Articles | Volume 18, issue 1
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Heterogeneous reaction of HO2 with airborne TiO2 particles and its implication for climate change mitigation strategies
Daniel R. Moon
School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
Giorgio S. Taverna
School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
National Centre for Atmospheric Science, School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
Martyn P. Chipperfield
School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
National Centre for Atmospheric Science, School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
Paul W. Seakins
School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
National Centre for Atmospheric Science, School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad de Castilla – La Mancha, 45071 Toledo, Spain
No articles found.
Michael P. Cartwright, Richard J. Pope, Jeremy J. Harrison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Chris Wilson, Wuhu Feng, David P. Moore, and Parvadha Suntharalingam
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10035–10056,Short summary
A 3-D chemical transport model, TOMCAT, is used to simulate global atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) distribution. Modelled OCS compares well with satellite observations of OCS from limb-sounding satellite observations. Model simulations also compare adequately with surface and atmospheric observations and suitably capture the seasonality of OCS and background concentrations.
Richard J. Pope, Alexandru Rap, Matilda A. Pimlott, Brice Barret, Eric Le Flochmoen, Brian J. Kerridge, Richard Siddans, Barry G. Latter, Lucy J. Ventress, Anne Boynard, Christian Retscher, Wuhu Feng, Richard Rigby, Sandip S. Dhomse, Catherine Wespes, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
Tropospheric ozone is an important short-lived climate forcer which influences the incoming solar short-wave radiation and the outgoing long-wave radiation in the atmosphere (10–15 km) where the balance between the two yields a net positive (i.e. warming) effect at the surface. Overall, we find that the tropospheric ozone radiative effect ranges between 1.21 and 1.28 W/m2 with a negligible trend (2008–2017) suggesting that tropospheric ozone influences on climate have remained stable with time.
Luana S. Basso, Chris Wilson, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Graciela Tejada, Henrique L. G. Cassol, Egídio Arai, Mathew Williams, T. Luke Smallman, Wouter Peters, Stijn Naus, John B. Miller, and Manuel Gloor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9685–9723,Short summary
The Amazon’s carbon balance may have changed due to forest degradation, deforestation and warmer climate. We used an atmospheric model and atmospheric CO2 observations to quantify Amazonian carbon emissions (2010–2018). The region was a small carbon source to the atmosphere, mostly due to fire emissions. Forest uptake compensated for ~ 50 % of the fire emissions, meaning that the remaining forest is still a small carbon sink. We found no clear evidence of weakening carbon uptake over the period.
Yang Li, Wuhu Feng, Xin Zhou, Yajuan Li, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest and largest plateau, experiences strong surface solar UV radiation, whose excess can cause harmful influences on the local biota. Hence, it is critical to study TP ozone. We find ENSO, the strongest interannual phenomenon, can induce tropospheric temperature change and thus cause tropopause movement, which in turn leads to ozone change. Our understanding implies that future more strong ENSO events will play a key role in ozone recovery and ecosystems of the TP.
Emily Dowd, Chris Wilson, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Emanuel Gloor, Alistair Manning, and Ruth Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7363–7382,Short summary
Surface observations of methane show that the seasonal cycle amplitude (SCA) of methane is decreasing in the northern high latitudes (NHLs) but increased globally (1995–2020). The NHL decrease is counterintuitive, as we expect the SCA to increase with increasing concentrations. We use a chemical transport model to investigate changes in SCA in the NHLs. We find well-mixed methane and changes in emissions from Canada, the Middle East, and Europe are the largest contributors to the SCA in NHLs.
Martyn Chipperfield and Slimane Bekki
We give a personal perspective on recent issues related to the depletion of stratospheric ozone and some newly emerging challenges. We first provide a brief review of historic work on understanding the ozone layer and review ozone recovery from the effects of halogenated source gases and the Montreal Protocol. We then discuss the recent observations of ozone depletion from Australian fires in early 2020 and the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha`apai volcano in January 2022.
Richard J. Pope, Brian J. Kerridge, Richard Siddans, Barry G. Latter, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Matilda A. Pimlott, Sandip S. Dhomse, Christian Retscher, and Richard Rigby
Ozone is a potent air pollutant and we present the first study to investigate long-term changes in lower tropospheric column ozone (LTO3) from space. We have constructed a merged LTO3 dataset from GOME-1, SCIAMACHY and OMI between 1996 and 2017. Comparing LTO3 between the 1996–2000 and 2013–2017 5-year averages, we find significant positive increases in the tropics/sub-tropics, while in the northern mid-latitudes, we find small scale differences.
Frank A. F. Winiberg, William J. Warman, Charlotte A. Brumby, Graham Boustead, Iustinian G. Bejan, Thomas H. Speak, Dwayne E. Heard, Daniel Stone, and Paul W. Seakins
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
OH and HO2 are key reactive intermediates in the Earth's atmosphere. Accurate measurements in either the field or in simulation chambers provide a good test for chemical mechanisms. Fluorescence techniques have the appropriate sensitivity for detection but require calibration. This paper compares different methods of calibration and specifically how calibration factors vary across a temperature range relevant to atmospheric and chamber determinations.
Peter Joyce, Cristina Ruiz Villena, Yahui Huang, Alex Webb, Manuel Gloor, Fabien H. Wagner, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Rocío Barrio Guilló, Chris Wilson, and Hartmut Boesch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2627–2640,Short summary
Methane emissions are responsible for a lot of the warming caused by the greenhouse effect, much of which comes from a small number of point sources. We can identify methane point sources by analysing satellite data, but it requires a lot of time invested by experts and is prone to very high errors. Here, we produce a neural network that can automatically identify methane point sources and estimate the mass of methane that is being released per hour and are able to do so with far smaller errors.
Joanna E. Dyson, Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Jingsha Xu, Zongbo Shi, Roy M. Harrison, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lianfang Wei, Pingqing Fu, Xinming Wang, Stephen R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5679–5697,Short summary
The hydroxyl (OH) and closely coupled hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals are vital for their role in the removal of atmospheric pollutants. In less polluted regions, atmospheric models over-predict HO2 concentrations. In this modelling study, the impact of heterogeneous uptake of HO2 onto aerosol surfaces on radical concentrations and the ozone production regime in Beijing in the summertime is investigated, and the implications for emissions policies across China are considered.
Andrea Pazmino, Florence Goutail, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Alain Hauchecorne, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Franck Lefèvre, Audrey Lecouffe, Michel Van Roozendael, Nis Jepsen, Georg Hansen, Rigel Kivi, Kimberly Strong, Kaley A. Walker, and Steve Colwell
The vortex-averaged ozone loss over the last three decades is evaluated for both polar regions using the passive ozone tracer of the chemical transport model TOMCAT/SLIMCAT and total ozone observations from SAOZ network and MSR2 reanalysis. Three metrics were developed to compute ozone trend since 2000. The study confirms the ozone recovery in the Antarctic and shows a first quantitative detection of ozone recovery in the Arctic that needs to be robustly confirmed in the future.
Antonio G. Bruno, Jeremy J. Harrison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, David P. Moore, Richard J. Pope, Christopher Wilson, Emmanuel Mahieu, and Justus Notholt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4849–4861,Short summary
A 3-D chemical transport model, TOMCAT; satellite data; and ground-based observations have been used to investigate hydrogen cyanide (HCN) variability. We found that the oxidation by O(1D) drives the HCN loss in the middle stratosphere and the currently JPL-recommended OH reaction rate overestimates HCN atmospheric loss. We also evaluated two different ocean uptake schemes. We found them to be unrealistic, and we need to scale these schemes to obtain good agreement with HCN observations.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Ryan Hossaini, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
We quantify, for the first time, the time-varying impact of uncontrolled emissions of chlorinated very short-lived substances (Cl-VSLS) on stratospheric ozone using a state-of-the-art chemistry-climate model. We demonstrate that Cl-VSLS are already having a non-negligible impact on stratospheric ozone, including a 6 DU reduction of Artic ozone in the cold winter of 2019/20, and any so future growth in emissions will continue to offset some of the benefits of the Montreal Protocol.
Yajuan Li, Sandip S. Dhomse, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Jianchun Bian, Yuan Xia, and Dong Guo
For the first time a regularised multivariate regression model is used to estimate stratospheric ozone trends. Regularised regression avoids the over-fitting issue due to correlation among explanatory variables. We demonstrate that there are considerable differences in satellite and chemical model-based ozone trends highlighting large uncertainties in our understanding about ozone variability, and we argue that a caution is needed while interpreting results with different methods and data sets.
Ailish Melissa Graham, Richard J. Pope, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip S. Dhomse, Matila Pimlott, Wuhu Feng, Vikas Singh, Ying Chen, Oliver Wild, Ranjeet Sokhi, and Gufran Beig
Our manuscript makes use of novel satellite data sets and high-resolution emissions datasets alongside a back trajectory model to investigate the balance of local and external sources influencing NOx air pollution changes in Delhi, with a focus on different emission sectors. We find that in the post-monsoon, NOx, which is mostly from the transport sector, is imported into Delhi. Therefore air quality mitigation strategies in Delhi and the surrounding regions to successfully control this issue.
Sandip S. Dhomse and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
There are no long-term stratospheric profile data set for two very important greenhouse gases : Methane (CH4) and Nitrous oxide (N2O). Along with radiative feeback, they also play key species that play an important role in controlling ozone loss in the stratosphere. Here, we use machine learning to fuse satellite and chemical model to construct long term gap free profile data sets for CH4 and N2O.
Richard J. Pope, Brian J. Kerridge, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Richard Siddans, Barry G. Latter, Lucy J. Ventress, Matilda A. Pimlott, Wuhu Feng, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry D. Hayman, Stephen R. Arnold, and Ailish M. Graham
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In the summer of 2018, Europe experienced several persistent large-scale ozone (O3) pollution episodes. Satellite tropospheric O3 and surface O3 data recorded substantial enhancements in 2018 relative to other years. Targeted model simulations showed that meteorological processes and emissions controlled the elevated surface O3, while mid-tropospheric O3 enhancements were dominated by stratospheric O3 intrusion and advection of North Atlantic O3-rich air masses into Europe.
Robert J. Parker, Chris Wilson, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Toby R. Marthews, A. Anthony Bloom, Mark F. Lunt, Nicola Gedney, Simon J. Dadson, Joe McNorton, Neil Humpage, Hartmut Boesch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Paul I. Palmer, and Dai Yamazaki
Biogeosciences, 19, 5779–5805,Short summary
Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane, one of the most important climate gases. The JULES land surface model simulates these emissions. We use satellite data to evaluate how well JULES reproduces the methane seasonal cycle over different tropical wetlands. It performs well for most regions; however, it struggles for some African wetlands influenced heavily by river flooding. We explain the reasons for these deficiencies and highlight how future development will improve these areas.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Ryan Hossaini, Luke Abraham, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Development and performance of the new DEST chemistry scheme of UM-UKCA is described. The scheme extends the standard StratTrop scheme by including important updates to the halogen chemistry, thus allowing process-oriented studies of stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery, including impacts from both controlled long-lived ozone-depleting substances and emerging issues around uncontrolled very short-lived substances. It will hence aid studies in support of future WMO Ozone Assessment reports.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Ryan Hossaini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, N. Luke Abraham, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10657–10676,Short summary
Atmospheric impacts of chlorinated very short-lived substances (Cl-VSLS) over the first two decades of the 21st century are assessed using the UM-UKCA chemistry–climate model. Stratospheric input of Cl from Cl-VSLS is estimated at ~130 ppt in 2019. The use of model set-up with constrained meteorology significantly increases the abundance of Cl-VSLS in the lower stratosphere relative to the free-running set-up. The growth in Cl-VSLS emissions significantly impacted recent HCl and COCl2 trends.
Yajuan Li, Sandip S. Dhomse, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Andreas Chrysanthou, Yuan Xia, and Dong Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10635–10656,Short summary
Chemical transport models forced with (re)analysis meteorological fields are ideally suited for interpreting the influence of important physical processes on the ozone variability. We use TOMCAT forced by ECMWF ERA-Interim and ERA5 reanalysis data sets to investigate the effects of reanalysis forcing fields on ozone changes. Our results show that models forced by ERA5 reanalyses may not yet be capable of reproducing observed changes in stratospheric ozone, particularly in the lower stratosphere.
Matilda A. Pimlott, Richard J. Pope, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry G. Latter, Diane S. Knappett, Dwayne E. Heard, Lucy J. Ventress, Richard Siddans, Wuhu Feng, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10467–10488,Short summary
We present a new method to derive global information of the hydroxyl radical (OH), an important atmospheric oxidant. OH controls the lifetime of trace gases important to air quality and climate. We use satellite observations of ozone, carbon monoxide, methane and water vapour in a simple expression to derive OH around 3–4 km altitude. The derived OH compares well to model and aircraft OH data. We then apply the method to 10 years of satellite data to study the inter-annual variability of OH.
Marios Panagi, Roberto Sommariva, Zoë L. Fleming, Paul S. Monks, Gongda Lu, Eloise A. Marais, James R. Hopkins, Alastair C. Lewis, Qiang Zhang, James D. Lee, Freya A. Squires, Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Dwayne E. Heard, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A dispersion model and a box model were combined to investigate the evolution of VOCs in Beijing once they are emitted from anthropogenic sources. It was determined that during the winter time the VOC concentrations in Beijing are driven predominantly by sources within Beijing and by a combination of transport and chemistry during the summer. Furthermore, the results in the paper highlight the need for a season specific policy.
Zara S. Mir, Matthew Jamieson, Nicholas R. Greenall, Paul W. Seakins, Mark A. Blitz, and Daniel Stone
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2875–2887,Short summary
In this work we describe the development and characterisation of an experiment using laser flash photolysis coupled with time-resolved mid-infrared (mid-IR) quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectroscopy, with initial results reported for measurements of the infrared spectrum, kinetics, and product yields for the reaction of the CH2OO Criegee intermediate with SO2. This work has significance for the identification and measurement of reactive trace species in complex systems.
Hannah Walker, Daniel Stone, Trevor Ingham, Sina Hackenberg, Danny Cryer, Shalini Punjabi, Katie Read, James Lee, Lisa Whalley, Dominick V. Spracklen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Steve R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5535–5557,Short summary
Glyoxal is a ubiquitous reactive organic compound in the atmosphere, which may form organic aerosol and impact the atmosphere's oxidising capacity. There are limited measurements of glyoxal's abundance in the remote marine atmosphere. We made new measurements of glyoxal using a highly sensitive technique over two 4-week periods in the tropical Atlantic atmosphere. We show that daytime measurements are mostly consistent with our chemical understanding but a potential missing source at night.
Robert Woodward-Massey, Roberto Sommariva, Lisa K. Whalley, Danny R. Cryer, Trevor Ingham, William J1 Bloss, Sam Cox, James D. Lee, Chris P. Reed, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Brian J. Bandy, Grant L. Forster, Claire E. Reeves, Paul S. Monks, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We measured radicals (OH, HO2, RO2) and OH reactivity at a UK coastal site and compared our observations to the predictions of an MCMv3.3.1 box model. We find variable agreement between measured and modelled radical concentrations and OH reactivity, where the levels of agreement for individual species display strong dependences on NO concentrations. The most substantial disagreement is found for RO2 at high NO (> 1 ppbv), when RO2 levels are underpredicted by a factor of ~10–30.
Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Alessio Bozzo, Nicholas Byrne, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Michail Diamantakis, Johannes Flemming, Lesley J. Gray, Robin J. Hogan, Luke Jones, Linus Magnusson, Inna Polichtchouk, Theodore G. Shepherd, Nils Wedi, and Antje Weisheimer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4277–4302,Short summary
The stratosphere is emerging as one of the keys to improve tropospheric weather and climate predictions. This study provides evidence of the role the stratospheric ozone layer plays in improving weather predictions at different timescales. Using a new ozone modelling approach suitable for high-resolution global models that provide operational forecasts from days to seasons, we find significant improvements in stratospheric meteorological fields and stratosphere–troposphere coupling.
Richard J. Pope, Rebecca Kelly, Eloise A. Marais, Ailish M. Graham, Chris Wilson, Jeremy J. Harrison, Savio J. A. Moniz, Mohamed Ghalaieny, Steve R. Arnold, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4323–4338,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are potent air pollutants which directly impact on human health. In this study, we use satellite nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data to evaluate the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the UK official NOx emissions inventory, with reasonable agreement. We also derived satellite-based NOx emissions for several UK cities. In the case of London and Birmingham, the NAEI NOx emissions are potentially too low by >50%.
Robert Woodward-Massey, Roberto Sommariva, Lisa K. Whalley, Danny R. Cryer, Trevor Ingham, William J. Bloss, Stephen M. Ball, James D. Lee, Chris P. Reed, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Brian J. Bandy, Grant L. Forster, Claire E. Reeves, Paul S. Monks, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We performed a radical (OH, HO2, RO2; total ROx) budget analysis on a dataset collected during a field intensive at a UK coastal site. We found significant differences between calculated HO2 and RO2 production and destruction rates, which should be balanced for such highly reactive radicals under steady state conditions. In addition, ozone production rates were calculated from measured radicals and compared to MCMv3.3.1 model predictions.
Piera Raspollini, Enrico Arnone, Flavio Barbara, Massimo Bianchini, Bruno Carli, Simone Ceccherini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Angelika Dehn, Stefano Della Fera, Bianca Maria Dinelli, Anu Dudhia, Jean-Marie Flaud, Marco Gai, Michael Kiefer, Manuel López-Puertas, David P. Moore, Alessandro Piro, John J. Remedios, Marco Ridolfi, Harjinder Sembhi, Luca Sgheri, and Nicola Zoppetti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1871–1901,Short summary
The MIPAS instrument onboard the ENVISAT satellite provided 10 years of measurements of the atmospheric emission al limb that allow for the retrieval of latitude- and altitude-resolved atmospheric composition. We describe the improvements implemented in the retrieval algorithm used for the full mission reanalysis, which allows for the generation of the global distributions of 21 atmospheric constituents plus temperature with increased accuracy with respect to previously generated data.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Ryan Hossaini, Graham W. Mann, Michelle L. Santee, and Mark Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 903–916,Short summary
Solar flux variations associated with 11-year sunspot cycle is believed to exert important external climate forcing. As largest variations occur at shorter wavelengths such as ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum, associated changes in stratospheric ozone are thought to provide direct evidence for solar climate interaction. Until now, most of the studies reported double-peak structured solar cycle signal (SCS), but relatively new satellite data suggest only single-peak-structured SCS.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Carlo Arosio, Wuhu Feng, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5711–5729,Short summary
High-quality long-term ozone profile data sets are key to estimating short- and long-term ozone variability. Almost all the satellite (and chemical model) data sets show some kind of bias with respect to each other. This is because of differences in measurement methodologies as well as simplified processes in the models. We use satellite data sets and chemical model output to generate 42 years of ozone profile data sets using a random-forest machine-learning algorithm that is named ML-TOMCAT.
Paul D. Hamer, Virginie Marécal, Ryan Hossaini, Michel Pirre, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Franziska Ziska, Andreas Engel, Stephan Sala, Timo Keber, Harald Bönisch, Elliot Atlas, Kirstin Krüger, Martyn Chipperfield, Valery Catoire, Azizan A. Samah, Marcel Dorf, Phang Siew Moi, Hans Schlager, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16955–16984,Short summary
Bromoform is a stratospheric ozone-depleting gas released by seaweed and plankton transported to the stratosphere via convection in the tropics. We study the chemical interactions of bromoform and its derivatives within convective clouds using a cloud-scale model and observations. Our findings are that soluble bromine gases are efficiently washed out and removed within the convective clouds and that most bromine is transported vertically to the upper troposphere in the form of bromoform.
Meike K. Rotermund, Vera Bense, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Andreas Engel, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Peter Hoor, Tilman Hüneke, Timo Keber, Flora Kluge, Benjamin Schreiner, Tanja Schuck, Bärbel Vogel, Andreas Zahn, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15375–15407,Short summary
Airborne total bromine (Brtot) and tracer measurements suggest Brtot-rich air masses persistently protruded into the lower stratosphere (LS), creating a high Brtot region over the North Atlantic in fall 2017. The main source is via isentropic transport by the Asian monsoon and to a lesser extent transport across the extratropical tropopause as quantified by a Lagrange model. The transport of Brtot via Central American hurricanes is also observed. Lastly, the impact of Brtot on LS O3 is assessed.
Beth S. Nelson, Gareth J. Stewart, Will S. Drysdale, Mike J. Newland, Adam R. Vaughan, Rachel E. Dunmore, Pete M. Edwards, Alastair C. Lewis, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, W. Joe Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, Ülkü A. Şahin, David C. S. Beddows, William J. Bloss, Eloise Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Eiko Nemitz, Roberto Sommariva, Sam Cox, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Bhola R. Gurjar, James R. Hopkins, Andrew R. Rickard, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13609–13630,Short summary
Ozone production at an urban site in Delhi is sensitive to volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, particularly those of the aromatic, monoterpene, and alkene VOC classes. The change in ozone production by varying atmospheric pollutants according to their sources, as defined in an emissions inventory, is investigated. The study suggests that reducing road transport emissions alone does not reduce reactive VOCs in the atmosphere enough to perturb an increase in ozone production.
Esther Borrás, Luis A. Tortajada-Genaro, Milagro Ródenas, Teresa Vera, Thomas Speak, Paul Seakins, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, and Amalia Muñoz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4989–4999,Short summary
This work presents promising results in the characterization of specific atmospheric pollutants (oxygenated VOCs) present at very low but highly relevant concentrations. We carried out this research at EUPHORE facilities within the framework of the EUROCHAMP project. A new analytical method, with high robustness and precision, also clean in the use of solvents, low cost, and easily adaptable for use in mobile laboratories for air quality monitoring, is presented.
Chris Wilson, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Manuel Gloor, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Joey McNorton, Luciana V. Gatti, John B. Miller, Luana S. Basso, and Sarah A. Monks
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10643–10669,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas emitted from wetlands like those found in the basin of the Amazon River. Using an atmospheric model and observations from GOSAT, we quantified CH4 emissions from Amazonia during the previous decade. We found that the largest emissions came from a region in the eastern basin and that emissions there were rising faster than in other areas of South America. This finding was supported by CH4 observations made on aircraft within the basin.
Claire E. Reeves, Graham P. Mills, Lisa K. Whalley, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, Sue Grimmond, Dwayne E. Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James R. Hopkins, Simone Kotthaus, Louisa J. Kramer, Roderic L. Jones, James D. Lee, Yanhui Liu, Bin Ouyang, Eloise Slater, Freya Squires, Xinming Wang, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6315–6330,Short summary
The impact of isoprene on atmospheric chemistry is dependent on how its oxidation products interact with other pollutants, specifically nitrogen oxides. Such interactions can lead to isoprene nitrates. We made measurements of the concentrations of individual isoprene nitrate isomers in Beijing and used a model to test current understanding of their chemistry. We highlight areas of uncertainty in understanding, in particular the chemistry following oxidation of isoprene by the nitrate radical.
Joanna E. Dyson, Graham A. Boustead, Lauren T. Fleming, Mark Blitz, Daniel Stone, Stephen R. Arnold, Lisa K. Whalley, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5755–5775,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) dominates the removal of atmospheric pollutants, with nitrous acid (HONO) recognised as a major OH source. For remote regions HONO production through the action of sunlight on aerosol surfaces can provide a source of nitrogen oxides. In this study, HONO production rates at illuminated aerosol surfaces are measured under atmospheric conditions, a model consistent with the data is developed and aerosol production of HONO in the atmosphere is shown to be significant.
Akash Biswal, Vikas Singh, Shweta Singh, Amit P. Kesarkar, Khaiwal Ravindra, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip S. Dhomse, Richard J. Pope, Tanbir Singh, and Suman Mor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5235–5251,Short summary
Satellite and surface observations show a reduction in NO2 levels over India during the lockdown compared to business-as-usual years. A substantial reduction, proportional to the population, was observed over the urban areas. The changes in NO2 levels at the surface during the lockdown appear to be present in the satellite observations. However, TROPOMI showed a better correlation with surface NO2 and was more sensitive to the changes than OMI because of the finer resolution.
Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2125–2147,Short summary
To understand how emission controls will impact ozone, an understanding of the sources and sinks of OH and the chemical cycling between peroxy radicals is needed. This paper presents measurements of OH, HO2 and total RO2 taken in central Beijing. The radical observations are compared to a detailed chemistry model, which shows that under low NO conditions, there is a missing OH source. Under high NOx conditions, the model under-predicts RO2 and impacts our ability to model ozone.
Mike J. Newland, Daniel J. Bryant, Rachel E. Dunmore, Thomas J. Bannan, W. Joe F. Acton, Ben Langford, James R. Hopkins, Freya A. Squires, William Dixon, William S. Drysdale, Peter D. Ivatt, Mathew J. Evans, Peter M. Edwards, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James D. Lee, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Xinming Wang, Alastair C. Lewis, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1613–1625,Short summary
We report the formation of secondary pollutants in the urban megacity of Beijing that are typically associated with remote regions such as rainforests. This is caused by extremely low levels of nitric oxide (NO), typically expected to be high in urban areas, observed in the afternoon. This work has significant implications for how we understand atmospheric chemistry in the urban environment and thus for how to implement effective policies to improve urban air quality.
Huan Song, Xiaorui Chen, Keding Lu, Qi Zou, Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Alfred Wiedensohler, Daniel R. Moon, Dwayne E. Heard, María-Teresa Baeza-Romero, Mei Zheng, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15835–15850,Short summary
Accurate calculation of the HO2 uptake coefficient is one of the key parameters to quantify the co-reduction of both aerosol and ozone pollution. We modelled various lab measurements of γHO2 based on a gas-liquid phase kinetic model and developed a state-of-the-art parameterized equation. Based on a dataset from a comprehensive field campaign in the North China Plain, we proposed that the determination of the heterogeneous uptake process for HO2 should be included in future field campaigns.
Eloise J. Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa Kramer, William Bloss, Tuan Vu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14847–14871,Short summary
The paper details atmospheric chemistry in a megacity (Beijing), focussing on radicals which mediate the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Highly polluted conditions were experienced, including the highest ever levels of nitric oxide (NO), with simultaneous radical measurements. Radical concentrations were large during "haze" events, demonstrating active photochemistry. Modelling showed that our understanding of the chemistry at high NOx levels is incomplete.
Robert J. Parker, Chris Wilson, A. Anthony Bloom, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Joe McNorton, Hartmut Boesch, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Biogeosciences, 17, 5669–5691,Short summary
Wetlands contribute the largest uncertainty to the atmospheric methane budget. WetCHARTs is a simple, data-driven model that estimates wetland emissions using observations of precipitation and temperature. We perform the first detailed evaluation of WetCHARTs against satellite data and find it performs well in reproducing the observed wetland methane seasonal cycle for the majority of wetland regions. In regions where it performs poorly, we highlight incorrect wetland extent as a key reason.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Graham W. Mann, Juan Carlos Antuña Marrero, Sarah E. Shallcross, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Lauren Marshall, N. Luke Abraham, and Colin E. Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13627–13654,Short summary
We confirm downward adjustment of SO2 emission to simulate the Pinatubo aerosol cloud with aerosol microphysics models. Similar adjustment is also needed to simulate the El Chichón and Agung volcanic cloud, indicating potential missing removal or vertical redistribution process in models. Important inhomogeneities in the CMIP6 forcing datasets after Agung and El Chichón eruptions are difficult to reconcile. Quasi-biennial oscillation plays an important role in modifying stratospheric warming.
Benjamin Birner, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Eric J. Morgan, Britton B. Stephens, Marianna Linz, Wuhu Feng, Chris Wilson, Jonathan D. Bent, Steven C. Wofsy, Jeffrey Severinghaus, and Ralph F. Keeling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12391–12408,Short summary
With new high-precision observations from nine aircraft campaigns and 3-D chemical transport modeling, we show that the argon-to-nitrogen ratio (Ar / N2) in the lowermost stratosphere provides a useful constraint on the “age of air” (the time elapsed since entry of an air parcel into the stratosphere). Therefore, Ar / N2 in combination with traditional age-of-air indicators, such as CO2 and N2O, could provide new insights into atmospheric mixing and transport.
Matthew J. Rowlinson, Alexandru Rap, Douglas S. Hamilton, Richard J. Pope, Stijn Hantson, Steve R. Arnold, Jed O. Kaplan, Almut Arneth, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Piers M. Forster, and Lars Nieradzik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10937–10951,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone is an important greenhouse gas which contributes to anthropogenic climate change; however, the effect of human emissions is uncertain because pre-industrial ozone concentrations are not well understood. We use revised inventories of pre-industrial natural emissions to estimate the human contribution to changes in tropospheric ozone. We find that tropospheric ozone radiative forcing is up to 34 % lower when using improved pre-industrial biomass burning and vegetation emissions.
Yajuan Li, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Sandip S. Dhomse, Richard J. Pope, Faquan Li, and Dong Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8627–8639,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) exerts important thermal and dynamical effects on atmospheric circulation, climate change as well as the ozone distribution. In this study, we use updated observations and model simulations to investigate the ozone trends and variations over the TP. Wintertime TP ozone variations are largely controlled by tropical to high-latitude transport processes, whereas summertime concentrations are a combined effect of photochemical decay and tropical processes.
Daniele Visioni, Giovanni Pitari, Vincenzo Rizi, Marco Iarlori, Irene Cionni, Ilaria Quaglia, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martin Chipperfield, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rolando Garcia, Patrick Joeckel, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-François Lamarque, Marion Marchand, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Tatsuya Nagashima, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, David Plummer, Eugene Rozanov, David Saint-Martin, Robyn Schofield, John Scinocca, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Simone Tilmes, Holger Tost, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
In this work we analyse the trend in ozone profiles taken at L'Aquila (Italy, 42.4° N) for seventeen years, between 2000 and 2016 and compare them against already available measured ozone trends. We try to understand and explain the observed trends at various heights in light of the simulations from seventeen different model, highlighting the contribution of changes in circulation and chemical ozone loss during this time period.
Daniel J. Bryant, William J. Dixon, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Kelly L. Pereira, Marvin Shaw, Freya A. Squires, Thomas J. Bannan, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Bin Ouyang, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Di Liu, Zongbo Shi, Roy Harrison, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Alastair C. Lewis, James D. Lee, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7531–7552,Short summary
Using the chemical composition of offline filter samples, we report that a large share of oxidized organic aerosol in Beijing during summer is due to isoprene secondary organic aerosol (iSOA). iSOA organosulfates showed a strong correlation with the product of ozone and particulate sulfate. This highlights the role of both photochemistry and the availability of particulate sulfate in heterogeneous reactions and further demonstrates that iSOA formation is controlled by anthropogenic emissions.
James Keeble, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Paul T. Griffiths, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7153–7166,Short summary
The Montreal Protocol was agreed in 1987 to limit and then stop the production of man-made CFCs, which destroy stratospheric ozone. As a result, the atmospheric abundances of CFCs are now declining in the atmosphere. However, the atmospheric abundance of CFC-11 is not declining as expected under complete compliance with the Montreal Protocol. Using the UM-UKCA chemistry–climate model, we explore the impact of future unregulated production of CFC-11 on ozone recovery.
Robert Woodward-Massey, Eloise J. Slater, Jake Alen, Trevor Ingham, Danny R. Cryer, Leanne M. Stimpson, Chunxiang Ye, Paul W. Seakins, Lisa K. Whalley, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3119–3146,Short summary
The OH radical is known as nature’s detergent, removing most trace gases from the atmosphere. Hence, an accurate measurement of its concentration is very important. We present measurements of OH in several field locations using a laser-based fluorescence method equipped with an OH scavenger. By determining the background signal in two different ways, we show that the instrument does not suffer any significant interferences that could result in an overestimation of OH concentrations.
Lavinia Onel, Alexander Brennan, Michele Gianella, James Hooper, Nicole Ng, Gus Hancock, Lisa Whalley, Paul W. Seakins, Grant A. D. Ritchie, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2441–2456,
Andreas Chrysanthou, Amanda C. Maycock, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Weather Clim. Dynam., 1, 155–174,Short summary
We perform 50-year-long time-slice experiments using the Met Office HadGEM3 global climate model in order to decompose the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) response to an abrupt quadrupling of CO2 in three distinct components, (a) the rapid adjustment, associated with CO2 radiative effects; (b) a global uniform sea surface temperature warming; and (c) sea surface temperature patterns. This demonstrates a potential for fast and slow timescales of the response of the BDC to greenhouse gas forcing.
Clara Orbe, David A. Plummer, Darryn W. Waugh, Huang Yang, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas E. Kinnison, Beatrice Josse, Virginie Marecal, Makoto Deushi, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, and Slimane Bekki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3809–3840,Short summary
Atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by global-scale winds that are not always properly simulated in computer models. A common approach to correct for this bias is to relax or
nudgeto the observed winds. Here we systematically evaluate how well this technique performs across a large suite of chemistry–climate models in terms of its ability to reproduce key aspects of both the tropospheric and stratospheric circulations.
Alexander T. Archibald, Fiona M. O'Connor, Nathan Luke Abraham, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Fraser Dennison, Sandip S. Dhomse, Paul T. Griffiths, Catherine Hardacre, Alan J. Hewitt, Richard S. Hill, Colin E. Johnson, James Keeble, Marcus O. Köhler, Olaf Morgenstern, Jane P. Mulcahy, Carlos Ordóñez, Richard J. Pope, Steven T. Rumbold, Maria R. Russo, Nicholas H. Savage, Alistair Sellar, Marc Stringer, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1223–1266,Short summary
Here we present a description and evaluation of the UKCA stratosphere–troposphere chemistry scheme (StratTrop vn 1.0) implemented in the UK Earth System Model (UKESM1). UKCA StratTrop represents a substantial step forward compared to previous versions of UKCA. We show here that it is fully suited to the challenges of representing interactions in a coupled Earth system model and identify key areas and components for future development that will make it even better in the future.
Thomas H. Speak, Mark A. Blitz, Daniel Stone, and Paul W. Seakins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 839–852,Short summary
OH and HO2 radicals are important trace constituents of the atmosphere that are closely coupled via several types of reaction. This paper describes a new laboratory method to simultaneously determine OH kinetics and HO2 yields from chemical processes. The instrument also provides some time resolution on HO2 detection allowing one to separate HO2 produced from the target reaction from HO2 arising from secondary chemistry. Examples of applications are presented.
Andreas Chrysanthou, Amanda C. Maycock, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Hella Garny, Douglas Kinnison, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Makoto Deushi, Rolando R. Garcia, Patrick Jöckel, Oliver Kirner, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Laura Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Daniele Visioni, and Yousuke Yamashita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11559–11586,Short summary
We perform the first multi-model comparison of the impact of nudged meteorology on the stratospheric residual circulation (RC) in chemistry–climate models. Nudging meteorology does not constrain the mean strength of RC compared to free-running simulations, and despite the lack of agreement in the mean circulation, nudging tightly constrains the inter-annual variability in the tropical upward mass flux in the lower stratosphere. In summary, nudging strongly affects the representation of RC.
Kévin Lamy, Thierry Portafaix, Béatrice Josse, Colette Brogniez, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Hassan Bencherif, Laura Revell, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Michaela I. Hegglin, Patrick Jöckel, Oliver Kirner, Ben Liley, Virginie Marecal, Olaf Morgenstern, Andrea Stenke, Guang Zeng, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Neil Butchart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Glauco Di Genova, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rong-Ming Hu, Douglas Kinnison, Michael Kotkamp, Richard McKenzie, Martine Michou, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Eugene Rozanov, David Saint-Martin, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Daniele Visioni, and Kohei Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10087–10110,Short summary
In this study, we simulate the ultraviolet radiation evolution during the 21st century on Earth's surface using the output from several numerical models which participated in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative. We present four possible futures which depend on greenhouse gases emissions. The role of ozone-depleting substances, greenhouse gases and aerosols are investigated. Our results emphasize the important role of aerosols for future ultraviolet radiation in the Northern Hemisphere.
Michael Hollaway, Oliver Wild, Ting Yang, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Lisa Whalley, Eloise Slater, Dwayne Heard, and Dantong Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9699–9714,Short summary
This study, for the first time, uses combinations of aerosol and lidar data to drive an offline photolysis scheme. Absorbing species are shown to have the greatest impact on photolysis rate constants in the winter and scattering aerosol are shown to dominate responses in the summer. During haze episodes, aerosols are shown to produce a greater impact than cloud cover. The findings demonstrate the potential photochemical impacts of haze pollution in a highly polluted urban environment.
Matthew J. Rowlinson, Alexandru Rap, Stephen R. Arnold, Richard J. Pope, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Joe McNorton, Piers Forster, Hamish Gordon, Kirsty J. Pringle, Wuhu Feng, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry L. Latter, and Richard Siddans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8669–8686,Short summary
Wildfires and meteorology have a substantial effect on atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases such as methane and ozone. During the 1997 El Niño event, unusually large fire emissions indirectly increased global methane through carbon monoxide emission, which decreased the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. There were also large regional changes to tropospheric ozone concentrations, but contrasting effects of fire and meteorology resulted in a small change to global radiative forcing.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Evgenia Galytska, Alexey Rozanov, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip. S. Dhomse, Mark Weber, Carlo Arosio, Wuhu Feng, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 767–783,Short summary
In this study we analysed ozone changes in the tropical mid-stratosphere as observed by the SCIAMACHY instrument during 2004–2012. We used simulations from TOMCAT model with different chemical and dynamical forcings to reveal primary causes of ozone changes. We also considered measured NO2 and modelled NOx, NOx, and N2O data. With modelled AoA data we identified seasonal changes in the upwelling speed and explained how those changes affect N2O chemistry which leads to observed ozone changes.
Debora Griffin, Kaley A. Walker, Ingo Wohltmann, Sandip S. Dhomse, Markus Rex, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Gloria L. Manney, Jane Liu, and David Tarasick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 577–601,Short summary
Ozone in the stratosphere is important to protect the Earth from UV radiation. Using measurements taken by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment satellite between 2005 and 2013, we examine different methods to calculate the ozone loss in the high Arctic and establish the altitude at which most of the ozone is destroyed. Our results show that the different methods agree within the uncertainties. Recommendations are made on which methods are most appropriate to use.
Joe McNorton, Chris Wilson, Manuel Gloor, Rob J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Wuhu Feng, Ryan Hossaini, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18149–18168,Short summary
Since 2007 atmospheric methane (CH4) has been unexpectedly increasing following a 6-year hiatus. We have used an atmospheric model to attribute regional sources and global sinks of CH4 using observations for the 2003–2015 period. Model results show the renewed growth is best explained by decreased atmospheric removal, decreased biomass burning emissions, and an increased energy sector (mainly from Africa–Middle East and Southern Asia–Oceania) and wetland emissions (mainly from northern Eurasia).
Paul I. Palmer, Simon O'Doherty, Grant Allen, Keith Bower, Hartmut Bösch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sarah Connors, Sandip Dhomse, Liang Feng, Douglas P. Finch, Martin W. Gallagher, Emanuel Gloor, Siegfried Gonzi, Neil R. P. Harris, Carole Helfter, Neil Humpage, Brian Kerridge, Diane Knappett, Roderic L. Jones, Michael Le Breton, Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Matthiesen, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Sebastian O'Shea, Robert J. Parker, Carl J. Percival, Joseph Pitt, Stuart N. Riddick, Matthew Rigby, Harjinder Sembhi, Richard Siddans, Robert L. Skelton, Paul Smith, Hannah Sonderfeld, Kieran Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Angelina Wenger, Emily White, Christopher Wilson, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11753–11777,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) experiment. GAUGE was designed to quantify nationwide GHG emissions of the UK, bringing together measurements and atmospheric transport models. This novel experiment is the first of its kind. We anticipate it will inform the blueprint for countries that are building a measurement infrastructure in preparation for global stocktakes, which are a key part of the Paris Agreement.
Birgit Hassler, Stefanie Kremser, Greg E. Bodeker, Jared Lewis, Kage Nesbit, Sean M. Davis, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip S. Dhomse, and Martin Dameris
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1473–1490,
Maarten Krol, Marco de Bruine, Lars Killaars, Huug Ouwersloot, Andrea Pozzer, Yi Yin, Frederic Chevallier, Philippe Bousquet, Prabir Patra, Dmitry Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3109–3130,Short summary
The TransCom inter-comparison project regularly carries out studies to quantify errors in simulated atmospheric transport. This paper presents the first results of an age of air (AoA) inter-comparison of six global transport models. Following a protocol, six models simulated five tracers from which atmospheric transport times can easily be deduced. Results highlight that inter-model differences associated with atmospheric transport are still large and require further analysis.
Jens-Uwe Grooß, Rolf Müller, Reinhold Spang, Ines Tritscher, Tobias Wegner, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Douglas E. Kinnison, and Sasha Madronich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8647–8666,Short summary
We investigate a discrepancy between model simulations and observations of HCl in the dark polar stratosphere. In early winter, the less-well-studied period of the onset of chlorine activation, observations show a much faster depletion of HCl than simulations of three models. This points to some unknown process that is currently not represented in the models. Various hypotheses for potential causes are investigated that partly reduce the discrepancy. The impact on polar ozone depletion is low.
Richard J. Pope, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Stephen R. Arnold, Norbert Glatthor, Wuhu Feng, Sandip S. Dhomse, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry G. Latter, and Richard Siddans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8389–8408,
Sandip S. Dhomse, Douglas Kinnison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Ross J. Salawitch, Irene Cionni, Michaela I. Hegglin, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alex T. Archibald, Ewa M. Bednarz, Slimane Bekki, Peter Braesicke, Neal Butchart, Martin Dameris, Makoto Deushi, Stacey Frith, Steven C. Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, Rong-Ming Hu, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Oliver Kirner, Stefanie Kremser, Ulrike Langematz, Jared Lewis, Marion Marchand, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8409–8438,Short summary
We analyse simulations from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) to estimate the return dates of the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion by anthropogenic chlorine and bromine. The simulations from 20 models project that global column ozone will return to 1980 values in 2047 (uncertainty range 2042–2052). Return dates in other regions vary depending on factors related to climate change and importance of chlorine and bromine. Column ozone in the tropics may continue to decline.
Jacob T. Shaw, Richard T. Lidster, Danny R. Cryer, Noelia Ramirez, Fiona C. Whiting, Graham A. Boustead, Lisa K. Whalley, Trevor Ingham, Andrew R. Rickard, Rachel E. Dunmore, Dwayne E. Heard, Ally C. Lewis, Lucy J. Carpenter, Jacqui F. Hamilton, and Terry J. Dillon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4039–4054,Short summary
The lifetime of a chemical in the atmosphere is largely governed by the rate of its reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Measurements of rates for many of the thousands of identified volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have yet to be determined experimentally. We have developed a new technique for the rapid determination of gas-phase rate coefficients for the simultaneous reactions between multiple VOCs and OH. The method is tasted across a range of scenarios and is used to derive new values.
Daniel Stone, Tomás Sherwen, Mathew J. Evans, Stewart Vaughan, Trevor Ingham, Lisa K. Whalley, Peter M. Edwards, Katie A. Read, James D. Lee, Sarah J. Moller, Lucy J. Carpenter, Alastair C. Lewis, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3541–3561,Short summary
Halogen chemistry in the troposphere impacts oxidising capacity, but model studies assessing the nature of these impacts can vary according to the model framework used. In this work we present simulations of OH and HO2 radicals using both box and global model frameworks, and compare to observations made at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory. We highlight, and rationalise, differences between the model frameworks.
Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Rachel Dunmore, Jacqueline Hamilton, James R. Hopkins, James D. Lee, Alastair C. Lewis, Paul Williams, Jörg Kleffmann, Sebastian Laufs, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2547–2571,Short summary
This paper presents the first radical observations made in London and subsequent model comparisons. This work highlights that there are uncertainties in the degradation mechanism of complex biogenic and diesel-related VOC species under low-NOx conditions and under high-NOx conditions there is a missing source of RO2 radicals. The impact of these model uncertainties on in situ ozone production as a function of NOx is discussed.
Andreas Engel, Harald Bönisch, Jennifer Ostermöller, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 601–619,Short summary
We present a new method to derive equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), which is based on an improved formulation of the propagation of trends of species with chemical loss from the troposphere to the stratosphere. EESC calculated with the new method shows much better agreement with model-derived ESC. Based on this new formulation, we expect the halogen impact on midlatitude stratospheric ozone to return to 1980 values about 10 years later, then using the current formulation.
Lavinia Onel, Alexander Brennan, Michele Gianella, Grace Ronnie, Ana Lawry Aguila, Gus Hancock, Lisa Whalley, Paul W. Seakins, Grant A. D. Ritchie, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4877–4894,Short summary
Hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals are key intermediates participating in a rapid chemical cycling at the centre of the tropospheric oxidation. Fluorescence assay by gas expansion (FAGE) technique is the most commonly used for the HO2 measurements in the atmosphere. However, FAGE is an indirect technique, requiring calibration. This work finds a good agreement between the indirect FAGE method and the direct cavity ring-down spectroscopy method and hence validates FAGE and the FAGE calibration method.
Lavinia Onel, Alexander Brennan, Paul W. Seakins, Lisa Whalley, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3985–4000,Short summary
Methyl peroxy (CH3O2) radicals are the most abundant organic peroxy radical species and are critical intermediates in rapid chemical cycling at the heart of tropospheric oxidation. Despite their importance, at present CH3O2 radicals are not specifically measured in the atmosphere by any direct or indirect method. This work presents a new method for the selective and sensitive detection of CH3O2 radicals and its use for the measurement of CH3O2 in the atmospheric simulation chamber HIRAC.
Hendrik Fuchs, Anna Novelli, Michael Rolletter, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Stephan Kessel, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams, Vincent Michoud, Sebastien Dusanter, Nadine Locoge, Nora Zannoni, Valerie Gros, Francois Truong, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Danny R. Cryer, Charlotte A. Brumby, Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Paul W. Seakins, Dwayne E. Heard, Coralie Schoemaecker, Marion Blocquet, Sebastien Coudert, Sebastien Batut, Christa Fittschen, Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, Cheryl Ernest, Hartwig Harder, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Thomas Elste, Dagmar Kubistin, Stefanie Andres, Birger Bohn, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Qi Zou, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4023–4053,Short summary
Hydroxyl radical reactivity (k(OH)) is closely related to processes that lead to the formation of oxidised, secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosol. In order to compare the performances of instruments measuring k(OH), experiments were conducted in the simulation chamber SAPHIR. Chemical conditions were chosen either to be representative of the atmosphere or to test potential limitations of instruments. Overall, the results show that instruments are capable of measuring k(OH).
Sarah A. Monks, Stephen R. Arnold, Michael J. Hollaway, Richard J. Pope, Chris Wilson, Wuhu Feng, Kathryn M. Emmerson, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry L. Latter, Georgina M. Miles, Richard Siddans, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3025–3057,Short summary
The TOMCAT chemical transport model has been updated with the chemical degradation of ethene, propene, toluene, butane and monoterpenes. The tropospheric chemical mechanism is documented and the model is evaluated against surface, balloon, aircraft and satellite data. The model is generally able to capture the main spatial and seasonal features of carbon monoxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds and reactive nitrogen. However, some model biases are found that require further investigation.
Wenshou Tian, Yuanpu Li, Fei Xie, Jiankai Zhang, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Yongyun Hu, Sen Zhao, Xin Zhou, Yun Yang, and Xuan Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6705–6722,Short summary
Although the principal mechanisms responsible for the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole are well understood, the factors or processes that generate interannual variations in ozone levels in the southern high-latitude stratosphere remain under debate. This study finds that the SST variations across the East Asian marginal seas (5° S–35° N, 100–140° E) could modulate the southern high-latitude stratospheric ozone interannual changes.
Shreeya Verma, Julia Marshall, Mark Parrington, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Sebastien Massart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Christopher Wilson, and Christoph Gerbig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6663–6678,Short summary
Aircraft profiles are a useful reference for validation of satellite-based column-averaged dry air mole fraction data. However, these are available only up to about 9–13 km altitude and therefore need to be extended synthetically into the stratosphere using other sources. In this study, we analyse three different data sources that are available for extension of CH4 profiles by comparing the error introduced by each into the total column and provide recommendations regarding the best approach.
Jochen Stutz, Bodo Werner, Max Spolaor, Lisa Scalone, James Festa, Catalina Tsai, Ross Cheung, Santo F. Colosimo, Ugo Tricoli, Rasmus Raecke, Ryan Hossaini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Ru-Shan Gao, Eric J. Hintsa, James W. Elkins, Fred L. Moore, Bruce Daube, Jasna Pittman, Steven Wofsy, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1017–1042,Short summary
A new limb-scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument was developed for NASA’s Global Hawk unmanned aerial system during the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment to study trace gases in the tropical tropopause layer. A new technique that uses in situ and DOAS O3 observations together with radiative transfer calculations allows the retrieval of mixing ratios from the slant column densities of BrO and NO2 at high accuracies of 0.5 ppt and 15 ppt, respectively.
Olaf Morgenstern, Michaela I. Hegglin, Eugene Rozanov, Fiona M. O'Connor, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rolando R. Garcia, Steven C. Hardiman, Larry W. Horowitz, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Michael E. Manyin, Marion Marchand, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, David Saint-Martin, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Simone Tilmes, Yousuke Yamashita, Kohei Yoshida, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 639–671,Short summary
We present a review of the make-up of 20 models participating in the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). In comparison to earlier such activities, most of these models comprise a whole-atmosphere chemistry, and several of them include an interactive ocean module. This makes them suitable for studying the interactions of tropospheric air quality, stratospheric ozone, and climate. The paper lays the foundation for other studies using the CCMI simulations for scientific analysis.
Bodo Werner, Jochen Stutz, Max Spolaor, Lisa Scalone, Rasmus Raecke, James Festa, Santo Fedele Colosimo, Ross Cheung, Catalina Tsai, Ryan Hossaini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Giorgio S. Taverna, Wuhu Feng, James W. Elkins, David W. Fahey, Ru-Shan Gao, Erik J. Hintsa, Troy D. Thornberry, Free Lee Moore, Maria A. Navarro, Elliot Atlas, Bruce C. Daube, Jasna Pittman, Steve Wofsy, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1161–1186,Short summary
The paper reports on inorganic and organic bromine measured in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the eastern Pacific in early 2013. Bryinorg is found to increase from a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ppt for θ in the range of 350–360 K to 5.11 ± 1.57 ppt for θ=390 ± 400 K, whereas in the subtropical lower stratosphere, it reaches 7.66 ± 2.95 ppt for θ in the range of 390–400 K. Within the TTL, total bromine is found to range from 20.3 ppt to 22.3 ppt.
Tamás Kovács, Wuhu Feng, Anna Totterdill, John M. C. Plane, Sandip Dhomse, Juan Carlos Gómez-Martín, Gabriele P. Stiller, Florian J. Haenel, Christopher Smith, Piers M. Forster, Rolando R. García, Daniel R. Marsh, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 883–898,Short summary
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a very potent greenhouse gas, which is present in the atmosphere only through its industrial use, for example as an electrical insulator. To estimate accurately the impact of SF6 emissions on climate we need to know how long it persists in the atmosphere before being removed. Previous estimates of the SF6 lifetime indicate a large degree of uncertainty. Here we use a detailed atmospheric model to calculate a current best estimate of the SF6 lifetime.
Martyn P. Chipperfield, Qing Liang, Matthew Rigby, Ryan Hossaini, Stephen A. Montzka, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, L. Paul Steele, James D. Happell, Robert C. Rhew, James Butler, Shari A. Yvon-Lewis, Bradley Hall, David Nance, Fred Moore, Ben R. Miller, James W. Elkins, Jeremy J. Harrison, Chris D. Boone, Elliot L. Atlas, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15741–15754,Short summary
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a compound which, when released into the atmosphere, can cause depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Its emissions are controlled under the Montreal Protocol, and its atmospheric abundance is slowly decreasing. However, this decrease is not as fast as expected based on estimates of its emissions and its atmospheric lifetime. We have used an atmospheric model to look at the uncertainties in the CCl4 lifetime and to examine the impact on its atmospheric decay.
Richard J. Pope, Nigel A. D. Richards, Martyn P. Chipperfield, David P. Moore, Sarah A. Monks, Stephen R. Arnold, Norbert Glatthor, Michael Kiefer, Tom J. Breider, Jeremy J. Harrison, John J. Remedios, Carsten Warneke, James M. Roberts, Glenn S. Diskin, Lewis G. Huey, Armin Wisthaler, Eric C. Apel, Peter F. Bernath, and Wuhu Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13541–13559,
Pascale S. J. Lakey, Thomas Berkemeier, Manuel Krapf, Josef Dommen, Sarah S. Steimer, Lisa K. Whalley, Trevor Ingham, Maria T. Baeza-Romero, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, Markus Ammann, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13035–13047,Short summary
Chemical oxidation in the atmosphere removes pollutants and greenhouse gases but generates undesirable products such as secondary organic aerosol. Radicals are key intermediates in oxidation, but how they interact with aerosols is still not well understood. Here we use a laser to measure the loss of radicals onto oxidised aerosols generated in a smog chamber. The loss of radicals was controlled by the thickness or viscosity of the aerosols, confirmed by using sugar aerosols of known thickness.
Óscar Gálvez, M. Teresa Baeza-Romero, Mikel Sanz, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12703–12713,Short summary
Reactive iodine species play a key role in the oxidation capacity of the polar troposphere, although sources and mechanisms are poorly understood. In this paper, the photolysis of frozen iodate salt has been studied, confirming that under near-UV–Vis radiation iodate is photolysed. Incorporating this result into an Antarctic atmospheric model, we have shown that it could increase the atmospheric IO levels and could constitute a pathway for the release of active iodine to the polar atmosphere
Anna Totterdill, Tamás Kovács, Wuhu Feng, Sandip Dhomse, Christopher J. Smith, Juan Carlos Gómez-Martín, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Piers M. Forster, and John M. C. Plane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11451–11463,Short summary
In this study we have experimentally determined the infrared absorption cross sections of NF3 and CFC-115, calculated the radiative forcing and efficiency using two radiative transfer models and identified the effect of clouds and stratospheric adjustment. We have also determined their atmospheric lifetimes using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model.
Tamás Kovács, John M. C. Plane, Wuhu Feng, Tibor Nagy, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Pekka T. Verronen, Monika E. Andersson, David A. Newnham, Mark A. Clilverd, and Daniel R. Marsh
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3123–3136,Short summary
This study was completed on D-region atmospheric model development. The sophisticated 3-D Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) and the 1-D Sodynkalä Ion and Neutral Chemistry Model (SIC) were combined in order to provide a detailed, accurate model (WACCM-SIC) that considers the processes taking place in solar proton events. The original SIC model was reduced by mechanism reduction, which provided an accurate sub-mechanism (rSIC, WACCM-rSIC) of the original model.
Jeremy J. Harrison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Christopher D. Boone, Sandip S. Dhomse, Peter F. Bernath, Lucien Froidevaux, John Anderson, and James Russell III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10501–10519,Short summary
HF, the dominant stratospheric fluorine reservoir, results from the atmospheric degradation of anthropogenic species such as CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs. All are strong greenhouse gases, and CFCs and HCFCs deplete stratospheric ozone. We report the comparison of HF global distributions and trends measured by the ACE-FTS and HALOE satellite instruments with the output of SLIMCAT, a chemical transport model. The global HF trends reveal a slowing down in the rate of increase of HF since the 1990s.
Birger Bohn, Dwayne E. Heard, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Rainer Schmitt, and Lisa K. Whalley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3455–3466,Short summary
Filter radiometers are instruments that quantify the rate of formation of excited oxygen atoms from photolysis of ozone in the atmosphere. The excited oxygen atoms are important for the atmospheric self-cleaning ability. The radiometers were characterised by measurements of their spectral response. Together with field comparisons with a reference instrument, the characterisations improved the performance. That will help to better understand atmospheric photochemistry in future research.
Daniel Stone, Lisa K. Whalley, Trevor Ingham, Peter M. Edwards, Danny R. Cryer, Charlotte A. Brumby, Paul W. Seakins, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2827–2844,Short summary
OH reactivity is the total pseudo-first-order loss rate coefficient describing the removal of OH radicals to all sinks in the atmosphere. Measurements of ambient OH reactivity can be used to discover the extent to which measured OH sinks contribute to the total OH loss rate. In this work, we describe the design and characterisation of an instrument to measure OH reactivity using laser flash photolysis coupled to laser-induced fluorescence (LFP-LIF) spectroscopy.
Joe McNorton, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Manuel Gloor, Chris Wilson, Wuhu Feng, Garry D. Hayman, Matt Rigby, Paul B. Krummel, Simon O'Doherty, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Dickon Young, Ed Dlugokencky, and Steve A. Montzka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7943–7956,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. The growth of atmospheric CH4 stalled from 1999 to 2006, with current explanations focussed mainly on changing surface fluxes. We combine models with observations and meteorological data to assess the atmospheric contribution to CH4 changes. We find that variations in mean atmospheric hydroxyl concentration can explain part of the stall in growth. Our study highlights the role of multi-annual variability in atmospheric chemistry in global CH4 trends.
Chris Reed, Charlotte A. Brumby, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Paul W. Seakins, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2483–2495,Short summary
A new method of measuring nitrous acid (HONO), a potent mediator of air quality in the atmosphere as well as an important indoor pollutant, is presented. The new method relies on simple, proven techniques already widely applied to other atmospheric compounds. The technique can be retrofitted to existing analysers at minimal cost, or developed into instruments capable of very fast measurement which allow for more complex analysis of the behaviour of HONO.
Frank A. F. Winiberg, Terry J. Dillon, Stephanie C. Orr, Christoph B. M Groß, Iustinian Bejan, Charlotte A. Brumby, Matthew J. Evans, Shona C. Smith, Dwayne E. Heard, and Paul W. Seakins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4023–4042,Short summary
OH radicals are important intermediates in the atmosphere, and the high concentrations observed in tropical regions are yet to be fully explained. Radical-radical reactions such as the title reaction can contribute to OH formation. This is the most fully comprehensive study of the CH3C(O)O2 + HO2 reaction with direct observation of products in all reaction channels. The implications of the new measurements on OH, PAN and NOx concentrations are considered via global models.
J. D. Lee, L. K. Whalley, D. E. Heard, D. Stone, R. E. Dunmore, J. F. Hamilton, D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, S. Laufs, and J. Kleffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2747–2764,Short summary
This paper presents field measurements of HONO and a range of other gas phase and particulate species from an urban background site in London. The measured daytime HONO cannot be reproduced with a simple box model and thus a significant daytime missing source of HONO is present. We show that this missing source could be responsible for 40 % of the OH radical source and 57 % of the OH initiation; hence its potential importance for atmospheric oxidation and ozone production.
Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Brian Bandy, Rachel Dunmore, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, James Hopkins, James D. Lee, Alastair C. Lewis, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2109–2122,
R. J. Pope, N. H. Savage, M. P. Chipperfield, C. Ordóñez, and L. S. Neal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11201–11215,
H. M. Walker, D. Stone, T. Ingham, S. Vaughan, M. Cain, R. L. Jones, O. J. Kennedy, M. McLeod, B. Ouyang, J. Pyle, S. Bauguitte, B. Bandy, G. Forster, M. J. Evans, J. F. Hamilton, J. R. Hopkins, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, R. T. Lidster, S. Punjabi, W. T. Morgan, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8179–8200,
R. J. Pope, M. P. Chipperfield, N. H. Savage, C. Ordóñez, L. S. Neal, L. A. Lee, S. S. Dhomse, N. A. D. Richards, and T. D. Keslake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5611–5626,
N. S. Umo, B. J. Murray, M. T. Baeza-Romero, J. M. Jones, A. R. Lea-Langton, T. L. Malkin, D. O'Sullivan, L. Neve, J. M. C. Plane, and A. Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5195–5210,Short summary
Combustion ash particles nucleate ice in the immersion mode at conditions relevant to mixed-phase clouds. Hence, combustion ashes could play an important role in primary ice formation in mixed-phase clouds, especially in clouds that are formed near the emission source of these aerosol particles. From this study, there is a need to quantify the atmospheric abundance of combustion ashes in order to quantitatively assess the impact of combustion ashes on mixed-phase clouds.
S. A. Monks, S. R. Arnold, L. K. Emmons, K. S. Law, S. Turquety, B. N. Duncan, J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, S. Tilmes, J. Langner, J. Mao, Y. Long, J. L. Thomas, S. D. Steenrod, J. C. Raut, C. Wilson, M. P. Chipperfield, G. S. Diskin, A. Weinheimer, H. Schlager, and G. Ancellet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3575–3603,Short summary
Multi-model simulations of Arctic CO, O3 and OH are evaluated using observations. Models show highly variable concentrations but the relative importance of emission regions and types is robust across the models, demonstrating the importance of biomass burning as a source. Idealised tracer experiments suggest that some of the model spread is due to variations in simulated transport from Europe in winter and from Asia throughout the year.
L. K. Whalley, D. Stone, I. J. George, S. Mertes, D. van Pinxteren, A. Tilgner, H. Herrmann, M. J. Evans, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3289–3301,
F. A. F. Winiberg, S. C. Smith, I. Bejan, C. A. Brumby, T. Ingham, T. L. Malkin, S. C. Orr, D. E. Heard, and P. W. Seakins
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 523–540,
G. D. Hayman, F. M. O'Connor, M. Dalvi, D. B. Clark, N. Gedney, C. Huntingford, C. Prigent, M. Buchwitz, O. Schneising, J. P. Burrows, C. Wilson, N. Richards, and M. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13257–13280,Short summary
Globally, wetlands are a major source of methane, which is the second most important greenhouse gas. We find the JULES wetland methane scheme to perform well in general, although there is a tendency for it to overpredict emissions in the tropics and underpredict them in northern latitudes. Our study highlights novel uses of satellite data as a major tool to constrain land-atmosphere methane flux models in a warming world.
J. J. Harrison, M. P. Chipperfield, A. Dudhia, S. Cai, S. Dhomse, C. D. Boone, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11915–11933,
C. Wilson, M. P. Chipperfield, M. Gloor, and F. Chevallier
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2485–2500,
S. S. Dhomse, K. M. Emmerson, G. W. Mann, N. Bellouin, K. S. Carslaw, M. P. Chipperfield, R. Hommel, N. L. Abraham, P. Telford, P. Braesicke, M. Dalvi, C. E. Johnson, F. O'Connor, O. Morgenstern, J. A. Pyle, T. Deshler, J. M. Zawodny, and L. W. Thomason
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11221–11246,
L. Kritten, A. Butz, M. P. Chipperfield, M. Dorf, S. Dhomse, R. Hossaini, H. Oelhaf, C. Prados-Roman, G. Wetzel, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9555–9566,
P. S. J. Matthews, M. T. Baeza-Romero, L. K. Whalley, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7397–7408,
R. L. Thompson, P. K. Patra, K. Ishijima, E. Saikawa, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, C. Wilson, P. Bergamaschi, E. Dlugokencky, C. Sweeney, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, P. B. Krummel, M. Saunois, M. Chipperfield, and P. Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4349–4368,
D. Stone, M. J. Evans, H. Walker, T. Ingham, S. Vaughan, B. Ouyang, O. J. Kennedy, M. W. McLeod, R. L. Jones, J. Hopkins, S. Punjabi, R. Lidster, J. F. Hamilton, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, L. J. Carpenter, G. Forster, D. E. Oram, C. E. Reeves, S. Bauguitte, W. Morgan, H. Coe, E. Aruffo, C. Dari-Salisburgo, F. Giammaria, P. Di Carlo, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1299–1321,
X. Pang, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, M. T. Baeza-Romero, T. J. Adams, S. M. Ball, M. J. S. Daniels, I. C. A. Goodall, P. S. Monks, S. Peppe, M. Ródenas García, P. Sánchez, and A. Muñoz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 373–389,
A. T. Brown, M. P. Chipperfield, N. A. D. Richards, C. Boone, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 267–282,
L. K. Whalley, M. A. Blitz, M. Desservettaz, P. W. Seakins, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3425–3440,
R. Hossaini, H. Mantle, M. P. Chipperfield, S. A. Montzka, P. Hamer, F. Ziska, B. Quack, K. Krüger, S. Tegtmeier, E. Atlas, S. Sala, A. Engel, H. Bönisch, T. Keber, D. Oram, G. Mills, C. Ordóñez, A. Saiz-Lopez, N. Warwick, Q. Liang, W. Feng, F. Moore, B. R. Miller, V. Marécal, N. A. D. Richards, M. Dorf, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11819–11838,
S. S. Dhomse, M. P. Chipperfield, W. Feng, W. T. Ball, Y. C. Unruh, J. D. Haigh, N. A. Krivova, S. K. Solanki, and A. K. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10113–10123,
R. Locatelli, P. Bousquet, F. Chevallier, A. Fortems-Cheney, S. Szopa, M. Saunois, A. Agusti-Panareda, D. Bergmann, H. Bian, P. Cameron-Smith, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Gloor, S. Houweling, S. R. Kawa, M. Krol, P. K. Patra, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, R. Saito, and C. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9917–9937,
P. M. Edwards, M. J. Evans, K. L. Furneaux, J. Hopkins, T. Ingham, C. Jones, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, S. J. Moller, D. Stone, L. K. Whalley, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9497–9514,
N. J. Warwick, A. T. Archibald, K. Ashworth, J. Dorsey, P. M. Edwards, D. E. Heard, B. Langford, J. Lee, P. K. Misztal, L. K. Whalley, and J. A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9183–9194,
A. T. Brown, M. P. Chipperfield, S. Dhomse, C. Boone, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
P. D. Hamer, V. Marécal, R. Hossaini, M. Pirre, N. Warwick, M. Chipperfield, A. A. Samah, N. Harris, A. Robinson, B. Quack, A. Engel, K. Krüger, E. Atlas, K. Subramaniam, D. Oram, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, G. Mills, K. Pfeilsticker, S. Sala, T. Keber, H. Bönisch, L. K. Peng, M. S. M. Nadzir, P. T. Lim, A. Mujahid, A. Anton, H. Schlager, V. Catoire, G. Krysztofiak, S. Fühlbrügge, M. Dorf, and W. T. Sturges
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
S. Kreycy, C. Camy-Peyret, M. P. Chipperfield, M. Dorf, W. Feng, R. Hossaini, L. Kritten, B. Werner, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6263–6274,
N. A. D. Richards, S. R. Arnold, M. P. Chipperfield, G. Miles, A. Rap, R. Siddans, S. A. Monks, and M. J. Hollaway
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2331–2345,
D. A. Belikov, S. Maksyutov, M. Krol, A. Fraser, M. Rigby, H. Bian, A. Agusti-Panareda, D. Bergmann, P. Bousquet, P. Cameron-Smith, M. P. Chipperfield, A. Fortems-Cheiney, E. Gloor, K. Haynes, P. Hess, S. Houweling, S. R. Kawa, R. M. Law, Z. Loh, L. Meng, P. I. Palmer, P. K. Patra, R. G. Prinn, R. Saito, and C. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1093–1114,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Stratosphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)The importance of acid-processed meteoric smoke relative to meteoric fragments for crystal nucleation in polar stratospheric cloudsNucleation of nitric acid hydrates in polar stratospheric clouds by meteoric materialEvaporation of sulfate aerosols at low relative humidityHeterogeneous kinetics of H2O, HNO3 and HCl on HNO3 hydrates (α-NAT, β-NAT, NAD) in the range 175–200 KComplex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol aciditiesInteractions of meteoric smoke particles with sulphuric acid in the Earth's stratosphereQuantification of PM2.5 organic carbon sampling artifacts in US networks
Alexander D. James, Finn Pace, Sebastien N. F. Sikora, Graham W. Mann, John M. C. Plane, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2215–2233,Short summary
Here, we examine whether several materials of meteoric origin can nucleate crystallisation in stratospheric cloud droplets which would affect ozone depletion. We find that material which could fragment on atmospheric entry without melting is unlikely to be present in high enough concentration in the stratosphere to contribute to observed crystalline clouds. Material which ablates completely then forms a new solid known as meteoric smoke can provide enough nucleation to explain observed clouds.
Alexander D. James, James S. A. Brooke, Thomas P. Mangan, Thomas F. Whale, John M. C. Plane, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4519–4531,Short summary
Crystal nucleation in polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) has a direct impact on stratospheric chemistry and ozone. However, the mechanism of nucleation has been unclear for decades, limiting prediction of the response of ozone to atmospheric changes. We experimentally demonstrate that meteoric material can trigger nucleation heterogeneously and this can produce observed crystal concentrations in PSCs. This discovery paves the way to robust modelling of past and future trends in PSCs and ozone.
Georgios Tsagkogeorgas, Pontus Roldin, Jonathan Duplissy, Linda Rondo, Jasmin Tröstl, Jay G. Slowik, Sebastian Ehrhart, Alessandro Franchin, Andreas Kürten, Antonio Amorim, Federico Bianchi, Jasper Kirkby, Tuukka Petäjä, Urs Baltensperger, Michael Boy, Joachim Curtius, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Neil M. Donahue, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8923–8938,Short summary
The H2SO4 vapour pressure plays key role in Earth's and Venus' atmospheres. In regions where RH is low and stabilising bases are scarce, H2SO4 can evaporate from particles; however the H2SO4 vapour pressure at low RH is uncertain. To address this, we measured H2SO4 evaporation versus T and RH in the CLOUD chamber and constrained the equilibrium constants for dissociation and dehydration of H2SO4. This study is important for nucleation, particle growth and H2SO4 formation occurring in atmosphere.
Riccardo Iannarelli and Michel J. Rossi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11937–11960,Short summary
Both adsorption and evaporation kinetics of water, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid on nitric acid hydrates were measured under upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric conditions. The evaporative lifetimes of "contaminated" ice clouds are important parameters for heterogeneous processing controlling polar ozone in the winter/spring season ("ozone hole"). We measured both the adsorption and evaporation kinetics, resulting in the corresponding vapor pressure as a validity check of the results.
A. L. Van Wyngarden, S. Pérez-Montaño, J. V. H. Bui, E. S. W. Li, T. E. Nelson, K. T. Ha, L. Leong, and L. T. Iraci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4225–4239,Short summary
We have observed the formation of colored organic surface films on solutions of propanal and sulfuric acid at acidities chosen to mimic the highly acidic aerosols in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The films were found to be composed of aldol condensation products and polyacetals. If such species also form coatings on atmospheric aerosols, they could impact climate by changing the chemical, optical and cloud-forming properties of aerosols.
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4387–4398,
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One geoengineering mitigation strategy for global temperature rises is to inject particles into the stratosphere to scatter solar radiation back to space. However, the injection of such particles must not perturb ozone. We measured the rate of uptake of HO2 radicals, an important stratospheric intermediate, onto TiO2 particles. Using the atmospheric model TOMCAT, we showed that surface reactions between HO2 and TiO2 would have a negligible effect on stratospheric concentrations of HO2 and ozone.
One geoengineering mitigation strategy for global temperature rises is to inject particles into...