Articles | Volume 20, issue 20
Research article 17 Oct 2020
Research article | 17 Oct 2020
Aerosol pH and chemical regimes of sulfate formation in aerosol water during winter haze in the North China Plain
Wei Tao et al.
No articles found.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ovid O. Krüger, Barbara Ervens, Bruna A. Holanda, Manfred Wendisch, Trismono Krisna, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christiane Voigt, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14079–14088,Short summary
Quantifying the precipitation within clouds is crucial for our understanding of the Earth's hydrological cycle. Using in situ measurements of cloud and rain properties over the Amazon Basin and Atlantic Ocean, we show here a linear relationship between the effective radius (re) and precipitation water content near the tops of convective clouds for different pollution states and temperature levels. Our results emphasize the role of re to determine both initiation and amount of precipitation.
Ziwei Mo, Ru Cui, Bin Yuan, Huihua Cai, Brian C. McDonald, Meng Li, Junyu Zheng, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13655–13666,Short summary
There is a lack of detailed understanding of NMVOC emissions from the use of volatile chemical products (VCPs) in China. This study used a mass balance method to compile a long-term emission inventory for solvent use (including coatings, adhesives, inks, pesticides, cleaners and personal care products) in China during 2000–2017. The striking growth and recent trend of solvent use NMVOC emissions can give important implications for air quality modeling and NMVOC control strategies in China.
Marco A. Franco, Florian Ditas, Leslie Ann Kremper, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro Araújo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Joel F. de Brito, Samara Carbone, Bruna A. Holanda, Fernando G. Morais, Janaína P. Nascimento, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Marta Sá, Jorge Saturno, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In Central Amazonia, new particle formation in the planetary boundary layer is rare. Instead, there is the appearance of sub-50 nm aerosols with diameters larger than about 20 nm, that eventually grow to cloud condensation nuclei size range. Here, 254 growth events were characterized, which have higher predominance in the wet season. About 70 % of them showed direct relation to convective downdrafts while 30 % occurred partly under clear sky conditions, evidencing still unknown particle sources.
Maria Prass, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Paulo Artaxo, Florian Ditas, Wolfgang Elbert, Jan-David Förster, Marco Aurélio Franco, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Thomas Klimach, Leslie Ann Kremper, Eckhard Thines, David Walter, Jens Weber, Bettina Weber, Bernhard M. Fuchs, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Biogeosciences, 18, 4873–4887,Short summary
Bioaerosols in the atmosphere over the Amazon rain forest were analyzed by molecular biological staining and microscopy. Eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal aerosols were quantified in time series and altitude profiles which exhibited clear differences in number concentrations and vertical distributions. Our results provide insights into the sources and dispersion of different Amazonian bioaerosol types as a basis for a better understanding of biosphere–atmosphere interactions.
Helmi Uusitalo, Jenni Kontkanen, Ilona Ylivinkka, Ekaterina Ezhova, Anastasiia Demakova, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Denisovich Belan, Denis Davydov, Nan Ma, Tuukka Petäjä, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markku Kulmala, and Tuomo Nieminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Characteristics of formation of atmospheric aerosol at four boreal forest sites in Finland and Russian Siberia was analyzed. Our results provide information on the governing processes of atmospheric aerosol formation in the boreal forest area, which a substantial part of the continental biosphere. Aerosol formation was occurring less frequently at Siberian than in Finnish sites, which was affected by the lower particle growth rates and higher loss rates in Siberia.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Jiaoshi Zhang, Steven Spielman, Yang Wang, Guangjie Zheng, Xianda Gong, Susanne Hering, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5625–5635,Short summary
In this study, we present a newly developed instrument, the humidity-controlled fast integrated mobility spectrometer (HFIMS), for fast measurements of aerosol hygroscopic growth. The HFIMS can measure the distributions of particle hygroscopic growth factors at six diameters from 35 to 265 nm under five RH levels from 20 to 85 % within 25 min. The HFIMS significantly advances our capability of characterizing the hygroscopic growth of atmospheric aerosols over a wide range of relative humidities.
Jay M. Tomlin, Kevin A. Jankowski, Daniel P. Veghte, Swarup China, Peiwen Wang, Matthew Fraund, Johannes Weis, Guangjie Zheng, Yang Wang, Felipe Rivera-Adorno, Shira Raveh-Rubin, Daniel A. Knopf, Jian Wang, Mary K. Gilles, Ryan C. Moffet, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Analysis of individual atmospheric particles shows that aerosol transported from North America during meteorological dry intrusion episodes may have a substantial impact on the mixing state and particle-type population over the mid-Atlantic, as organic contribution and particle-type diversity is significantly enhanced during these periods. These observations need to be considered in current atmospheric models.
Kai Tang, Beatriz Sánchez-Parra, Petya Yordanova, Jörn Wehking, Anna Theresa Backes, Daniel Andrew Pickersgill, Stefanie Maier, Jean Sciare, Ulrich Pöschl, Bettina Weber, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Metagenomic sequencing and freezing experiments of aerosol samples collected on Cyprus revealed rain-related short-term changes of bioaerosol and ice nuclei composition. Filtration experiments showed a rain-related enhancement of biological ice nuclei > 5 μm and < 0.1 μm. The observed effects of rainfall on the composition of atmospheric bioaerosols and ice nuclei may influence the hydrological cycle as well as the health effects of air particulate matter (pathogens, allergens).
Mira L. Pöhlker, Minghui Zhang, Ramon Campos Braga, Ovid O. Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, and Barbara Ervens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11723–11740,Short summary
Clouds cool our atmosphere. The role of small aerosol particles in affecting them represents one of the largest uncertainties in current estimates of climate change. Traditionally it is assumed that cloud droplets only form particles of diameters ~ 100 nm (
accumulation mode). Previous studies suggest that this can also occur in smaller particles (
Aitken mode). Our study provides a general framework to estimate under which aerosol and cloud conditions Aitken mode particles affect clouds.
Gongda Lu, Eloise A. Marais, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Zongbo Shi, James D. Lee, Qiang Zhang, Lu Shen, Gan Luo, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Emission controls were imposed in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei in northern China in autumn-winter 2017. We find that regional PM2.5 targets (15 % decrease relative to previous year) were exceeded. Our analysis shows that decline in precursor emissions only leads to less than half (43 %) the improved air quality. Most of the change (57 %) is due to interannual variability in meteorology. Stricter emission controls may be necessary in years with unfavourable meteorology.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Jing Chen, Yuqing Dai, Siyao Yue, Hang Su, Haijie Tong, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Ying Li, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Cong-Qiang Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11453–11465,Short summary
This study investigated the role of nighttime chemistry during Chinese New Year's Eve that enhances the formation of nitrooxy organosulfates in the aerosol phase. Results show that anthropogenic precursors, together with biogenic ones, considerably contribute to the formation of low-volatility nitrooxy OSs. Our study provides detailed molecular composition of firework-related aerosols, which gives new insights into the physicochemical properties and potential health effects of urban aerosols.
Meng Gao, Yang Yang, Hong Liao, Bin Zhu, Yuxuan Zhang, Zirui Liu, Xiao Lu, Chen Wang, Qiming Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Qiang Zhang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11405–11421,Short summary
Light absorption and radiative forcing of black carbon (BC) is influenced by both BC itself and its interactions with other aerosol chemical compositions. In this study, we used the online coupled WRF-Chem model to examine how emission control measures during the Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference affect the mixing state and light absorption of BC and the associated implications for BC-PBL interactions.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11201–11224,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions is predictable and is explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated with SOA in urban regions.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Jared F. Brewer, Ke Li, Jonathan M. Moch, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Hyunkwang Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Su Keun Kuk, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Xuan Wang, Pengfei Liu, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Katherine R. Travis, Johnathan W. Hair, Bruce E. Anderson, Jack E. Dibb, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Qiang Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Geostationary satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) has tremendous potential for monitoring surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We integrated data from surface networks, aircraft, and satellites with the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model to enhance our ability to relate AOD to PM2.5. We attributed 550 nm AOD mainly to secondary aerosols in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and explained the opposite seasonality between AOD and PM2.5 by seasonality in PBL heights and relative humidity.
Min Zhou, Guangjie Zheng, Hongli Wang, Liping Qiao, Shuhui Zhu, Dandan Huang, Jingyu An, Shengrong Lou, Shikang Tao, Qian Wang, Rusha Yan, Yingge Ma, Changhong Chen, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, and Cheng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The trend of aerosol pH and its drivers are crucial in understanding the multiphase formation pathways of aerosols. Our work shows that the opposite effects of SO42− and non-volatile cations changes play key roles in determining the moderate pH trend. Future aerosol pH will increase slightly under strict control policy, resulting in more nitrate partitioning in aerosol phase, hence reducing the benefit of NH3 and NOx emission control in mitigating haze pollution in eastern China.
Yang Wang, Guangjie Zheng, Michael P. Jensen, Daniel A. Knopf, Alexander Laskin, Alyssa A. Matthews, David Mechem, Fan Mei, Ryan Moffet, Arthur J. Sedlacek, John E. Shilling, Stephen Springston, Amy Sullivan, Jason Tomlinson, Daniel Veghte, Rodney Weber, Robert Wood, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11079–11098,Short summary
This paper reports the vertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic, a region of persistent but diverse subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds. We examined the key processes that drive the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) population and how it varies with season and synoptic conditions. This study helps improve the model representation of the aerosol processes in the remote MBL, reducing the simulated aerosol indirect effects.
Najin Kim, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Thomas F. Mentel, Ovid O. Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Broad supersaturation scanning CCN (BS2-CCN) system, in which particles are exposed to a range of supersaturation simultaneously, can measure a broad range of CCN activity distribution with a high-time resolution. We describe how the BS2-CCN system can be effectively calibrated and which factors can affect the calibration curve. For evaluating the BS2-CCN system, inter-comparison experiments between typical DMA-CCN and BS2-CCN measurement were performed.
Yuan Cheng, Qin-qin Yu, Jiu-meng Liu, Xu-bing Cao, Ying-jie Zhong, Zhen-yu Du, Lin-lin Liang, Guan-nan Geng, Wan-li Ma, Hong Qi, Qiang Zhang, and Ke-bin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Open burning policies in Heilongjiang Province experienced a rapid transition during 2018 to 2020. This study evaluated the responses of PM2.5 pollution to this transition, and suggested neither of the policies could be considered successful. In addition, heterogeneous reactions were found to be at play in secondary aerosol formation, even in the frigid atmosphere in Heilongjiang. The unique haze in Northeast China deserves more attention.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Klausner, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, Jose L. Gomez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John Phillip Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in-situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Haijie Tong, Fobang Liu, Alexander Filippi, Jake Wilson, Andrea M. Arangio, Yun Zhang, Siyao Yue, Steven Lelieveld, Fangxia Shen, Helmi-Marja K. Keskinen, Jing Li, Haoxuan Chen, Ting Zhang, Thorsten Hoffmann, Pingqing Fu, William H. Brune, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Maosheng Yao, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10439–10455,Short summary
We measured radical yields of aqueous PM2.5 extracts and found lower yields at higher concentrations of PM2.5. Abundances of water-soluble transition metals and aromatics in PM2.5 were positively correlated with the relative fraction of •OH but negatively correlated with the relative fraction of C-centered radicals among detected radicals. Composition-dependent reactive species yields may explain differences in the reactivity and health effects of PM2.5 in clean versus polluted air.
Shuang Han, Juan Hong, Qingwei Luo, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Qiaoqiao Wang, Jiangchuan Tao, Yaqing Zhou, Long Peng, Yao He, Jingnan Shi, Nan Ma, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We present the hygroscopicity of 23 organic species with different physico-chemical properties using Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) and comparing the results with two thermodynamic models (E-AIM, UManSysProp). Based on the hygroscopicity parameter κ, the influence of different physico-chemical properties such as functionality, water solubility, molar volume and O:C ratio of organics that potentially drive their hygroscopicity were examined separately.
Qingyang Xiao, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Cuihong Chen, Xiaomeng Huang, Huizheng Che, Xiaoye Zhang, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9475–9496,Short summary
We used both statistical methods and a chemical transport model to assess the contribution of meteorology and emissions to PM2.5 during 2000–2018. Both methods revealed that emissions dominated the long-term PM2.5 trend with notable meteorological effects ranged up to 37.9 % of regional annual average PM2.5. The meteorological contribution became more beneficial to PM2.5 control in southern China but more unfavorable in northern China during the studied period.
Yaqing Zhou, Nan Ma, Qiaoqiao Wang, Zhibin Wang, Chunrong Chen, Jiangchuan Tao, Juan Hong, Long Peng, Yao He, Linhong Xie, Shaowen Zhu, Yuxuan Zhang, Guo Li, Wanyun Xu, Peng Cheng, Uwe Kuhn, Guangsheng Zhou, Pingqing Fu, Qiang Zhang, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study characterizes size-resolved particle effective density and its evolution associated with sources and aging processes in a rural area of the North China Plain. Particle effective density exhibits high frequency of bimodal distribution, and two density modes exhibit opposite trend with increasing particle size. SIA and BC mass fractions are key factors dominating particle effective density, and a value of 0.6 g cm−3 is appropriate to represent BC effective density in bulk particles.
Bo Zheng, Qiang Zhang, Guannan Geng, Cuihong Chen, Qinren Shi, Mengshi Cui, Yu Lei, and Kebin He
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2895–2907,Short summary
Here we report the monthly anthropogenic pollutant emissions in China during the COVID-19 pandemic by using a bottom-up approach based on near-real-time data. The COVID lockdowns were estimated to have reduced China's emissions substantially between January and March in 2020, with the largest reduction in February. With the spread of coronavirus controlled, China's anthropogenic emissions rebounded in April and since then returned to levels comparable to those of 2019 through December 2020.
Yuqiang Zhang, Drew Shindell, Karl Seltzer, Lu Shen, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Jia Xing, Zhe Jiang, and Lei Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
In this study, we use global chemical transport model to simulate the effects on global air quality and human health due to emission changes in China from 2010 to 2017. By performing sensitivity analysis, we found that the air pollution control policies not only decrease the air pollutants concentration, but also bring significant co-benefits on air quality in downwind regions. The benefits for the improved air pollution are dominated by PM2.5.
Weiqi Xu, Masayuki Takeuchi, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Conghui Xie, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3693–3705,Short summary
Here we developed a method for estimation of particulate organic nitrates (pON) from the measurements of a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a thermodenuder based on the volatility differences between inorganic nitrate and pON. The results generally had improvements in reducing negative values due to the influences of a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and a constant ratio of NO+ to NO2+ of organic nitrates (RON).
Nils Friedrich, Philipp Eger, Justin Shenolikar, Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Hottmann, Ivan Tadic, Horst Fischer, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Sebastian Tauer, Hartwig Harder, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Nijing Wang, Jonathan Williams, James Brooks, Frank Drewnick, Hang Su, Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7473–7498,Short summary
This paper uses NOx and NOz measurements from the 2017 AQABA ship campaign in the Mediterranean Sea and around the Arabian Peninsula to examine the influence e.g. of emissions from shipping and oil and gas production. Night-time losses of NOx dominated in the Arabian Gulf and in the Red Sea, whereas daytime losses were more important in the Mediterranean Sea. Nitric acid and organic nitrates were the most prevalent components of NOz.
Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Yele Sun, Wanyun Xu, Yanyan Zhang, Yao He, Qingwei Luo, Linhong Xie, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7409–7427,Short summary
The mechanism of secondary aerosol (SA) formation can be affected by relative humidity (RH) and has different influences on the particle CCN activity under different RH conditions. In the North China Plain, we find different responses of CCN activity and enhancements of CCN number concentration to SA formation under different RH conditions. In addition, variations of aerosol mixing state due to SA formation contribute some of the largest uncertainties in predicting CCN number concentration.
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Mira L. Pöhlker, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Sergey S. Vlasenko, Ovid O. Krüger, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Christopher Pöhlker, Olga A. Ivanova, Alexey A. Kiselev, Leslie A. Kremper, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6999–7022,Short summary
Subpollen particles are a relatively new subset of atmospheric aerosol particles. When pollen grains rupture, they release cytoplasmic fragments known as subpollen particles (SPPs). We found that SPPs, containing a broad spectrum of biopolymers and hydrocarbons, exhibit abnormally high water uptake. This effect may influence the life cycle of SPPs and the related direct and indirect impacts on radiation budget as well as reinforce their allergic potential.
Yan Xiang, Tianshu Zhang, Chaoqun Ma, Lihui Lv, Jianguo Liu, Wenqing Liu, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7023–7037,Short summary
For the first time, a vertical observation network consisting of 13 aerosol lidars and more than 1000 ground observation stations were combined with a data assimilation technique to reveal key processes driving the 3-D dynamic evolution of PM2.5 concentrations during extreme heavy aerosol pollution on the North China Plain.
Patricia K. Quinn, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Derek J. Coffman, Sunil Baidar, Ludovic Bariteau, Timothy S. Bates, Sebastien Bigorre, Alan Brewer, Gijs de Boer, Simon P. de Szoeke, Kyla Drushka, Gregory R. Foltz, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Chris W. Fairall, Cassandra J. Gaston, Friedhelm Jansen, James E. Johnson, Ovid O. Krüger, Richard D. Marchbanks, Kenneth P. Moran, David Noone, Sergio Pezoa, Robert Pincus, Albert J. Plueddemann, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Estefania Quinones Melendez, Haley M. Royer, Malgorzata Szczodrak, Jim Thomson, Lucia M. Upchurch, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, and Paquita Zuidema
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1759–1790,Short summary
ATOMIC took place in the northwestern tropical Atlantic during January and February of 2020 to gather information on shallow atmospheric convection, the effects of aerosols and clouds on the ocean surface energy budget, and mesoscale oceanic processes. Measurements made from the NOAA RV Ronald H. Brown and assets it deployed (instrumented mooring and uncrewed seagoing vehicles) are described herein to advance widespread use of the data by the ATOMIC and broader research communities.
Jake Wilson, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Thomas Berkemeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6175–6198,Short summary
This work explores the gas–particle partitioning of PAHs on soot with a kinetic model. We show that the equilibration timescale depends on PAH molecular structure, temperature, and particle number concentration. We explore scenarios in which the particulate fraction is perturbed from equilibrium by chemical loss and discuss implications for chemical transport models that assume instantaneous equilibration at each model time step.
Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado, Marco A. Franco, Leslie A. Kremper, Florian Ditas, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Micael A. Cecchini, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ivan Saraiva, Stefan Wolff, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Several studies evaluate aerosol-cloud interactions but, there were only a few attempts to describe how clouds modify the aerosol properties. This study evaluates the effect of weather events on the PSD at the ATTO, combining remote sensing and in-situ data. The ultrafine, Aitken, and accumulation particles modes have different behaviors for the diurnal cycle as well as for rainfall events. This study opens new scientific questions that need to be pursued in detail in new field campaigns
Guangjie Zheng, Hang Su, Siwen Wang, Andrea Pozzer, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The recently proposed multiphase buffer theory provides a framework to reconstruct long-term trends and spatial variations of aerosol pH, while non-ideality is a major limitation for its broad applications. Here we proposed a parameterization method to estimate the impact of non-ideality, and validated it against long-term observations and global simulations. With this method, the multiphase buffer theory can well reproduce aerosol pH variations estimated by comprehensive thermodynamic models.
Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Ying Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Eleni Karnezi, Spyros N. Pandis, Conghui Xie, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Jiang Zhu, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5463–5476,Short summary
Here aerosol volatility and viscosity at a rural site (Gucheng) and an urban site (Beijing) in the North China Plain (NCP) were investigated in summer and winter. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) in winter in the NCP is more volatile than that in summer due to enhanced primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. We also found that OA existed mainly as a solid in winter in Beijing but as semisolids in Beijing in summer and Gucheng in winter.
Ramon Campos Braga, Barbara Ervens, Daniel Rosenfeld, Meinrat O. Andreae, Jan-David Förster, Daniel Fütterer, Lianet Hernández Pardo, Bruna A. Holanda, Tina Jurkat, Ovid O. Krüger, Oliver Lauer, Luiz A. T. Machado, Christopher Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Interactions of aerosol particles with clouds represent a large uncertainty in estimates of climate change. Properties of aerosol particles control their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Using aerosol measurements in the Amazon, we performed model studies to compare predicted and measured cloud droplet number concentrations at cloud bases. Our results confirm previous estimates of particle hygroscopicity in this region.
Weigang Wang, Ting Lei, Andreas Zuend, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Yajun Shi, Maofa Ge, and Mingyuan Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2179–2190,Short summary
Aerosol mixing state regulates the interactions between water molecules and particles and thus controls aerosol activation and hygroscopic growth, which thereby influences visibility degradation, cloud formation, and its radiative forcing. However, there are few studies attempting to investigate their interactions with water molecules. Here, we investigated the effect of organic coatings on the hygroscopic behavior of the inorganic core.
Jun Liu, Dan Tong, Yixuan Zheng, Jing Cheng, Xinying Qin, Qinren Shi, Liu Yan, Yu Lei, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1627–1647,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the decadal changes in carbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions in China's cement industry for the period 1990–2015 based on intensive unit-based information. We found that from 1990 to 2015, accompanied by a 10.3-fold increase in cement production, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions from China's cement industry increased by 627 %, 56 %, and 659 %, whereas CO, PM2.5, and PM10 emissions decreased by 9 %, 63 %, and 59 %, respectively.
Manabu Shiraiwa and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1565–1580,Short summary
Mass accommodation is a crucial process in secondary organic aerosol partitioning that depends on volatility, diffusivity, reactivity, and particle penetration depth of the chemical species involved. For efficient kinetic modeling, we introduce an effective mass accommodation coefficient that accounts for the above influencing factors, can be applied in the common Fuchs–Sutugin approximation, and helps to resolve inconsistencies and shortcomings of earlier experimental and model investigations.
Chuchu Chen, Xiaoxiang Wang, Kurt Binder, Mohammad Mehdi Ghahremanpour, David van der Spoel, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Size dependence of succinic acid solvation in the nanoparticles is investigated based on the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and energetic analysis. The results show a stronger surface preference and a weaker internal bulk volume solvation of succinic acid in the smaller droplets, which may explain the previously observed size-dependent phase-state of aerosol nanoparticles containing organic molecules, fundamentally promoting a better understanding of atmospheric aerosols.
Yarong Peng, Hongli Wang, Qian Wang, Shengao Jing, Jingyu An, Yaqin Gao, Cheng Huang, Rusha Yan, Haixia Dai, Tiantao Cheng, Qiang Zhang, Meng Li, Li Li, Shengrong Lou, Shikang Tao, Qinyao Hu, Jun Lu, and Changhong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The evolution of NMHCs emissions and the effectiveness of control measures were investigated based on long term measurements in a megacity of China. Discrepancies between measurements and emission inventories emphasized the need for emission validation both in speciation and sources. Varied trends of NMHCs speciation and sources suggested the differential effect of the past control measures, which provided new insights into future clean air policies in polluted region including China.
W. Joe F. Acton, Zhonghui Huang, Brian Davison, Will S. Drysdale, Pingqing Fu, Michael Hollaway, Ben Langford, James Lee, Yanhui Liu, Stefan Metzger, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Claire E. Reeves, Freya A. Squires, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Zhaoyi Wang, Oliver Wild, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, and C. Nicholas Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15101–15125,Short summary
Air quality in Beijing is of concern to both policy makers and the general public. In order to address concerns about air quality it is vital that the sources of atmospheric pollutants are understood. This work presents the first top-down measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in Beijing. These measurements are used to evaluate the emissions inventory and assess the impact of VOC emission from the city centre on atmospheric chemistry.
Chaomin Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Sihang Wang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Wei Chen, Chenshuo Ye, Wenjie Wang, Yele Sun, Chen Wang, Shan Huang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Suxia Yang, Shenyang Zhang, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Zhanyi Zhang, Bin Jiang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14123–14138,Short summary
We utilized a novel online mass spectrometry method to measure the total concentration of higher alkanes at each carbon number at two different sites in China, allowing us to take into account SOA contributions from all isomers for higher alkanes. We found that higher alkanes account for significant fractions of SOA formation at the two sites. The contributions are comparable to or even higher than single-ring aromatics, the most-recognized SOA precursors in urban air.
Guo Li, Hang Su, Nan Ma, Guangjie Zheng, Uwe Kuhn, Meng Li, Thomas Klimach, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6053–6065,Short summary
Aerosol acidity plays an important role in regulating the chemistry, health, and ecological effect of aerosol particles. However, a direct measurement of aerosol pH is very challenging because of its fast transition and equilibrium with adjacent environments. Therefore, most early studies have to use modeled pH, resulting in intensive debates about model uncertainties. Here we developed an optimized approach to measure aerosol pH by using pH-indicator papers combined with RGB-based colorimetry.
Lixia Liu, Yafang Cheng, Siwen Wang, Chao Wei, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Paulo Artaxo, Manish Shrivastava, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13283–13301,Short summary
This modeling paper reveals how aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs) and aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs) induced by biomass burning (BB) aerosols act oppositely on radiation, cloud, and precipitation in the Amazon during the dry season. The varying relative significance of ACIs and ARIs with BB aerosol concentration leads to a nonlinear dependence of the total climate response on BB aerosol loading and features the growing importance of ARIs at high aerosol loading.
Guangjie Zheng, Chongai Kuang, Janek Uin, Thomas Watson, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12515–12525,Short summary
Condensational growth of Aitken-mode particles is a major source of cloud condensation nuclei in the remote marine boundary layer. It has been long thought that over remote oceans, condensation growth is dominated by sulfate that derives from ocean-emitted dimethyl sulfide. In this study, we present the first long-term observational evidence that, contrary to conventional thinking, organics play an even more important role than sulfate in particle growth over remote oceans throughout the year.
Ruqian Miao, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Yele Sun, Paul I. Palmer, Manish Shrivastava, Jianping Guo, Qiang Zhang, Yuhan Liu, Zhaofeng Tan, Xuefei Ma, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12265–12284,Short summary
In this study we evaluated the model performances for simulating secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and organic aerosol (OA) in PM2.5 in China against comprehensive datasets. The potential biases from factors related to meteorology, emission, chemistry, and atmospheric removal are systematically investigated. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of modeling PM2.5, which is important for studies on the effectiveness of emission control strategies.
Ting Lei, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Thomas Tuch, Xin Wang, Zhibin Wang, Mira Pöhlker, Maofa Ge, Weigang Wang, Eugene Mikhailov, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5551–5567,Short summary
We present the design of a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) apparatus that enables high accuracy and precision in hygroscopic growth measurements of aerosol nanoparticles with diameters less than 10 nm. We further introduce comprehensive methods for system calibration and validation of the performance of the system. We then study the size dependence of the deliquescence and the efflorescence of aerosol nanoparticles for sizes down to 6 nm.
Yohei Shinozuka, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Sharon P. Burton, Richard Ferrare, Sarah J. Doherty, Hamish Gordon, Karla Longo, Marc Mallet, Yan Feng, Qiaoqiao Wang, Yafang Cheng, Amie Dobracki, Steffen Freitag, Steven G. Howell, Samuel LeBlanc, Connor Flynn, Michal Segal-Rosenhaimer, Kristina Pistone, James R. Podolske, Eric J. Stith, Joseph Ryan Bennett, Gregory R. Carmichael, Arlindo da Silva, Ravi Govindaraju, Ruby Leung, Yang Zhang, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11491–11526,Short summary
In the southeast Atlantic, well-defined smoke plumes from Africa advect over marine boundary layer cloud decks; both are most extensive around September, when most of the smoke resides in the free troposphere. A framework is put forth for evaluating the performance of a range of global and regional atmospheric composition models against observations made during the NASA ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) airborne mission in September 2016.
Pengfei Han, Ning Zeng, Tom Oda, Xiaohui Lin, Monica Crippa, Dabo Guan, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Xiaolin Ma, Zhu Liu, Yuli Shan, Shu Tao, Haikun Wang, Rong Wang, Lin Wu, Xiao Yun, Qiang Zhang, Fang Zhao, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11371–11385,Short summary
An accurate estimation of China’s fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (FFCO2) is significant for quantification of carbon budget and emissions reductions towards the Paris Agreement goals. Here we assessed 9 global and regional inventories. Our findings highlight the significance of using locally measured coal emission factors. We call on the enhancement of physical measurements for validation and provide comprehensive information for inventory, monitoring, modeling, assimilation, and reducing emissions.
Baozhu Ge, Syuichi Itahashi, Keiichi Sato, Danhui Xu, Junhua Wang, Fan Fan, Qixin Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Junichi Kurokawa, Yuepeng Pan, Qizhong Wu, Xuejun Liu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10587–10610,Short summary
Performances of the simulated deposition for different reduced N (Nr) species in China were conducted with the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia. Results showed that simulated wet deposition of oxidized N was overestimated in northeastern China and underestimated in south China, but Nr was underpredicted in all regions by all models. Oxidized N has larger uncertainties than Nr, indicating that the chemical reaction process is one of the most importance factors affecting model performance.
Amir H. Souri, Caroline R. Nowlan, Gonzalo González Abad, Lei Zhu, Donald R. Blake, Alan Fried, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Armin Wisthaler, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Christopher E. Chan Miller, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9837–9854,Short summary
For the first time, we provide a joint nonlinear optimal estimate of NOx and NMVOC emissions during the KORUS-AQ campaign by simultaneously incorporating SAO's new product of HCHO columns from OMPS and OMI tropospheric NO2 columns into a regional model. Results demonstrate a promising improvement in the performance of the model in terms of HCHO and NO2 concentrations, which in turn enables us to quantify the impact of the emission changes on different pathways of ozone formation and loss.
Yang Chen, Jing Cai, Zhichao Wang, Chao Peng, Xiaojiang Yao, Mi Tian, Yiqun Han, Guangming Shi, Zongbo Shi, Yue Liu, Xi Yang, Mei Zheng, Tong Zhu, Kebin He, Qiang Zhang, and Fumo Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9231–9247,Short summary
Patterns of particle transport, accumulation, and evolution in both urban and rural areas of Beijing are investigated. The two sites shared 17 common particle types in different stages of atmospheric processing.
Yang Chen, Guangming Shi, Jing Cai, Zongbo Shi, Zhichao Wang, Xiaojiang Yao, Mi Tian, Chao Peng, Yiqun Han, Tong Zhu, Yue Liu, Xi Yang, Mei Zheng, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9249–9263,Short summary
Individual particles were observed in two field studies during winter 2016 in the urban and rural areas of Beijing. An online single-particle chemical composition analysis was used as a tracing system to investigate the impact of heating activities and the formation of haze events. During the pollution events, a pattern of transport and accumulation was found with evidence of single particles. The transport from Pinggu to Peking University was significant but PKU to PG occurred occasionally.
Freya A. Squires, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Oliver Wild, Will S. Drysdale, W. Joe F. Acton, Pingqing Fu, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Simone Kotthaus, James Lee, Stefan Metzger, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Marvin Shaw, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Ruili Wu, Qiang Zhang, and Yanli Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8737–8761,Short summary
Significant air quality problems exist in megacities like Beijing, China. To manage air pollution, legislators need a clear understanding of pollutant emissions. However, emissions inventories have large uncertainties, and reliable field measurements of pollutant emissions are required to constrain them. This work presents the first measurements of traffic-dominated emissions in Beijing which suggest that inventories overestimate these emissions in the region during both winter and summer.
Haipeng Lin, Xu Feng, Tzung-May Fu, Heng Tian, Yaping Ma, Lijuan Zhang, Daniel J. Jacob, Robert M. Yantosca, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Elizabeth W. Lundgren, Jiawei Zhuang, Qiang Zhang, Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Lu Shen, Jianping Guo, Sebastian D. Eastham, and Christoph A. Keller
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3241–3265,Short summary
Online coupling of meteorology and chemistry models often presents maintenance issues with hard-wired coding. We present WRF-GC, an one-way online coupling of the WRF meteorological model and GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model for regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality modeling. Our coupling structure allows future versions of either parent model to be immediately integrated into WRF-GC. The WRF-GC model was able to well reproduce regional PM2.5 with greater computational efficiency.
Jan-David Förster, Christian Gurk, Mark Lamneck, Haijie Tong, Florian Ditas, Sarah S. Steimer, Peter A. Alpert, Markus Ammann, Jörg Raabe, Markus Weigand, Benjamin Watts, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3717–3729,Short summary
A gas flow system coupled with a microreactor for X-ray microspectroscopy is presented. Its core objective is to mimic the atmospheric processing of aerosol particles under laboratory conditions in a controlled gas-phase environment and allow in situ observations with high spatial and chemical resolution. We here emphasize its analytical capabilities and show initial results from hydration–dehydration experiments and the observation of water ice at low temperature and high relative humidity.
Jun Liu, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Chaopeng Hong, Meng Li, Xin Li, Fei Liu, Dan Tong, Ruili Wu, Bo Zheng, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7783–7799,Short summary
Ambient PM2.5 pollution contributed substantially to premature mortality in China. The contributions of various sectors to anthropogenic PM2.5-related premature mortality have changed substantially during 1990–2015. In 1990, the residential sector was the leading source, followed by industry, power, agriculture, and transportation, whereas in 2015, the industrial sector became the largest contributor, followed by the residential sector, agriculture, transportation, and power.
Francesca Gallo, Janek Uin, Stephen Springston, Jian Wang, Guangjie Zheng, Chongai Kuang, Robert Wood, Eduardo B. Azevedo, Allison McComiskey, Fan Mei, Adam Theisen, Jenni Kyrouac, and Allison C. Aiken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7553–7573,Short summary
Continuous high-time-resolution ambient data can include periods when aerosol properties do not represent regional aerosol processes due to high-concentration local events. We develop a novel aerosol mask at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility in the eastern North Atlantic (ENA). We use two ground sites to validate the mask, include a comparison with aircraft overflights, and provide guidance to increase data quality at ENA and other locations.
Jia Sun, Wolfram Birmili, Markus Hermann, Thomas Tuch, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Fabian Rasch, Thomas Müller, Alexander Schladitz, Susanne Bastian, Gunter Löschau, Josef Cyrys, Jianwei Gu, Harald Flentje, Björn Briel, Christoph Asbach, Heinz Kaminski, Ludwig Ries, Ralf Sohmer, Holger Gerwig, Klaus Wirtz, Frank Meinhardt, Andreas Schwerin, Olaf Bath, Nan Ma, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7049–7068,Short summary
To evaluate the effectiveness of emission mitigation policies, we evaluated the trends of the size-resolved particle number concentrations and equivalent black carbon mass concentration at 16 observational sites for various environments in Germany (2009–2018). Overall, significant decrease trends are found for most of the parameters and sites. This study suggests that a combination of emission mitigation policies can effectively improve the air quality on large spatial scales such as in Germany.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Shuang Chen, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Jing Chen, Lujie Ren, Siyao Yue, Wanyu Zhao, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Haijie Tong, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Cong-Qiang Liu, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6803–6820,Short summary
Current knowledge on firework-related organic aerosols is very limited. Here the detailed molecular composition of organics in urban aerosols was characterized using ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Our findings highlight that firework emission leads to a sharp increase in CHO, CHNO, and CHOS containing high-molecular-weight species, particularly aromatic-like substances, which affect the physicochemical properties such as the light absorption and health effects of urban aerosols.
Shengzhen Zhou, Luolin Wu, Junchen Guo, Weihua Chen, Xuemei Wang, Jun Zhao, Yafang Cheng, Zuzhao Huang, Jinpu Zhang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Shiguo Jia, Jun Tao, Yanning Chen, and Junxia Kuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6435–6453,Short summary
In this work, measurements of size-segregated aerosols were conducted at three altitudes (ground level, 118 m, and 488 m) on the 610 m high Canton Tower in southern China. Vertical variations of PM and size-segregated chemical compositions were investigated. The results indicated that meteorological parameters and atmospheric aqueous and heterogeneous reactions together led to aerosol formation and haze episodes in the Pearl River Delta region during the measurement periods.
Tao Ma, Hiroshi Furutani, Fengkui Duan, Takashi Kimoto, Jingkun Jiang, Qiang Zhang, Xiaobin Xu, Ying Wang, Jian Gao, Guannan Geng, Meng Li, Shaojie Song, Yongliang Ma, Fei Che, Jie Wang, Lidan Zhu, Tao Huang, Michisato Toyoda, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5887–5897,Short summary
The formation mechanisms of organic matter and sulfate in winter haze in the North China Plain remain unclear. This paper presents the identification and quantification of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) in PM2.5 in Beijing winter and elucidates the heterogeneous HMS chemistry in favorable winter haze conditions. We show that the HMS not only contributes a substantial mass of organic matter, but also leads to an overestimation of sulfate in conventional measurements.
Dan Tong, Jing Cheng, Yang Liu, Sha Yu, Liu Yan, Chaopeng Hong, Yu Qin, Hongyan Zhao, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Meng Li, Fei Liu, Yuxuan Zhang, Bo Zheng, Leon Clarke, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5729–5757,Short summary
Future trends in air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in China are of great concern to the community. Here we developed a sophisticated dynamic projection model to understand 2015–2050 emission pathways under a range of socio-economic, climate policy, and pollution control scenarios. By coupling strong low-carbon transitions and clean air policy, emissions of major air pollutants in China will be reduced by 58–87 % during 2015–2050. This work can support future co-governance policy design.
Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Jeannine Ditas, Florian Ditas, Christiane Schulz, Marco Aurélio Franco, Qiaoqiao Wang, Tobias Donth, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Joel Brito, Yafang Cheng, Maximilian Dollner, Johannes W. Kaiser, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Ovid O. Krüger, Daniel Fütterer, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Luiz A. T. Machado, Jing Ming, Fernando G. Morais, Hauke Paulsen, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Johannes Schneider, Hang Su, Bernadett Weinzierl, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4757–4785,Short summary
Biomass burning smoke from African savanna and grassland is transported across the South Atlantic Ocean in defined layers within the free troposphere. The combination of in situ aircraft and ground-based measurements aided by satellite observations showed that these layers are transported into the Amazon Basin during the early dry season. The influx of aged smoke, enriched in black carbon and cloud condensation nuclei, has important implications for the Amazonian aerosol and cloud cycling.
Haixu Zhang, Chunrong Chen, Weijia Yan, Nana Wu, Yu Bo, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
In this work, we provide first-hand information on VOC characters in a central Chinese city. Although benzenoids has the largest SOA formation potential, their weight decline with the aggravation of pollution, while the role of VOCs as oxidant producers of SOA formation is critical, especially in hazy periods. Furthermore, solvent evaporation is estimated as the top source for SOA formation considering the above dual roles of VOCs, which would assist to mitigate pollution in China.
Shaofeng Xu, Lujie Ren, Yunchao Lang, Shengjie Hou, Hong Ren, Lianfang Wei, Libin Wu, Junjun Deng, Wei Hu, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3623–3644,Short summary
Current knowledge on the size distribution of biogenic primary organic aerosols in urban regions with heavy haze pollution is very limited. Here we performed a year-round study focusing on the organic molecular composition of size-segregated aerosol samples collected in urban Beijing during haze and non-haze days to elucidate the seasonal contributions of biomass burning, fungal spores, and plant debris to organic carbon as well as the influences from local emissions and long-range transport.
Qiuyan Du, Chun Zhao, Mingshuai Zhang, Xue Dong, Yu Chen, Zhen Liu, Zhiyuan Hu, Qiang Zhang, Yubin Li, Renmin Yuan, and Shiguang Miao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2839–2863,Short summary
Simulated diurnal PM2.5 with WRF-Chem is primarily controlled by planetary boundary layer (PBL) mixing and emission variations. Modeling bias is likely primarily due to inefficient PBL mixing of primary PM2.5 during the night. The increase in PBL mixing strength during the night can significantly reduce biases. This study underscores that more effort is needed to improve the boundary mixing processes of pollutants in models with observations of PBL structure and mixing fluxes besides PBL height.
Marios Panagi, Zoë L. Fleming, Paul S. Monks, Matthew J. Ashfold, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, Qiang Zhang, Freya A. Squires, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2825–2838,Short summary
In this paper, using dispersion modelling with emission inventories it was determined that on average 45 % of the total CO pollution that affects Beijing is transported from other areas. About half of the CO comes from beyond the immediate surrounding areas. Finally three classification types of pollution were identified and used to analyse the APHH winter campaign. The results can inform targeted control measures to be implemented in Beijing and the other regions to tackle air quality problems.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, David Carruthers, Jie Li, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Freya A. Squires, James Lee, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2755–2780,Short summary
Ambient air pollution is a major cause of premature death in China. We examine the street-scale variation of pollutant levels in Beijing using air pollution dispersion and chemistry model ADMS-Urban. Campaign measurements are compared with simulated pollutant levels, providing a valuable means of evaluating the impact of key processes on urban air quality. Air quality modelling at such fine scales is essential for human exposure studies and for informing choices on future emission controls.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Jennifer M. Comstock, Ralf Weigel, Martina Krämer, Christoph Mahnke, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Charles N. Long, Manfred Wendisch, Luiz A. T. Machado, Beat Schmid, Trismono Krisna, Mikhail Pekour, John Hubbe, Andreas Giez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Martin Zoeger, Mira L. Pöhlker, Hans Schlager, Micael A. Cecchini, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Suzane S. de Sá, Jiwen Fan, Jason Tomlinson, Stephen Springston, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, Christopher Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Andreas Minikin, Armin Afchine, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 661–684,Short summary
In 2014, the US DOE G1 aircraft and the German HALO aircraft overflew the Amazon basin to study how aerosols influence cloud cycles under a clean condition and around a tropical megacity. This paper describes how to meaningfully compare similar measurements from two research aircraft and identify the potential measurement issue. We also discuss the uncertainty range for each measurement for further usage in model evaluation and satellite data validation.
Meng Gao, Zirui Liu, Bo Zheng, Dongsheng Ji, Peter Sherman, Shaojie Song, Jinyuan Xin, Cheng Liu, Yuesi Wang, Qiang Zhang, Jia Xing, Jingkun Jiang, Zifa Wang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1497–1505,Short summary
We quantified the relative influences of anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions on PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing over the winters of 2002–2016. Meteorological conditions over the study period would have led to an increase of haze in Beijing, but the strict emission control measures have suppressed the unfavorable influences of the recent climate.
Pascal Polonik, Christoph Knote, Tobias Zinner, Florian Ewald, Tobias Kölling, Bernhard Mayer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Mahnke, Sergej Molleker, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Christiane Voigt, Ralf Weigel, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1591–1605,Short summary
A realistic representation of cloud–aerosol interactions is central to accurate climate projections. Here we combine observations collected during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign with chemistry-transport simulations to evaluate the model’s ability to represent the indirect effects of biomass burning aerosol on cloud microphysics. We find an upper limit for the model sensitivity on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations well below the levels reached during the burning season in the Amazon Basin.
Viral Shah, Daniel J. Jacob, Ke Li, Rachel F. Silvern, Shixian Zhai, Mengyao Liu, Jintai Lin, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1483–1495,Short summary
We analyze 15 years of satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and use an atmospheric chemistry model to understand the seasonal changes and trends in nitrogen oxides (NOx) over China. We show that the seasonal changes in NO2 occur due to changes in the NOx oxidation lifetime. We find that Chinese NOx emissions peaked in 2011 and had decreased by about 25 % by 2018. But the decrease in NO2 in winter was larger, likely because of a simultaneous decrease in the NOx oxidation lifetime.
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1147–1161,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative feedbacks. This paper discusses the estimates of aerosol radiative forcing, aerosol feedbacks, and possible causes for the differences among the models.
Ye Kuang, Yao He, Wanyun Xu, Pusheng Zhao, Yafang Cheng, Gang Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, Nan Ma, Hang Su, Yanyan Zhang, Jiayin Sun, Peng Cheng, Wenda Yang, Shaobin Zhang, Cheng Wu, Yele Sun, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 865–880,Short summary
A new method was developed to calculate hygroscopicity parameter κ of organic aerosols (κOA) based on aerosol light-scattering measurements and bulk aerosol chemical-composition measurements. Derived high-time-resolution κOA varied in a wide range (near 0 to 0.25), and the organic aerosol oxidation degree significantly impacts variations in κOA. Distinct diurnal variation in κOA is found, and its relationship with oxygenated organic aerosol is discussed.
Ying Chen, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Chao Wei, Liang Ran, Ralf Wolke, Johannes Größ, Qiaoqiao Wang, Andrea Pozzer, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Gerald Spindler, Jos Lelieveld, Ina Tegen, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 771–786,Short summary
Particulate nitrate is one of the most important climate cooling agents. Our results show that interaction with sea-salt aerosol can shift nitrate to larger sized particles (redistribution effect), weakening its direct cooling effect. The modelling results indicate strong redistribution over coastal and offshore regions worldwide as well as continental Europe. Improving the consideration of the redistribution effect in global models fosters a better understanding of climate change.
Nina Löbs, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Sebastian Brill, David Walter, Florian Ditas, Marta de Oliveira Sá, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Leonardo R. de Oliveira, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Stefan Wolff, Meike Piepenbring, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, and Bettina Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 153–164,Short summary
Bioaerosols are considered to play a relevant role in atmospheric processes, but their sources, properties, and spatiotemporal distribution in the atmosphere are not yet well characterized. Measurement data on the release of fungal spores under natural conditions are also sparse. Here, we present an experimental approach to analyze and quantify the spore release from fungi and other spore-producing organisms under natural and laboratory conditions.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Syuichi Itahashi, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Lei Chen, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Zhe Wang, Kengo Sudo, Yuesi Wang, Yuepeng Pan, Guiqian Tang, Meng Li, Qizhong Wu, Baozhu Ge, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 181–202,Short summary
Evaluation and uncertainty investigation of NO2, CO and NH3 modeling over China were conducted in this study using 14 chemical transport model results from MICS-Asia III. All models largely underestimated CO concentrations and showed very poor performance in reproducing the observed monthly variations of NH3 concentrations. Potential factors related to such deficiencies are investigated and discussed in this paper.
Anna T. Kunert, Mira L. Pöhlker, Kai Tang, Carola S. Krevert, Carsten Wieder, Kai R. Speth, Linda E. Hanson, Cindy E. Morris, David G. Schmale III, Ulrich Pöschl, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Biogeosciences, 16, 4647–4659,Short summary
A screening of more than 100 strains from 65 different species revealed that the ice nucleation activity within the fungal genus Fusarium is more widespread than previously assumed. Filtration experiments suggest that the single cell-free Fusarium IN is smaller than 100 kDa (~ 6 nm) and that aggregates can be formed in solution. Exposure experiments, freeze–thaw cycles, and long-term storage tests demonstrate a high stability of Fusarium IN under atmospherically relevant conditions.
Jie Li, Tatsuya Nagashima, Lei Kong, Baozhu Ge, Kazuyo Yamaji, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Qi Fan, Syuichi Itahashi, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Zhe Wang, Qizhong Wu, Hajime Akimoto, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12993–13015,Short summary
This study evaluated and intercompared 14 CTMs with ozone observations in East Asia, within the framework of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for ASIA Phase III (MICS-Asia III). Potential causes of the discrepancies between model results and observation were investigated by assessing the planetary boundary layer heights, emission fluxes, dry deposition, chemistry and vertical transport among models. Finally, a multi-model estimate of pollution distributions was provided.
Mingjin Tang, Chak K. Chan, Yong Jie Li, Hang Su, Qingxin Ma, Zhijun Wu, Guohua Zhang, Zhe Wang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Hong He, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12631–12686,Short summary
Hygroscopicity is one of the most important properties of aerosol particles, and a number of experimental techniques, which differ largely in principles, configurations and cost, have been developed to investigate hygroscopic properties of atmospherically relevant particles. Our paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of available techniques for aerosol hygroscopicity studies.
Mingchen Ma, Yang Gao, Yuhang Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, L. Ruby Leung, Cheng Liu, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Xing Chang, Hang Su, Tianqi Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12195–12207,Short summary
Ozone pollution has become severe in China, and extremely high ozone episodes occurred in summer 2017 over the North China Plain. While meteorology impacts are clear, we find that enhanced biogenic emissions, previously ignored by the community, driven by high vapor pressure deficit, land cover change and urban landscape contribute substantially to ozone formation. This study has significant implications for ozone pollution control with more frequent heat waves and urbanization growth in future.
Haiyan Li, Jing Cheng, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Yuxuan Zhang, Guangjie Zheng, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11485–11499,Short summary
We combined the online observations of aerosol components and a regional chemical transport model to investigate the response of aerosol chemistry to the stringent clean air actions in Beijing. We found a rapid transition in winter aerosol composition from 2014 to 2017 with decreased sulfate contribution and increased nitrate fraction and evaluated the underlying drivers. The anthropogenic emission reductions in Beijing and its surrounding regions are identified to play a major role.
Tuan V. Vu, Zongbo Shi, Jing Cheng, Qiang Zhang, Kebin He, Shuxiao Wang, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11303–11314,Short summary
A 5-year Clean Air Action Plan was implemented in 2013 to improve ambient air quality in Beijing. Here, we applied a novel machine-learning-based model to determine the real trend in air quality from 2013 to 2017 in Beijing to assess the efficacy of the plan. We showed that the action plan led to a major reduction in primary emissions and significant improvement in air quality. The marked decrease in PM2.5 and SO2 is largely attributable to a reduction in coal combustion.
Meng Li, Hang Su, Guo Li, Nan Ma, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10981–11011,Short summary
Aerosols and the ground provide two kinds of surfaces for multiphase reactions in the planetary boundary layer. However, the relative importance of these two surfaces for gas uptake has not been quantified. We compare the uptake fluxes of aerosols and the ground surface for reactive trace gases under various conditions. More studies regarding O3 uptake on liquid organic aerosols and H2O2 uptakes on various aerosols are needed considering their potential important roles in atmospheric chemistry.
Yuxuan Zhang, Meng Li, Yafang Cheng, Guannan Geng, Chaopeng Hong, Haiyan Li, Xin Li, Dan Tong, Nana Wu, Xin Zhang, Bo Zheng, Yixuan Zheng, Yu Bo, Hang Su, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9663–9680,Short summary
In this work, we developed a new approach to simulate BC mixing state based on an emissions inventory and back-trajectory analysis. The model tracks the evolution of BC aging degree during atmospheric transport. Our simulations identified the important roles of extensive emission regions in the BC aging process during atmospheric transport, which provided more clues for improving air pollution and climate change.
Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Dan Tong, Yu Lei, Fei Liu, Chaopeng Hong, Sicong Kang, Liu Yan, Yuxuan Zhang, Yu Bo, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8897–8913,Short summary
A long-term non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emission inventory is crucial for air quality management but still absent in China. We estimated China’s NMVOCs during 1990–2017 with speciation based on updated databases and investigated the trend of ozone formation potential (OFP) for the same period. Persistent growth of emissions and OFP highlights the need of control measures for solvent use and industrial sources and the importance of designing multi-pollutant control strategies.
Christopher Pöhlker, David Walter, Hauke Paulsen, Tobias Könemann, Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Céline Degrendele, Viviane R. Després, Florian Ditas, Bruna A. Holanda, Johannes W. Kaiser, Gerhard Lammel, Jošt V. Lavrič, Jing Ming, Daniel Pickersgill, Mira L. Pöhlker, Maria Praß, Nina Löbs, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Qiaoqiao Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8425–8470,Short summary
The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been established to monitor the rain forest's biosphere–atmosphere exchange, which experiences the combined pressures from human-made deforestation and progressing climate change. This work is meant to be a reference study, which characterizes various geospatial properties of the ATTO footprint region and shows how the human-made transformation of Amazonia may impact future atmospheric observations at ATTO.
Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Youfan Chen, Mi Zhou, Bo Zheng, Ke Li, Yiming Liu, Jintai Lin, Tzung-May Fu, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8339–8361,Short summary
Severe and deteriorating surface ozone pollution over major Chinese cities has become an emerging environmental concern in China. This study assesses the source contributions (including anthropogenic, background, and individual natural sources) and meteorological influences of surface ozone over China in 2016–2017 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at high horizontal resolution with the most up-to-date Chinese anthropogenic emission inventory.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Yue Liu, Mei Zheng, Mingyuan Yu, Xuhui Cai, Huiyun Du, Jie Li, Tian Zhou, Caiqing Yan, Xuesong Wang, Zongbo Shi, Roy M. Harrison, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6595–6609,Short summary
This study is part of the UK–China APHH campaign. To identify both source types and source regions at the same time, this study developed a combined method including receptor model, footprint model, and air quality model for the first time to investigate sources of PM2.5 during haze episodes in Beijing. It is an expansion of the application of the receptor model and is helpful for formulating effective control strategies to improve air quality in this region.
Philipp Porada, Alexandra Tamm, Jose Raggio, Yafang Cheng, Axel Kleidon, Ulrich Pöschl, and Bettina Weber
Biogeosciences, 16, 2003–2031,Short summary
The trace gases NO and HONO are crucial for atmospheric chemistry. It has been suggested that biological soil crusts in drylands contribute substantially to global NO and HONO emissions, based on empirical upscaling of laboratory and field observations. Here we apply an alternative, process-based modeling approach to predict these emissions. We find that biological soil crusts emit globally significant amounts of NO and HONO, which also vary depending on the type of biological soil crust.
Jing Cheng, Jingping Su, Tong Cui, Xiang Li, Xin Dong, Feng Sun, Yanyan Yang, Dan Tong, Yixuan Zheng, Yanshun Li, Jinxiang Li, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6125–6146,Short summary
We attribute Beijing’s PM2.5 abatement in 2017 (compared to 2013) to the following factors: meteorology changes (3.8 μg m−3, 12.1 % of total), regional emission reduction (7.1 μg m−3, 22.5 %), and seven specific categories of control measures in Beijing (20.6 μg m−3, 65.4 %). Our study confirms the effectiveness of clean air actions in Beijing and its surrounding regions and reveals a new generation of control measures, and strengthened regional joint protection measures should be implemented.
Tobias Könemann, Nicole Savage, Thomas Klimach, David Walter, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Hang Su, Ulrich Pöschl, J. Alex Huffman, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1337–1363,Short summary
This study presents a comprehensive assessment of the SIBS, an instrument for spectrally resolved fluorescence detection of single particles. Exemplary ambient data and fluorescence spectra obtained for 16 reference compounds (biofluorophores and PSLs) show that the SIBS has the ability to expand the scope of fluorescent bioaerosol quantification and classification. Detailed technical insights will be broadly beneficial for users of various WIBS generations and other LIF instruments.
Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Uwe Kuhn, Rongjuan Xu, Yudong Yang, Hannah Meusel, Zhibin Wang, Nan Ma, Yusheng Wu, Meng Li, Jonathan Williams, Thorsten Hoffmann, Markus Ammann, Ulrich Pöschl, Min Shao, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2209–2232,Short summary
VOCs play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. Emission and deposition on soil have been suggested as important sources and sinks of atmospheric trace gases. The exchange characteristics and heterogeneous chemistry of VOCs on soil, however, are not well understood. We used a newly designed differential coated-wall flow tube system to investigate the long-term variability of bidirectional air–soil exchange of 13 VOCs at ambient air conditions of an urban background site in Beijing.
Jian Wang, John E. Shilling, Jiumeng Liu, Alla Zelenyuk, David M. Bell, Markus D. Petters, Ryan Thalman, Fan Mei, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Guangjie Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 941–954,Short summary
Earlier studies showed organic hygroscopicity increases with oxidation level. Such increases have been attributed to higher water solubility for more oxidized organics. By systematically varying the water content of activating droplets, we show that for secondary organic aerosols, essentially all organics are dissolved at the point of droplet activation. Therefore, the organic hygroscopicity is not limited by solubility but is dictated mainly by the molecular weight of organic species.
Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, Nicolas Theys, Dan Tong, François Hendrick, Qiang Zhang, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18063–18078,Short summary
In the last decade, four temporal regimes of SO2 in China have been identified. After an initial rise, SO2 undergoes two sharp drops in 2007–2008 and 2014–2016, during which 5-year rebounding is sustained. Different mechanisms are tied to North and South China. The industrial emission is responsible for SO2 variation in North China, while in South China the meteorological conditions make a large contribution. The result is crucial to the understanding of SO2 changes and future polices.
Mingxu Liu, Xin Huang, Yu Song, Tingting Xu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Lin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xuejun Liu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17933–17943,
Guangjie Zheng, Yang Wang, Allison C. Aiken, Francesca Gallo, Michael P. Jensen, Pavlos Kollias, Chongai Kuang, Edward Luke, Stephen Springston, Janek Uin, Robert Wood, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17615–17635,Short summary
Here, we elucidate the key processes that drive marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol size distribution in the eastern North Atlantic (ENA) using long-term measurements. The governing equations of particle concentration are established for different modes. Particles entrained from the free troposphere represent the major source of MBL cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), contributing both directly to CCN population and indirectly by supplying Aitken-mode particles that grow to CCN in the MBL.
Lu Shen, Daniel J. Jacob, Loretta J. Mickley, Yuxuan Wang, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17489–17496,
Xiaoxiang Wang, Chuchu Chen, Kurt Binder, Uwe Kuhn, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17077–17086,Short summary
The surface tension of aqueous NaCl (σ) is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations from dilute to highly supersaturated solutions. The linear approximation of concentration dependence of σ at molality scale can be extended to the supersaturated NaCl solution until the solute mass fraction (xNaCl) of ~0.39. After that, the σ remains almost unchanged until an xNaCl of ~0.47. Then the σ gradually regains the growing momentum with a tendency to approach the surface tension of molten NaCl.
Anna T. Kunert, Mark Lamneck, Frank Helleis, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira L. Pöhlker, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6327–6337,Short summary
The new Twin-plate Ice Nucleation Assay with infrared detection for high-throughput droplet freezing experiments in microliter-sized droplets is introduced, which was tested and characterized with bacterial and fungal ice nuclei. It was applied to investigate the influence of chemical processing on the activity of biological ice nuclei, and aqueous extracts of atmospheric aerosols were studied for ice nuclei activity.
Hansen Cao, Tzung-May Fu, Lin Zhang, Daven K. Henze, Christopher Chan Miller, Christophe Lerot, Gonzalo González Abad, Isabelle De Smedt, Qiang Zhang, Michel van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Kelly Chance, Jie Li, Junyu Zheng, and Yuanhong Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15017–15046,Short summary
Our top-down estimates for annual total Chinese NMVOC emissions was 30.7 to 49.5 Tg y−1, including 16.4 to 23.6 Tg y−1 from anthropogenic sources, 12.2 to 22.8 Tg y−1 from biogenic sources, and 2.08 to 3.13 Tg y−1 from biomass burning. Our four inversions consistently showed that the emissions of Chinese anthropogenic NMVOC precursors of glyoxal were larger than the a priori estimates. The glyoxal and formaldehyde constraints helped distinguish the NMVOC species from different sources.
Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Oliver Appel, Anja Costa, Suzane S. de Sá, Volker Dreiling, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Scot T. Martin, Stephan Mertes, Mira L. Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Bernadett Weinzierl, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Luiz A. T. Machado, Ulrich Pöschl, Manfred Wendisch, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14979–15001,Short summary
Aerosol chemical composition measurements in the tropical upper troposphere over the Amazon region show that 78 % of the aerosol in the upper troposphere consists of organic matter. Up to 20 % of the organic aerosol can be attributed to isoprene epoxydiol secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA). Furthermore, organic nitrates were identified, suggesting a connection to the IEPOX-SOA formation.
Juan Hong, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Changqing Yin, Liqing Hao, Fei Li, Mingfu Cai, Xuejiao Deng, Nan Wang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Lin Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14079–14094,Short summary
In this manuscript, we provide the results of the hygroscopicity of a more anthropogenically influenced aerosol in a suburban site in China. Organic material in the current type of aerosols showed moderate hygroscopicity, and it appeared to be less sensitive towards the variation of its oxidation level, which suggests different characteristics of the oxidation products in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) under the suburban/urban atmosphere in China when compared to other background environments.
Bo Zheng, Dan Tong, Meng Li, Fei Liu, Chaopeng Hong, Guannan Geng, Haiyan Li, Xin Li, Liqun Peng, Ji Qi, Liu Yan, Yuxuan Zhang, Hongyan Zhao, Yixuan Zheng, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14095–14111,Short summary
To tackle the problem of severe air pollution, China has implemented active clean air policies in recent years. We quantified China’s anthropogenic emissions during 2010–2017 and identified the major driving forces of these trends by using a combination of bottom-up emission inventory and index decomposition analysis (IDA) approaches. The major air pollutants have reduced their emissions by 17–62 % during 2010–2017. The IDA results suggest that emission control measures are the main drivers.
Mengyao Liu, Jintai Lin, Yuchen Wang, Yang Sun, Bo Zheng, Jingyuan Shao, Lulu Chen, Yixuan Zheng, Jinxuan Chen, Tzung-May Fu, Yingying Yan, Qiang Zhang, and Zhaohua Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12933–12952,Short summary
Eastern China is heavily polluted by NO2, PM2.5, and other air pollutants. Our study uses EOF–EEMD to analyze the spatiotemporal variability of ground-level NO2, PM2.5, and their associations with meteorological processes. Their regular diurnal cycles are mainly affected by human activities, while irregular day-to-day variations are dominated by weather processes representing synchronous variation or north–south opposing changes over Eastern China.
Jorge Saturno, Bruna A. Holanda, Christopher Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Qiaoqiao Wang, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Jeannine Ditas, Thorsten Hoffmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Tobias Könemann, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Jing Ming, Hauke Paulsen, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Patrick Schlag, Hang Su, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Yuxuan Zhang, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12817–12843,Short summary
Biomass burning emits light-absorbing aerosol particles that warm the atmosphere. One of them is the primarily emitted black carbon, which strongly absorbs radiation in the visible and UV spectral regions. Another one is the so-called brown carbon, a fraction of organic aerosol particles that are able to absorb radiation, especially in the UV spectral region. The contribution of both kinds of aerosol particles to light absorption over the Amazon rainforest is studied in this paper.
Chinmay Mallik, Laura Tomsche, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, John N. Crowley, Bettina Derstroff, Horst Fischer, Sascha Hafermann, Imke Hüser, Umar Javed, Stephan Keßel, Jos Lelieveld, Monica Martinez, Hannah Meusel, Anna Novelli, Gavin J. Phillips, Andrea Pozzer, Andreas Reiffs, Rolf Sander, Domenico Taraborrelli, Carina Sauvage, Jan Schuladen, Hang Su, Jonathan Williams, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10825–10847,Short summary
OH and HO2 control the transformation of air pollutants and O3 formation. Their implication for air quality over the climatically sensitive Mediterranean region was studied during a field campaign in Cyprus. Production of OH, HO2, and recycled OH was lower in aged marine air masses. Box model simulations of OH and HO2 agreed with measurements except at high terpene concentrations when model RO2 due to terpenes caused large HO2 loss. Autoxidation schemes for RO2 improved the agreement.
Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Marloes Penning de Vries, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Samara Carbone, David Walter, Nicole Bobrowski, Joel Brito, Xuguang Chi, Alexandra Gutmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Luiz A. T. Machado, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Julian Rüdiger, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Qiaoqiao Wang, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10391–10405,Short summary
This study uses satellite observations to track volcanic emissions in eastern Congo and their subsequent transport across the Atlantic Ocean into the Amazon Basin. Aircraft and ground-based observations are used to characterize the influence of volcanogenic aerosol on the chemical and microphysical properties of Amazonian aerosols. Further, this work is an illustrative example of the conditions and dynamics driving the transatlantic transport of African emissions to South America.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Jorge Saturno, Thomas Klimach, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Alessandro C. Araùjo, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Reiner Ditz, Sachin S. Gunthe, Bruna A. Holanda, Konrad Kandler, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Tobias Könemann, Ovid O. Krüger, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Eugene Mikhailov, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Luciana V. Rizzo, Diana Rose, Hang Su, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, Jian Wang, Stefan Wolff, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10289–10331,Short summary
This paper presents the aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) variability for characteristic atmospheric states – such as biomass burning, long-range transport, and pristine rain forest conditions – in the vulnerable and climate-relevant Amazon Basin. It summarizes the key properties of aerosol and CCN and, thus, provides a basis for an in-depth analysis of aerosol–cloud interactions in the Amazon region.
Yuxuan Zhang, Xin Li, Meng Li, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Chaopeng Hong, Haiyan Li, Dan Tong, Xin Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10275–10287,Short summary
When emission controls were implemented during APEC, we found that the reduction in BC light absorption was driven by simultaneously reducing the mass concentration and light-absorption capability of BC. The weakening of BC light-absorption capability could be attributed to less coating material on BC surfaces due to the decreased chemical production of secondary aerosols. Our results imply that a synergetic reduction in multiple-pollutant emissions could benefit both air quality and climate.
Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Florian Ditas, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Xuguang Chi, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Holger Baars, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Birgit Heese, Bruna A. Holanda, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Jing Ming, Mira L. Pöhlker, Nina Ruckteschler, Hang Su, Yaqiang Wang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Zhibin Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10055–10088,Short summary
This study presents multiple years of aerosol coarse mode observations at the remote ATTO site in the Amazon Basin. The results are discussed in light of the frequent and episodic long-range transport of Saharan dust plumes in the early wet season as well as the persistent background bioaerosol cycling in the rain forest ecosystem. This work provides a solid basis for future studies on the dynamic coarse mode aerosol cycling and its biogeochemical relevance in the Amazon.
Yuxuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Haiyan Li, Meng Li, Xin Zhang, Aijun Ding, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9879–9896,Short summary
The light absorption of BC-containing particles strongly depends on their aging process in the atmosphere. Whether and how the aging degree and light absorption capability of BC-containing particles will change with air pollution development is still unclear. Our results reveal that under a more polluted environment, the BC-containing particles are characterized not only by higher BC mass concentrations but also by more coating materials on BC surfaces and thus higher light absorption capacity.
Jörn Wehking, Daniel A. Pickersgill, Robert M. Bowers, David Teschner, Ulrich Pöschl, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, and Viviane R. Després
Biogeosciences, 15, 4205–4214,Short summary
Archaea as a third domain of life play an important role in soils and marine environments. Although archaea have been found in air as a part of the atmospheric bioaerosol, little is known about their atmospheric dynamics due to their low number and challenging analysis. Here we present a DNA-based study of airborne archaea, show seasonal dynamics, and discuss anthropogenic influences on the diversity, composition, and abundances of airborne archaea.
Jiaping Wang, Wei Nie, Yafang Cheng, Yicheng Shen, Xuguang Chi, Jiandong Wang, Xin Huang, Yuning Xie, Peng Sun, Zheng Xu, Ximeng Qi, Hang Su, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9061–9074,Short summary
An optimized segregation method is applied to estimate light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) in Nanjing. This study highlights the considerable contribution of BrC to light absorption in the Yangtze River Delta region, China, and depicts its long-term profile in this region for the first time. Lagrangian modeling and the chemical signature observed at the site suggested that open biomass burning and residential emissions are the dominant sources influencing BrC in the two highest BrC seasons.
Nan Li, Qingyang He, Jim Greenberg, Alex Guenther, Jingyi Li, Junji Cao, Jun Wang, Hong Liao, Qiyuan Wang, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7489–7507,Short summary
O3 pollution has been increasing in most Chinese cities in recent years. Our study reveals that the synergistic impact of individual source contributions to O3 formation should be considered in the formation of air pollution control strategies, especially for big cities in the vicinity of forests.
Ye Kuang, Chun Sheng Zhao, Gang Zhao, Jiang Chuan Tao, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, and Yu Xuan Bian
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2967–2982,Short summary
Aerosol water has become an important topic recently because of its implications for multiphase secondary aerosol formation during severe haze events in Asia. This is a timely paper on this topic; a novel method is proposed to calculate ambient aerosol liquid water contents based only on measurements of a three-wavelength humidified nephelometer system. The advantage of this method is that this technique can provide continuous measurements of the changing ambient conditions.
Luiz A. T. Machado, Alan J. P. Calheiros, Thiago Biscaro, Scott Giangrande, Maria A. F. Silva Dias, Micael A. Cecchini, Rachel Albrecht, Meinrat O. Andreae, Wagner F. Araujo, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Casey Burleyson, Cristiano W. Eichholz, Jiwen Fan, Zhe Feng, Gilberto F. Fisch, Michael P. Jensen, Scot T. Martin, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Jean-François Ribaud, Daniel Rosenfeld, Jaci M. B. Saraiva, Courtney Schumacher, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6461–6482,Short summary
This overview discuss the main precipitation processes and their sensitivities to environmental conditions in the Central Amazon Basin. It presents a review of the knowledge acquired about cloud processes and rainfall formation in Amazonas. In addition, this study provides a characterization of the seasonal variation and rainfall sensitivities to topography, surface cover, and aerosol concentration. Airplane measurements were evaluated to characterize and contrast cloud microphysical properties.
Pengzhen He, Becky Alexander, Lei Geng, Xiyuan Chi, Shidong Fan, Haicong Zhan, Hui Kang, Guangjie Zheng, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Cheng Liu, and Zhouqing Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5515–5528,Short summary
We use observations of the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate aerosol as a fingerprint to quantify various sulfate formation mechanisms during pollution events in Beijing, China. We found that heterogeneous reactions on aerosols dominated sulfate production in general; however, in-cloud reactions would dominate haze sulfate production when cloud liquid water content was high. The findings also suggest the heterogeneity of aerosol acidity should be parameterized in models.
Haiyan Li, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Chunrong Chen, Nana Wu, Hongyu Guo, Yuxuan Zhang, Yixuan Zheng, Xin Li, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5293–5306,Short summary
This study revealed the driving role of nitrate in urban haze development in the North China Plain (NCP) during summertime. Several factors favoring the rapid nitrate formation were investigated in detail. The higher concentration and, in particular, the higher contribution of nitrate in PM1 suggest an urgent need to initiate ammonia emission control measures and further reduce NOx emissions over the NCP region.
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zirui Liu, Meng Li, Jinyuan Xin, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Yafang Cheng, Yuesi Wang, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4859–4884,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative and microphysical feedbacks. A comprehensive overview of the MICS-ASIA III Topic 3 study design is presented.
Trismono C. Krisna, Manfred Wendisch, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Frank Werner, Ralf Weigel, Stephan Borrmann, Christoph Mahnke, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christiane Voigt, and Luiz A. T. Machado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4439–4462,Short summary
The optical thickness and particle effective radius of a cirrus above liquid water clouds and a DCC topped by an anvil cirrus are retrieved based on SMART and MODIS radiance measurements. For the cirrus, retrieved particle effective radius are validated with corresponding in situ data using a vertical weighting method. This approach allows to assess the measurements, retrieval algorithms, and derived cloud products.
Meng Li, Zbigniew Klimont, Qiang Zhang, Randall V. Martin, Bo Zheng, Chris Heyes, Janusz Cofala, Yuxuan Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3433–3456,Short summary
In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of two widely used anthropogenic emission inventories over China, ECLIPSE and MIX, to explore the potential sources of uncertainties and find clues to improving emission inventories. We found that SO2 emission estimates are consistent between the two inventories (with 1 % differences), while NOx emissions in ECLIPSE's estimates are 16 % lower than those in MIX. Discrepancies at the sector and provincial levels are much higher.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Guo Li, Hang Su, Uwe Kuhn, Hannah Meusel, Markus Ammann, Min Shao, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2669–2686,Short summary
Coated-wall flow tube reactors are frequently used to investigate gas uptake and heterogeneous or multiphase reaction kinetics under laminar flow conditions. In previous applications, the effects of coating surface roughness on flow conditions were not well quantified. In this study, a criterion is proposed to eliminate/minimize the potential effects of coating surface roughness on laminar flow in coated-wall flow tube experiments and validate the applications of diffusion correction methods.
Tianyi Fan, Xiaohong Liu, Po-Lun Ma, Qiang Zhang, Zhanqing Li, Yiquan Jiang, Fang Zhang, Chuanfeng Zhao, Xin Yang, Fang Wu, and Yuying Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1395–1417,Short summary
We found that 22–28 % of the low AOD bias in eastern China simulated by the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 can be improved by using a new emission inventory. The concentrations of primary aerosols are closely related to the emission, while the seasonal variations of secondary aerosols depend more on atmospheric processes. This study highlights the importance of improving both the emission and atmospheric processes in modeling the atmospheric aerosols and their radiative effects.
Rachel M. Hoesly, Steven J. Smith, Leyang Feng, Zbigniew Klimont, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Tyler Pitkanen, Jonathan J. Seibert, Linh Vu, Robert J. Andres, Ryan M. Bolt, Tami C. Bond, Laura Dawidowski, Nazar Kholod, June-ichi Kurokawa, Meng Li, Liang Liu, Zifeng Lu, Maria Cecilia P. Moura, Patrick R. O'Rourke, and Qiang Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 369–408,Short summary
Historical emission trends are key inputs to Earth systems and atmospheric chemistry models. We present a new data set of historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic gases (CO, CH4, NH3, NOx, SO2, NMVOCs, BC, OC, and CO2) developed with the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS). This improves on existing inventories as it uses consistent methods and data across emissions species, has annual resolution for a longer and more recent time series, and is designed to be transparent and reproducible.
Ting Lei, Andreas Zuend, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Weigang Wang, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1045–1064,Short summary
Measurements and thermodynamic equilibrium predictions for organic–inorganic aerosols related to components from biomass burning emissions demonstrate a diversity of hygroscopic growth and shrinking behavior, which we observed using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). Controlled laboratory experiments with single solutes and/or with mixed organic–inorganic systems of known phase state will be useful to constrain model parameters of thermodynamic equilibrium models.
Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel Albrecht, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Micael A. Cecchini, Anja Costa, Maximilian Dollner, Daniel Fütterer, Emma Järvinen, Tina Jurkat, Thomas Klimach, Tobias Konemann, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Trismono Krisna, Luiz A. T. Machado, Stephan Mertes, Andreas Minikin, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Antonio Spanu, Vinicius B. Sperling, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Jian Wang, Bernadett Weinzierl, Manfred Wendisch, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 921–961,Short summary
We made airborne measurements of aerosol particle concentrations and properties over the Amazon Basin. We found extremely high concentrations of very small particles in the region between 8 and 14 km altitude all across the basin, which had been recently formed by gas-to-particle conversion at these altitudes. This makes the upper troposphere a very important source region of atmospheric particles with significant implications for the Earth's climate system.
Hannah Meusel, Alexandra Tamm, Uwe Kuhn, Dianming Wu, Anna Lena Leifke, Sabine Fiedler, Nina Ruckteschler, Petya Yordanova, Naama Lang-Yona, Mira Pöhlker, Jos Lelieveld, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, Bettina Weber, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 799–813,Short summary
The photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) forms the OH radical. However, not all sources are known. Recent studies showed that HONO can be emitted from soil but they did not evaluate the importance to the HONO budget. In this work HONO emissions from 43 soil and biological soil crust samples from Cyprus were measured in a dynamic chamber and extrapolated to the real atmosphere. A large fraction of the local missing source (published earlier; Meusel et al., 2016) could be assigned to soil emissions.
Ying Chen, Ralf Wolke, Liang Ran, Wolfram Birmili, Gerald Spindler, Wolfram Schröder, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Ina Tegen, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 673–689,Short summary
The heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on particle surfaces is crucial for the nitrogen cycle in the atmosphere. The reaction rate is determined by meteorological and particle properties, but its parameterization in previous 3-D modelling studies did not comprehensively consider these parameters. We propose a parameterization to take these into account and improve nitrate prediction; we report that the organic coating suppression on the N2O5 reaction is not as important as expected in the EU.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Manfred Wendisch, Anja Costa, Martina Krämer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Mahnke, Scot T. Martin, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Lianet H. Pardo, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14727–14746,Short summary
This study introduces and explores the concept of gamma phase space. This space is able to represent all possible variations in the cloud droplet size distributions (DSDs). The methodology was applied to recent in situ aircraft measurements over the Amazon. It is shown that the phase space is able to represent several processes occurring in the clouds in a simple manner. The consequences for cloud studies, modeling, and the representation of the transition from warm to mixed phase are discussed.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ralf Weigel, Tina Jurkat, Meinrat O. Andreae, Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, Christiane Voigt, Christoph Mahnke, Stephan Borrmann, Rachel I. Albrecht, Sergej Molleker, Daniel A. Vila, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Lucas Grulich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14433–14456,
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Svetlana Mironova, Gregory Mironov, Sergey Vlasenko, Alexey Panov, Xuguang Chi, David Walter, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Martin Heimann, Jost Lavric, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14365–14392,
Daniel A. Pickersgill, Jörn Wehking, Hauke Paulsen, Eckhard Thines, Ulrich Pöschl, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, and Viviane R. Després
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
To investigate lifestyle dependent sporulation strategies of wind-dispersed fungi, species and genera identified in environmental air samples were grouped according to their lifestyles or ecological niches. Findings revealed unrecognized characteristic patterns in the seasonal occurrence and size distribution of fungal spores for different types of pathogenic and saprophytic fungi growing on herbaceous and woody plants.
Jianlin Hu, Xun Li, Lin Huang, Qi Ying, Qiang Zhang, Bin Zhao, Shuxiao Wang, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13103–13118,Short summary
The model performance of CMAQ with WRF using four different emission inventories in China was validated and compared to obtain the best air pollutants prediction for health effect studies of severe air pollution. The differences in performance of chemical transport model were analyzed for different months and regions in the vast part of China and ensemble predictions were firstly obtained from different inventories for health analysis with minimized errors for pollutants including PM2.5 and O3.
Huan Liu, Hanyang Man, Hongyang Cui, Yanjun Wang, Fanyuan Deng, Yue Wang, Xiaofan Yang, Qian Xiao, Qiang Zhang, Yan Ding, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12709–12724,Short summary
The VOC emission inventory has large uncertainties. An updated VOC emission inventory of vehicles in China was developed based on a set of state-of-the-art methods and big data. Exhausts and evaporation were taken into account. Our results narrowed the gap between inventories and the real emissions. Detailed speciation reveals the chemical characteristics of emissions, which has the potential to improve the understanding of atmospheric chemical processes in polluted regions.
Qing Mu, Gerhard Lammel, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Ying Chen, Petra Přibylová, Monique Teich, Yuxuan Zhang, Guangjie Zheng, Dominik van Pinxteren, Qiang Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Manabu Shiraiwa, Peter Spichtinger, Hang Su, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12253–12267,Short summary
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hazardous pollutants with the largest emissions in East Asia. The regional WRF-Chem-PAH model has been developed to reflect the state-of-the-art understanding of current PAHs studies with several new or updated features. It is able to reasonably well simulate the concentration levels and particulate mass fractions of PAHs near the sources and at a remote outflow region of East Asia, in high spatial and temporal resolutions.
Hannah Meusel, Yasin Elshorbany, Uwe Kuhn, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Christopher J. Kampf, Guo Li, Xiaoxiang Wang, Jos Lelieveld, Ulrich Pöschl, Thorsten Hoffmann, Hang Su, Markus Ammann, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11819–11833,Short summary
In this study we investigated protein nitration and decomposition by light in the presence of NO2 via flow tube measurements. Nitrated proteins have an enhanced allergenic potential but so far nitration was only studied in dark conditions. Under irradiated conditions we found that proteins predominantly decompose while forming nitrous acid (HONO) an important precursor of the OH radical. Unlike other studies on heterogeneous NO2 conversion we found a stable HONO formation over a long period.
Ryan Thalman, Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Mira L. Pöhlker, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Castillo, Douglas A. Day, Chongai Kuang, Antonio Manzi, Nga Lee Ng, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Rodrigo Souza, Stephen Springston, Thomas Watson, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, Scot T. Martin, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11779–11801,Short summary
Particle hygroscopicity, mixing state, and the hygroscopicity of organic components were characterized in central Amazonia for 1 year; their seasonal and diel variations were driven by a combination of primary emissions, photochemical oxidation, and boundary layer development. The relationship between the hygroscopicity of organic components and their oxidation level was examined, and the results help to reconcile the differences among the relationships observed in previous studies.
Paul J. DeMott, Thomas C. J. Hill, Markus D. Petters, Allan K. Bertram, Yutaka Tobo, Ryan H. Mason, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Christina S. McCluskey, Ezra J. T. Levin, Gregory P. Schill, Yvonne Boose, Anne Marie Rauker, Anna J. Miller, Jake Zaragoza, Katherine Rocci, Nicholas E. Rothfuss, Hans P. Taylor, John D. Hader, Cedric Chou, J. Alex Huffman, Ulrich Pöschl, Anthony J. Prenni, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11227–11245,Short summary
The consistency and complementarity of different methods for measuring the numbers of particles capable of forming ice in clouds are examined in the atmosphere. Four methods for collecting particles for later (offline) freezing studies are compared to a common instantaneous method. Results support very good agreement in many cases but also biases that require further research. Present capabilities and uncertainties for obtaining global data on these climate-relevant aerosols are thus defined.
Hongyan Zhao, Xin Li, Qiang Zhang, Xujia Jiang, Jintai Lin, Glen P. Peters, Meng Li, Guannan Geng, Bo Zheng, Hong Huo, Lin Zhang, Haikun Wang, Steven J. Davis, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10367–10381,Short summary
Effective and efficient control of air pollution relies upon an understanding of the pollution sources. We conduct an interdisciplinary study and find that 33 % of China’s PM2.5-related premature mortality in 2010 were caused by production emission in other regions; 56 % of the mortality was related to consumption in other regions. Multilateral and multi-stage cooperation under a regional sustainable development framework is in urgent need to mitigate air pollution and related health impacts.
Jieying Ding, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Ronald Johannes van der A, Bas Mijling, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, SeogYeon Cho, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Qiang Zhang, Fei Liu, and Pieternel Felicitas Levelt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10125–10141,Short summary
To evaluate the quality of the satellite-derived NOx emissions, we compare nine emission inventories of nitrogen oxides including four satellite-derived NOx inventories and bottom-up inventories for East Asia. The temporal and spatial distribution of NOx emissions over East Asia are evaluated. We analyse the differences in satellite-derived emissions from two different inversion methods. The paper ends with recommendations for future improvements of emission estimates.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat, Christoph Mahnke, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Christiane Voigt, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10037–10050,Short summary
We study the effects of aerosol particles and updraft speed on the warm phase of Amazonian clouds. We expand the sensitivity analysis usually found in the literature by concomitantly considering cloud evolution and the effects on droplet size distribution (DSD) shape. The quantitative results show that particle concentration is the primary driver for the vertical profiles of effective diameter and droplet concentration in the warm phase of Amazonian convective clouds.
Li Zhang, Qinyi Li, Tao Wang, Ravan Ahmadov, Qiang Zhang, Meng Li, and Mengyao Lv
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9733–9750,Short summary
Little is known of the integrated impacts of HONO and ClNO2 on lower-tropospheric ozone so far. In this study, we updated WRF-Chem with the CBMZ_ReNOM module, which considers both the sources and chemistry of HONO and ClNO2. The revised model revealed that the two reactive nitrogen compounds significantly affected the oxidation capacity and ozone formation at the surface and within the lower troposphere over polluted regions and noticeably improved summertime O3 predictions over China.
Jorge Saturno, Christopher Pöhlker, Dario Massabò, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Florian Ditas, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Daniel Morán-Zuloaga, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, David Walter, Qiaoqiao Wang, Paulo Artaxo, Paolo Prati, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2837–2850,Short summary
Different Aethalometer correction schemes were compared to a multi-wavelength absorption reference measurement. One of the correction schemes was found to artificially increase the short-wavelength absorption coefficients. It was found that accounting for aerosol scattering properties in the correction is crucial to retrieve the proper absorption Ångström exponent (AAE). We found that the raw AAE of uncompensated Aethalometer attenuation significantly correlates with a measured reference AAE.
Fei Liu, Steffen Beirle, Qiang Zhang, Ronald J. van der A, Bo Zheng, Dan Tong, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9261–9275,Short summary
We assess NOx emission trends over Chinese cities based on satellite NO2 observations using a method independent of chemical transport models. NOx emissions over 48 Chinese cities have decreased significantly since 2011. Cities with different dominant emission sources (i.e. power, industrial, and transportation sectors) showed variable emission decline timelines that corresponded to the schedules for emission control in different sectors.
Guannan Geng, Qiang Zhang, Dan Tong, Meng Li, Yixuan Zheng, Siwen Wang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9187–9203,Short summary
We presented the characteristics of PM2.5 chemical composition over China during 2005–2012 by synthesis of in situ measurement data and satellite-based estimates. We also investigated the driving forces behind the changes by examining the changes in precursor emissions. We found that the decrease in sulfate is partly offset by the increase in nitrate. The results indicate that the synchronized abatement of emissions for multipollutants is necessary for reducing ambient PM2.5 over China.
Evelyn Jäkel, Manfred Wendisch, Trismono C. Krisna, Florian Ewald, Tobias Kölling, Tina Jurkat, Christiane Voigt, Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Armin Afchine, Anja Costa, Martina Krämer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Tianle Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9049–9066,Short summary
Vertical profiles of the cloud particle phase state in tropical deep convective clouds (DCCs) were investigated using airborne imaging spectrometer measurements during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign, which was conducted over the Brazilian rainforest in September 2014. A phase discrimination retrieval was applied to observations of clouds formed in different aerosol conditions. The profiles were compared to in situ and satellite measurements.
Thomas Berkemeier, Markus Ammann, Ulrich K. Krieger, Thomas Peter, Peter Spichtinger, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Andrew J. Huisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8021–8029,Short summary
Kinetic process models are efficient tools used to unravel the mechanisms governing chemical and physical transformation in multiphase atmospheric chemistry. However, determination of kinetic parameters such as reaction rate or diffusion coefficients from multiple data sets is often difficult or ambiguous. This study presents a novel optimization algorithm and framework to determine these parameters in an automated fashion and to gain information about parameter uncertainty and uniqueness.
Chaopeng Hong, Qiang Zhang, Yang Zhang, Youhua Tang, Daniel Tong, and Kebin He
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2447–2470,Short summary
A regional coupled climate–chemistry modeling system using the dynamical downscaling technique was established and evaluated. The modeling system performed well for both the climatological and the short-term air quality applications over east Asia. Regional models outperformed global models in regional climate and air quality predictions. The coupled modeling system improved the model performance, although some biases remained in the aerosol–cloud–radiation variables.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ralf Weigel, Tina Jurkat, Meinrat O. Andreae, Manfred Wendisch, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Christiane Voigt, Christoph Mahnke, Stephan Borrmann, Rachel I. Albrecht, Sergej Molleker, Daniel A. Vila, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7365–7386,
Eri Saikawa, Hankyul Kim, Min Zhong, Alexander Avramov, Yu Zhao, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Zbigniew Klimont, Fabian Wagner, Vaishali Naik, Larry W. Horowitz, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6393–6421,Short summary
We analyze differences in existing air pollutant emission estimates to better understand the magnitude of emissions as well as the source regions and sectors of air pollution in China. We find large disagreements among the inventories, and we show that these differences have a significant impact on regional air quality simulations. Better understanding of air pollutant emissions at more disaggregated levels is essential for air pollution mitigation in China.
Yuxuan Zhang, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Kebin He, Alfred Wiedensohler, Qiang Zhang, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The light absorption of black carbon (BC) strongly depends on their mixing state. By now, the BC mixing state in the atmosphere is still unclear. In this work, we have investigated the comprehensive characterization of BC mixing state at a polluted regional background site of the North China Plain (NCP) based on in site measurements. we found that BC aerosols of the NCP were fully aged, suggesting a strong optical and climate effect of BC on the regional scale in northern China.
Haiyan Li, Qi Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Chunrong Chen, Litao Wang, Zhe Wei, Shan Zhou, Caroline Parworth, Bo Zheng, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Ping Chen, Hongliang Zhang, Timothy J. Wallington, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4751–4768,Short summary
The sources and aerosol evolution processes of severe pollution episodes were investigated in Handan during wintertime using real-time measurements. An in-depth analysis of the data uncovered that primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning together with secondary formation of sulfate (mainly from SO2 emitted by coal combustion) are important driving factors for haze evolution. Our findings provide useful insights into air pollution control in heavily polluted regions.
Sergey S. Vlasenko, Hang Su, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eugene F. Mikhailov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1269–1280,Short summary
The paper describes a new technique for measuring the hygroscopic properties of laboratory and ambient aerosols. The direct measurements of humidified particle mass allow avoiding complications that occur in the commonly used technique due to poorly defined particle morphology and density. Both test results and field measurements have shown that the system can be applied for aerosol size-resolved mass growth factor measurements in hydration and dehydration modes up to 95 % RH.
Philipp Porada, Ulrich Pöschl, Axel Kleidon, Christian Beer, and Bettina Weber
Biogeosciences, 14, 1593–1602,Short summary
Lichens and bryophytes have been shown to release nitrous oxide, which is a strong greenhouse gas and atmospheric ozone-depleting agent. Here we apply a process-based computer model of lichens and bryophytes at the global scale, to estimate growth and respiration of the organisms. By relating respiration to nitrous oxide release, we simulate global nitrous oxide emissions of 0.27 (0.19–0.35) Tg yr−1. Moreover, we quantify different sources of uncertainty in nitrous oxide emission rates.
Guannan Geng, Qiang Zhang, Randall V. Martin, Jintai Lin, Hong Huo, Bo Zheng, Siwen Wang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4131–4145,Short summary
We investigated the impact of spatial proxies on the representation of gridded emissions by comparing six gridded NOx emission datasets over China developed from the same magnitude of emissions and different spatial proxies. GEOS-Chem-modeled NO2 columns from the six gridded emissions are compared with satellite-based columns from OMI. Results show that differences between modeled and satellite-based NO2 columns are sensitive to the spatial proxies used in the gridded emission inventories.
Zhibin Wang, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Eugene Mikhailov, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
Guohui Li, Naifang Bei, Junji Cao, Rujin Huang, Jiarui Wu, Tian Feng, Yichen Wang, Suixin Liu, Qiang Zhang, Xuexi Tie, and Luisa T. Molina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3301–3316,
Jiarui Wu, Guohui Li, Junji Cao, Naifang Bei, Yichen Wang, Tian Feng, Rujin Huang, Suixin Liu, Qiang Zhang, and Xuexi Tie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2035–2051,
Chaopeng Hong, Qiang Zhang, Kebin He, Dabo Guan, Meng Li, Fei Liu, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1227–1239,Short summary
We found that the apparent uncertainties in China’s energy consumption increased from 2004 to 2012. SO2 emissions are most sensitive to energy uncertainties because of the high contributions from industrial coal combustion. The energy-induced emission uncertainties for some species are comparable to total uncertainties of emissions as estimated by previous studies, indicating variations in energy consumption could be an important source of China’s emission uncertainties.
Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Jung-Hun Woo, Kebin He, Zifeng Lu, Toshimasa Ohara, Yu Song, David G. Streets, Gregory R. Carmichael, Yafang Cheng, Chaopeng Hong, Hong Huo, Xujia Jiang, Sicong Kang, Fei Liu, Hang Su, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 935–963,Short summary
An anthropogenic emission inventory for Asia is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) projects by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. The total Asian emissions in 2010 are estimated as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.5 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC, 28.7 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC, and 17.3 Pg CO2.
Bo Zheng, Qiang Zhang, Dan Tong, Chuchu Chen, Chaopeng Hong, Meng Li, Guannan Geng, Yu Lei, Hong Huo, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 921–933,Short summary
The resolution dependence of uncertainties in proxy-based gridded inventories can be explained by the decoupling of emission facility locations from spatial proxies on fine scales. We conclude that proxy-based inventories are of sufficient quality to support regional and global models (larger than 0.25° in this case study); however, to support urban-scale models with accurate emission inputs, bottom-up inventories incorporating exact locations of emitting facilities have to be developed instead.
Yaduan Zhou, Yu Zhao, Pan Mao, Qiang Zhang, Jie Zhang, Liping Qiu, and Yang Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 211–233,Short summary
A high-resolution emission inventory was developed for Jiangsu, China, using the bottom-up approach. Through comparisons with other national and regional inventories, the best agreement between available ground observation and air quality simulation was found when the provincial inventory was applied. The result implied the advantage of improved emission inventory at local scale for high-resolution air quality modeling.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Thomas Klimach, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Alessandro Araújo, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Reiner Ditz, Sachin S. Gunthe, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Tobias Könemann, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Eugene Mikhailov, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Diana Rose, Jorge Saturno, Hang Su, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, Jian Wang, Stefan Wolff, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15709–15740,Short summary
The paper presents a systematic characterization of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration in the central Amazonian atmosphere. Our results show that the CCN population in this globally important ecosystem follows a pollution-related seasonal cycle, in which it mainly depends on changes in total aerosol size distribution and to a minor extent in the aerosol chemical composition. Our results allow an efficient modeling and prediction of the CCN population based on a novel approach.
Marie Ila Gosselin, Chathurika M. Rathnayake, Ian Crawford, Christopher Pöhlker, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Beatrice Schmer, Viviane R. Després, Guenter Engling, Martin Gallagher, Elizabeth Stone, Ulrich Pöschl, and J. Alex Huffman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15165–15184,Short summary
We present an analysis of bioaerosol measurements using two real-time fluorescence instruments in combination with molecular tracer techniques for quantifying airborne fungal spores in a semi-arid forest. Both techniques provide fungal spore concentrations of the order of 104 m−3 and up to 30 % of particle mass. Rainy periods exhibited higher concentrations and stronger correlations between fluorescent bioparticle and molecular tracer measurements. Fungal culture results are also presented.
Qinyi Li, Li Zhang, Tao Wang, Yee Jun Tham, Ravan Ahmadov, Likun Xue, Qiang Zhang, and Junyu Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14875–14890,Short summary
The regional distributions and impacts of N2O5 and ClNO2 remain poorly understood. To address the problem, we developed a chemical transport model further and conducted the first high-resolution simulation of the distributions of the two species. Our research demonstrated the significant impacts of the two gases on the lifetime of nitrogen oxides, secondary nitrate production and ozone formation in southern China and highlighted the necessity of considering this chemistry in air quality models.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Hannah Meusel, Uwe Kuhn, Andreas Reiffs, Chinmay Mallik, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Jan Schuladen, Birger Bohn, Uwe Parchatka, John N. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Laura Tomsche, Anna Novelli, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Oscar Hartogensis, Michael Pikridas, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Bettina Weber, Jos Lelieveld, Jonathan Williams, Ulrich Pöschl, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14475–14493,Short summary
There are many studies which show discrepancies between modeled and measured nitrous acid (HONO, precursor of OH radical) in the troposphere but with no satisfactory explanation. Ideal conditions to study the unknown sources of HONO were found on Cyprus, a remote Mediterranean island. Budget analysis of trace gas measurements indicates a common source of NO and HONO, which is not related to anthropogenic activity and is most likely derived from biologic activity in soils and subsequent emission.
Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Georgia Alexandri, Konstantinos A. Kourtidis, Jos Lelieveld, Prodromos Zanis, Ulrich Pöschl, Robert Levy, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, and Athanasios Tsikerdekis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13853–13884,Short summary
In this work, single pixel observations from MODIS Terra and Aqua are analyzed together with data from other satellite sensors, reanalysis projects and a chemistry–aerosol-transport model to study the spatiotemporal variability of different aerosol types. The results are in accordance with previous works and are a good reference for future studies in the area focusing on aerosols, clouds, radiation and the effects of particle pollution on human health.
Andrea M. Arangio, Haijie Tong, Joanna Socorro, Ulrich Pöschl, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13105–13119,Short summary
We have quantified environmentally persistent free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in size-segregated atmospheric aerosol particles. We suggest that ROS were formed by decomposition of secondary organic aerosols interacting with transition metal ions and quinones contained in humic-like substances. The results have significant implications for aqueous-phase and cloud processing of organic aerosols as well as adverse health effects upon respiratory deposition of aerosol particles.
Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Zhibin Wang, Xiaoxiang Wang, Mira L. Pöhlker, Björn Nillius, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5183–5192,Short summary
In cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements, the supersaturation scan is often time-consuming and limits the temporal resolution of CCN measurements. Here we present a new concept, termed the broad supersaturation scanning (BS2) method, in which a range of supersaturation is simultaneously scanned, resulting in fast measurements of CCN activity.
Pascale S. J. Lakey, Thomas Berkemeier, Manuel Krapf, Josef Dommen, Sarah S. Steimer, Lisa K. Whalley, Trevor Ingham, Maria T. Baeza-Romero, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, Markus Ammann, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13035–13047,Short summary
Chemical oxidation in the atmosphere removes pollutants and greenhouse gases but generates undesirable products such as secondary organic aerosol. Radicals are key intermediates in oxidation, but how they interact with aerosols is still not well understood. Here we use a laser to measure the loss of radicals onto oxidised aerosols generated in a smog chamber. The loss of radicals was controlled by the thickness or viscosity of the aerosols, confirmed by using sugar aerosols of known thickness.
Ying Chen, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Ralf Wolke, Stephan Nordmann, Stephanie Schüttauf, Liang Ran, Birgit Wehner, Wolfram Birmili, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Qing Mu, Stefan Barthel, Gerald Spindler, Bastian Stieger, Konrad Müller, Guang-Jie Zheng, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12081–12097,Short summary
Sea salt aerosol (SSA) is important for primary and secondary aerosols on a global scale. During 10–20 September 2013, the SSA mass concentration was overestimated by a factor of 8–20 over central Europe by WRF-Chem model, stem from the uncertainty of its emission scheme. This could facilitate the coarse-mode nitrate formation (~ 140 % but inhibit the fine-mode nitrate formation (~−20 %). A special long-range transport mechanism could broaden this influence of SSA to a larger downwind region.
Xiawei Yu, Zhibin Wang, Minghui Zhang, Uwe Kuhn, Zhouqing Xie, Yafang Cheng, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11337–11348,
Jia Xing, Rohit Mathur, Jonathan Pleim, Christian Hogrefe, Jiandong Wang, Chuen-Meei Gan, Golam Sarwar, David C. Wong, and Stuart McKeen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10865–10877,Short summary
Downward transport of ozone from the stratosphere has large impacts on surface concentration and needs to be properly represented in regional models. This study developed a seasonally and spatially varying PV-based function from an investigation of the relationship between PV and O3. The implementation of the new function significantly improves the model's performance in O3 simulation, which enables a more accurate simulation of the vertical distribution of O3 across the Northern Hemisphere.
Guo Li, Hang Su, Xin Li, Uwe Kuhn, Hannah Meusel, Thorsten Hoffmann, Markus Ammann, Ulrich Pöschl, Min Shao, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10299–10311,Short summary
Indoor and outdoor formaldehyde (HCHO) are both of considerable concern because of its health effects and its role in atmospheric chemistry. The heterogeneous reactions between gaseous HCHO with soils can pose important impact on both HCHO budget and soil ecosystem. Our results confirms that HCHO uptake by soil is a complex process involving both adsorption/desorption and chemical reactions. Soil and soil-derived airborne particles can either act as a source or a sink for HCHO.
A. E. Valsan, R. Ravikrishna, C. V. Biju, C. Pöhlker, V. R. Després, J. A. Huffman, U. Pöschl, and S. S. Gunthe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9805–9830,
Graydon Snider, Crystal L. Weagle, Kalaivani K. Murdymootoo, Amanda Ring, Yvonne Ritchie, Emily Stone, Ainsley Walsh, Clement Akoshile, Nguyen Xuan Anh, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, Jeff Brook, Fatimah D. Qonitan, Jinlu Dong, Derek Griffith, Kebin He, Brent N. Holben, Ralph Kahn, Nofel Lagrosas, Puji Lestari, Zongwei Ma, Amit Misra, Leslie K. Norford, Eduardo J. Quel, Abdus Salam, Bret Schichtel, Lior Segev, Sachchida Tripathi, Chien Wang, Chao Yu, Qiang Zhang, Yuxuan Zhang, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Mark D. Gibson, Yang Liu, J. Vanderlei Martins, Yinon Rudich, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9629–9653,Short summary
We examine the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected on filters at traditionally undersampled, globally dispersed urban locations. Several PM2.5 chemical components (e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and black carbon) vary by more than an order of magnitude between sites while aerosol hygroscopicity varies by a factor of 2. Enhanced anthropogenic dust fractions in large urban areas are apparent from high Zn : Al ratios.
Nan Ma, Chunsheng Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, Zhijun Wu, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Johannes Größ, Hongjian Liu, Yuxuan Bian, Ye Kuang, Monique Teich, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Min Hu, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8593–8607,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is one of main sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. Based on in situ measurements, we found that CCN activity of newly formed particles largely differs in different NPF events. It is therefore difficult to find a simple parameterization of CCN activity for NPF events. Using a fixed size-resolved activation ratio curve or critical diameter is very likely to result in large biases up to 50 % in the calculated NCCN during NPF events.
Fei Liu, Steffen Beirle, Qiang Zhang, Steffen Dörner, Kebin He, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5283–5298,Short summary
We present a new method to quantify NOx emissions and corresponding atmospheric lifetimes from OMI NO2 observations together with ECMWF wind fields without further model input for sources located in polluted background. The derived NOx emissions show generally good agreement with bottom-up inventories for power plants and cities. Global inventory significantly underestimated NOx emissions in Chinese cities, most likely due to uncertainties associated with downscaling approaches.
Yuxuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Kebin He
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1833–1843,Short summary
We develop a novel method in this work for in situ measurements of the morphology and effective density of ambient In-BC cores using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer and a single-particle soot photometer. We find that In-BC cores hardly transform the morphology of BC into a void-free sphere. Taking the morphology and density of ambient In-BC cores into account, our work provides a new insight into the enhancement of light absorption for In-BC particles in the atmosphere.
S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. A. T. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Fan, G. Fisch, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. L. Jimenez, U. Pöschl, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785–4797,Short summary
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
Xuekun Fang, Min Shao, Andreas Stohl, Qiang Zhang, Junyu Zheng, Hai Guo, Chen Wang, Ming Wang, Jiamin Ou, Rona L. Thompson, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3369–3382,Short summary
This is the first study reporting top-down estimates of benzene and toluene emissions in southern China using atmospheric measurement data from a rural site in the area, an atmospheric transport model and an inverse modeling method. This study shows in detail the temporal and spatial differences between the inversion estimate and four different bottom-up emission inventories (RCP, REAS, MEIC; Yin et al., 2015). We propose that more observations are urgently needed in future.
Ying Li, Ulrich Pöschl, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3327–3344,
Yuli Shan, Dabo Guan, Jianghua Liu, Zhu Liu, Jingru Liu, Heike Schroeder, Yang Chen, Shuai Shao, Zhifu Mi, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Cities contribute 85 % of the total CO2 emissions in China and thus are considered the key areas for implementing policies designed for climate change adaption and CO2 emission mitigation. This study presents a method for constructing a CO2 emissions inventory for Chinese cities in terms of the definition provided by the IPCC territorial emission accounting approach. We apply this method to compile CO2 emissions inventories for 20 Chinese cities and analyse their emission characteristic.
Yaning Kang, Mingxu Liu, Yu Song, Xin Huang, Huan Yao, Xuhui Cai, Hongsheng Zhang, Ling Kang, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoyuan Yan, Hong He, Qiang Zhang, Min Shao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2043–2058,Short summary
The multi-year (1980–2012) comprehensive ammonia emissions inventories were compiled for China on 1 km × 1 km grid. Various realistic parameters (ambient temperature, wind speed, soil acidity, synthetic fertilizer types, etc.) were considered in these inventories to synthetically refine the emission factors of ammonia volatilization according to local agricultural practice. This paper shows the interannual trend and spatial distribution of ammonia emissions in details over recent decades.
Ying Chen, Ya-Fang Cheng, Stephan Nordmann, Wolfram Birmili, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Nan Ma, Ralf Wolke, Birgit Wehner, Jia Sun, Gerald Spindler, Qing Mu, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1823–1835,Short summary
We evaluated the EC point sources in Germany with high-resolution simulation by WRF-Chem, and find out that point sources contribute too much EC in the coarse mode aerosol mass. The area emissions in Eastern Europe and Russia also allocate too much EC emission in coarse mode in the EUCAARI EC emission inventory. Because of the shorter life time of coarse mode EC, about 20–40 % less EC can be transported to Melpitz from Eastern Europe. Size segregation information is important for EC inventories.
Haijie Tong, Andrea M. Arangio, Pascale S. J. Lakey, Thomas Berkemeier, Fobang Liu, Christopher J. Kampf, William H. Brune, Ulrich Pöschl, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1761–1771,Short summary
We provide experimental evidence that terpene and isoprene SOA form substantial amounts of OH radicals upon interaction with liquid water and iron. Our measurements and model results imply that the chemical reactivity of SOA in the atmosphere, particularly in clouds, can be faster than previously thought. Inhalation and deposition of SOA particles in the human respiratory tract may lead to a substantial release of OH radicals in vivo, causing oxidative stress and adverse aerosol health effects.
F. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Tong, B. Zheng, M. Li, H. Huo, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13299–13317,Short summary
This is the first study in which emissions from China’s coal-fired power plants were estimated at unit level for a 20-year period. This new emission inventory is constructed from a unit-based database compiled in this work, named the China coal-fired Power plant Emissions Database (CPED), which includes detailed information on the technologies, activity data, operation situation, emission factors, and locations of individual units.
J.-W. Xu, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, J. Kim, M. Choi, Q. Zhang, G. Geng, Y. Liu, Z. Ma, L. Huang, Y. Wang, H. Chen, H. Che, P. Lin, and N. Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13133–13144,Short summary
1. GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) retrieval of AOD is consistent with AERONET AOD (RMSE=0.08-0.1) 2. GOCI-derived PM2.5 is in significant agreement with in situ observations (r2=0.66, rRMSE=18.3%) 3. Population-weighted GOCI-derived PM2.5 over eastern China for 2013 is 53.8 μg/m3, threatening the health of its more than 400 million residents 4. Secondary inorganics (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+) & organic matter are the most significant components of GOCI-derived PM2.5.
Y. Zhao, L. P. Qiu, R. Y. Xu, F. J. Xie, Q. Zhang, Y. Y. Yu, C. P. Nielsen, H. X. Qin, H. K. Wang, X. C. Wu, W. Q. Li, and J. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12623–12644,Short summary
A high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants and CO2 for Nanjing, a typical city in eastern China, is developed, incorporating the best available local information from on-site surveys. The temporal and spatial distribution of the emissions and the correlation between specific species of the inventory are assessed by comparisons with observations and other inventories at larger spatial scale. The emission inventory provides a basis to consider the quality of instrumental observations.
M. Paramonov, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Gysel, P. P. Aalto, M. O. Andreae, E. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, A. Bougiatioti, D. Brus, G. P. Frank, N. Good, S. S. Gunthe, L. Hao, M. Irwin, A. Jaatinen, Z. Jurányi, S. M. King, A. Kortelainen, A. Kristensson, H. Lihavainen, M. Kulmala, U. Lohmann, S. T. Martin, G. McFiggans, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Nenes, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, T. Petäjä, U. Pöschl, G. C. Roberts, D. Rose, B. Svenningsson, E. Swietlicki, E. Weingartner, J. Whitehead, A. Wiedensohler, C. Wittbom, and B. Sierau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12211–12229,Short summary
The research paper presents the first comprehensive overview of field measurements with the CCN Counter performed at a large number of locations around the world within the EUCAARI framework. The paper sheds light on the CCN number concentrations and activated fractions around the world and their dependence on the water vapour supersaturation ratio, the dependence of aerosol hygroscopicity on particle size, and seasonal and diurnal variation of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties.
C.-M. Gan, J. Pleim, R. Mathur, C. Hogrefe, C. N. Long, J. Xing, D. Wong, R. Gilliam, and C. Wei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12193–12209,Short summary
This study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act especially on trends in solar radiation. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth, aerosol concentration, and radiation demonstrate that the coupled WRF-CMAQ model is capable of replicating the trends well even though it tends to underestimate the AOD.
G. Janssens-Maenhout, M. Crippa, D. Guizzardi, F. Dentener, M. Muntean, G. Pouliot, T. Keating, Q. Zhang, J. Kurokawa, R. Wankmüller, H. Denier van der Gon, J. J. P. Kuenen, Z. Klimont, G. Frost, S. Darras, B. Koffi, and M. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11411–11432,Short summary
This paper provides monthly emission grid maps at 0.1deg x 0.1deg resolution with global coverage for air pollutants and aerosols anthropogenic emissions in 2008 and 2010. Countries are consistently inter-compared with sector-specific implied emission factors, per capita emissions and emissions per unit of GDP. The emission grid maps compose the reference emissions data set for the community modelling hemispheric transport of air pollution (HTAP).
M. O. Andreae, O. C. Acevedo, A. Araùjo, P. Artaxo, C. G. G. Barbosa, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Brito, S. Carbone, X. Chi, B. B. L. Cintra, N. F. da Silva, N. L. Dias, C. Q. Dias-Júnior, F. Ditas, R. Ditz, A. F. L. Godoi, R. H. M. Godoi, M. Heimann, T. Hoffmann, J. Kesselmeier, T. Könemann, M. L. Krüger, J. V. Lavric, A. O. Manzi, A. P. Lopes, D. L. Martins, E. F. Mikhailov, D. Moran-Zuloaga, B. W. Nelson, A. C. Nölscher, D. Santos Nogueira, M. T. F. Piedade, C. Pöhlker, U. Pöschl, C. A. Quesada, L. V. Rizzo, C.-U. Ro, N. Ruckteschler, L. D. A. Sá, M. de Oliveira Sá, C. B. Sales, R. M. N. dos Santos, J. Saturno, J. Schöngart, M. Sörgel, C. M. de Souza, R. A. F. de Souza, H. Su, N. Targhetta, J. Tóta, I. Trebs, S. Trumbore, A. van Eijck, D. Walter, Z. Wang, B. Weber, J. Williams, J. Winderlich, F. Wittmann, S. Wolff, and A. M. Yáñez-Serrano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10723–10776,Short summary
This paper describes the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a new atmosphere-biosphere observatory located in the remote Amazon Basin. It presents results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected at the ATTO site during the first 3 years of operation.
D. Chang, Y. Cheng, P. Reutter, J. Trentmann, S. M. Burrows, P. Spichtinger, S. Nordmann, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, and H. Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10325–10348,
L. Zhang, D. K. Henze, G. A. Grell, G. R. Carmichael, N. Bousserez, Q. Zhang, O. Torres, C. Ahn, Z. Lu, J. Cao, and Y. Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10281–10308,Short summary
We attempt to reduce uncertainties in BC emissions and improve BC model simulations by developing top-down, spatially resolved, estimates of BC emissions through assimilation of OMI observations of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) with the GEOS-Chem model and its adjoint for April and October of 2006. Despite the limitations and uncertainties, using OMI AAOD to constrain BC sources we are able to improve model representation of BC distributions, particularly over China.
E. F. Mikhailov, G. N. Mironov, C. Pöhlker, X. Chi, M. L. Krüger, M. Shiraiwa, J.-D. Förster, U. Pöschl, S. S. Vlasenko, T. I. Ryshkevich, M. Weigand, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, and M. O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8847–8869,Short summary
Our manuscript describes the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the ZOTTO in central Siberia (61º N, 89º E). The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
W. Tao, J. Liu, G. A. Ban-Weiss, D. A. Hauglustaine, L. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Cheng, Y. Yu, and S. Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8597–8614,Short summary
We examine the responses of a range of meteorological and air quality indicators to the expansion of urban land using WRF/Chem. Sensitivity studies indicate that the responses of pollutant concentrations to the spatial extent of urbanization are linear near the surface but nonlinear at higher altitudes. The results of process analysis demonstrate that urban heat island circulation and a deeper boundary layer with stronger turbulent intensities play a significant role in relocating pollutants.
M. Hummel, C. Hoose, M. Gallagher, D. A. Healy, J. A. Huffman, D. O'Connor, U. Pöschl, C. Pöhlker, N. H. Robinson, M. Schnaiter, J. R. Sodeau, M. Stengel, E. Toprak, and H. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6127–6146,
M. J. Tang, M. Shiraiwa, U. Pöschl, R. A. Cox, and M. Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5585–5598,
Z. Wang, H. Su, X. Wang, N. Ma, A. Wiedensohler, U. Pöschl, and Y. Cheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2161–2172,
H. Y. Zhao, Q. Zhang, D. B. Guan, S. J. Davis, Z. Liu, H. Huo, J. T. Lin, W. D. Liu, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5443–5456,
B. G. Pummer, C. Budke, S. Augustin-Bauditz, D. Niedermeier, L. Felgitsch, C. J. Kampf, R. G. Huber, K. R. Liedl, T. Loerting, T. Moschen, M. Schauperl, M. Tollinger, C. E. Morris, H. Wex, H. Grothe, U. Pöschl, T. Koop, and J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4077–4091,
G. J. Zheng, F. K. Duan, H. Su, Y. L. Ma, Y. Cheng, B. Zheng, Q. Zhang, T. Huang, T. Kimoto, D. Chang, U. Pöschl, Y. F. Cheng, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2969–2983,
B. Zheng, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, K. B. He, K. Wang, G. J. Zheng, F. K. Duan, Y. L. Ma, and T. Kimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2031–2049,
J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, T. C. J. Hill, B. G. Pummer, P. Yordanova, G. D. Franc, and U. Pöschl
Biogeosciences, 12, 1057–1071,
S. Kulkarni, N. Sobhani, J. P. Miller-Schulze, M. M. Shafer, J. J. Schauer, P. A. Solomon, P. E. Saide, S. N. Spak, Y. F. Cheng, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, Z. Lu, D. G. Streets, G. Janssens-Maenhout, C. Wiedinmyer, J. Lantz, M. Artamonova, B. Chen, S. Imashev, L. Sverdlik, J. T. Deminter, B. Adhikary, A. D'Allura, C. Wei, and G. R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1683–1705,Short summary
This study presents a regional-scale modeling analysis of aerosols in the Central Asia region including detailed characterization of seasonal source region and sector contributions along with the predicted changes in distribution of aerosols using 2030 future emission scenarios. The influence of long transport and impact of varied emission sources including dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources on the regional aerosol distributions and the associated transport pathways are discussed.
M. Wang, M. Shao, W. Chen, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Yuan, Q. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-C. Chang, B. Wang, L. Zeng, M. Hu, Y. Yang, and Y. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1489–1502,
G. Snider, C. L. Weagle, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, K. Conrad, D. Cunningham, C. Gordon, M. Zwicker, C. Akoshile, P. Artaxo, N. X. Anh, J. Brook, J. Dong, R. M. Garland, R. Greenwald, D. Griffith, K. He, B. N. Holben, R. Kahn, I. Koren, N. Lagrosas, P. Lestari, Z. Ma, J. Vanderlei Martins, E. J. Quel, Y. Rudich, A. Salam, S. N. Tripathi, C. Yu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Brauer, A. Cohen, M. D. Gibson, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 505–521,Short summary
We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations to measure concentrations of fine aerosols in urban environments. Our findings include major ions species, total mass, and total scatter at three wavelengths. Results will be used to further evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates.
S. Nordmann, Y. F. Cheng, G. R. Carmichael, M. Yu, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, Q. Zhang, P. E. Saide, U. Pöschl, H. Su, W. Birmili, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12683–12699,
T. Berkemeier, M. Shiraiwa, U. Pöschl, and T. Koop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12513–12531,Short summary
Glassy organic particles can serve as ice nuclei at low temperatures. We provide a rationale for these findings using a numerical aerosol diffusion model that describes particle phase state and its kinetics during simulated atmospheric updrafts dependent upon composition, size, updraft velocity, temperature and humidity. Our simulations suggest that aerosols from anthropogenic aromatic organics can be particularly relevant for ice cloud formation.
J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, C. Ruzene Nespoli, D. A. Pickersgill, P. E. Galand, I. Müller-Germann, T. Nunes, J. Gomes Cardoso, S. M. Almeida, C. Pio, M. O. Andreae, R. Conrad, U. Pöschl, and V. R. Després
Biogeosciences, 11, 6067–6079,Short summary
We have investigated the presence of archaea as well as their amoA gene diversity in aerosol particles collected over 1 year in central Europe and found that, within the 16S and amoA gene, Thaumarchaeota prevail and experience a diversity peak in fall, while only few Euryarchaeota were detected primarily in spring. We also compared the results with airborne archaea from Cape Verde and observe that the proportions of Euryarchaeota seem to be enhanced in coastal air compared to continental air.
P. Marrapu, Y. Cheng, G. Beig, S. Sahu, R. Srinivas, and G. R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10619–10630,
B. Zheng, H. Huo, Q. Zhang, Z. L. Yao, X. T. Wang, X. F. Yang, H. Liu, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9787–9805,
D. I. Haga, S. M. Burrows, R. Iannone, M. J. Wheeler, R. H. Mason, J. Chen, E. A. Polishchuk, U. Pöschl, and A. K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8611–8630,
M. Shiraiwa, T. Berkemeier, K. A. Schilling-Fahnestock, J. H. Seinfeld, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8323–8341,
M. L. Krüger, S. Mertes, T. Klimach, Y. F. Cheng, H. Su, J. Schneider, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, and D. Rose
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2615–2629,
D. A. Healy, J. A. Huffman, D. J. O'Connor, C. Pöhlker, U. Pöschl, and J. R. Sodeau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8055–8069,
J. Chen, C. S. Zhao, N. Ma, and P. Yan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8105–8118,
P. Reutter, J. Trentmann, A. Seifert, P. Neis, H. Su, D. Chang, M. Herzog, H. Wernli, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7573–7583,
C. He, Q. B. Li, K. N. Liou, J. Zhang, L. Qi, Y. Mao, M. Gao, Z. Lu, D. G. Streets, Q. Zhang, M. M. Sarin, and K. Ram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7091–7112,
G. J. Zheng, Y. Cheng, K. B. He, F. K. Duan, and Y. L. Ma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1969–1977,
N. Ma, W. Birmili, T. Müller, T. Tuch, Y. F. Cheng, W. Y. Xu, C. S. Zhao, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6241–6259,
M. Wang, M. Shao, W. Chen, B. Yuan, S. Lu, Q. Zhang, L. Zeng, and Q. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5871–5891,
M. Li, Q. Zhang, D. G. Streets, K. B. He, Y. F. Cheng, L. K. Emmons, H. Huo, S. C. Kang, Z. Lu, M. Shao, H. Su, X. Yu, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5617–5638,
P. Q. Fu, K. Kawamura, Y. F. Cheng, S. Hatakeyama, A. Takami, H. Li, and W. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4185–4199,
L. T. Wang, Z. Wei, J. Yang, Y. Zhang, F. F. Zhang, J. Su, C. C. Meng, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3151–3173,
X. Chi, J. Winderlich, J.-C. Mayer, A. V. Panov, M. Heimann, W. Birmili, J. Heintzenberg, Y. Cheng, and M. O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12271–12298,
C. J. Schumacher, C. Pöhlker, P. Aalto, V. Hiltunen, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, U. Pöschl, and J. A. Huffman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11987–12001,
B. Mijling, R. J. van der A, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12003–12012,
D. Rose, S. S. Gunthe, Z. Jurányi, M. Gysel, G. P. Frank, J. Schneider, J. Curtius, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
C. Pöhlker, J. A. Huffman, J.-D. Förster, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3369–3392,
P. Porada, B. Weber, W. Elbert, U. Pöschl, and A. Kleidon
Biogeosciences, 10, 6989–7033,
T. Stavrakou, J.-F. Müller, K. F. Boersma, R. J. van der A, J. Kurokawa, T. Ohara, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9057–9082,
J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, P. J. DeMott, C. Pöhlker, R. H. Mason, N. H. Robinson, J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Y. Tobo, V. R. Després, E. Garcia, D. J. Gochis, E. Harris, I. Müller-Germann, C. Ruzene, B. Schmer, B. Sinha, D. A. Day, M. O. Andreae, J. L. Jimenez, M. Gallagher, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. K. Bertram, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6151–6164,
Y. Wang, Q. Q. Zhang, K. He, Q. Zhang, and L. Chai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2635–2652,
A.-P. Hyvärinen, V. Vakkari, L. Laakso, R. K. Hooda, V. P. Sharma, T. S. Panwar, J. P. Beukes, P. G. van Zyl, M. Josipovic, R. M. Garland, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, and A. Petzold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 81–90,
J.-T. Lin, Z. Liu, Q. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Mao, and G. Zhuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12255–12275,
J. A. Huffman, B. Sinha, R. M. Garland, A. Snee-Pollmann, S. S. Gunthe, P. Artaxo, S. T. Martin, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11997–12019,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)A comprehensive observation-based multiphase chemical model analysis of sulfur dioxide oxidations in both summer and winterPredicting gas–particle partitioning coefficients of atmospheric molecules with machine learningDevelopment of a new emission reallocation method for industrial sources in ChinaProjections of shipping emissions and the related impact on air pollution and human health in the Nordic regionA predictive model for salt nanoparticle formation using heterodimer stability calculationsUsing GECKO-A to derive mechanistic understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation from the ubiquitous but understudied campheneSeasonal distribution and drivers of surface fine particulate matter and organic aerosol over the Indo-Gangetic PlainIntensified modulation of winter aerosol pollution in China by El Niño with short durationForest-fire aerosol–weather feedbacks over western North America using a high-resolution, online coupled air-quality modelEstimation of secondary organic aerosol viscosity from explicit modeling of gas-phase oxidation of isoprene and α-pineneQuantitative assessment of changes in surface particulate matter concentrations and precursor emissions over China during the COVID-19 pandemic and their implications for Chinese economic activitySecondary aerosol formation from dimethyl sulfide – improved mechanistic understanding based on smog chamber experiments and modellingNon-linear response of PM2.5 to changes in NOx and NH3 emissions in the Po basin (Italy): consequences for air quality plansInsights into seasonal variation of wet deposition over southeast Asia via precipitation adjustment from the findings of MICS-Asia IIIModeling the impact of COVID-19 on air quality in southern California: implications for future control policiesResponses of Arctic black carbon and surface temperature to multi-region emission reductions: a Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 (HTAP2) ensemble modeling studyNonlinear responses of particulate nitrate to NOx emission controls in the megalopolises of China
Huan Song, Keding Lu, Can Ye, Huabin Dong, Shule Li, Shiyi Chen, Zhijun Wu, Mei Zheng, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13713–13727,Short summary
Secondary sulfate aerosols are an important component of fine particles in severe air pollution events. We calculated the sulfate formation rates via a state-of-the-art multiphase model constrained to the observed values. We showed that transition metals in urban aerosols contribute significantly to sulfate formation during haze periods and thus play an important role in mitigation strategies and public health measures in megacities worldwide.
Emma Lumiaro, Milica Todorović, Theo Kurten, Hanna Vehkamäki, and Patrick Rinke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13227–13246,Short summary
The study of climate change relies on climate models, which require an understanding of aerosol formation. We train a machine-learning model to predict the partitioning coefficients of atmospheric molecules, which govern condensation into aerosols. The model can make instant predictions based on molecular structures with accuracy surpassing that of standard computational methods. This will allow the screening of low-volatility molecules that contribute most to aerosol formation.
Yun Fat Lam, Chi Chiu Cheung, Xuguo Zhang, Joshua S. Fu, and Jimmy Chi Hung Fung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12895–12908,Short summary
In recent years, air pollution forecasting has become an important municipal service of the government. In this study, a new spatial allocation method based on satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques was developed to address the spatial deficiency of industrial source emissions in China, providing a substantial improvement on NO2 and PM2.5 forecast for the Pearl River Delta/Greater Bay Area.
Camilla Geels, Morten Winther, Camilla Andersson, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Jørgen Brandt, Lise M. Frohn, Ulas Im, Wing Leung, and Jesper H. Christensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12495–12519,Short summary
In this study, we set up new shipping emissions scenarios and use two chemistry transport models and a health assessment model to assess the development of air quality and related health impacts in the Nordic region. Shipping alone is associated with about 850 premature deaths during present-day conditions, decreasing to approximately 550–600 cases in the 2050 scenarios.
Sabrina Chee, Kelley Barsanti, James N. Smith, and Nanna Myllys
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11637–11654,Short summary
We explored molecular properties affecting atmospheric particle formation efficiency and derived a parameterization between particle formation rate and heterodimer concentration, which showed good agreement to previously reported experimental data. Considering the simplicity of calculating heterodimer concentration, this approach has potential to improve estimates of global cloud condensation nuclei in models that are limited by the computational expense of calculating particle formation rate.
Isaac Kwadjo Afreh, Bernard Aumont, Marie Camredon, and Kelley Claire Barsanti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11467–11487,Short summary
This is the first mechanistic modeling study of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the understudied monoterpene, camphene. The semi-explicit chemical model GECKO-A predicted camphene SOA yields that were ~2 times α-pinene. Using 50/50 α-pinene + limonene as a surrogate for camphene increased predicted SOA mass from biomass burning fuels by up to ~100 %. The accurate representation of camphene in air quality models can improve predictions of SOA when camphene is a dominant monoterpene.
Caterina Mogno, Paul I. Palmer, Christoph Knote, Fei Yao, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10881–10909,Short summary
We use a 3-D atmospheric chemistry model to investigate how seasonal emissions sources and meteorological conditions affect the surface distribution of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and organic aerosol (OA) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain. We find that all seasonal mean values of PM2.5 still exceed safe air quality levels, with human emissions contributing to PM2.5 all year round, open fires during post- and pre-monsoon, and biogenic emissions during monsoon. OA contributes up to 30 % to PM2.5.
Liangying Zeng, Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Jing Wang, Jing Li, Lili Ren, Huimin Li, Yang Zhou, Pinya Wang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10745–10761,Short summary
Using an aerosol–climate model, the impacts of El Niño with different durations on aerosols in China are examined. The modulation on aerosol concentrations and haze days by short-duration El Niño events is 2–3 times more than that by long-duration El Niño events in China. The frequency of short-duration El Niño has been increasing significantly in recent decades, suggesting that El Niño events have exerted increasingly intense modulation on aerosol pollution in China over the past few decades.
Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Jack Chen, Balbir Pabla, Wanmin Gong, Craig Stroud, Christopher Sioris, Kerry Anderson, Philip Cheung, Junhua Zhang, and Jason Milbrandt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10557–10587,Short summary
We have examined the effects of airborne particles on absorption and scattering of incoming sunlight by the particles themselves via cloud formation. We used an advanced, combined high-resolution weather forecast and chemical transport computer model, for western North America, and simulations with and without the connections between particles and weather enabled. Feedbacks improved weather and air pollution forecasts and changed cloud behaviour and forest-fire pollutant amount and height.
Tommaso Galeazzo, Richard Valorso, Ying Li, Marie Camredon, Bernard Aumont, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10199–10213,Short summary
We simulate SOA viscosity with explicit modeling of gas-phase oxidation of isoprene and α-pinene. While the viscosity dependence on relative humidity and mass loadings is captured well by simulations, the model underestimates measured viscosity, indicating missing processes. Kinetic limitations and reduction in mass accommodation may cause an increase in viscosity. The developed model is powerful for investigation of the interplay among gas reactions, chemical composition and phase state.
Hyun Cheol Kim, Soontae Kim, Mark Cohen, Changhan Bae, Dasom Lee, Rick Saylor, Minah Bae, Eunhye Kim, Byeong-Uk Kim, Jin-Ho Yoon, and Ariel Stein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10065–10080,Short summary
Global outbreaks of COVID-19 offer rare opportunities of natural experiments in emission control and corresponding responses of tropospheric chemistry. This study's novel approach investigates (1) isolating the pandemic's impact from natural and anthropogenic variations, (2) emission adjustment to reproduce real-time emissions, and (3) brute-force modeling to investigate Chinese economic activities. Results provide characteristics of the region's chemistry and emissions.
Robin Wollesen de Jonge, Jonas Elm, Bernadette Rosati, Sigurd Christiansen, Noora Hyttinen, Dana Lüdemann, Merete Bilde, and Pontus Roldin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9955–9976,Short summary
This study presents a detailed analysis of the OH-initiated oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) based on experiments performed in the Aarhus University Research on Aerosol (AURA) smog chamber and the gas- and particle-phase chemistry kinetic multilayer model (ADCHAM). We capture the formation, growth and chemical composition of aerosols in the chamber setup by an improved multiphase oxidation mechanism and utilize our results to reproduce the important role of DMS in the marine boundary layer.
Philippe Thunis, Alain Clappier, Matthias Beekmann, Jean Philippe Putaud, Cornelis Cuvelier, Jessie Madrazo, and Alexander de Meij
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9309–9327,Short summary
Modelling simulations are used to identify the most efficient emission reduction strategies to reduce PM2.5 concentration levels in northern Italy. Results show contrasting chemical regimes and important non-linearities during wintertime, with the striking result that PM2.5 levels may increase when NOx reductions are applied in NOx-rich areas – a process that may have contributed to the absence of significant PM2.5 decrease during the COVID-19 lockdowns in many European cities.
Syuichi Itahashi, Baozhu Ge, Keiichi Sato, Zhe Wang, Junichi Kurokawa, Jiani Tan, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8709–8734,Short summary
This study presents the detailed analysis of acid deposition over southeast Asia based on the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III. Simulated wet deposition is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The difficulties of models to capture observations are related to the model performance on precipitation. The precipitation-adjusted approach was applied, and the distribution of wet deposition was successfully revised.
Zhe Jiang, Hongrong Shi, Bin Zhao, Yu Gu, Yifang Zhu, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Xin Lu, Yuqiang Zhang, Kevin W. Bowman, Takashi Sekiya, and Kuo-Nan Liou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8693–8708,Short summary
We use the COVID-19 pandemic as a unique natural experiment to obtain a more robust understanding of the effectiveness of emission reductions toward air quality improvement by combining chemical transport simulations and observations. Our findings imply a shift from current control policies in California: a strengthened control on primary PM2.5 emissions and a well-balanced control on NOx and volatile organic compounds are needed to effectively and sustainably alleviate PM2.5 and O3 pollution.
Na Zhao, Xinyi Dong, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Kengo Sudo, Daven Henze, Tom Kucsera, Yun Fat Lam, Mian Chin, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8637–8654,Short summary
Black carbon acts as a strong climate forcer, especially in vulnerable pristine regions such as the Arctic. This work utilizes ensemble modeling results from the task force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 to investigate the responses of Arctic black carbon and surface temperature to various source emission reductions. East Asia contributed the most to Arctic black carbon. The response of Arctic temperature to black carbon was substantially more sensitive than the global average.
Mengmeng Li, Zihan Zhang, Tijian Wang, Min Xie, Shu Li, Bingliang Zhuang, and Yong Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Nitrate production is related to the abundance of both NOx and atmospheric oxidants. We establish the nonlinear responses between nitrate and NOx in China. Reduct