. Bilsback, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Shengqian Zhou, Ying Chen, Guipeng Yang, and Yan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9583–9600,Short summary
Marine dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions play important roles in atmospheric sulfur cycle and climate effects. In this study, DMS emissions were estimated by using the machine learning method and drove the global 3D chemical transport model to simulate their climate effects. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the Asian region that quantifies the combined impacts of DMS on sulfate, particle number concentration, and radiative forcings.
Yu Yao, Jeffrey H. Curtis, Joseph Ching, Zhonghua Zheng, and Nicole Riemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9265–9282,Short summary
Investigating the impacts of aerosol mixing state on aerosol optical properties has a long history from both the modeling and experimental perspective. In this study, we used particle-resolved simulations as a benchmark to determine the error in optical properties when using simplified aerosol representations. We found that errors in single scattering albedo due to the internal mixture assumptions can have substantial effects on calculating aerosol direct radiative forcing.
Zechen Yu, Myoseon Jang, Soontae Kim, Kyuwon Son, Sanghee Han, Azad Madhu, and Jinsoo Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9083–9098,Short summary
The UNIPAR model was incorporated into CAMx to predict the ambient concentration of organic matter in urban atmospheres during the KORUS-AQ campaign. CAMx–UNIPAR significantly improved the simulation of SOA formation under the wet aerosol condition through the consideration of aqueous reactions of reactive organic species and gas–aqueous partitioning into the wet inorganic aerosol.
Hitoshi Matsui, Tatsuhiro Mori, Sho Ohata, Nobuhiro Moteki, Naga Oshima, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Makoto Koike, and Yutaka Kondo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8989–9009,Short summary
Using a global aerosol model, we find that the source contributions to radiative effects of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic are quite different from those to mass concentrations and deposition flux of BC in the Arctic. This is because microphysical properties (e.g., mixing state), altitudes, and seasonal variations of BC in the atmosphere differ among emissions sources. These differences need to be considered for accurate simulations of Arctic BC and its source contributions and climate impacts.
Sagar P. Parajuli, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, Alexander Ukhov, Suleiman Mostamandi, Paul A. Kucera, Duncan Axisa, William I. Gustafson Jr., and Yannian Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8659–8682,Short summary
Rainfall affects the distribution of surface- and groundwater resources, which are constantly declining over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) due to overexploitation. Here, we explored the effects of dust on rainfall using WRF-Chem model simulations. Although dust is considered a nuisance from an air quality perspective, our results highlight the positive fundamental role of dust particles in modulating rainfall formation and distribution, which has implications for cloud seeding.
Yao Ge, Massimo Vieno, David S. Stevenson, Peter Wind, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8343–8368,Short summary
Reactive N and S gases and aerosols are critical determinants of air quality. We report a comprehensive analysis of the concentrations, wet and dry deposition, fluxes, and lifetimes of these species globally as well as for 10 world regions. We used the EMEP MSC-W model coupled with WRF meteorology and 2015 global emissions. Our work demonstrates the substantial regional variation in these quantities and the need for modelling to simulate atmospheric responses to precursor emissions.
Katherine R. Travis, James H. Crawford, Gao Chen, Carolyn E. Jordan, Benjamin A. Nault, Hwajin Kim, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack E. Dibb, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Shixian Zhai, Xuan Wang, Erin E. McDuffie, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Saewung Kim, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, Limseok Chang, and Michelle J. Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7933–7958,Short summary
The 2016 Korea–United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) field campaign provided a unique set of observations to improve our understanding of PM2.5 pollution in South Korea. Models typically have errors in simulating PM2.5 in this region, which is of concern for the development of control measures. We use KORUS-AQ observations to improve our understanding of the mechanisms driving PM2.5 and the implications of model errors for determining PM2.5 that is attributable to local or foreign sources.
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Amin, H. S., Russo, R. S., Sive, B. S., Hoebeke, E. R., Dodson, C., McCubbin, I. B., Hallar, A. G., and Huff Hartz, K. E.: Monoterpene emissions from bark beetle infested Engelmann spruce trees, Atmos. Environ., https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.02.025, in press, 2013.
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Bentz, B. J., Regniere, J., Fettig, C. J., Hansen, E. M., Hayes, J. L., Hicke, J. A., Kelsey, R. G., Negron, J. F., and Seybold, S. J.: Climate change and bark beetles of the Western United States and Canada: direct and indirect effects, BioScience, 60, 602–613, https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2010.60.8.6, 2010.
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Brilli, F., Cicciloi, P., Frattoni, M., Prestininzi, M., Spanedda, A. F., and Loreto, F.: Constitutive and herbivore-induced monoterpenes emitted by Populus x euroamericana leaves are key volatiles that orient Chyrsomela populi beetles, Plant Cell Environ., 32, 542–552, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2009.01948.x, 2009.
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Collins, B. J., Rhoades, C. C., Hubbard, R. M., and Battaglia, M. A.: Tree regeneration and future stand development after bark beetle infestation and harvesting in Colorado lodgepole pine stands, Forest Ecol. Manage., 261, 2168–2175, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.03.016, 2011.
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Fry, J. L., Kiendler-Scharr, A., Rollins, A. W., Wooldridge, P. J., Brown, S. S., Fuchs, H., Dubé, W., Mensah, A., dal Maso, M., Tillmann, R., Dorn, H.-P., Brauers, T., and Cohen, R. C.: Organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol yield from NO3 oxidation of β-pinene evaluated using a gas-phase kinetics/aerosol partitioning model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 1431–1449, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-1431-2009, 2009.
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