Articles | Volume 21, issue 4
Research article
24 Feb 2021
Research article |  | 24 Feb 2021

Observational evidence of energetic particle precipitation NOx (EPP-NOx) interaction with chlorine curbing Antarctic ozone loss

Emily M. Gordon, Annika Seppälä, Bernd Funke, Johanna Tamminen, and Kaley A. Walker

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Cited articles

Andersson, M. E., Verronen, P. T., Rodger, C. J., Clilverd, M. A., and Seppälä, A.: Missing driver in the Sun–Earth connection from energetic electron precipitation impacts mesospheric ozone, Nat. Commun., 5, 5197,, 2014. a
Andersson, M. E., Verronen, P. T., Marsh, D. R., Seppälä, A., Päivärinta, S.-M., Rodger, C. J., Clilverd, M. A., Kalakoski, N., and van de Kamp, M.: Polar Ozone Response to Energetic Particle Precipitation Over Decadal Time Scales: The Role of Medium-Energy Electrons, J. Geophys. Res., 123, 607–622,, 2018. a
Baldwin, M. P. and Dunkerton, T. J.: Quasi-biennial modulation of the southern hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3343–3346,, 1998. a
Bhartia, P. K: OMI Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), available at: (last access: 19 February 2021), 2002. a
Bhartia, P. K.: OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Total Column Daily L2 Global Gridded 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V3, Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC),, 2012. a
Short summary
Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) is the rain of solar energetic particles into the Earth's atmosphere. EPP is known to deplete O3 in the polar mesosphere–upper stratosphere via the formation of NOx. NOx also causes chlorine deactivation in the lower stratosphere and has, thus, been proposed to potentially result in reduced ozone depletion in the spring. We provide the first evidence to show that NOx formed by EPP is able to remove active chlorine, resulting in enhanced total ozone column.
Final-revised paper