Articles | Volume 22, issue 13
05 Jul 2022
Research article | 05 Jul 2022
Improving NOx emission estimates in Beijing using network observations and a perturbed emissions ensemble
Le Yuan et al.
No articles found.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Drew C. Pendergrass, Nadia K. Colombi, Viral Shah, Laura Hyesung Yang, Qiang Zhang, Shuxiao Wang, Hwajin Kim, Yele Sun, Jin-Soo Choi, Jin-Soo Park, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Jack E. Dibb, Taehyoung Lee, Jin-Seok Han, Bruce E. Anderson, Ke Li, and Hong Liao
Anthropogenic fugitive dust is causing severe coarse particulate matter (PM) air pollution in East Asia. Due to emission control efforts, coarse PM decreased steadily. We find that the decrease of coarse PM is the major reason for the lack decrease of fine particulate nitrate, as it allows more nitric acid to form fine particulate nitrate. The continuing decrease of coarse PM requires more stringent ammonia and nitrogen oxides emission controls to successfully decrease fine particulate nitrate.
Joanna E. Dyson, Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Jingsha Xu, Zongbo Shi, Roy M. Harrison, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lianfang Wei, Pingqing Fu, Xinming Wang, Stephen R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The hydroxyl (OH) and closely coupled hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals are vital for their role in the removal of atmospheric pollutants. In less polluted regions, atmospheric models over-predict HO2 concentrations. In this modelling study, the impact of heterogeneous uptake of HO2 onto aerosol surfaces on radical concentrations and ozone production regime in Beijing Summertime is investigated, and the implications for emissions policies across China are considered.
Scott Archer-Nicholls, Rachel Allen, Nathan Luke Abraham, Paul Thomas Griffiths, and Alexander Thomas Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The nitrate radical is the major oxidant at nighttime but much less is known about it than the other oxidants ozone and OH. Here we use Earth System model calculations to show how the nitrate radical has changed in abundance from 1850–2014 and through to 2100 under a range of different climate and emission scenarios. We show that depending on the emissions and climate scenario significant increases are projected with implications for the oxidation of VOCs and the formation fine aerosol.
Qingyang Xiao, Guannan Geng, Shigan Liu, Jiajun Liu, Xia Meng, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13229–13242,Short summary
We provided complete coverage PM2.5 concentrations at a 1-km resolution from 2000 to the present, carefully considering the significant changes in land use characteristics in China. This high-resolution PM2.5 data successfully revealed the local-scale PM2.5 variations. We noticed changes in PM2.5 spatial patterns in association with the clean air policies, with the pollution hotspots having transferred from urban centers to rural regions with limited air quality monitoring.
Fouzia Fahrin, Daniel C. Jones, Yan Wu, James Keeble, and Alexander T. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
We use a machine learning technique called Gaussian Mixture Modeling (GMM) to classify vertical ozone profiles into groups based on how the ozone concentration changes with pressure. Even though the GMM algorithm was not provided with spatial information, the classes are geographically coherent. We also detect signatures of tropical broadening in UKESM1 future climate scenarios. GMM may be useful for understanding ozone structures in modeled and observed datasets.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Doug Lowe, Jill Johnson, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael Flynn, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Ying Chen, Oliver Wild, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Alex Archibald, Siddhartha Singh, Manish Shrivastava, Rahul A. Zaveri, Vikas Singh, Gufran Beig, Ranjeet Sokhi, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Organic aerosols (OA), their sources and processes remain poorly understood. The volatility basis set (VBS) approach, implemented in air quality models such as WRF-Chem, can be a useful tool to describe POA production and aging. However, the main disadvantage is its complexity. We used a Gaussian process simulator to reproduce model results and estimate the sources of model uncertainty. We do this by comparing the outputs with OA observations taken at Delhi, India in 2018.
Marios Panagi, Roberto Sommariva, Zoë L. Fleming, Paul S. Monks, Gongda Lu, Eloise A. Marais, James R. Hopkins, Alastair C. Lewis, Qiang Zhang, James D. Lee, Freya A. Squires, Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Dwayne E. Heard, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
A dispersion model and a box model were combined to investigate the evolution of VOCs in Beijing once they are emitted from anthropogenic sources. It was determined that during the winter time the VOC concentrations in Beijing are driven predominantly by sources within Beijing and by a combination of transport and chemistry during the summer. Furthermore, the results in the paper highlight the need for a season specific policy.
Maria R. Russo, Brian J. Kerridge, Nathan L. Abraham, James Keeble, Barry G. Latter, Richard Siddans, James Weber, Paul T. Griffiths, John A. Pyle, and Alexander T. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Tropospheric ozone is an important component of the Earth System as it can affect both climate and air quality. In this work we use observed tropospheric ozone derived from satellite observations and compare it to tropospheric ozone from model simulations. Our aim is to investigate recent changes (2005-2018) in tropospheric ozone in the North Atlantic region and to understand what factors are driving such changes.
Daniel R. Peters, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Roderic L. Jones, Nicholas A. Martin, Jim Mills, Elizabeth R. Fonseca, Amy Stidworthy, Ella Forsyth, David Carruthers, Megan Dupuy-Todd, Felicia Douglas, Katie Moore, Rishabh U. Shah, Lauren E. Padilla, and Ramón A. Alvarez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 321–334,Short summary
We present more than 2 years of NO2 pollution measurements from a sensor network in Greater London and compare results to an extensive network of expensive reference-grade monitors. We show the ability of our lower-cost network to generate robust insights about local air pollution. We also show how irregularities in sensor performance lead to some uncertainty in results and demonstrate ways that future users can characterize and mitigate uncertainties to get the most value from sensor data.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Jared F. Brewer, Ke Li, Jonathan M. Moch, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Hyunkwang Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Su Keun Kuk, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Xuan Wang, Pengfei Liu, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Katherine R. Travis, Johnathan W. Hair, Bruce E. Anderson, Jack E. Dibb, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Qiang Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16775–16791,Short summary
Geostationary satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) has tremendous potential for monitoring surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our study explored the physical relationship between AOD and PM2.5 by integrating data from surface networks, aircraft, and satellites with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We quantitatively showed that accurate simulation of aerosol size distributions, boundary layer depths, relative humidity, coarse particles, and diurnal variations in PM2.5 are essential.
Yuqiang Zhang, Drew Shindell, Karl Seltzer, Lu Shen, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Jia Xing, Zhe Jiang, and Lei Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16051–16065,Short summary
In this study, we use a global chemical transport model to simulate the effects on global air quality and human health due to emission changes in China from 2010 to 2017. By performing sensitivity analysis, we found that the air pollution control policies not only decrease the air pollutant concentration but also bring significant co-benefits in air quality to downwind regions. The benefits for the improved air pollution are dominated by PM2.5.
Yuan Cheng, Qin-qin Yu, Jiu-meng Liu, Xu-bing Cao, Ying-jie Zhong, Zhen-yu Du, Lin-lin Liang, Guan-nan Geng, Wan-li Ma, Hong Qi, Qiang Zhang, and Ke-bin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15199–15211,Short summary
Open burning policies in Heilongjiang Province experienced a rapid transition during 2018 to 2020. This study evaluated the responses of PM2.5 pollution to this transition and suggested that neither of the policies could be considered successful. In addition, heterogeneous reactions were found to be at play in secondary aerosol formation, even in the frigid atmosphere in Heilongjiang. The unique haze in northeast China deserves more attention.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, David Carruthers, Sue Grimmond, Yiqun Han, Pingqing Fu, and Simone Kotthaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13687–13711,Short summary
Heat-related illnesses are of increasing concern in China given its rapid urbanisation and our ever-warming climate. We examine the relative impacts that land surface properties and anthropogenic heat have on the urban heat island (UHI) in Beijing using ADMS-Urban. Air temperature measurements and satellite-derived land surface temperatures provide valuable means of evaluating modelled spatiotemporal variations. This work provides critical information for urban planners and UHI mitigation.
James Weber, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Nathan Luke Abraham, Youngsub M. Shin, Thomas J. Bannan, Carl J. Percival, Asan Bacak, Paulo Artaxo, Michael Jenkin, M. Anwar H. Khan, Dudley E. Shallcross, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Jonathan Williams, and Alex T. Archibald
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5239–5268,Short summary
The new mechanism CRI-Strat 2 features state-of-the-art isoprene chemistry not previously available in UKCA and improves UKCA's ability to reproduce observed concentrations of isoprene, monoterpenes, and OH in tropical regions. The enhanced ability to model isoprene, the most widely emitted non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC), will allow understanding of how isoprene and other biogenic VOCs affect atmospheric composition and, through biosphere–atmosphere feedbacks, climate change.
Gongda Lu, Eloise A. Marais, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Zongbo Shi, James D. Lee, Qiang Zhang, Lu Shen, Gan Luo, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Emission controls were imposed in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei in northern China in autumn-winter 2017. We find that regional PM2.5 targets (15 % decrease relative to previous year) were exceeded. Our analysis shows that decline in precursor emissions only leads to less than half (43 %) the improved air quality. Most of the change (57 %) is due to interannual variability in meteorology. Stricter emission controls may be necessary in years with unfavourable meteorology.
Meng Gao, Yang Yang, Hong Liao, Bin Zhu, Yuxuan Zhang, Zirui Liu, Xiao Lu, Chen Wang, Qiming Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Qiang Zhang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11405–11421,Short summary
Light absorption and radiative forcing of black carbon (BC) is influenced by both BC itself and its interactions with other aerosol chemical compositions. In this study, we used the online coupled WRF-Chem model to examine how emission control measures during the Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference affect the mixing state and light absorption of BC and the associated implications for BC-PBL interactions.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11201–11224,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions is predictable and is explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated with SOA in urban regions.
Qingyang Xiao, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Cuihong Chen, Xiaomeng Huang, Huizheng Che, Xiaoye Zhang, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9475–9496,Short summary
We used both statistical methods and a chemical transport model to assess the contribution of meteorology and emissions to PM2.5 during 2000–2018. Both methods revealed that emissions dominated the long-term PM2.5 trend with notable meteorological effects ranged up to 37.9 % of regional annual average PM2.5. The meteorological contribution became more beneficial to PM2.5 control in southern China but more unfavorable in northern China during the studied period.
Bo Zheng, Qiang Zhang, Guannan Geng, Cuihong Chen, Qinren Shi, Mengshi Cui, Yu Lei, and Kebin He
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2895–2907,Short summary
Here we report the monthly anthropogenic pollutant emissions in China during the COVID-19 pandemic by using a bottom-up approach based on near-real-time data. The COVID lockdowns were estimated to have reduced China's emissions substantially between January and March in 2020, with the largest reduction in February. With the spread of coronavirus controlled, China's anthropogenic emissions rebounded in April and since then returned to levels comparable to those of 2019 through December 2020.
John Staunton-Sykes, Thomas J. Aubry, Youngsub M. Shin, James Weber, Lauren R. Marshall, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alex Archibald, and Anja Schmidt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9009–9029,
Claire E. Reeves, Graham P. Mills, Lisa K. Whalley, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, Sue Grimmond, Dwayne E. Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James R. Hopkins, Simone Kotthaus, Louisa J. Kramer, Roderic L. Jones, James D. Lee, Yanhui Liu, Bin Ouyang, Eloise Slater, Freya Squires, Xinming Wang, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6315–6330,Short summary
The impact of isoprene on atmospheric chemistry is dependent on how its oxidation products interact with other pollutants, specifically nitrogen oxides. Such interactions can lead to isoprene nitrates. We made measurements of the concentrations of individual isoprene nitrate isomers in Beijing and used a model to test current understanding of their chemistry. We highlight areas of uncertainty in understanding, in particular the chemistry following oxidation of isoprene by the nitrate radical.
Paul T. Griffiths, Lee T. Murray, Guang Zeng, Youngsub Matthew Shin, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Ian E. Galbally, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, James Keeble, Jane Liu, Omid Moeini, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Naga Oshima, David Tarasick, Simone Tilmes, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, Paul J. Young, and Prodromos Zanis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4187–4218,Short summary
We analyse the CMIP6 Historical and future simulations for tropospheric ozone, a species which is important for many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. We show that the current generation of models agrees well with observations, being particularly successful in capturing trends in surface ozone and its vertical distribution in the troposphere. We analyse the factors that control ozone and show that they evolve over the period of the CMIP6 experiments.
Peter Sherman, Meng Gao, Shaojie Song, Alex T. Archibald, Nathan Luke Abraham, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew Shindell, Gregory Faluvegi, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3593–3605,Short summary
The aims here are to assess the role of aerosols in India's monsoon precipitation and to determine the relative contributions from Chinese and Indian emissions using CMIP6 models. We find that increased sulfur emissions reduce precipitation, which is primarily dynamically driven due to spatial shifts in convection over the region. A significant increase in precipitation (up to ~ 20 %) is found only when both Indian and Chinese sulfate emissions are regulated.
Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2125–2147,Short summary
To understand how emission controls will impact ozone, an understanding of the sources and sinks of OH and the chemical cycling between peroxy radicals is needed. This paper presents measurements of OH, HO2 and total RO2 taken in central Beijing. The radical observations are compared to a detailed chemistry model, which shows that under low NO conditions, there is a missing OH source. Under high NOx conditions, the model under-predicts RO2 and impacts our ability to model ozone.
Jun Liu, Dan Tong, Yixuan Zheng, Jing Cheng, Xinying Qin, Qinren Shi, Liu Yan, Yu Lei, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1627–1647,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the decadal changes in carbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions in China's cement industry for the period 1990–2015 based on intensive unit-based information. We found that from 1990 to 2015, accompanied by a 10.3-fold increase in cement production, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions from China's cement industry increased by 627 %, 56 %, and 659 %, whereas CO, PM2.5, and PM10 emissions decreased by 9 %, 63 %, and 59 %, respectively.
Gillian Thornhill, William Collins, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Alex Archibald, Susanne Bauer, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Stephanie Fiedler, Gerd Folberth, Ada Gjermundsen, Larry Horowitz, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Jane Mulcahy, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Fabien Paulot, Michael Schulz, Catherine E. Scott, Roland Séférian, Chris Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, and James Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1105–1126,Short summary
We find that increased temperatures affect aerosols and reactive gases by changing natural emissions and their rates of removal from the atmosphere. Changing the composition of these species in the atmosphere affects the radiative budget of the climate system and therefore amplifies or dampens the climate response of climate models of the Earth system. This study found that the largest effect is a dampening of climate change as warmer temperatures increase the emissions of cooling aerosols.
Yiqun Han, Wu Chen, Lia Chatzidiakou, Anika Krause, Li Yan, Hanbin Zhang, Queenie Chan, Ben Barratt, Rod Jones, Jing Liu, Yangfeng Wu, Meiping Zhao, Junfeng Zhang, Frank J. Kelly, Tong Zhu, and the AIRLESS team
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15775–15792,Short summary
Panel studies might be the most suitable way to link intensive air monitoring campaigns for a wide range of pollutant species and personal exposure in different micro-environments, together with epidemiological studies of detailed biological changes in humans. Panel studies are intensive, but related papers are very limited. With the successful collection of a rich dataset, we believe AIRLESS sets a good example for the design of a multidisciplinary study.
Yarong Peng, Hongli Wang, Qian Wang, Shengao Jing, Jingyu An, Yaqin Gao, Cheng Huang, Rusha Yan, Haixia Dai, Tiantao Cheng, Qiang Zhang, Meng Li, Li Li, Shengrong Lou, Shikang Tao, Qinyao Hu, Jun Lu, and Changhong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The evolution of NMHCs emissions and the effectiveness of control measures were investigated based on long term measurements in a megacity of China. Discrepancies between measurements and emission inventories emphasized the need for emission validation both in speciation and sources. Varied trends of NMHCs speciation and sources suggested the differential effect of the past control measures, which provided new insights into future clean air policies in polluted region including China.
W. Joe F. Acton, Zhonghui Huang, Brian Davison, Will S. Drysdale, Pingqing Fu, Michael Hollaway, Ben Langford, James Lee, Yanhui Liu, Stefan Metzger, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Claire E. Reeves, Freya A. Squires, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Zhaoyi Wang, Oliver Wild, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, and C. Nicholas Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15101–15125,Short summary
Air quality in Beijing is of concern to both policy makers and the general public. In order to address concerns about air quality it is vital that the sources of atmospheric pollutants are understood. This work presents the first top-down measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in Beijing. These measurements are used to evaluate the emissions inventory and assess the impact of VOC emission from the city centre on atmospheric chemistry.
Ruqian Miao, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Yele Sun, Paul I. Palmer, Manish Shrivastava, Jianping Guo, Qiang Zhang, Yuhan Liu, Zhaofeng Tan, Xuefei Ma, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12265–12284,Short summary
In this study we evaluated the model performances for simulating secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and organic aerosol (OA) in PM2.5 in China against comprehensive datasets. The potential biases from factors related to meteorology, emission, chemistry, and atmospheric removal are systematically investigated. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of modeling PM2.5, which is important for studies on the effectiveness of emission control strategies.
Wei Tao, Hang Su, Guangjie Zheng, Jiandong Wang, Chao Wei, Lixia Liu, Nan Ma, Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11729–11746,Short summary
We simulated the thermodynamic and multiphase reactions in aerosol water during a wintertime haze event over the North China Plain. It was found that aerosol pH exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variability, and multiple oxidation pathways were predominant for particulate sulfate formation in different locations. Sensitivity tests further showed that ammonia, crustal particles, and dissolved transition metal ions were important factors for multiphase chemistry during haze episodes.
Pengfei Han, Ning Zeng, Tom Oda, Xiaohui Lin, Monica Crippa, Dabo Guan, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Xiaolin Ma, Zhu Liu, Yuli Shan, Shu Tao, Haikun Wang, Rong Wang, Lin Wu, Xiao Yun, Qiang Zhang, Fang Zhao, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11371–11385,Short summary
An accurate estimation of China’s fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (FFCO2) is significant for quantification of carbon budget and emissions reductions towards the Paris Agreement goals. Here we assessed 9 global and regional inventories. Our findings highlight the significance of using locally measured coal emission factors. We call on the enhancement of physical measurements for validation and provide comprehensive information for inventory, monitoring, modeling, assimilation, and reducing emissions.
James Weber, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Paul Griffiths, Torsten Berndt, Michael Jenkin, Hamish Gordon, Christoph Knote, and Alexander T. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10889–10910,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) are important for aerosol growth and new particle formation, particularly in air masses with less sulphuric acid. This new chemical mechanism reproduces measured [HOM] and [HOM precursors] and is concise enough for use in global climate models. The mechanism also reproduces the observed suppression of HOMs by isoprene, suggesting enhanced emissions may not necessarily lead to more aerosols. Greater HOM importance in the pre-industrial era is also shown.
Matt Amos, Paul J. Young, J. Scott Hosking, Jean-François Lamarque, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Markus Kunze, Marion Marchand, David A. Plummer, David Saint-Martin, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, and Yousuke Yamashita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9961–9977,Short summary
We present an updated projection of Antarctic ozone hole recovery using an ensemble of chemistry–climate models. To do so, we employ a method, more advanced and skilful than the current multi-model mean standard, which is applicable to other ensemble analyses. It calculates the performance and similarity of the models, which we then use to weight the model. Calculating model similarity allows us to account for models which are constructed from similar components.
Amir H. Souri, Caroline R. Nowlan, Gonzalo González Abad, Lei Zhu, Donald R. Blake, Alan Fried, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Armin Wisthaler, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Christopher E. Chan Miller, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9837–9854,Short summary
For the first time, we provide a joint nonlinear optimal estimate of NOx and NMVOC emissions during the KORUS-AQ campaign by simultaneously incorporating SAO's new product of HCHO columns from OMPS and OMI tropospheric NO2 columns into a regional model. Results demonstrate a promising improvement in the performance of the model in terms of HCHO and NO2 concentrations, which in turn enables us to quantify the impact of the emission changes on different pathways of ozone formation and loss.
Yang Chen, Jing Cai, Zhichao Wang, Chao Peng, Xiaojiang Yao, Mi Tian, Yiqun Han, Guangming Shi, Zongbo Shi, Yue Liu, Xi Yang, Mei Zheng, Tong Zhu, Kebin He, Qiang Zhang, and Fumo Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9231–9247,Short summary
Patterns of particle transport, accumulation, and evolution in both urban and rural areas of Beijing are investigated. The two sites shared 17 common particle types in different stages of atmospheric processing.
Yang Chen, Guangming Shi, Jing Cai, Zongbo Shi, Zhichao Wang, Xiaojiang Yao, Mi Tian, Chao Peng, Yiqun Han, Tong Zhu, Yue Liu, Xi Yang, Mei Zheng, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9249–9263,Short summary
Individual particles were observed in two field studies during winter 2016 in the urban and rural areas of Beijing. An online single-particle chemical composition analysis was used as a tracing system to investigate the impact of heating activities and the formation of haze events. During the pollution events, a pattern of transport and accumulation was found with evidence of single particles. The transport from Pinggu to Peking University was significant but PKU to PG occurred occasionally.
Freya A. Squires, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Oliver Wild, Will S. Drysdale, W. Joe F. Acton, Pingqing Fu, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Simone Kotthaus, James Lee, Stefan Metzger, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Marvin Shaw, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Ruili Wu, Qiang Zhang, and Yanli Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8737–8761,Short summary
Significant air quality problems exist in megacities like Beijing, China. To manage air pollution, legislators need a clear understanding of pollutant emissions. However, emissions inventories have large uncertainties, and reliable field measurements of pollutant emissions are required to constrain them. This work presents the first measurements of traffic-dominated emissions in Beijing which suggest that inventories overestimate these emissions in the region during both winter and summer.
Haipeng Lin, Xu Feng, Tzung-May Fu, Heng Tian, Yaping Ma, Lijuan Zhang, Daniel J. Jacob, Robert M. Yantosca, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Elizabeth W. Lundgren, Jiawei Zhuang, Qiang Zhang, Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Lu Shen, Jianping Guo, Sebastian D. Eastham, and Christoph A. Keller
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3241–3265,Short summary
Online coupling of meteorology and chemistry models often presents maintenance issues with hard-wired coding. We present WRF-GC, an one-way online coupling of the WRF meteorological model and GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model for regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality modeling. Our coupling structure allows future versions of either parent model to be immediately integrated into WRF-GC. The WRF-GC model was able to well reproduce regional PM2.5 with greater computational efficiency.
Jun Liu, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Chaopeng Hong, Meng Li, Xin Li, Fei Liu, Dan Tong, Ruili Wu, Bo Zheng, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7783–7799,Short summary
Ambient PM2.5 pollution contributed substantially to premature mortality in China. The contributions of various sectors to anthropogenic PM2.5-related premature mortality have changed substantially during 1990–2015. In 1990, the residential sector was the leading source, followed by industry, power, agriculture, and transportation, whereas in 2015, the industrial sector became the largest contributor, followed by the residential sector, agriculture, transportation, and power.
James Keeble, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Paul T. Griffiths, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7153–7166,Short summary
The Montreal Protocol was agreed in 1987 to limit and then stop the production of man-made CFCs, which destroy stratospheric ozone. As a result, the atmospheric abundances of CFCs are now declining in the atmosphere. However, the atmospheric abundance of CFC-11 is not declining as expected under complete compliance with the Montreal Protocol. Using the UM-UKCA chemistry–climate model, we explore the impact of future unregulated production of CFC-11 on ozone recovery.
Tao Ma, Hiroshi Furutani, Fengkui Duan, Takashi Kimoto, Jingkun Jiang, Qiang Zhang, Xiaobin Xu, Ying Wang, Jian Gao, Guannan Geng, Meng Li, Shaojie Song, Yongliang Ma, Fei Che, Jie Wang, Lidan Zhu, Tao Huang, Michisato Toyoda, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5887–5897,Short summary
The formation mechanisms of organic matter and sulfate in winter haze in the North China Plain remain unclear. This paper presents the identification and quantification of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) in PM2.5 in Beijing winter and elucidates the heterogeneous HMS chemistry in favorable winter haze conditions. We show that the HMS not only contributes a substantial mass of organic matter, but also leads to an overestimation of sulfate in conventional measurements.
Dan Tong, Jing Cheng, Yang Liu, Sha Yu, Liu Yan, Chaopeng Hong, Yu Qin, Hongyan Zhao, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Meng Li, Fei Liu, Yuxuan Zhang, Bo Zheng, Leon Clarke, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5729–5757,Short summary
Future trends in air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in China are of great concern to the community. Here we developed a sophisticated dynamic projection model to understand 2015–2050 emission pathways under a range of socio-economic, climate policy, and pollution control scenarios. By coupling strong low-carbon transitions and clean air policy, emissions of major air pollutants in China will be reduced by 58–87 % during 2015–2050. This work can support future co-governance policy design.
Haixu Zhang, Chunrong Chen, Weijia Yan, Nana Wu, Yu Bo, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
In this work, we provide first-hand information on VOC characters in a central Chinese city. Although benzenoids has the largest SOA formation potential, their weight decline with the aggravation of pollution, while the role of VOCs as oxidant producers of SOA formation is critical, especially in hazy periods. Furthermore, solvent evaporation is estimated as the top source for SOA formation considering the above dual roles of VOCs, which would assist to mitigate pollution in China.
Clara Orbe, David A. Plummer, Darryn W. Waugh, Huang Yang, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas E. Kinnison, Beatrice Josse, Virginie Marecal, Makoto Deushi, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, and Slimane Bekki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3809–3840,Short summary
Atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by global-scale winds that are not always properly simulated in computer models. A common approach to correct for this bias is to relax or
nudgeto the observed winds. Here we systematically evaluate how well this technique performs across a large suite of chemistry–climate models in terms of its ability to reproduce key aspects of both the tropospheric and stratospheric circulations.
Alexander T. Archibald, Fiona M. O'Connor, Nathan Luke Abraham, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Fraser Dennison, Sandip S. Dhomse, Paul T. Griffiths, Catherine Hardacre, Alan J. Hewitt, Richard S. Hill, Colin E. Johnson, James Keeble, Marcus O. Köhler, Olaf Morgenstern, Jane P. Mulcahy, Carlos Ordóñez, Richard J. Pope, Steven T. Rumbold, Maria R. Russo, Nicholas H. Savage, Alistair Sellar, Marc Stringer, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1223–1266,Short summary
Here we present a description and evaluation of the UKCA stratosphere–troposphere chemistry scheme (StratTrop vn 1.0) implemented in the UK Earth System Model (UKESM1). UKCA StratTrop represents a substantial step forward compared to previous versions of UKCA. We show here that it is fully suited to the challenges of representing interactions in a coupled Earth system model and identify key areas and components for future development that will make it even better in the future.
Qiuyan Du, Chun Zhao, Mingshuai Zhang, Xue Dong, Yu Chen, Zhen Liu, Zhiyuan Hu, Qiang Zhang, Yubin Li, Renmin Yuan, and Shiguang Miao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2839–2863,Short summary
Simulated diurnal PM2.5 with WRF-Chem is primarily controlled by planetary boundary layer (PBL) mixing and emission variations. Modeling bias is likely primarily due to inefficient PBL mixing of primary PM2.5 during the night. The increase in PBL mixing strength during the night can significantly reduce biases. This study underscores that more effort is needed to improve the boundary mixing processes of pollutants in models with observations of PBL structure and mixing fluxes besides PBL height.
Marios Panagi, Zoë L. Fleming, Paul S. Monks, Matthew J. Ashfold, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, Qiang Zhang, Freya A. Squires, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2825–2838,Short summary
In this paper, using dispersion modelling with emission inventories it was determined that on average 45 % of the total CO pollution that affects Beijing is transported from other areas. About half of the CO comes from beyond the immediate surrounding areas. Finally three classification types of pollution were identified and used to analyse the APHH winter campaign. The results can inform targeted control measures to be implemented in Beijing and the other regions to tackle air quality problems.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, David Carruthers, Jie Li, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Freya A. Squires, James Lee, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2755–2780,Short summary
Ambient air pollution is a major cause of premature death in China. We examine the street-scale variation of pollutant levels in Beijing using air pollution dispersion and chemistry model ADMS-Urban. Campaign measurements are compared with simulated pollutant levels, providing a valuable means of evaluating the impact of key processes on urban air quality. Air quality modelling at such fine scales is essential for human exposure studies and for informing choices on future emission controls.
Conor G. Bolas, Valerio Ferracci, Andrew D. Robinson, Mohammed I. Mead, Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir, John A. Pyle, Roderic L. Jones, and Neil R. P. Harris
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 821–838,Short summary
Here we present the iDirac, a new instrument capable of making isoprene measurements in remote and challenging environments. The iDirac is a customisable and rugged field instrument for investigating emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation. It has been tested here in a series of experiments to ensure a high degree of technical precision, accuracy and repeatability. This new instrument allows us to ask and answer new questions about the influence of vegetation on the atmosphere.
Meng Gao, Zirui Liu, Bo Zheng, Dongsheng Ji, Peter Sherman, Shaojie Song, Jinyuan Xin, Cheng Liu, Yuesi Wang, Qiang Zhang, Jia Xing, Jingkun Jiang, Zifa Wang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1497–1505,Short summary
We quantified the relative influences of anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions on PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing over the winters of 2002–2016. Meteorological conditions over the study period would have led to an increase of haze in Beijing, but the strict emission control measures have suppressed the unfavorable influences of the recent climate.
Viral Shah, Daniel J. Jacob, Ke Li, Rachel F. Silvern, Shixian Zhai, Mengyao Liu, Jintai Lin, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1483–1495,Short summary
We analyze 15 years of satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and use an atmospheric chemistry model to understand the seasonal changes and trends in nitrogen oxides (NOx) over China. We show that the seasonal changes in NO2 occur due to changes in the NOx oxidation lifetime. We find that Chinese NOx emissions peaked in 2011 and had decreased by about 25 % by 2018. But the decrease in NO2 in winter was larger, likely because of a simultaneous decrease in the NOx oxidation lifetime.
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1147–1161,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative feedbacks. This paper discusses the estimates of aerosol radiative forcing, aerosol feedbacks, and possible causes for the differences among the models.
Ying Chen, Oliver Wild, Edmund Ryan, Saroj Kumar Sahu, Douglas Lowe, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Yu Wang, Gordon McFiggans, Tabish Ansari, Vikas Singh, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Alex Archibald, and Gufran Beig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 499–514,Short summary
PM2.5 and O3 are two major air pollutants. Some mitigation strategies focusing on reducing PM2.5 may lead to substantial increase in O3. We use statistical emulation combined with atmospheric transport model to perform thousands of sensitivity numerical studies to identify the major sources of PM2.5 and O3 and to develop strategies targeted at both pollutants. Our scientific evidence suggests that regional coordinated emission control is required to mitigate PM2.5 whilst preventing O3 increase.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Bin Ouyang, Jun Duan, Wenqian Zhang, Shengrui Tong, Maofa Ge, Ke Tang, Min Qin, Pinhua Xie, Marvin D. Shaw, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, James Allan, Carl J. Percival, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Roderic L. Jones, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6449–6463,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is key species for understanding tropospheric chemistry, yet accurate and precise measurements are challenging. Here we report an inter–comparison exercise of a number of instruments that measured HONO in a highly polluted location (Beijing). All instruments agreed on the temporal trends yet displayed divergence in absolute concentrations. The cause of this divergence was unclear, but it may in part be due to spatial variability in instrument location.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Didier A. Hauglustaine, Sophie Szopa, Ann R. Stavert, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alex T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Virginie Marécal, Fiona M. O'Connor, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Sarah Strode, Simone Tilmes, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13701–13723,Short summary
The role of hydroxyl radical changes in methane trends is debated, hindering our understanding of the methane cycle. This study quantifies how uncertainties in the hydroxyl radical may influence methane abundance in the atmosphere based on the inter-model comparison of hydroxyl radical fields and model simulations of CH4 abundance with different hydroxyl radical scenarios during 2000–2016. We show that hydroxyl radical changes could contribute up to 54 % of model-simulated methane biases.
Haiyan Li, Jing Cheng, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Yuxuan Zhang, Guangjie Zheng, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11485–11499,Short summary
We combined the online observations of aerosol components and a regional chemical transport model to investigate the response of aerosol chemistry to the stringent clean air actions in Beijing. We found a rapid transition in winter aerosol composition from 2014 to 2017 with decreased sulfate contribution and increased nitrate fraction and evaluated the underlying drivers. The anthropogenic emission reductions in Beijing and its surrounding regions are identified to play a major role.
Tuan V. Vu, Zongbo Shi, Jing Cheng, Qiang Zhang, Kebin He, Shuxiao Wang, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11303–11314,Short summary
A 5-year Clean Air Action Plan was implemented in 2013 to improve ambient air quality in Beijing. Here, we applied a novel machine-learning-based model to determine the real trend in air quality from 2013 to 2017 in Beijing to assess the efficacy of the plan. We showed that the action plan led to a major reduction in primary emissions and significant improvement in air quality. The marked decrease in PM2.5 and SO2 is largely attributable to a reduction in coal combustion.
Lia Chatzidiakou, Anika Krause, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Andrea Di Antonio, Mike Kellaway, Yiqun Han, Freya A. Squires, Teng Wang, Hanbin Zhang, Qi Wang, Yunfei Fan, Shiyi Chen, Min Hu, Jennifer K. Quint, Benjamin Barratt, Frank J. Kelly, Tong Zhu, and Roderic L. Jones
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4643–4657,Short summary
This study validates the performance of a personal air quality monitor that integrates miniaturised sensors that measure physical and chemical parameters. Overall, the air pollution sensors showed excellent agreement with standard instrumentation in outdoor, indoor and commuting environments across seasons and different geographical settings. Hence, novel sensing technologies like the ones demonstrated here can revolutionise health studies by providing highly resolved reliable exposure metrics.
Kévin Lamy, Thierry Portafaix, Béatrice Josse, Colette Brogniez, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Hassan Bencherif, Laura Revell, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Michaela I. Hegglin, Patrick Jöckel, Oliver Kirner, Ben Liley, Virginie Marecal, Olaf Morgenstern, Andrea Stenke, Guang Zeng, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Neil Butchart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Glauco Di Genova, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rong-Ming Hu, Douglas Kinnison, Michael Kotkamp, Richard McKenzie, Martine Michou, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Eugene Rozanov, David Saint-Martin, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Daniele Visioni, and Kohei Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10087–10110,Short summary
In this study, we simulate the ultraviolet radiation evolution during the 21st century on Earth's surface using the output from several numerical models which participated in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative. We present four possible futures which depend on greenhouse gases emissions. The role of ozone-depleting substances, greenhouse gases and aerosols are investigated. Our results emphasize the important role of aerosols for future ultraviolet radiation in the Northern Hemisphere.
David C. Wade, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alexander Farnsworth, Paul J. Valdes, Fran Bragg, and Alexander T. Archibald
Clim. Past, 15, 1463–1483,Short summary
The amount of O2 in the atmosphere may have varied from as little as 10 % to as much as 35 % during the last 541 Myr. These changes are large enough to have led to changes in atmospheric mass, which may alter the radiative budget of the atmosphere. We present the first fully 3-D numerical model simulations to investigate the climate impacts of changes in O2 during different climate states. We identify a complex new mechanism causing increases in surface temperature when O2 levels were higher.
Yuxuan Zhang, Meng Li, Yafang Cheng, Guannan Geng, Chaopeng Hong, Haiyan Li, Xin Li, Dan Tong, Nana Wu, Xin Zhang, Bo Zheng, Yixuan Zheng, Yu Bo, Hang Su, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9663–9680,Short summary
In this work, we developed a new approach to simulate BC mixing state based on an emissions inventory and back-trajectory analysis. The model tracks the evolution of BC aging degree during atmospheric transport. Our simulations identified the important roles of extensive emission regions in the BC aging process during atmospheric transport, which provided more clues for improving air pollution and climate change.
Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Dan Tong, Yu Lei, Fei Liu, Chaopeng Hong, Sicong Kang, Liu Yan, Yuxuan Zhang, Yu Bo, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8897–8913,Short summary
A long-term non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emission inventory is crucial for air quality management but still absent in China. We estimated China’s NMVOCs during 1990–2017 with speciation based on updated databases and investigated the trend of ozone formation potential (OFP) for the same period. Persistent growth of emissions and OFP highlights the need of control measures for solvent use and industrial sources and the importance of designing multi-pollutant control strategies.
Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Youfan Chen, Mi Zhou, Bo Zheng, Ke Li, Yiming Liu, Jintai Lin, Tzung-May Fu, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8339–8361,Short summary
Severe and deteriorating surface ozone pollution over major Chinese cities has become an emerging environmental concern in China. This study assesses the source contributions (including anthropogenic, background, and individual natural sources) and meteorological influences of surface ozone over China in 2016–2017 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at high horizontal resolution with the most up-to-date Chinese anthropogenic emission inventory.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Yue Liu, Mei Zheng, Mingyuan Yu, Xuhui Cai, Huiyun Du, Jie Li, Tian Zhou, Caiqing Yan, Xuesong Wang, Zongbo Shi, Roy M. Harrison, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6595–6609,Short summary
This study is part of the UK–China APHH campaign. To identify both source types and source regions at the same time, this study developed a combined method including receptor model, footprint model, and air quality model for the first time to investigate sources of PM2.5 during haze episodes in Beijing. It is an expansion of the application of the receptor model and is helpful for formulating effective control strategies to improve air quality in this region.
Zainab Q. Hakim, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Gufran Beig, Gerd A. Folberth, Kengo Sudo, Nathan Luke Abraham, Sachin Ghude, Daven K. Henze, and Alexander T. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6437–6458,Short summary
Surface ozone is an important air pollutant and recent work has calculated that large numbers of people die prematurely because of exposure to high levels of surface ozone in India. However, these calculations require model simulations of ozone as key inputs. Here we perform the most thorough evaluation of global model surface ozone over India to date. These analyses of model simulations and observations highlight some successes and shortcomings and the need for further process-based studies.
Jing Cheng, Jingping Su, Tong Cui, Xiang Li, Xin Dong, Feng Sun, Yanyan Yang, Dan Tong, Yixuan Zheng, Yanshun Li, Jinxiang Li, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6125–6146,Short summary
We attribute Beijing’s PM2.5 abatement in 2017 (compared to 2013) to the following factors: meteorology changes (3.8 μg m−3, 12.1 % of total), regional emission reduction (7.1 μg m−3, 22.5 %), and seven specific categories of control measures in Beijing (20.6 μg m−3, 65.4 %). Our study confirms the effectiveness of clean air actions in Beijing and its surrounding regions and reveals a new generation of control measures, and strengthened regional joint protection measures should be implemented.
Christa Fittschen, Mohamad Al Ajami, Sebastien Batut, Valerio Ferracci, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Alexander T. Archibald, and Coralie Schoemaecker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 349–362,Short summary
Concentrations of OH, the main oxidant in the atmosphere, were measured in biogenic environments up to a factor of 10 higher than predicted by models. This was interpreted as a major lack in our understanding of biogenic volatile organic compound chemistry. But interferences of unknown origin have also been discovered, and we present experimental and modelling evidence that the interference might be due to the unexpected decomposition of a new class of molecule, ROOOH, in the FAGE instruments.
Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, Nicolas Theys, Dan Tong, François Hendrick, Qiang Zhang, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18063–18078,Short summary
In the last decade, four temporal regimes of SO2 in China have been identified. After an initial rise, SO2 undergoes two sharp drops in 2007–2008 and 2014–2016, during which 5-year rebounding is sustained. Different mechanisms are tied to North and South China. The industrial emission is responsible for SO2 variation in North China, while in South China the meteorological conditions make a large contribution. The result is crucial to the understanding of SO2 changes and future polices.
Mingxu Liu, Xin Huang, Yu Song, Tingting Xu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Lin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xuejun Liu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17933–17943,
Lu Shen, Daniel J. Jacob, Loretta J. Mickley, Yuxuan Wang, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17489–17496,
Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Michael J. Prather, Clare M. Flynn, Lee T. Murray, Arlene M. Fiore, Gustavo Correa, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Jonathan Guth, Béatrice Josse, Johannes Flemming, Vincent Huijnen, N. Luke Abraham, and Alex T. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16809–16828,Short summary
Photolysis (J rates) initiates and drives atmospheric chemistry, and Js are perturbed by factors of 2 by clouds. The NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) Mission provides the first comprehensive observations on how clouds perturb Js through the remote Pacific and Atlantic basins. We compare these cloud-perturbation J statistics with those from nine global chemistry models. While basic patterns agree, there is a large spread across models, and all lack some basic features of the observations.
Laura E. Revell, Andrea Stenke, Fiona Tummon, Aryeh Feinberg, Eugene Rozanov, Thomas Peter, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Neal Butchart, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Robyn Schofield, Kane Stone, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16155–16172,Short summary
Global models such as those participating in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) consistently simulate biases in tropospheric ozone compared with observations. We performed an advanced statistical analysis with one of the CCMI models to understand the cause of the bias. We found that emissions of ozone precursor gases are the dominant driver of the bias, implying either that the emissions are too large, or that the way in which the model handles emissions needs to be improved.
Hansen Cao, Tzung-May Fu, Lin Zhang, Daven K. Henze, Christopher Chan Miller, Christophe Lerot, Gonzalo González Abad, Isabelle De Smedt, Qiang Zhang, Michel van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Kelly Chance, Jie Li, Junyu Zheng, and Yuanhong Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15017–15046,Short summary
Our top-down estimates for annual total Chinese NMVOC emissions was 30.7 to 49.5 Tg y−1, including 16.4 to 23.6 Tg y−1 from anthropogenic sources, 12.2 to 22.8 Tg y−1 from biogenic sources, and 2.08 to 3.13 Tg y−1 from biomass burning. Our four inversions consistently showed that the emissions of Chinese anthropogenic NMVOC precursors of glyoxal were larger than the a priori estimates. The glyoxal and formaldehyde constraints helped distinguish the NMVOC species from different sources.
Bo Zheng, Dan Tong, Meng Li, Fei Liu, Chaopeng Hong, Guannan Geng, Haiyan Li, Xin Li, Liqun Peng, Ji Qi, Liu Yan, Yuxuan Zhang, Hongyan Zhao, Yixuan Zheng, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14095–14111,Short summary
To tackle the problem of severe air pollution, China has implemented active clean air policies in recent years. We quantified China’s anthropogenic emissions during 2010–2017 and identified the major driving forces of these trends by using a combination of bottom-up emission inventory and index decomposition analysis (IDA) approaches. The major air pollutants have reduced their emissions by 17–62 % during 2010–2017. The IDA results suggest that emission control measures are the main drivers.
Mengyao Liu, Jintai Lin, Yuchen Wang, Yang Sun, Bo Zheng, Jingyuan Shao, Lulu Chen, Yixuan Zheng, Jinxuan Chen, Tzung-May Fu, Yingying Yan, Qiang Zhang, and Zhaohua Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12933–12952,Short summary
Eastern China is heavily polluted by NO2, PM2.5, and other air pollutants. Our study uses EOF–EEMD to analyze the spatiotemporal variability of ground-level NO2, PM2.5, and their associations with meteorological processes. Their regular diurnal cycles are mainly affected by human activities, while irregular day-to-day variations are dominated by weather processes representing synchronous variation or north–south opposing changes over Eastern China.
Nathan Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Paul Cresswell, Sam Cusworth, Mohit Dalvi, David Matthews, Steven Wardle, and Stuart Whitehouse
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3647–3657,Short summary
Using a virtual machine environment, a low-resolution configuration of the United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols (UKCA) composition-climate model has been developed. This configuration, while not suitable for long simulations, is an excellent test-bed for new model developments and can be used to train new users in how to use UKCA. This work was motivated by the desire to improve the usability of UKCA, and to encourage more users to become involved with the code development process.
Paul I. Palmer, Simon O'Doherty, Grant Allen, Keith Bower, Hartmut Bösch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sarah Connors, Sandip Dhomse, Liang Feng, Douglas P. Finch, Martin W. Gallagher, Emanuel Gloor, Siegfried Gonzi, Neil R. P. Harris, Carole Helfter, Neil Humpage, Brian Kerridge, Diane Knappett, Roderic L. Jones, Michael Le Breton, Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Matthiesen, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Sebastian O'Shea, Robert J. Parker, Carl J. Percival, Joseph Pitt, Stuart N. Riddick, Matthew Rigby, Harjinder Sembhi, Richard Siddans, Robert L. Skelton, Paul Smith, Hannah Sonderfeld, Kieran Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Angelina Wenger, Emily White, Christopher Wilson, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11753–11777,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) experiment. GAUGE was designed to quantify nationwide GHG emissions of the UK, bringing together measurements and atmospheric transport models. This novel experiment is the first of its kind. We anticipate it will inform the blueprint for countries that are building a measurement infrastructure in preparation for global stocktakes, which are a key part of the Paris Agreement.
Wei Zhou, Jian Zhao, Bin Ouyang, Archit Mehra, Weiqi Xu, Yuying Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, Michael Priestley, Asan Bacak, Qi Chen, Conghui Xie, Qingqing Wang, Junfeng Wang, Wei Du, Yingjie Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Penglin Ye, James D. Lee, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas Worsnop, Roderic Jones, Carl J. Percival, Hugh Coe, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11581–11597,Short summary
We present measurements of gas-phase N2O5 and ClNO2 by ToF-CIMS during summer in urban Beijing as part of the APHH campaign. High reactivity of N2O5 indicative of active nocturnal chemistry was observed. The lifetime of N2O5 as a function of aerosol surface area and relative humidity was characterized, and N2O5 uptake coefficients were estimated. We also found that the N2O5 loss in this study is mainly attributed to its indirect loss via reactions of NO3 with VOCs and NO.
Christina Hood, Ian MacKenzie, Jenny Stocker, Kate Johnson, David Carruthers, Massimo Vieno, and Ruth Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11221–11245,Short summary
A coupled atmospheric dispersion modelling system has been developed, comprising a regional chemical transport model and a street-scale urban dispersion model. It was applied in London for 2012 and for all common regulated air quality pollutants, with evaluation against measurements. The modelling demonstrates the interaction between local and regional scales, which differs between pollutants. Real-world estimates of emissions have been used to adjust standard factors and improve model results.
Emre Esentürk, Nathan Luke Abraham, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Christina Mitsakou, Paul Griffiths, Alex Archibald, and John Pyle
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3089–3108,Short summary
An integral and expensive part of coupled climate model simulations is the gas-phase chemistry which gives rise to hundreds of coupled differential equations. We propose a method which improves the convergence and robustness properties of commonly used Newton–Raphson solvers. The method is flexible and can be appended to most algorithms. The approach can be useful for a broader community of computational scientists whose interests lie in solving systems with intensive interactive chemistry.
Yuxuan Zhang, Xin Li, Meng Li, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Chaopeng Hong, Haiyan Li, Dan Tong, Xin Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10275–10287,Short summary
When emission controls were implemented during APEC, we found that the reduction in BC light absorption was driven by simultaneously reducing the mass concentration and light-absorption capability of BC. The weakening of BC light-absorption capability could be attributed to less coating material on BC surfaces due to the decreased chemical production of secondary aerosols. Our results imply that a synergetic reduction in multiple-pollutant emissions could benefit both air quality and climate.
Yuxuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Haiyan Li, Meng Li, Xin Zhang, Aijun Ding, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9879–9896,Short summary
The light absorption of BC-containing particles strongly depends on their aging process in the atmosphere. Whether and how the aging degree and light absorption capability of BC-containing particles will change with air pollution development is still unclear. Our results reveal that under a more polluted environment, the BC-containing particles are characterized not only by higher BC mass concentrations but also by more coating materials on BC surfaces and thus higher light absorption capacity.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Douglas Kinnison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Ross J. Salawitch, Irene Cionni, Michaela I. Hegglin, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alex T. Archibald, Ewa M. Bednarz, Slimane Bekki, Peter Braesicke, Neal Butchart, Martin Dameris, Makoto Deushi, Stacey Frith, Steven C. Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, Rong-Ming Hu, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Oliver Kirner, Stefanie Kremser, Ulrike Langematz, Jared Lewis, Marion Marchand, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8409–8438,Short summary
We analyse simulations from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) to estimate the return dates of the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion by anthropogenic chlorine and bromine. The simulations from 20 models project that global column ozone will return to 1980 values in 2047 (uncertainty range 2042–2052). Return dates in other regions vary depending on factors related to climate change and importance of chlorine and bromine. Column ozone in the tropics may continue to decline.
Nan Li, Qingyang He, Jim Greenberg, Alex Guenther, Jingyi Li, Junji Cao, Jun Wang, Hong Liao, Qiyuan Wang, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7489–7507,Short summary
O3 pollution has been increasing in most Chinese cities in recent years. Our study reveals that the synergistic impact of individual source contributions to O3 formation should be considered in the formation of air pollution control strategies, especially for big cities in the vicinity of forests.
Valerio Ferracci, Ines Heimann, N. Luke Abraham, John A. Pyle, and Alexander T. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7109–7129,Short summary
Hydroxyl radicals (OH) control the removal of species emitted in the atmosphere. Field campaigns reported a "missing" OH sink, not included in current atmospheric models. In this work a global model was used to establish the impact of additional OH sinks, based on both observations of the missing sink and newly discovered reactions of OH. Results show modest increases in global atmospheric lifetimes but pronounced regional effects on the abundance of some key species.
Haiyan Li, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Chunrong Chen, Nana Wu, Hongyu Guo, Yuxuan Zhang, Yixuan Zheng, Xin Li, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5293–5306,Short summary
This study revealed the driving role of nitrate in urban haze development in the North China Plain (NCP) during summertime. Several factors favoring the rapid nitrate formation were investigated in detail. The higher concentration and, in particular, the higher contribution of nitrate in PM1 suggest an urgent need to initiate ammonia emission control measures and further reduce NOx emissions over the NCP region.
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zirui Liu, Meng Li, Jinyuan Xin, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Yafang Cheng, Yuesi Wang, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4859–4884,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative and microphysical feedbacks. A comprehensive overview of the MICS-ASIA III Topic 3 study design is presented.
Meng Li, Zbigniew Klimont, Qiang Zhang, Randall V. Martin, Bo Zheng, Chris Heyes, Janusz Cofala, Yuxuan Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3433–3456,Short summary
In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of two widely used anthropogenic emission inventories over China, ECLIPSE and MIX, to explore the potential sources of uncertainties and find clues to improving emission inventories. We found that SO2 emission estimates are consistent between the two inventories (with 1 % differences), while NOx emissions in ECLIPSE's estimates are 16 % lower than those in MIX. Discrepancies at the sector and provincial levels are much higher.
Tianyi Fan, Xiaohong Liu, Po-Lun Ma, Qiang Zhang, Zhanqing Li, Yiquan Jiang, Fang Zhang, Chuanfeng Zhao, Xin Yang, Fang Wu, and Yuying Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1395–1417,Short summary
We found that 22–28 % of the low AOD bias in eastern China simulated by the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 can be improved by using a new emission inventory. The concentrations of primary aerosols are closely related to the emission, while the seasonal variations of secondary aerosols depend more on atmospheric processes. This study highlights the importance of improving both the emission and atmospheric processes in modeling the atmospheric aerosols and their radiative effects.
Rachel M. Hoesly, Steven J. Smith, Leyang Feng, Zbigniew Klimont, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Tyler Pitkanen, Jonathan J. Seibert, Linh Vu, Robert J. Andres, Ryan M. Bolt, Tami C. Bond, Laura Dawidowski, Nazar Kholod, June-ichi Kurokawa, Meng Li, Liang Liu, Zifeng Lu, Maria Cecilia P. Moura, Patrick R. O'Rourke, and Qiang Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 369–408,Short summary
Historical emission trends are key inputs to Earth systems and atmospheric chemistry models. We present a new data set of historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic gases (CO, CH4, NH3, NOx, SO2, NMVOCs, BC, OC, and CO2) developed with the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS). This improves on existing inventories as it uses consistent methods and data across emissions species, has annual resolution for a longer and more recent time series, and is designed to be transparent and reproducible.
Jianlin Hu, Xun Li, Lin Huang, Qi Ying, Qiang Zhang, Bin Zhao, Shuxiao Wang, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13103–13118,Short summary
The model performance of CMAQ with WRF using four different emission inventories in China was validated and compared to obtain the best air pollutants prediction for health effect studies of severe air pollution. The differences in performance of chemical transport model were analyzed for different months and regions in the vast part of China and ensemble predictions were firstly obtained from different inventories for health analysis with minimized errors for pollutants including PM2.5 and O3.
Huan Liu, Hanyang Man, Hongyang Cui, Yanjun Wang, Fanyuan Deng, Yue Wang, Xiaofan Yang, Qian Xiao, Qiang Zhang, Yan Ding, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12709–12724,Short summary
The VOC emission inventory has large uncertainties. An updated VOC emission inventory of vehicles in China was developed based on a set of state-of-the-art methods and big data. Exhausts and evaporation were taken into account. Our results narrowed the gap between inventories and the real emissions. Detailed speciation reveals the chemical characteristics of emissions, which has the potential to improve the understanding of atmospheric chemical processes in polluted regions.
Qing Mu, Gerhard Lammel, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Ying Chen, Petra Přibylová, Monique Teich, Yuxuan Zhang, Guangjie Zheng, Dominik van Pinxteren, Qiang Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Manabu Shiraiwa, Peter Spichtinger, Hang Su, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12253–12267,Short summary
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hazardous pollutants with the largest emissions in East Asia. The regional WRF-Chem-PAH model has been developed to reflect the state-of-the-art understanding of current PAHs studies with several new or updated features. It is able to reasonably well simulate the concentration levels and particulate mass fractions of PAHs near the sources and at a remote outflow region of East Asia, in high spatial and temporal resolutions.
Hongyan Zhao, Xin Li, Qiang Zhang, Xujia Jiang, Jintai Lin, Glen P. Peters, Meng Li, Guannan Geng, Bo Zheng, Hong Huo, Lin Zhang, Haikun Wang, Steven J. Davis, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10367–10381,Short summary
Effective and efficient control of air pollution relies upon an understanding of the pollution sources. We conduct an interdisciplinary study and find that 33 % of China’s PM2.5-related premature mortality in 2010 were caused by production emission in other regions; 56 % of the mortality was related to consumption in other regions. Multilateral and multi-stage cooperation under a regional sustainable development framework is in urgent need to mitigate air pollution and related health impacts.
Jieying Ding, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Ronald Johannes van der A, Bas Mijling, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, SeogYeon Cho, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Qiang Zhang, Fei Liu, and Pieternel Felicitas Levelt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10125–10141,Short summary
To evaluate the quality of the satellite-derived NOx emissions, we compare nine emission inventories of nitrogen oxides including four satellite-derived NOx inventories and bottom-up inventories for East Asia. The temporal and spatial distribution of NOx emissions over East Asia are evaluated. We analyse the differences in satellite-derived emissions from two different inversion methods. The paper ends with recommendations for future improvements of emission estimates.
Li Zhang, Qinyi Li, Tao Wang, Ravan Ahmadov, Qiang Zhang, Meng Li, and Mengyao Lv
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9733–9750,Short summary
Little is known of the integrated impacts of HONO and ClNO2 on lower-tropospheric ozone so far. In this study, we updated WRF-Chem with the CBMZ_ReNOM module, which considers both the sources and chemistry of HONO and ClNO2. The revised model revealed that the two reactive nitrogen compounds significantly affected the oxidation capacity and ozone formation at the surface and within the lower troposphere over polluted regions and noticeably improved summertime O3 predictions over China.
Fei Liu, Steffen Beirle, Qiang Zhang, Ronald J. van der A, Bo Zheng, Dan Tong, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9261–9275,Short summary
We assess NOx emission trends over Chinese cities based on satellite NO2 observations using a method independent of chemical transport models. NOx emissions over 48 Chinese cities have decreased significantly since 2011. Cities with different dominant emission sources (i.e. power, industrial, and transportation sectors) showed variable emission decline timelines that corresponded to the schedules for emission control in different sectors.
Guannan Geng, Qiang Zhang, Dan Tong, Meng Li, Yixuan Zheng, Siwen Wang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9187–9203,Short summary
We presented the characteristics of PM2.5 chemical composition over China during 2005–2012 by synthesis of in situ measurement data and satellite-based estimates. We also investigated the driving forces behind the changes by examining the changes in precursor emissions. We found that the decrease in sulfate is partly offset by the increase in nitrate. The results indicate that the synchronized abatement of emissions for multipollutants is necessary for reducing ambient PM2.5 over China.
Chaopeng Hong, Qiang Zhang, Yang Zhang, Youhua Tang, Daniel Tong, and Kebin He
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2447–2470,Short summary
A regional coupled climate–chemistry modeling system using the dynamical downscaling technique was established and evaluated. The modeling system performed well for both the climatological and the short-term air quality applications over east Asia. Regional models outperformed global models in regional climate and air quality predictions. The coupled modeling system improved the model performance, although some biases remained in the aerosol–cloud–radiation variables.
Eri Saikawa, Hankyul Kim, Min Zhong, Alexander Avramov, Yu Zhao, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Zbigniew Klimont, Fabian Wagner, Vaishali Naik, Larry W. Horowitz, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6393–6421,Short summary
We analyze differences in existing air pollutant emission estimates to better understand the magnitude of emissions as well as the source regions and sectors of air pollution in China. We find large disagreements among the inventories, and we show that these differences have a significant impact on regional air quality simulations. Better understanding of air pollutant emissions at more disaggregated levels is essential for air pollution mitigation in China.
Yuxuan Zhang, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Kebin He, Alfred Wiedensohler, Qiang Zhang, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The light absorption of black carbon (BC) strongly depends on their mixing state. By now, the BC mixing state in the atmosphere is still unclear. In this work, we have investigated the comprehensive characterization of BC mixing state at a polluted regional background site of the North China Plain (NCP) based on in site measurements. we found that BC aerosols of the NCP were fully aged, suggesting a strong optical and climate effect of BC on the regional scale in northern China.
Haiyan Li, Qi Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Chunrong Chen, Litao Wang, Zhe Wei, Shan Zhou, Caroline Parworth, Bo Zheng, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Ping Chen, Hongliang Zhang, Timothy J. Wallington, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4751–4768,Short summary
The sources and aerosol evolution processes of severe pollution episodes were investigated in Handan during wintertime using real-time measurements. An in-depth analysis of the data uncovered that primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning together with secondary formation of sulfate (mainly from SO2 emitted by coal combustion) are important driving factors for haze evolution. Our findings provide useful insights into air pollution control in heavily polluted regions.
Guannan Geng, Qiang Zhang, Randall V. Martin, Jintai Lin, Hong Huo, Bo Zheng, Siwen Wang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4131–4145,Short summary
We investigated the impact of spatial proxies on the representation of gridded emissions by comparing six gridded NOx emission datasets over China developed from the same magnitude of emissions and different spatial proxies. GEOS-Chem-modeled NO2 columns from the six gridded emissions are compared with satellite-based columns from OMI. Results show that differences between modeled and satellite-based NO2 columns are sensitive to the spatial proxies used in the gridded emission inventories.
Guohui Li, Naifang Bei, Junji Cao, Rujin Huang, Jiarui Wu, Tian Feng, Yichen Wang, Suixin Liu, Qiang Zhang, Xuexi Tie, and Luisa T. Molina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3301–3316,
Olaf Morgenstern, Michaela I. Hegglin, Eugene Rozanov, Fiona M. O'Connor, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rolando R. Garcia, Steven C. Hardiman, Larry W. Horowitz, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Michael E. Manyin, Marion Marchand, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, David Saint-Martin, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Simone Tilmes, Yousuke Yamashita, Kohei Yoshida, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 639–671,Short summary
We present a review of the make-up of 20 models participating in the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). In comparison to earlier such activities, most of these models comprise a whole-atmosphere chemistry, and several of them include an interactive ocean module. This makes them suitable for studying the interactions of tropospheric air quality, stratospheric ozone, and climate. The paper lays the foundation for other studies using the CCMI simulations for scientific analysis.
Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Herrmann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, and Rahul A. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2103–2162,Short summary
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3 is an important interaction between anthropogenic and natural emissions. This review results from a June 2015 workshop and includes the recent literature on kinetics, mechanisms, organic aerosol yields, and heterogeneous chemistry; advances in analytical instrumentation; the current state NO3-BVOC chemistry in atmospheric models; and critical needs for future research in modeling, field observations, and laboratory studies.
Jiarui Wu, Guohui Li, Junji Cao, Naifang Bei, Yichen Wang, Tian Feng, Rujin Huang, Suixin Liu, Qiang Zhang, and Xuexi Tie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2035–2051,
Chaopeng Hong, Qiang Zhang, Kebin He, Dabo Guan, Meng Li, Fei Liu, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1227–1239,Short summary
We found that the apparent uncertainties in China’s energy consumption increased from 2004 to 2012. SO2 emissions are most sensitive to energy uncertainties because of the high contributions from industrial coal combustion. The energy-induced emission uncertainties for some species are comparable to total uncertainties of emissions as estimated by previous studies, indicating variations in energy consumption could be an important source of China’s emission uncertainties.
Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Jung-Hun Woo, Kebin He, Zifeng Lu, Toshimasa Ohara, Yu Song, David G. Streets, Gregory R. Carmichael, Yafang Cheng, Chaopeng Hong, Hong Huo, Xujia Jiang, Sicong Kang, Fei Liu, Hang Su, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 935–963,Short summary
An anthropogenic emission inventory for Asia is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) projects by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. The total Asian emissions in 2010 are estimated as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.5 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC, 28.7 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC, and 17.3 Pg CO2.
Bo Zheng, Qiang Zhang, Dan Tong, Chuchu Chen, Chaopeng Hong, Meng Li, Guannan Geng, Yu Lei, Hong Huo, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 921–933,Short summary
The resolution dependence of uncertainties in proxy-based gridded inventories can be explained by the decoupling of emission facility locations from spatial proxies on fine scales. We conclude that proxy-based inventories are of sufficient quality to support regional and global models (larger than 0.25° in this case study); however, to support urban-scale models with accurate emission inputs, bottom-up inventories incorporating exact locations of emitting facilities have to be developed instead.
Yaduan Zhou, Yu Zhao, Pan Mao, Qiang Zhang, Jie Zhang, Liping Qiu, and Yang Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 211–233,Short summary
A high-resolution emission inventory was developed for Jiangsu, China, using the bottom-up approach. Through comparisons with other national and regional inventories, the best agreement between available ground observation and air quality simulation was found when the provincial inventory was applied. The result implied the advantage of improved emission inventory at local scale for high-resolution air quality modeling.
Qinyi Li, Li Zhang, Tao Wang, Yee Jun Tham, Ravan Ahmadov, Likun Xue, Qiang Zhang, and Junyu Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14875–14890,Short summary
The regional distributions and impacts of N2O5 and ClNO2 remain poorly understood. To address the problem, we developed a chemical transport model further and conducted the first high-resolution simulation of the distributions of the two species. Our research demonstrated the significant impacts of the two gases on the lifetime of nitrogen oxides, secondary nitrate production and ozone formation in southern China and highlighted the necessity of considering this chemistry in air quality models.
Amy Stidworthy and David Carruthers
Wind Energ. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
FLOWSTAR-Energy is a new practical model for predicting wind energy production from both onshore and offshore wind farms, allowing for the effects of topography, atmospheric stability and turbine wakes on the airflow. It includes an innovative model of wake interaction which exploits similarities in the behaviour of a wake and a plume of passive gas. Comparisons between model predictions and measurements from three sites show good agreement especially where stability effects are accounted for.
Ivan Kourtchev, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Sarah Connors, James G. Levine, Alex T. Archibald, Ana F. L. Godoi, Sarah L. Paralovo, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Antonio O. Manzi, Roger Seco, Steve Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex Guenther, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Scot T. Martin, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11899–11913,
Graydon Snider, Crystal L. Weagle, Kalaivani K. Murdymootoo, Amanda Ring, Yvonne Ritchie, Emily Stone, Ainsley Walsh, Clement Akoshile, Nguyen Xuan Anh, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, Jeff Brook, Fatimah D. Qonitan, Jinlu Dong, Derek Griffith, Kebin He, Brent N. Holben, Ralph Kahn, Nofel Lagrosas, Puji Lestari, Zongwei Ma, Amit Misra, Leslie K. Norford, Eduardo J. Quel, Abdus Salam, Bret Schichtel, Lior Segev, Sachchida Tripathi, Chien Wang, Chao Yu, Qiang Zhang, Yuxuan Zhang, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Mark D. Gibson, Yang Liu, J. Vanderlei Martins, Yinon Rudich, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9629–9653,Short summary
We examine the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected on filters at traditionally undersampled, globally dispersed urban locations. Several PM2.5 chemical components (e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and black carbon) vary by more than an order of magnitude between sites while aerosol hygroscopicity varies by a factor of 2. Enhanced anthropogenic dust fractions in large urban areas are apparent from high Zn : Al ratios.
Fei Liu, Steffen Beirle, Qiang Zhang, Steffen Dörner, Kebin He, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5283–5298,Short summary
We present a new method to quantify NOx emissions and corresponding atmospheric lifetimes from OMI NO2 observations together with ECMWF wind fields without further model input for sources located in polluted background. The derived NOx emissions show generally good agreement with bottom-up inventories for power plants and cities. Global inventory significantly underestimated NOx emissions in Chinese cities, most likely due to uncertainties associated with downscaling approaches.
Yuxuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Kebin He
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1833–1843,Short summary
We develop a novel method in this work for in situ measurements of the morphology and effective density of ambient In-BC cores using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer and a single-particle soot photometer. We find that In-BC cores hardly transform the morphology of BC into a void-free sphere. Taking the morphology and density of ambient In-BC cores into account, our work provides a new insight into the enhancement of light absorption for In-BC particles in the atmosphere.
Xuekun Fang, Min Shao, Andreas Stohl, Qiang Zhang, Junyu Zheng, Hai Guo, Chen Wang, Ming Wang, Jiamin Ou, Rona L. Thompson, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3369–3382,Short summary
This is the first study reporting top-down estimates of benzene and toluene emissions in southern China using atmospheric measurement data from a rural site in the area, an atmospheric transport model and an inverse modeling method. This study shows in detail the temporal and spatial differences between the inversion estimate and four different bottom-up emission inventories (RCP, REAS, MEIC; Yin et al., 2015). We propose that more observations are urgently needed in future.
Antara Banerjee, Amanda C. Maycock, Alexander T. Archibald, N. Luke Abraham, Paul Telford, Peter Braesicke, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2727–2746,
Yuli Shan, Dabo Guan, Jianghua Liu, Zhu Liu, Jingru Liu, Heike Schroeder, Yang Chen, Shuai Shao, Zhifu Mi, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Cities contribute 85 % of the total CO2 emissions in China and thus are considered the key areas for implementing policies designed for climate change adaption and CO2 emission mitigation. This study presents a method for constructing a CO2 emissions inventory for Chinese cities in terms of the definition provided by the IPCC territorial emission accounting approach. We apply this method to compile CO2 emissions inventories for 20 Chinese cities and analyse their emission characteristic.
Yaning Kang, Mingxu Liu, Yu Song, Xin Huang, Huan Yao, Xuhui Cai, Hongsheng Zhang, Ling Kang, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoyuan Yan, Hong He, Qiang Zhang, Min Shao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2043–2058,Short summary
The multi-year (1980–2012) comprehensive ammonia emissions inventories were compiled for China on 1 km × 1 km grid. Various realistic parameters (ambient temperature, wind speed, soil acidity, synthetic fertilizer types, etc.) were considered in these inventories to synthetically refine the emission factors of ammonia volatilization according to local agricultural practice. This paper shows the interannual trend and spatial distribution of ammonia emissions in details over recent decades.
F. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Tong, B. Zheng, M. Li, H. Huo, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13299–13317,Short summary
This is the first study in which emissions from China’s coal-fired power plants were estimated at unit level for a 20-year period. This new emission inventory is constructed from a unit-based database compiled in this work, named the China coal-fired Power plant Emissions Database (CPED), which includes detailed information on the technologies, activity data, operation situation, emission factors, and locations of individual units.
J.-W. Xu, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, J. Kim, M. Choi, Q. Zhang, G. Geng, Y. Liu, Z. Ma, L. Huang, Y. Wang, H. Chen, H. Che, P. Lin, and N. Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13133–13144,Short summary
1. GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) retrieval of AOD is consistent with AERONET AOD (RMSE=0.08-0.1) 2. GOCI-derived PM2.5 is in significant agreement with in situ observations (r2=0.66, rRMSE=18.3%) 3. Population-weighted GOCI-derived PM2.5 over eastern China for 2013 is 53.8 μg/m3, threatening the health of its more than 400 million residents 4. Secondary inorganics (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+) & organic matter are the most significant components of GOCI-derived PM2.5.
Y. Zhao, L. P. Qiu, R. Y. Xu, F. J. Xie, Q. Zhang, Y. Y. Yu, C. P. Nielsen, H. X. Qin, H. K. Wang, X. C. Wu, W. Q. Li, and J. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12623–12644,Short summary
A high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants and CO2 for Nanjing, a typical city in eastern China, is developed, incorporating the best available local information from on-site surveys. The temporal and spatial distribution of the emissions and the correlation between specific species of the inventory are assessed by comparisons with observations and other inventories at larger spatial scale. The emission inventory provides a basis to consider the quality of instrumental observations.
G. Janssens-Maenhout, M. Crippa, D. Guizzardi, F. Dentener, M. Muntean, G. Pouliot, T. Keating, Q. Zhang, J. Kurokawa, R. Wankmüller, H. Denier van der Gon, J. J. P. Kuenen, Z. Klimont, G. Frost, S. Darras, B. Koffi, and M. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11411–11432,Short summary
This paper provides monthly emission grid maps at 0.1deg x 0.1deg resolution with global coverage for air pollutants and aerosols anthropogenic emissions in 2008 and 2010. Countries are consistently inter-compared with sector-specific implied emission factors, per capita emissions and emissions per unit of GDP. The emission grid maps compose the reference emissions data set for the community modelling hemispheric transport of air pollution (HTAP).
L. Zhang, D. K. Henze, G. A. Grell, G. R. Carmichael, N. Bousserez, Q. Zhang, O. Torres, C. Ahn, Z. Lu, J. Cao, and Y. Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10281–10308,Short summary
We attempt to reduce uncertainties in BC emissions and improve BC model simulations by developing top-down, spatially resolved, estimates of BC emissions through assimilation of OMI observations of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) with the GEOS-Chem model and its adjoint for April and October of 2006. Despite the limitations and uncertainties, using OMI AAOD to constrain BC sources we are able to improve model representation of BC distributions, particularly over China.
J. G. Levine, A. R. MacKenzie, O. J. Squire, A. T. Archibald, P. T. Griffiths, N. L. Abraham, J. A. Pyle, D. E. Oram, G. Forster, J. F. Brito, J. D. Lee, J. R. Hopkins, A. C. Lewis, S. J. B. Bauguitte, C. F. Demarco, P. Artaxo, P. Messina, J. Lathière, D. A. Hauglustaine, E. House, C. N. Hewitt, and E. Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
This study explores our ability to simulate atmospheric chemistry stemming from isoprene emissions—a reactive gas emitted from vegetation—in pristine and polluted regions of the Amazon basin. We explore how two contrasting models fare in reproducing recent airborne measurements in the region. Their differing treatments of transport and mixing are found to: profoundly affect their performance; and yield very different pictures of the exposure of the rainforest to harmful ozone concentrations.
W. Tao, J. Liu, G. A. Ban-Weiss, D. A. Hauglustaine, L. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Cheng, Y. Yu, and S. Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8597–8614,Short summary
We examine the responses of a range of meteorological and air quality indicators to the expansion of urban land using WRF/Chem. Sensitivity studies indicate that the responses of pollutant concentrations to the spatial extent of urbanization are linear near the surface but nonlinear at higher altitudes. The results of process analysis demonstrate that urban heat island circulation and a deeper boundary layer with stronger turbulent intensities play a significant role in relocating pollutants.
H. M. Walker, D. Stone, T. Ingham, S. Vaughan, M. Cain, R. L. Jones, O. J. Kennedy, M. McLeod, B. Ouyang, J. Pyle, S. Bauguitte, B. Bandy, G. Forster, M. J. Evans, J. F. Hamilton, J. R. Hopkins, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, R. T. Lidster, S. Punjabi, W. T. Morgan, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8179–8200,
H. Y. Zhao, Q. Zhang, D. B. Guan, S. J. Davis, Z. Liu, H. Huo, J. T. Lin, W. D. Liu, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5443–5456,
O. J. Squire, A. T. Archibald, P. T. Griffiths, M. E. Jenkin, D. Smith, and J. A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5123–5143,
G. J. Zheng, F. K. Duan, H. Su, Y. L. Ma, Y. Cheng, B. Zheng, Q. Zhang, T. Huang, T. Kimoto, D. Chang, U. Pöschl, Y. F. Cheng, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2969–2983,
B. Zheng, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, K. B. He, K. Wang, G. J. Zheng, F. K. Duan, Y. L. Ma, and T. Kimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2031–2049,
M. Wang, M. Shao, W. Chen, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Yuan, Q. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-C. Chang, B. Wang, L. Zeng, M. Hu, Y. Yang, and Y. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1489–1502,
D. Lowe, S. Archer-Nicholls, W. Morgan, J. Allan, S. Utembe, B. Ouyang, E. Aruffo, M. Le Breton, R. A. Zaveri, P. Di Carlo, C. Percival, H. Coe, R. Jones, and G. McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1385–1409,
G. Snider, C. L. Weagle, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, K. Conrad, D. Cunningham, C. Gordon, M. Zwicker, C. Akoshile, P. Artaxo, N. X. Anh, J. Brook, J. Dong, R. M. Garland, R. Greenwald, D. Griffith, K. He, B. N. Holben, R. Kahn, I. Koren, N. Lagrosas, P. Lestari, Z. Ma, J. Vanderlei Martins, E. J. Quel, Y. Rudich, A. Salam, S. N. Tripathi, C. Yu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Brauer, A. Cohen, M. D. Gibson, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 505–521,Short summary
We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations to measure concentrations of fine aerosols in urban environments. Our findings include major ions species, total mass, and total scatter at three wavelengths. Results will be used to further evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates.
W. T. Morgan, B. Ouyang, J. D. Allan, E. Aruffo, P. Di Carlo, O. J. Kennedy, D. Lowe, M. J. Flynn, P. D. Rosenberg, P. I. Williams, R. Jones, G. B. McFiggans, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 973–990,Short summary
This paper used observations from a research aircraft flying around the UK to investigate how air pollution in north-western Europe can alter nighttime chemical reactions in the atmosphere. These chemical reactions can worsen air quality in the region, as well as influence regional climate change. Ammonium nitrate aerosol appears to play an important role. The paper indicates that representation of these chemical reactions is poorly represented in models used for air quality and climate.
S. Nordmann, Y. F. Cheng, G. R. Carmichael, M. Yu, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, Q. Zhang, P. E. Saide, U. Pöschl, H. Su, W. Birmili, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12683–12699,
X. Yang, N. L. Abraham, A. T. Archibald, P. Braesicke, J. Keeble, P. J. Telford, N. J. Warwick, and J. A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10431–10438,
A. Banerjee, A. T. Archibald, A. C. Maycock, P. Telford, N. L. Abraham, X. Yang, P. Braesicke, and J. A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9871–9881,
B. Zheng, H. Huo, Q. Zhang, Z. L. Yao, X. T. Wang, X. F. Yang, H. Liu, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9787–9805,
C. He, Q. B. Li, K. N. Liou, J. Zhang, L. Qi, Y. Mao, M. Gao, Z. Lu, D. G. Streets, Q. Zhang, M. M. Sarin, and K. Ram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7091–7112,
M. Wang, M. Shao, W. Chen, B. Yuan, S. Lu, Q. Zhang, L. Zeng, and Q. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5871–5891,
M. Li, Q. Zhang, D. G. Streets, K. B. He, Y. F. Cheng, L. K. Emmons, H. Huo, S. C. Kang, Z. Lu, M. Shao, H. Su, X. Yu, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5617–5638,
L. T. Wang, Z. Wei, J. Yang, Y. Zhang, F. F. Zhang, J. Su, C. C. Meng, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3151–3173,
I. Kourtchev, S. J. Fuller, C. Giorio, R. M. Healy, E. Wilson, I. O'Connor, J. C. Wenger, M. McLeod, J. Aalto, T. M. Ruuskanen, W. Maenhaut, R. Jones, D. S. Venables, J. R. Sodeau, M. Kulmala, and M. Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2155–2167,
D. Stone, M. J. Evans, H. Walker, T. Ingham, S. Vaughan, B. Ouyang, O. J. Kennedy, M. W. McLeod, R. L. Jones, J. Hopkins, S. Punjabi, R. Lidster, J. F. Hamilton, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, L. J. Carpenter, G. Forster, D. E. Oram, C. E. Reeves, S. Bauguitte, W. Morgan, H. Coe, E. Aruffo, C. Dari-Salisburgo, F. Giammaria, P. Di Carlo, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1299–1321,
O. J. Squire, A. T. Archibald, N. L. Abraham, D. J. Beerling, C. N. Hewitt, J. Lathière, R. C. Pike, P. J. Telford, and J. A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1011–1024,
S. J. O'Shea, G. Allen, M. W. Gallagher, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. M. Illingworth, M. Le Breton, J. B. A. Muller, C. J. Percival, A. T. Archibald, D. E. Oram, M. Parrington, P. I. Palmer, and A. C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12451–12467,
Z. S. Stock, M. R. Russo, T. M. Butler, A. T. Archibald, M. G. Lawrence, P. J. Telford, N. L. Abraham, and J. A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12215–12231,
A. M. Foley, D. Dalmonech, A. D. Friend, F. Aires, A. T. Archibald, P. Bartlein, L. Bopp, J. Chappellaz, P. Cox, N. R. Edwards, G. Feulner, P. Friedlingstein, S. P. Harrison, P. O. Hopcroft, C. D. Jones, J. Kolassa, J. G. Levine, I. C. Prentice, J. Pyle, N. Vázquez Riveiros, E. W. Wolff, and S. Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 10, 8305–8328,
B. Mijling, R. J. van der A, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12003–12012,
R. M. Varma, S. M. Ball, T. Brauers, H.-P. Dorn, U. Heitmann, R. L. Jones, U. Platt, D. Pöhler, A. A. Ruth, A. J. L. Shillings, J. Thieser, A. Wahner, and D. S. Venables
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3115–3130,
P. Braesicke, J. Keeble, X. Yang, G. Stiller, S. Kellmann, N. L. Abraham, A. Archibald, P. Telford, and J. A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10677–10688,
N. J. Warwick, A. T. Archibald, K. Ashworth, J. Dorsey, P. M. Edwards, D. E. Heard, B. Langford, J. Lee, P. K. Misztal, L. K. Whalley, and J. A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9183–9194,
T. Stavrakou, J.-F. Müller, K. F. Boersma, R. J. van der A, J. Kurokawa, T. Ohara, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9057–9082,
H.-P. Dorn, R. L. Apodaca, S. M. Ball, T. Brauers, S. S. Brown, J. N. Crowley, W. P. Dubé, H. Fuchs, R. Häseler, U. Heitmann, R. L. Jones, A. Kiendler-Scharr, I. Labazan, J. M. Langridge, J. Meinen, T. F. Mentel, U. Platt, D. Pöhler, F. Rohrer, A. A. Ruth, E. Schlosser, G. Schuster, A. J. L. Shillings, W. R. Simpson, J. Thieser, R. Tillmann, R. Varma, D. S. Venables, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1111–1140,
P. Di Carlo, E. Aruffo, M. Busilacchio, F. Giammaria, C. Dari-Salisburgo, F. Biancofiore, G. Visconti, J. Lee, S. Moller, C. E. Reeves, S. Bauguitte, G. Forster, R. L. Jones, and B. Ouyang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 971–980,
Y. Wang, Q. Q. Zhang, K. He, Q. Zhang, and L. Chai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2635–2652,
P. J. Young, A. T. Archibald, K. W. Bowman, J.-F. Lamarque, V. Naik, D. S. Stevenson, S. Tilmes, A. Voulgarakis, O. Wild, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W. J. Collins, S. B. Dalsøren, R. M. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, L. W. Horowitz, B. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, D. A. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, R. B. Skeie, D. T. Shindell, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2063–2090,
P. J. Telford, N. L. Abraham, A. T. Archibald, P. Braesicke, M. Dalvi, O. Morgenstern, F. M. O'Connor, N. A. D. Richards, and J. A. Pyle
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 161–177,
J.-T. Lin, Z. Liu, Q. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Mao, and G. Zhuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12255–12275,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Summertime ozone pollution in China affected by stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillationDeclining, seasonal-varying emissions of sulfur hexafluoride from the United StatesNitrogen oxides in the free troposphere: implications for tropospheric oxidants and the interpretation of satellite NO2 measurementsClimate-driven deterioration of future ozone pollution in Asia predicted by machine learning with multi-source dataReconciling the bottom-up and top-down estimates of the methane chemical sink using multiple observationsArctic tropospheric ozone: assessment of current knowledge and model performanceChloride (HCl ∕ Cl−) dominates inorganic aerosol formation from ammonia in the Indo-Gangetic Plain during winter: modeling and comparison with observationsInferring and evaluating satellite-based constraints on NOx emissions estimates in air quality simulationsHow do Cl concentrations matter for the simulation of CH4 and δ13C(CH4) and estimation of the CH4 budget through atmospheric inversions?Cluster-based characterization of multi-dimensional tropospheric ozone variability in coastal regions: an analysis of lidar measurements and model resultsExamining the implications of photochemical indicators for O3–NOx–VOC sensitivity and control strategies: a case study in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), ChinaEvaluation of isoprene nitrate chemistry in detailed chemical mechanismsSixteen years of MOPITT satellite data strongly constrain Amazon CO fire emissionsComparison of model and ground observations finds snowpack and blowing snow aerosols both contribute to Arctic tropospheric reactive bromineAssimilation of S5P/TROPOMI carbon monoxide data with the global CAMS near-real-time systemCOVID-19 lockdown emission reductions have the potential to explain over half of the coincident increase in global atmospheric methaneTransport patterns of global aviation NOx and their short-term O3 radiative forcing – a machine learning approachInverse modelling of Chinese NOx emissions using deep learning: integrating in situ observations with a satellite-based chemical reanalysisSources of surface O3 in the UK: tagging O3 within WRF-ChemGlobal tropospheric ozone trends, attributions, and radiative impacts in 1995–2017: an integrated analysis using aircraft (IAGOS) observations, ozonesonde, and multi-decadal chemical model simulationsOzone depletion events in the Arctic spring of 2019: a new modeling approach to bromine emissionsHigh-resolution inverse modelling of European CH4 emissions using the novel FLEXPART-COSMO TM5 4DVAR inverse modelling systemFour-dimensional variational assimilation for SO2 emission and its application around the COVID-19 lockdown in the spring 2020 over ChinaChanging ozone sensitivity in the South Coast Air Basin during the COVID-19 periodModelling the growth of atmospheric nitrous oxide using a global hierarchical inversionLong-term regional trends of nitrogen and sulfur deposition in the United States from 2002 to 2017Impact of urbanization on gas-phase pollutant concentrations: a regional-scale, model-based analysis of the contributing factorsCorrecting ozone biases in a global chemistry–climate model: implications for future ozoneEvaluating the contribution of the unexplored photochemistry of aldehydes on the tropospheric levels of molecular hydrogen (H2)The ozone–climate penalty over South America and Africa by 2100An improved representation of fire non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) in models: emissions to reactivityImpact of present and future aircraft NOx and aerosol emissions on atmospheric composition and associated direct radiative forcing of climateAttribution of surface ozone to NOx and volatile organic compound sources during two different high ozone eventsModel output statistics (MOS) applied to Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS) O3 forecasts: trade-offs between continuous and categorical skill scoresBayesian assessment of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and halon banks suggest large reservoirs still present in old equipmentGlobal and regional carbon budget for 2015–2020 inferred from OCO-2 based on an ensemble Kalman filter coupled with GEOS-ChemImpact of a subtropical high and a typhoon on a severe ozone pollution episode in the Pearl River Delta, ChinaA renewed rise in global HCFC-141b emissions between 2017–2021A model for simultaneous evaluation of NO2, O3, and PM10 pollution in urban and rural areas: handling incomplete data sets with multivariate curve resolution analysisTechnical note: Entrainment-limited kinetics of bimolecular reactions in cloudsThe contribution of shipping to air pollution in the Mediterranean region – a multimodel evaluation: Comparison of photooxidants NO2 and O3Observation-based analysis of ozone production sensitivity for two persistent ozone episodes in Guangdong, ChinaA machine learning approach to quantify meteorological drivers of ozone pollution in China from 2015 to 2019Discrepancy in assimilated atmospheric CO over East Asia in 2015–2020 by assimilating satellite and surface CO measurementsPotential environmental impact of bromoform from Asparagopsis farming in AustraliaSatellite soil moisture data assimilation impacts on modeling weather variables and ozone in the southeastern US – Part 2: Sensitivity to dry-deposition parameterizationsThe impacts of marine-emitted halogens on OH radicals in East Asia during summerImpact of eastern and central Pacific El Niño on lower tropospheric ozone in ChinaContribution of Asian emissions to upper tropospheric CO over the remote PacificAn ensemble-variational inversion system for the estimation of ammonia emissions using CrIS satellite ammonia retrievals
Mengyun Li, Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Huimin Li, Pinya Wang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1533–1544,Short summary
Using the GEOS-Chem model, the impact of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on summertime tropospheric O3 in China is investigated. In the warm phases of sea surface temperature anomalies over the eastern tropical Pacific, the QBO has a significant positive correlation with near-surface O3 concentrations over central China. The QBO impacts on O3 pollution in China are mainly a result of changing vertical transport of O3.
Lei Hu, Deborah Ottinger, Stephanie Bogle, Stephen A. Montzka, Philip L. DeCola, Ed Dlugokencky, Arlyn Andrews, Kirk Thoning, Colm Sweeney, Geoff Dutton, Lauren Aepli, and Andrew Crotwell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1437–1448,Short summary
Effective mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relies on an accurate understanding of emissions. Here we demonstrate the added value of using inventory- and atmosphere-based approaches for estimating US emissions of SF6, the most potent GHG known. The results suggest a large decline in US SF6 emissions, shed light on the possible processes causing the differences between the independent estimates, and identify opportunities for substantial additional emission reductions.
Viral Shah, Daniel J. Jacob, Ruijun Dang, Lok N. Lamsal, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, K. Folkert Boersma, Sebastian D. Eastham, Thibaud M. Fritz, Chelsea Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Ilana B. Pollack, Benjamin A. Nault, Ronald C. Cohen, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Simone T. Andersen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Tomás Sherwen, and Mat J. Evans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1227–1257,Short summary
NOx in the free troposphere (above 2 km) affects global tropospheric chemistry and the retrieval and interpretation of satellite NO2 measurements. We evaluate free tropospheric NOx in global atmospheric chemistry models and find that recycling NOx from its reservoirs over the oceans is faster than that simulated in the models, resulting in increases in simulated tropospheric ozone and OH. Over the U.S., free tropospheric NO2 contributes the majority of the tropospheric NO2 column in summer.
Huimin Li, Yang Yang, Jianbing Jin, Hailong Wang, Ke Li, Pinya Wang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1131–1145,Short summary
Future climate change will aggravate ozone pollution in Asia, especially in high-forcing scenarios. Ozone pollution in China will expand from North China to South China and extend into the cold season in a warmer future. The emphasis of this work is to quantify the impacts of future climate change on O3 pollution in Asia, which is of great significance for future O3 pollution mitigation strategies.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 789–807,Short summary
The large uncertainties in OH simulated by atmospheric chemistry models hinder accurate estimates of CH4 chemical loss through the bottom-up method. This study presents a new approach based on OH precursor observations and a chemical box model to improve the tropospheric OH distributions simulated by atmospheric chemistry models. Through this approach, both the global OH burden and the corresponding methane chemical loss reach consistency with the top-down method based on MCF inversions.
Cynthia H. Whaley, Kathy S. Law, Jens Liengaard Hjorth, Henrik Skov, Stephen R. Arnold, Joakim Langner, Jakob Boyd Pernov, Garance Bergeron, Ilann Bourgeois, Jesper H. Christensen, Rong-You Chien, Makoto Deushi, Xinyi Dong, Peter Effertz, Gregory Faluvegi, Mark Flanner, Joshua S. Fu, Michael Gauss, Greg Huey, Ulas Im, Rigel Kivi, Louis Marelle, Tatsuo Onishi, Naga Oshima, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Jeff Peischl, David A. Plummer, Luca Pozzoli, Jean-Christophe Raut, Tom Ryerson, Ragnhild Skeie, Sverre Solberg, Manu A. Thomas, Chelsea Thompson, Kostas Tsigaridis, Svetlana Tsyro, Steven T. Turnock, Knut von Salzen, and David W. Tarasick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 637–661,Short summary
This study summarizes recent research on ozone in the Arctic, a sensitive and rapidly warming region. We find that the seasonal cycles of near-surface atmospheric ozone are variable depending on whether they are near the coast, inland, or at high altitude. Several global model simulations were evaluated, and we found that because models lack some of the ozone chemistry that is important for the coastal Arctic locations, they do not accurately simulate ozone there.
Pooja V. Pawar, Sachin D. Ghude, Gaurav Govardhan, Prodip Acharja, Rachana Kulkarni, Rajesh Kumar, Baerbel Sinha, Vinayak Sinha, Chinmay Jena, Preeti Gunwani, Tapan Kumar Adhya, Eiko Nemitz, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 41–59,Short summary
In this study, for the first time in South Asia we compare simulated ammonia, ammonium, and total ammonia using the WRF-Chem model and MARGA measurements during winter in the Indo-Gangetic Plain region. Since observations show HCl promotes the fraction of high chlorides in Delhi, we added HCl / Cl emissions to the model. We conducted three sensitivity experiments with changes in HCl emissions, and improvements are reported in accurately simulating ammonia, ammonium, and total ammonia.
James D. East, Barron H. Henderson, Sergey L. Napelenok, Shannon N. Koplitz, Golam Sarwar, Robert Gilliam, Allen Lenzen, Daniel Q. Tong, R. Bradley Pierce, and Fernando Garcia-Menendez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15981–16001,Short summary
We present a framework that uses a computer model of air quality, along with air pollution data from satellite instruments, to estimate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) across the Northern Hemisphere. The framework, which advances current methods to infer emissions from satellite observations, provides observationally constrained NOx estimates, including in regions of the world where emissions are highly uncertain, and can improve simulations of air pollutants relevant for health and policy.
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Isabelle Pison, Didier Hauglustaine, Antoine Berchet, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15489–15508,Short summary
Atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations have been rising since 2007, resulting from an imbalance between CH4 sources and sinks. The CH4 budget is generally estimated through top-down approaches using CH4 and δ13C(CH4) observations as constraints. The oxidation by chlorine (Cl) contributes little to the total oxidation of CH4 but strongly influences δ13C(CH4). Here, we compare multiple recent Cl fields and quantify the influence of Cl concentrations on CH4, δ13C(CH4), and CH4 budget estimates.
Claudia Bernier, Yuxuan Wang, Guillaume Gronoff, Timothy Berkoff, K. Emma Knowland, John T. Sullivan, Ruben Delgado, Vanessa Caicedo, and Brian Carroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15313–15331,Short summary
Coastal regions are susceptible to variable and high ozone which is difficult to simulate. We developed a method to characterize large datasets of multi-dimensional measurements from lidar instruments taken in coastal regions. Using the clustered ozone groups, we evaluated model performance in simulating the coastal ozone variability vertically and diurnally. The approach allowed us to pinpoint areas where the models succeed in simulating coastal ozone and areas where there are still gaps.
Xun Li, Momei Qin, Lin Li, Kangjia Gong, Huizhong Shen, Jingyi Li, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14799–14811,Short summary
Photochemical indicators have been widely used to predict O3–NOx–VOC sensitivity with given thresholds. Here we assessed the effectiveness of four indicators with a case study in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The overall performance was good, while some indicators showed inconsistencies with the O3 isopleths. The methodology used to determine the thresholds may produce uncertainties. These results would improve our understanding of the use of photochemical indicators in policy implications.
Alfred W. Mayhew, Ben H. Lee, Joel A. Thornton, Thomas J. Bannan, James Brean, James R. Hopkins, James D. Lee, Beth S. Nelson, Carl Percival, Andrew R. Rickard, Marvin D. Shaw, Peter M. Edwards, and Jaqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14783–14798,Short summary
Isoprene nitrates are chemical species commonly found in the atmosphere that are important for their impacts on air quality and climate. This paper compares 3 different representations of the chemistry of isoprene nitrates in computational models highlighting cases where the choice of chemistry included has significant impacts on the concentration and composition of the modelled nitrates. Calibration of mass spectrometers is also shown to be an important factor when analysing isoprene nitrates.
Stijn Naus, Lucas G. Domingues, Maarten Krol, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Luciana V. Gatti, John B. Miller, Emanuel Gloor, Sourish Basu, Caio Correia, Gerbrand Koren, Helen M. Worden, Johannes Flemming, Gabrielle Pétron, and Wouter Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14735–14750,Short summary
We assimilate MOPITT CO satellite data in the TM5-4D-Var inverse modelling framework to estimate Amazon fire CO emissions for 2003–2018. We show that fire emissions have decreased over the analysis period, coincident with a decrease in deforestation rates. However, interannual variations in fire emissions are large, and they correlate strongly with soil moisture. Our results reveal an important role for robust, top-down fire CO emissions in quantifying and attributing Amazon fire intensity.
William F. Swanson, Chris D. Holmes, William R. Simpson, Kaitlyn Confer, Louis Marelle, Jennie L. Thomas, Lyatt Jaeglé, Becky Alexander, Shuting Zhai, Qianjie Chen, Xuan Wang, and Tomás Sherwen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14467–14488,Short summary
Radical bromine molecules are seen at higher concentrations during the Arctic spring. We use the global model GEOS-Chem to test whether snowpack and wind-blown snow sources can explain high bromine concentrations. We run this model for the entire year of 2015 and compare results to observations of bromine from floating platforms on the Arctic Ocean and at Utqiaġvik. We find that the model performs best when both sources are enabled but may overestimate bromine production in summer and fall.
Antje Inness, Ilse Aben, Melanie Ades, Tobias Borsdorff, Johannes Flemming, Luke Jones, Jochen Landgraf, Bavo Langerock, Philippe Nedelec, Mark Parrington, and Roberto Ribas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14355–14376,Short summary
The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) provides daily global air quality forecasts to users worldwide. One of the species of interest is carbon monoxide (CO), an important trace gas in the atmosphere with anthropogenic and natural sources, produced by incomplete combustion, for example, by wildfires. This paper looks at how well CAMS can model CO in the atmosphere and shows that the fields can be improved when blending CO data from the TROPOMI instrument with the CAMS model.
David S. Stevenson, Richard G. Derwent, Oliver Wild, and William J. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14243–14252,Short summary
Atmospheric methane’s growth rate rose by 50 % in 2020 relative to 2019. Lower nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions tend to increase methane’s atmospheric residence time; lower carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions decrease its lifetime. Combining model sensitivities with emission changes, we find that COVID-19 lockdown emission reductions can explain over half the observed increases in methane in 2020.
Jin Maruhashi, Volker Grewe, Christine Frömming, Patrick Jöckel, and Irene C. Dedoussi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14253–14282,Short summary
Aviation NOx emissions lead to the formation of ozone in the atmosphere in the short term, which has a climate warming effect. This study uses global-scale simulations to characterize the transport patterns between NOx emissions at an altitude of ~ 10.4 km and the resulting ozone. Results show a strong spatial and temporal dependence of NOx in disturbing atmospheric O3 concentrations, with the location that is most impacted in terms of warming not necessarily coinciding with the emission region.
Tai-Long He, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Kevin W. Bowman, Zhe Jiang, Xiaokang Chen, Rui Li, Yuxiang Zhang, and Kunna Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14059–14074,Short summary
We use a deep-learning (DL) model to estimate Chinese NOx emissions by combining satellite analysis and in situ measurements. Our results are consistent with conventional analyses of Chinese NOx emissions. Comparison with mobility data shows that the DL model has a better capability to capture changes in NOx. We analyse Chinese NOx emissions during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown period. Our results illustrate the potential use of DL as a complementary tool for conventional air quality studies.
Johana Romero-Alvarez, Aurelia Lupaşcu, Douglas Lowe, Alba Badia, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Steve Dorling, Claire E. Reeves, and Tim Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13797–13815,Short summary
As ozone can be transported across countries, efficient air quality management and regulatory policies rely on the assessment of local ozone production vs. transport. In our study, we investigate the origin of surface ozone in the UK and the contribution of the different source regions to regulatory ozone metrics. It is shown that emission controls would be necessary over western Europe to improve health-related metrics and over larger areas to reduce impacts on ecosystems.
Haolin Wang, Xiao Lu, Daniel J. Jacob, Owen R. Cooper, Kai-Lan Chang, Ke Li, Meng Gao, Yiming Liu, Bosi Sheng, Kai Wu, Tongwen Wu, Jie Zhang, Bastien Sauvage, Philippe Nédélec, Romain Blot, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13753–13782,Short summary
We report significant global tropospheric ozone increases in 1995–2017 based on extensive aircraft and ozonesonde observations. Using GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry model) multi-decadal global simulations, we find that changes in global anthropogenic emissions, in particular the rapid increases in aircraft emissions, contribute significantly to the increases in tropospheric ozone and resulting radiative impact.
Maximilian Herrmann, Moritz Schöne, Christian Borger, Simon Warnach, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Platt, and Eva Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13495–13526,Short summary
Ozone depletion events (ODEs) are a common occurrence in the boundary layer during Arctic spring. Ozone is depleted by bromine species in an autocatalytic reaction cycle. Previous modeling studies assumed an infinite bromine source at the ground. An alternative emission scheme is presented in which a finite amount of bromide in the snow is tracked over time. The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to study ODEs in the Arctic from February to May 2019.
Peter Bergamaschi, Arjo Segers, Dominik Brunner, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Stephan Henne, Michel Ramonet, Tim Arnold, Tobias Biermann, Huilin Chen, Sebastien Conil, Marc Delmotte, Grant Forster, Arnoud Frumau, Dagmar Kubistin, Xin Lan, Markus Leuenberger, Matthias Lindauer, Morgan Lopez, Giovanni Manca, Jennifer Müller-Williams, Simon O'Doherty, Bert Scheeren, Martin Steinbacher, Pamela Trisolino, Gabriela Vítková, and Camille Yver Kwok
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13243–13268,Short summary
We present a novel high-resolution inverse modelling system, "FLEXVAR", and its application for the inverse modelling of European CH4 emissions in 2018. The new system combines a high spatial resolution of 7 km x 7 km with a variational data assimilation technique, which allows CH4 emissions to be optimized from individual model grid cells. The high resolution allows the observations to be better reproduced, while the derived emissions show overall good consistency with two existing models.
Yiwen Hu, Zengliang Zang, Xiaoyan Ma, Yi Li, Yanfei Liang, Wei You, Xiaobin Pan, and Zhijin Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13183–13200,Short summary
This study developed a four-dimensional variational assimilation (4DVAR) system based on WRF–Chem to optimise SO2 emissions. The 4DVAR system was applied to obtain the SO2 emissions during the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic over China. The results showed that the 4DVAR system effectively optimised emissions to describe the actual changes in SO2 emissions related to the COVID lockdown, and it can thus be used to improve the accuracy of forecasts.
Jason R. Schroeder, Chenxia Cai, Jin Xu, David Ridley, Jin Lu, Nancy Bui, Fang Yan, and Jeremy Avise
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12985–13000,Short summary
Ozone, a key component of smog, has plagued the Los Angeles (LA) region for decades. Ozone is created by complex chemical reactions that can be greatly impacted by anthropogenic emissions. This study makes use of the COVID-19 period to study the sensitivity of ozone chemistry in LA to certain anthropogenic emissions, notably from vehicles. We find that vehicular emissions of key pollutants dropped by up to 25 % during COVID-19, which caused a fundamental shift in ozone chemistry in the region.
Angharad C. Stell, Michael Bertolacci, Andrew Zammit-Mangion, Matthew Rigby, Paul J. Fraser, Christina M. Harth, Paul B. Krummel, Xin Lan, Manfredi Manizza, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Dickon Young, and Anita L. Ganesan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12945–12960,Short summary
Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance, whose atmospheric abundance has risen throughout the contemporary record. In this work, we carry out the first global hierarchical Bayesian inversion to solve for nitrous oxide emissions. We derive increasing global nitrous oxide emissions over 2011–2020, which are mainly driven by emissions between 0° and 30°N, with the highest emissions recorded in 2020.
Sarah E. Benish, Jesse O. Bash, Kristen M. Foley, K. Wyat Appel, Christian Hogrefe, Robert Gilliam, and George Pouliot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12749–12767,Short summary
We assess Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations of nitrogen and sulfur deposition over US climate regions to evaluate the model ability to reproduce long-term deposition trends and total deposition budgets. A measurement–model fusion technique is found to improve estimates of wet deposition. Emission controls set by the Clean Air Act successfully decreased oxidized nitrogen deposition across the US; we find increasing amounts of reduced nitrogen to the total nitrogen budget.
Peter Huszar, Jan Karlický, Lukáš Bartík, Marina Liaskoni, Alvaro Patricio Prieto Perez, and Kateřina Šindelářová
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12647–12674,Short summary
Urbanization turns rural land cover into artificial land cover, while due to human activities, it introduces a great quantity of emissions. We attempt to quantify the impact of urbanization on the final air pollutant levels by looking not only at these emissions, but also the way urban land cover influences meteorological conditions, how the removal of pollutants changes due to urban land cover, and how biogenic emissions from vegetation change due to less vegetation in urban areas.
Zhenze Liu, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Fiona M. O'Connor, and Steven T. Turnock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12543–12557,Short summary
Weaknesses in process representation in chemistry–climate models lead to biases in simulating surface ozone and to uncertainty in projections of future ozone change. We develop a deep learning model to demonstrate the feasibility of ozone bias correction and show its capability in providing improved assessments of the impacts of climate and emission changes on future air quality, along with valuable information to guide future model development.
Maria Paula Pérez-Peña, Jenny A. Fisher, Dylan B. Millet, Hisashi Yashiro, Ray L. Langenfelds, Paul B. Krummel, and Scott H. Kable
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12367–12386,Short summary
We used two atmospheric models to test the implications of previously unexplored aldehyde photochemistry on the atmospheric levels of molecular hydrogen (H2). We showed that the new photochemistry from aldehydes produces more H2 over densely forested areas. Compared to the rest of the world, it is over these forested regions where the produced H2 is more likely to be removed. The results highlight that other processes that contribute to atmospheric H2 levels should be studied further.
Flossie Brown, Gerd A. Folberth, Stephen Sitch, Susanne Bauer, Marijn Bauters, Pascal Boeckx, Alexander W. Cheesman, Makoto Deushi, Inês Dos Santos Vieira, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, James Haywood, James Keeble, Lina M. Mercado, Fiona M. O'Connor, Naga Oshima, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Hans Verbeeck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12331–12352,Short summary
Surface ozone can decrease plant productivity and impair human health. In this study, we evaluate the change in surface ozone due to climate change over South America and Africa using Earth system models. We find that if the climate were to change according to the worst-case scenario used here, models predict that forested areas in biomass burning locations and urban populations will be at increasing risk of ozone exposure, but other areas will experience a climate benefit.
Therese S. Carter, Colette L. Heald, Jesse H. Kroll, Eric C. Apel, Donald Blake, Matthew Coggon, Achim Edtbauer, Georgios Gkatzelis, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Jeff Peischl, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Felix Piel, Nina G. Reijrink, Akima Ringsdorf, Carsten Warneke, Jonathan Williams, Armin Wisthaler, and Lu Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12093–12111,Short summary
Fires emit many gases which can contribute to smog and air pollution. However, the amount and properties of these chemicals are not well understood, so this work updates and expands their representation in a global atmospheric model, including by adding new chemicals. We confirm that this updated representation generally matches measurements taken in several fire regions. We then show that fires provide ~15 % of atmospheric reactivity globally and more than 75 % over fire source regions.
Etienne Terrenoire, Didier A. Hauglustaine, Yann Cohen, Anne Cozic, Richard Valorso, Franck Lefèvre, and Sigrun Matthes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11987–12023,Short summary
Aviation NOx emissions not only have an impact on global climate by changing ozone and methane levels in the atmosphere, but also contribute to the deterioration of local air quality. The LMDZ-INCA global model is applied to re-evaluate the impact of aircraft NOx and aerosol emissions on climate. We investigate the impact of present-day and future (2050) aircraft emissions on atmospheric composition and the associated radiative forcings of climate for ozone, methane and aerosol direct forcings.
Aurelia Lupaşcu, Noelia Otero, Andrea Minkos, and Tim Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11675–11699,Short summary
Ground-level ozone is an important air pollutant that affects human health, ecosystems, and climate. Ozone is not emitted directly but rather formed in the atmosphere through chemical reactions involving two distinct precursors. Our results provide detailed information about the origin of ozone in Germany during two peak ozone events that took place in 2015 and 2018, thus improving our understanding of ground-level ozone.
Hervé Petetin, Dene Bowdalo, Pierre-Antoine Bretonnière, Marc Guevara, Oriol Jorba, Jan Mateu Armengol, Margarida Samso Cabre, Kim Serradell, Albert Soret, and Carlos Pérez Garcia-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11603–11630,Short summary
This study investigates the extent to which ozone forecasts provided by the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS) can be improved using surface observations and state-of-the-art statistical methods. Through a case study over the Iberian Peninsula in 2018–2019, it unambiguously demonstrates the value of these methods for improving the raw CAMS O3 forecasts while at the same time highlighting the complexity of improving the detection of the highest O3 concentrations.
Megan Jeramaz Lickley, John S. Daniel, Eric L. Fleming, Stefan Reimann, and Susan Solomon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11125–11136,Short summary
Halocarbons contained in equipment continue to be emitted after production has ceased. These
banksmust be carefully accounted for in evaluating compliance with the Montreal Protocol. We extend a Bayesian model to the suite of regulated chemicals subject to banking. We find that banks are substantially larger than previous estimates, and we identify banks by chemical and equipment type whose future emissions will contribute to global warming and delay ozone-hole recovery if left unrecovered.
Yawen Kong, Bo Zheng, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10769–10788,Short summary
We developed a Bayesian atmospheric inversion system based on the 4D local ensemble transform Kalman filter (4D-LETKF) algorithm coupled with GEOS-Chem from the latest Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) V10r XCO2 retrievals. This is the first adaptation of 4D-LETKF to an OCO-2-based global carbon inversion system. We inferred global gridded carbon fluxes and investigated their magnitudes, variations, and partitioning schemes to understand the global and regional carbon budgets for 2015–2020.
Shanshan Ouyang, Tao Deng, Run Liu, Jingyang Chen, Guowen He, Jeremy Cheuk-Hin Leung, Nan Wang, and Shaw Chen Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10751–10767,Short summary
A record-breaking severe O3 pollution episode occurred under the influence of a Pacific subtropical high followed by Typhoon Mitag in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in early Autumn 2019. Through WRF-CMAQ model simulations, we propose that the enhanced photochemical production of O3 during the episode is a major cause of the most severe O3 pollution year since the official O3 observation started in the PRD in 2006.
Luke M. Western, Alison L. Redington, Alistair J. Manning, Cathy M. Trudinger, Lei Hu, Stephan Henne, Xuekun Fang, Lambert J. M. Kuijpers, Christina Theodoridi, David S. Godwin, Jgor Arduini, Bronwyn Dunse, Andreas Engel, Paul J. Fraser, Christina M. Harth, Paul B. Krummel, Michela Maione, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Hyeri Park, Sunyoung Park, Stefan Reimann, Peter K. Salameh, Daniel Say, Roland Schmidt, Tanja Schuck, Carolina Siso, Kieran M. Stanley, Isaac Vimont, Martin K. Vollmer, Dickon Young, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Stephen A. Montzka, and Matthew Rigby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9601–9616,Short summary
The production of ozone-destroying gases is being phased out. Even though production of one of the main ozone-depleting gases, called HCFC-141b, has been declining for many years, the amount that is being released to the atmosphere has been increasing since 2017. We do not know for sure why this is. A possible explanation is that HCFC-141b that was used to make insulating foams many years ago is only now escaping to the atmosphere, or a large part of its production is not being reported.
Eva Gorrochategui, Isabel Hernandez, and Romà Tauler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9111–9127,Short summary
A multiway methodology is proposed to handle complex and incomplete atmospheric data sets, providing concise and easily interpretable results. Changes in air quality by NO2, O3 and PM10 in 8 sampling stations located in Catalonia during the COVID-19 lockdown with respect to previous years (2018 and 2019) are investigated. Simultaneous analysis of the 3 contaminants among the 8 stations and for the 3 years allows the evaluation of correlations among the pollutants, even when having missing data.
Christopher D. Holmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9011–9015,Short summary
Cloud water and ice enable reactions that lead to acid rain and alter atmospheric oxidants, among other impacts. This work develops and evaluates an efficient method of simulating cloud chemistry within global and regional atmospheric models in order to better understand the role of clouds in atmospheric chemistry.
Lea Fink, Matthias Karl, Volker Matthias, Sonia Oppo, Richard Kranenburg, Jeroen Kuenen, Jana Moldanova, Sara Jutterström, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Elisa Majamäki
Ship contribution to air pollution in the Mediterranean Sea was simulated with five chemistry transport models. An evaluation of the results for NO2 and O3 air concentrations and dry deposition is presented. Emission data, modeled year and domain were the same. Outputs of model runs were compared to measurements from background stations. Focus was to compare model outputs concerning the concentration of regulatory pollutants and the ship contributions to total air pollution concentrations.
Kaixiang Song, Run Liu, Yu Wang, Tao Liu, Liyan Wei, Yanxing Wu, Junyu Zheng, Boguang Wang, and Shaw Chen Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8403–8416,Short summary
We developed an observation-based method to investigate the sensitivity of ozone formation to precursors during two elevated ozone episodes observed at 77 stations in Guangdong, China. We found approximately 67 % of the station days exhibit ozone formation sensitivity to NOx, 20 % of the station days are in the transitional regime sensitive to both NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and only 13 % of the station days are sensitive to VOCs.
Xiang Weng, Grant L. Forster, and Peer Nowack
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8385–8402,Short summary
We use machine learning to quantify the meteorological drivers behind surface ozone variations in China between 2015 and 2019. Our novel approaches show improved performance when compared to previous analysis methods. We highlight that nonlinearity in driver relationships and the impacts of large-scale meteorological phenomena are key to understanding ozone pollution. Moreover, we find that almost half of the observed ozone trend between 2015 and 2019 might have been driven by meteorology.
Zhaojun Tang, Jiaqi Chen, and Zhe Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7815–7826,Short summary
We provide a comparative analysis to explore the effects of satellite and surface measurements on atmospheric CO in data assimilations in 2015–2020 over East Asia. We find possible overestimated enhancements of atmospheric CO by assimilating surface CO measurements due to model representation errors, and a large discrepancy in the derived trends of CO columns due to different vertical sensitivities of satellite and surface observations to lower and free troposphere.
Yue Jia, Birgit Quack, Robert D. Kinley, Ignacio Pisso, and Susann Tegtmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7631–7646,Short summary
In this study, we assessed the potential risks of bromoform released from Asparagopsis farming near Australia for the stratospheric ozone layer by analyzing different cultivation scenarios. We conclude that the intended operation of Asparagopsis seaweed cultivation farms with an annual yield to meet the needs of 50 % of feedlots and cattle in either open-ocean or terrestrial cultures in Australia will not impact the ozone layer under normal operating conditions.
Min Huang, James H. Crawford, Gregory R. Carmichael, Kevin W. Bowman, Sujay V. Kumar, and Colm Sweeney
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7461–7487,Short summary
This study demonstrates that ozone dry-deposition modeling can be improved by revising the model's dry-deposition parameterizations to better represent the effects of environmental conditions including the soil moisture fields. Applying satellite soil moisture data assimilation is shown to also have added value. Such advancements in coupled modeling and data assimilation can benefit the assessments of ozone impacts on human and vegetation health.
Shidong Fan and Ying Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7331–7351,Short summary
We investigated the mechanisms by which marine-emitted halogens influence the OH radical, which is not considered in air quality forecasting model systems. The atmospheric OH radical has a complicated response to halogen emissions by species through both physical and chemical processes. Over ocean, inorganic iodine is the controlling species and chemistry is more important. Over land, the physics of sea salt aerosols are more important. The mechanism is applicable to other circumstances.
Zhongjing Jiang and Jing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7273–7285,Short summary
This study investigates the changes of tropospheric ozone in China associated with EP and CP El Niño, using satellite observations and the GEOS-Chem model. We found that El Niño generally leads to lower tropospheric ozone (LTO) decrease over most parts of China; La Niña acts the opposite. The difference between LTO changes during EP and CP El Niño primarily lies in southern China. Regional transport and chemical processes play the leading and secondary roles in driving the LTO changes.
Linda Smoydzin and Peter Hoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7193–7206,Short summary
Our study presents a detailed analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of elevated CO level in the upper troposphere over the Pacific using 20 years of MOPITT data. We create a climatology of severe pollution episodes and use trajectory calculations to link each particular pollution event detected in MOPITT satellite data with a distinct source region. Additionally, we analyse uplift mechanisms such as WCB-related upward transport.
Michael Sitwell, Mark W. Shephard, Yves Rochon, Karen Cady-Pereira, and Enrico Dammers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6595–6624,Short summary
Observations of ammonia made using the satellite-borne CrIS instrument were used to improve the ammonia emissions used in the GEM-MACH model. These observations were used to refine estimates of the monthly mean ammonia emissions over North America for May to August 2016. The updated ammonia emissions reduced biases of GEM-MACH surface ammonia fields with surface observations and showed some improvements in the forecasting of species involved in inorganic particulate matter formation.
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Emission estimates represent a major source of uncertainty in air quality modelling. We developed a novel approach to improve emission estimates from existing inventories using air quality models and routine in situ observations. Using this approach, we derived improved estimates of NOx emissions from the transport sector in Beijing in 2016. This approach has great potential in deriving timely updates of emissions for other pollutants, particularly in regions undergoing rapid emission changes.
Emission estimates represent a major source of uncertainty in air quality modelling. We...