High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980 to 2012
Abstract. Ammonia (NH3) can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980–2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs) considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.1 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.7 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80–90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.86 Tg (1980) to 6.16 Tg (2005), and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012); beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980) to 4.7 Tg (1996), and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012). Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1000 m, and thus are suitable for global and regional air-quality modeling.