Articles | Volume 20, issue 12
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Consumption of CH3Cl, CH3Br, and CH3I and emission of CHCl3, CHBr3, and CH2Br2 from the forefield of a retreating Arctic glacier
Jemma L. Wadham
School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1SS, UK
School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK
Chris R. Lunder
Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, 2027, Norway
Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, 2027, Norway
School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1SS, UK
School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK
No articles found.
Ioannis Katharopoulos, Dominique Rust, Martin K. Vollmer, Dominik Brunner, Stefan Reimann, Simon J. O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Kieran M. Stanley, Tanja Schuck, Jgor Arduini, Lukas Emmenegger, and Stephan Henne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14159–14186,Short summary
The effectiveness of climate change mitigation needs to be scrutinized by monitoring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Countries report their emissions to the UN in a bottom-up manner. By combining atmospheric observations and transport models someone can independently validate emission estimates in a top-down fashion. We report Swiss emissions of synthetic GHGs based on kilometer-scale transport and inverse modeling, highlighting the role of appropriate resolution in complex terrain.
Emily Dowd, Alistair J. Manning, Bryn Orth-Lashley, Marianne Girard, James France, Rebecca E. Fisher, Dave Lowry, Mathias Lanoisellé, Joseph R. Pitt, Kieran M. Stanley, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Glen Thistlethwaite, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Emanuel Gloor, and Chris Wilson
We provide the first validation of the satellite-derived emission estimates using surface-based mobile greenhouse gas surveys of an active gas leak detected near Cheltenham, UK. GHGSat’s emission estimates broadly agree with the surface based mobile survey and step were taken to fix the leak, highlighting the importance of satellite data in identifying emissions and helping to reduce our human impact on climate change.
Rona L. Thompson, Stephen A. Montzka, Martin K. Vollmer, Jgor Arduini, Molly Crotwell, Paul Krummel, Chris Lunder, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Ronald G. Prinn, Stefan Reimann, Isaac Vimont, Hsiang Wang, Ray F. Weiss, and Dickon Young
The hydroxyl radical (OH) determines the atmospheric lifetimes of numerous species including methane. Since OH is very short-lived it is not possible to directly measure its concentration on scales relevant for understanding its effect on other species. Here, OH is inferred by looking at changes in hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). We find OH levels have been fairly stable over our study period (2004 to 2021) suggesting that OH is not the main driver of the recent increase in atmospheric methane.
Hyeri Park, Jooil Kim, Haklim Choi, Sohyeon Geum, Yeaseul Kim, Rona L. Thompson, Jens Mühle, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Kieran M. Stanley, Simon O'Doherty, Paul J. Fraser, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul B. Krummel, Ray F. Weiss, Ronald G. Prinn, and Sunyoung Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9401–9411,Short summary
Based on atmospheric HFC-23 observations, the first estimate of post-CDM HFC-23 emissions in eastern Asia for 2008–2019 shows that these emissions contribute significantly to the global emissions rise. The observation-derived emissions were much larger than the bottom-up estimates expected to approach zero after 2015 due to national abatement activities. These discrepancies could be attributed to unsuccessful factory-level HFC-23 abatement and inaccurate quantification of emission reductions.
Alison L. Redington, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Henne, Francesco Graziosi, Luke M. Western, Jgor Arduini, Anita L. Ganesan, Christina M. Harth, Michela Maione, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Joseph Pitt, Stefan Reimann, Matthew Rigby, Peter K. Salameh, Peter G. Simmonds, T. Gerard Spain, Kieran Stanley, Martin K. Vollmer, Ray F. Weiss, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7383–7398,Short summary
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were used in Europe pre-1990, damaging the stratospheric ozone layer. Legislation has controlled production and use, and global emissions have decreased sharply. The global rate of decline in CFC-11 recently slowed and was partly attributed to illegal emission in eastern China. This study concludes that emissions of CFC-11 in western Europe have not contributed to the unexplained part of the global increase in CFC-11 observed in the last decade.
Elena Fillola, Raul Santos-Rodriguez, Alistair Manning, Simon O'Doherty, and Matt Rigby
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1997–2009,Short summary
Lagrangian particle dispersion models are used extensively for the estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes using atmospheric observations. However, these models do not scale well as data volumes increase. Here, we develop a proof-of-concept machine learning emulator that can produce outputs similar to those of the dispersion model, but 50 000 times faster, using only meteorological inputs. This works demonstrates the potential of machine learning to accelerate GHG estimations across the globe.
Peter Bergamaschi, Arjo Segers, Dominik Brunner, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Stephan Henne, Michel Ramonet, Tim Arnold, Tobias Biermann, Huilin Chen, Sebastien Conil, Marc Delmotte, Grant Forster, Arnoud Frumau, Dagmar Kubistin, Xin Lan, Markus Leuenberger, Matthias Lindauer, Morgan Lopez, Giovanni Manca, Jennifer Müller-Williams, Simon O'Doherty, Bert Scheeren, Martin Steinbacher, Pamela Trisolino, Gabriela Vítková, and Camille Yver Kwok
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13243–13268,Short summary
We present a novel high-resolution inverse modelling system, "FLEXVAR", and its application for the inverse modelling of European CH4 emissions in 2018. The new system combines a high spatial resolution of 7 km x 7 km with a variational data assimilation technique, which allows CH4 emissions to be optimized from individual model grid cells. The high resolution allows the observations to be better reproduced, while the derived emissions show overall good consistency with two existing models.
Angharad C. Stell, Michael Bertolacci, Andrew Zammit-Mangion, Matthew Rigby, Paul J. Fraser, Christina M. Harth, Paul B. Krummel, Xin Lan, Manfredi Manizza, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Dickon Young, and Anita L. Ganesan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12945–12960,Short summary
Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance, whose atmospheric abundance has risen throughout the contemporary record. In this work, we carry out the first global hierarchical Bayesian inversion to solve for nitrous oxide emissions. We derive increasing global nitrous oxide emissions over 2011–2020, which are mainly driven by emissions between 0° and 30°N, with the highest emissions recorded in 2020.
Alena Dekhtyareva, Mark Hermanson, Anna Nikulina, Ove Hermansen, Tove Svendby, Kim Holmén, and Rune Grand Graversen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11631–11656,Short summary
Despite decades of industrial activity in Svalbard, there is no continuous air pollution monitoring in the region’s settlements except Ny-Ålesund. The NOx and O3 observations from the three-station network have been compared for the first time in this study. It has been shown how the large-scale weather regimes control the synoptic meteorological conditions and determine the atmospheric long-range transport pathways and efficiency of local air pollution dispersion.
Luke M. Western, Alison L. Redington, Alistair J. Manning, Cathy M. Trudinger, Lei Hu, Stephan Henne, Xuekun Fang, Lambert J. M. Kuijpers, Christina Theodoridi, David S. Godwin, Jgor Arduini, Bronwyn Dunse, Andreas Engel, Paul J. Fraser, Christina M. Harth, Paul B. Krummel, Michela Maione, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Hyeri Park, Sunyoung Park, Stefan Reimann, Peter K. Salameh, Daniel Say, Roland Schmidt, Tanja Schuck, Carolina Siso, Kieran M. Stanley, Isaac Vimont, Martin K. Vollmer, Dickon Young, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Stephen A. Montzka, and Matthew Rigby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9601–9616,Short summary
The production of ozone-destroying gases is being phased out. Even though production of one of the main ozone-depleting gases, called HCFC-141b, has been declining for many years, the amount that is being released to the atmosphere has been increasing since 2017. We do not know for sure why this is. A possible explanation is that HCFC-141b that was used to make insulating foams many years ago is only now escaping to the atmosphere, or a large part of its production is not being reported.
Guus J. M. Velders, John S. Daniel, Stephen A. Montzka, Isaac Vimont, Matthew Rigby, Paul B. Krummel, Jens Muhle, Simon O'Doherty, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6087–6101,Short summary
The emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have increased significantly in the past as a result of the phasing out of ozone-depleting substances. Observations indicate that HFCs are used much less in certain refrigeration applications than previously projected. Current policies are projected to reduce emissions and the surface temperature contribution of HFCs from 0.28–0.44 °C to 0.14–0.31 °C in 2100. The Kigali Amendment is projected to reduce the contributions further to 0.04 °C in 2100.
Haklim Choi, Mi-Kyung Park, Paul J. Fraser, Hyeri Park, Sohyeon Geum, Jens Mühle, Jooil Kim, Ian Porter, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Bronwyn L. Dunse, Paul B. Krummel, Ray F. Weiss, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, and Sunyoung Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5157–5173,Short summary
We observed 12-year continuous CH3Br pollution signals at Gosan and estimated anthropogenic CH3Br emissions in eastern China. The analysis revealed a significant discrepancy between top-down estimates and the bottom-up emissions from the fumigation usage reported to the United Nations Environment Programme, likely due to unreported or inaccurately reported fumigation usage. This result provides information to monitor international compliance with the Montreal Protocol.
Alice E. Ramsden, Anita L. Ganesan, Luke M. Western, Matthew Rigby, Alistair J. Manning, Amy Foulds, James L. France, Patrick Barker, Peter Levy, Daniel Say, Adam Wisher, Tim Arnold, Chris Rennick, Kieran M. Stanley, Dickon Young, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3911–3929,Short summary
Quantifying methane emissions from different sources is a key focus of current research. We present a method for estimating sectoral methane emissions that uses ethane as a tracer for fossil fuel methane. By incorporating variable ethane : methane emission ratios into this model, we produce emissions estimates with improved uncertainty characterisation. This method will be particularly useful for studying methane emissions in areas with complex distributions of sources.
Jens Mühle, Lambert J. M. Kuijpers, Kieran M. Stanley, Matthew Rigby, Luke M. Western, Jooil Kim, Sunyoung Park, Christina M. Harth, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Simon O'Doherty, Peter K. Salameh, Roland Schmidt, Dickon Young, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ray F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3371–3378,Short summary
Emissions of the strong greenhouse gas perfluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8) into the atmosphere have been increasing sharply since the early 2000s. These c-C4F8 emissions are highly correlated with the amount of hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 produced to synthesize polytetrafluoroethylene (known for its non-stick properties) and related chemicals. From this process, c-C4F8 by-product is vented to the atmosphere. Avoiding these unnecessary c-C4F8 emissions could reduce the climate impact of this industry.
Dominique Rust, Ioannis Katharopoulos, Martin K. Vollmer, Stephan Henne, Simon O'Doherty, Daniel Say, Lukas Emmenegger, Renato Zenobi, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2447–2466,Short summary
Artificial halocarbons contribute to ozone layer depletion and to global warming. We measured the atmospheric concentrations of halocarbons at the Beromünster tower, modelled the Swiss emissions, and compared the results to the internationally reported Swiss emissions inventory. For most of the halocarbons, we found good agreement, whereas one refrigerant might be overestimated in the inventory. In addition, we present first emission estimates of the newest types of halocarbons.
Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Grant Allen, Tim Arnold, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Hartmut Boesch, Anita L. Ganesan, Aoife Grant, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, Simon J. O'Doherty, Paul I. Palmer, Joseph R. Pitt, Chris Rennick, Daniel Say, Kieran M. Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Dickon Young, and Matt Rigby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16257–16276,Short summary
We present an evaluation of the UK's methane emissions between 2013 and 2020 using a network of tall tower measurement sites. We find emissions that are consistent in both magnitude and trend with the UK's reported emissions, with a declining trend driven by a decrease in emissions from England. The impact of various components of the modelling set-up on these findings are explored through a number of sensitivity studies.
Alistair J. Manning, Alison L. Redington, Daniel Say, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Peter G. Simmonds, Martin K. Vollmer, Jens Mühle, Jgor Arduini, Gerard Spain, Adam Wisher, Michela Maione, Tanja J. Schuck, Kieran Stanley, Stefan Reimann, Andreas Engel, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Ray F. Weiss, Ray Gluckman, Peter N. Brown, John D. Watterson, and Tim Arnold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12739–12755,Short summary
This paper estimates UK emissions of important greenhouse gases (hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)) using high-quality atmospheric observations and atmospheric modelling. We compare these estimates with those submitted by the UK to the United Nations. We conclude that global concentrations of these gases are still increasing. Our estimates for the UK are 73 % of those reported and that the UK emissions are now falling, demonstrating an impact of UK government policy.
Ruth E. Hill-Pearce, Aimee Hillier, Eric Mussell Webber, Kanokrat Charoenpornpukdee, Simon O'Doherty, Joachim Mohn, Christoph Zellweger, David R. Worton, and Paul J. Brewer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5447–5458,Short summary
There is currently a need for gas reference materials with well-characterised delta values for monitoring N2O amount fractions. We present work towards the preparation of gas reference materials for calibration of in-field monitoring equipment, which target the WMO-GAW data quality objectives for comparability of amount fraction and demonstrate the stability of δ15Nα, δ15Nβ and δ18O values with pressure and effects of cylinder passivation.
Daniel Say, Alistair J. Manning, Luke M. Western, Dickon Young, Adam Wisher, Matthew Rigby, Stefan Reimann, Martin K. Vollmer, Michela Maione, Jgor Arduini, Paul B. Krummel, Jens Mühle, Christina M. Harth, Brendan Evans, Ray F. Weiss, Ronald G. Prinn, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2149–2164,Short summary
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are potent greenhouse gases with exceedingly long lifetimes. We used atmospheric measurements from a global monitoring network to track the accumulation of these gases in the atmosphere. In the case of the two most abundant PFCs, recent measurements indicate that global emissions are increasing. In Europe, we used a model to estimate regional PFC emissions. Our results show that there was no significant decline in northwest European PFC emissions between 2010 and 2019.
Camille Yver-Kwok, Carole Philippon, Peter Bergamaschi, Tobias Biermann, Francescopiero Calzolari, Huilin Chen, Sebastien Conil, Paolo Cristofanelli, Marc Delmotte, Juha Hatakka, Michal Heliasz, Ove Hermansen, Kateřina Komínková, Dagmar Kubistin, Nicolas Kumps, Olivier Laurent, Tuomas Laurila, Irene Lehner, Janne Levula, Matthias Lindauer, Morgan Lopez, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, Per Marklund, Jean-Marc Metzger, Meelis Mölder, Stephen M. Platt, Michel Ramonet, Leonard Rivier, Bert Scheeren, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Paul Smith, Martin Steinbacher, Gabriela Vítková, and Simon Wyss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 89–116,Short summary
The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a pan-European research infrastructure which provides harmonized and high-precision scientific data on the carbon cycle and the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. All stations have to undergo a rigorous assessment before being labeled, i.e., receiving approval to join the network. In this paper, we present the labeling process for the ICOS atmospheric network through the 23 stations that were labeled between November 2017 and November 2019.
Rachel L. Tunnicliffe, Anita L. Ganesan, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Nicola Gedney, Benjamin Poulter, Zhen Zhang, Jošt V. Lavrič, David Walter, Matthew Rigby, Stephan Henne, Dickon Young, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13041–13067,Short summary
This study quantifies Brazil’s emissions of a potent atmospheric greenhouse gas, methane. This is in the field of atmospheric modelling and uses remotely sensed data and surface measurements of methane concentrations as well as an atmospheric transport model to interpret the data. Because of Brazil’s large emissions from wetlands, agriculture and biomass burning, these emissions affect global methane concentrations and thus are of global significance.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Peter G. Simmonds, Matthew Rigby, Alistair J. Manning, Sunyoung Park, Kieran M. Stanley, Archie McCulloch, Stephan Henne, Francesco Graziosi, Michela Maione, Jgor Arduini, Stefan Reimann, Martin K. Vollmer, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Ray F. Weiss, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Mi-Kyung Park, Hyeri Park, Tim Arnold, Chris Rennick, L. Paul Steele, Blagoj Mitrevski, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7271–7290,Short summary
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a potent greenhouse gas which is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. From a 40-year record of measurements, collected at five global monitoring sites and archived air samples, we show that its concentration in the atmosphere has steadily increased. Using modelling techniques, we estimate that global emissions have increased by about 24 % over the past decade. We find that this increase is driven by the demand for SF6-insulated switchgear in developing countries.
Luke M. Western, Zhe Sha, Matthew Rigby, Anita L. Ganesan, Alistair J. Manning, Kieran M. Stanley, Simon J. O'Doherty, Dickon Young, and Jonathan Rougier
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2095–2107,Short summary
Assessments of greenhouse gas emissions using atmospheric measurements and meteorological models, or
top-downmethods, are important to verify national inventories or produce a stand-alone estimate where no inventory exists. We present a novel top-down method to estimate emissions. This approach uses a fast method called an integrated nested Laplacian approximation to estimate how these emissions are correlated with other emissions in different locations and at different times.
Elise S. Droste, Karina E. Adcock, Matthew J. Ashfold, Charles Chou, Zoë Fleming, Paul J. Fraser, Lauren J. Gooch, Andrew J. Hind, Ray L. Langenfelds, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, Norfazrin Mohd Hanif, Simon O'Doherty, David E. Oram, Chang-Feng Ou-Yang, Marios Panagi, Claire E. Reeves, William T. Sturges, and Johannes C. Laube
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4787–4807,Short summary
We update the tropospheric trends and emissions of six perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases, including separate isomers. Trends for these strong greenhouse gases are still increasing, but at slower rates than previously. The lack of natural sinks results in the global accumulation of 833 million metric tonnes of CO2 equivalent for these six PFCs by 2017. Modelling results indicate potential source regions and types in East Asia, but we find that many emissions are unaccounted for in emission reports.
Angelina Wenger, Katherine Pugsley, Simon O'Doherty, Matt Rigby, Alistair J. Manning, Mark F. Lunt, and Emily D. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14057–14070,Short summary
We present 14CO2 observations at a background site in Ireland and a tall tower site in the UK. These data have been used to calculate the contribution of fossil fuel sources to atmospheric CO2 mole fractions from the UK and Ireland. 14CO2 emissions from nuclear industry sites in the UK cause a higher uncertainty in the results compared to observations in other locations. The observed ffCO2 at the site was not significantly different from simulated values based on the bottom-up inventory.
Maxime Prignon, Simon Chabrillat, Daniele Minganti, Simon O'Doherty, Christian Servais, Gabriele Stiller, Geoffrey C. Toon, Martin K. Vollmer, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12309–12324,Short summary
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are the first, but temporary, substitution products for the strong ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). In this work, we present and validate an improved method to retrieve the most abundant HCFC in the atmosphere, allowing its evolution to be monitored independently in the troposphere and stratosphere. These kinds of contributions are fundamental for scrutinizing the fulfilment of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
Ann R. Stavert, Simon O'Doherty, Kieran Stanley, Dickon Young, Alistair J. Manning, Mark F. Lunt, Christopher Rennick, and Tim Arnold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4495–4518,Short summary
Under the UK GAUGE project, two new greenhouse gas observation sites were established in the 2013/2014 winter at two telecommunications towers. A combination of spectroscopic and chromatographic instrumentation was used to measure CO2, CH4, CO, N2O and SF6. The advantages and disadvantages of two CRDS sample drying strategies, Nafion(R) and empirical water correction, were also examined.
Jens Mühle, Cathy M. Trudinger, Luke M. Western, Matthew Rigby, Martin K. Vollmer, Sunyoung Park, Alistair J. Manning, Daniel Say, Anita Ganesan, L. Paul Steele, Diane J. Ivy, Tim Arnold, Shanlan Li, Andreas Stohl, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Archie McCulloch, Simon O'Doherty, Mi-Kyung Park, Chun Ok Jo, Dickon Young, Kieran M. Stanley, Paul B. Krummel, Blagoj Mitrevski, Ove Hermansen, Chris Lunder, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Bo Yao, Jooil Kim, Benjamin Hmiel, Christo Buizert, Vasilii V. Petrenko, Jgor Arduini, Michela Maione, David M. Etheridge, Eleni Michalopoulou, Mike Czerniak, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Stefan Reimann, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul J. Fraser, Ronald G. Prinn, and Ray F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10335–10359,Short summary
We discuss atmospheric concentrations and emissions of the strong greenhouse gas perfluorocyclobutane. A large fraction of recent emissions stem from China, India, and Russia, probably as a by-product from the production of fluoropolymers and fluorochemicals. Most historic emissions likely stem from developed countries. Total emissions are higher than what is being reported. Clearly, more measurements and better reporting are needed to understand emissions of this and other greenhouse gases.
Daniel Say, Anita L. Ganesan, Mark F. Lunt, Matthew Rigby, Simon O'Doherty, Christina Harth, Alistair J. Manning, Paul B. Krummel, and Stephane Bauguitte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9865–9885,Short summary
Despite its emergence as a global economic power, very little information exists regarding India's halocarbon (CFC, HCFC, HFC and chlorocarbon) emissions. We report atmospheric measurements of these gases from above India, and use them to estimate India's emissions. Our results are consistent with the emissions profile of a developing country, with large emissions of HCFCs, HFCs and chlorocarbons not regulated under the Montreal Protocol, but little evidence for ongoing CFC consumption.
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Simon O'Doherty, and Peter G. Simmonds
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3383–3394,Short summary
We present a flexible method that employs a power series expansion and Fourier series analysis to characterize the average long-term change and seasonal cycle, respectively, from a time series of observations of a trace atmospheric species. This approach maximizes the statistically significant information derived, including non-linear aspects of the long-term trends, without over fitting the data. Generally, a small set of parameter values (e.g., 7 or 8) provides this characterization.
Emily D. White, Matthew Rigby, Mark F. Lunt, T. Luke Smallman, Edward Comyn-Platt, Alistair J. Manning, Anita L. Ganesan, Simon O'Doherty, Ann R. Stavert, Kieran Stanley, Mathew Williams, Peter Levy, Michel Ramonet, Grant L. Forster, Andrew C. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4345–4365,Short summary
Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from the terrestrial biosphere on a national scale is important for evaluating land use strategies to mitigate climate change. We estimate emissions of CO2 from the UK biosphere using atmospheric data in a top-down approach. Our findings show that bottom-up estimates from models of biospheric fluxes overestimate the amount of CO2 uptake in summer. This suggests these models wrongly estimate or omit key processes, e.g. land disturbance due to harvest.
Carole Helfter, Neil Mullinger, Massimo Vieno, Simon O'Doherty, Michel Ramonet, Paul I. Palmer, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3043–3063,Short summary
We present a novel approach to estimate the annual budgets of carbon dioxide (881.0 ± 128.5 Tg) and methane (2.55 ± 0.48 Tg) of the British Isles from shipborne measurements taken over a 3-year period (2015–2017). This study brings independent verification of the emission budgets estimated using alternative products and investigates the seasonality of these emissions, which is usually not possible.
Daniel Say, Anita L. Ganesan, Mark F. Lunt, Matthew Rigby, Simon O'Doherty, Chris Harth, Alistair J. Manning, Paul B. Krummel, and Stephane Bauguitte
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
India is a potentially significant source of chlorocarbons, gases typically used as solvents and feedstocks. Given the potential for these species to deplete stratospheric ozone, understanding their sources is important. We use flask measurements collected from an aircraft to infer India's chlorocarbon emissions. We link emissions of carbon tetrachloride to the industrial production of other chloromethanes, and provide evidence for rapid growth in India's emissions of dichloromethane.
Sarah Connors, Alistair J. Manning, Andrew D. Robinson, Stuart N. Riddick, Grant L. Forster, Anita Ganesan, Aoife Grant, Stephen Humphrey, Simon O'Doherty, Dave E. Oram, Paul I. Palmer, Robert L. Skelton, Kieran Stanley, Ann Stavert, Dickon Young, and Neil R. P. Harris
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas & reducing its emissions is a vital part of climate change mitigation to limit global temperature increase to 1.5 °C or 2.0 °C. This paper explains a way to estimate emitted methane over a sub-national area by combining measurements & computer dispersion modelling in a so-called
inversiontechnique. Compared with the current national inventory, our results show lower emissions for Cambridgeshire, possibly due to waste sector emission differences.
Stephen M. Platt, Sabine Eckhardt, Benedicte Ferré, Rebecca E. Fisher, Ove Hermansen, Pär Jansson, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, Ignacio Pisso, Norbert Schmidbauer, Anna Silyakova, Andreas Stohl, Tove M. Svendby, Sunil Vadakkepuliyambatta, Jürgen Mienert, and Cathrine Lund Myhre
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17207–17224,Short summary
We measured atmospheric mixing ratios of methane over the Arctic Ocean around Svalbard and compared observed variations to inventories for anthropogenic, wetland, and biomass burning methane emissions and an atmospheric transport model. With knowledge of where variations were expected due to the aforementioned land-based emissions, we were able to identify and quantify a methane source from the ocean north of Svalbard, likely from sub-sea hydrocarbon seeps and/or gas hydrate decomposition.
Tim Arnold, Alistair J. Manning, Jooil Kim, Shanlan Li, Helen Webster, David Thomson, Jens Mühle, Ray F. Weiss, Sunyoung Park, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13305–13320,Short summary
Emissions of carbon tetrafluoride CF4, NF3 and CHF3 in east Asia have been calculated using atmospheric measurements and an atmospheric transport model. We calculate emissions of CF4 to be quite constant between the years 2008 and 2015 for both China and South Korea, with 2015 emissions calculated at 4.33 ± 2.65 Gg yr-1 and 0.36 ± 0.11 Gg yr-1, respectively. Emission estimates of NF3 from South Korea could be made with relatively small uncertainty at 0.6 ± 0.07 Gg yr-1 in 2015.
Paul I. Palmer, Simon O'Doherty, Grant Allen, Keith Bower, Hartmut Bösch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sarah Connors, Sandip Dhomse, Liang Feng, Douglas P. Finch, Martin W. Gallagher, Emanuel Gloor, Siegfried Gonzi, Neil R. P. Harris, Carole Helfter, Neil Humpage, Brian Kerridge, Diane Knappett, Roderic L. Jones, Michael Le Breton, Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Matthiesen, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Sebastian O'Shea, Robert J. Parker, Carl J. Percival, Joseph Pitt, Stuart N. Riddick, Matthew Rigby, Harjinder Sembhi, Richard Siddans, Robert L. Skelton, Paul Smith, Hannah Sonderfeld, Kieran Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Angelina Wenger, Emily White, Christopher Wilson, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11753–11777,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) experiment. GAUGE was designed to quantify nationwide GHG emissions of the UK, bringing together measurements and atmospheric transport models. This novel experiment is the first of its kind. We anticipate it will inform the blueprint for countries that are building a measurement infrastructure in preparation for global stocktakes, which are a key part of the Paris Agreement.
Sunyoung Park, Shanlan Li, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Ray F. Weiss, Xuekun Fang, Stefan Reimann, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11729–11738,Short summary
Multi-year, real-time atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) record obtained at Gosan station (33° N, 126° E) presents evidence of significant unreported emissions of this first-generation ozone-depleting substance. The missing emissions (~ 19 Gg yr−1) for China contribute to approximately 54 % of global emissions and are most likely related to CCl4 escape occurring during the production of chlorinated compounds and their usage as feedstocks and process agents in chemical manufacturing industries.
Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Jgor Arduini, Tim Arnold, H. Langley DeWitt, Paul J. Fraser, Anita L. Ganesan, Jimmy Gasore, Christina M. Harth, Ove Hermansen, Jooil Kim, Paul B. Krummel, Shanlan Li, Zoë M. Loh, Chris R. Lunder, Michela Maione, Alistair J. Manning, Ben R. Miller, Blagoj Mitrevski, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Sunyoung Park, Stefan Reimann, Matt Rigby, Takuya Saito, Peter K. Salameh, Roland Schmidt, Peter G. Simmonds, L. Paul Steele, Martin K. Vollmer, Ray H. Wang, Bo Yao, Yoko Yokouchi, Dickon Young, and Lingxi Zhou
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 985–1018,Short summary
We present the data and accomplishments of the multinational global atmospheric measurement program AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment). At high frequency and at multiple sites, AGAGE measures all the important chemicals in the Montreal Protocol for the protection of the ozone layer and the non-carbon-dioxide gases assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. AGAGE uses these data to estimate sources and sinks of all these gases and has operated since 1978.
Marco Pandolfi, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Christo Angelov, Begoña Artiñano, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Paolo Bonasoni, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martine Collaud Coen, Sébastien Conil, Esther Coz, Vincent Crenn, Vadimas Dudoitis, Marina Ealo, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Patrick Ginot, Martin Gysel, Bas Henzing, Andras Hoffer, Adela Holubova Smejkalova, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Chris Lunder, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marcel Moerman, José Nicolas, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean Marc Pichon, Nina Prokopciuk, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Sergio Rodríguez, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Erik Swietlicki, Gloria Titos, Thomas Tuch, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Aditya Vaishya, Milan Vana, Aki Virkkula, Stergios Vratolis, Ernest Weingartner, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877–7911,Short summary
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle light-scattering measurements obtained over the past decade at 28 measuring atmospheric observatories which are part of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure, and most of them belong to the GAW network. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol particles optical properties in Europe.
Peter G. Simmonds, Matthew Rigby, Archie McCulloch, Martin K. Vollmer, Stephan Henne, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Alistair J. Manning, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Dickon Young, Ray F. Weiss, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Stefan Reimann, Cathy M. Trudinger, L. Paul Steele, Ray H. J. Wang, Diane J. Ivy, Ronald G. Prinn, Blagoj Mitrevski, and David M. Etheridge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4153–4169,Short summary
Recent measurements of the potent greenhouse gas HFC-23, a by-product of HCFC-22 production, show a 28 % increase in the atmospheric mole fraction from 2009 to 2016. A minimum in the atmospheric abundance of HFC-23 in 2009 was attributed to abatement of HFC-23 emissions by incineration under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Our results indicate that the recent increase in HFC-23 emissions is driven by failure of mitigation under the CDM to keep pace with increased HCFC-22 production.
Fabian Schoenenberger, Stephan Henne, Matthias Hill, Martin K. Vollmer, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Simon O'Doherty, Michela Maione, Lukas Emmenegger, Thomas Peter, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4069–4092,Short summary
Anthropogenic halocarbon emissions contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. We measured atmospheric halocarbons for 6 months on Crete to extend the coverage of the existing observation network to the Eastern Mediterranean. The derived emission estimates showed a contribution of 16.8 % (13.6–23.3 %) and 53.2 % (38.1–84.2 %) of this region to the total HFC and HCFC emissions of the analyzed European domain and a reduction of the underlying uncertainties by 40–80 %.
Kieran M. Stanley, Aoife Grant, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Alistair J. Manning, Ann R. Stavert, T. Gerard Spain, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Peter G. Simmonds, William T. Sturges, David E. Oram, and Richard G. Derwent
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1437–1458,
Peter Bergamaschi, Ute Karstens, Alistair J. Manning, Marielle Saunois, Aki Tsuruta, Antoine Berchet, Alexander T. Vermeulen, Tim Arnold, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Samuel Hammer, Ingeborg Levin, Martina Schmidt, Michel Ramonet, Morgan Lopez, Jost Lavric, Tuula Aalto, Huilin Chen, Dietrich G. Feist, Christoph Gerbig, László Haszpra, Ove Hermansen, Giovanni Manca, John Moncrieff, Frank Meinhardt, Jaroslaw Necki, Michal Galkowski, Simon O'Doherty, Nina Paramonova, Hubertus A. Scheeren, Martin Steinbacher, and Ed Dlugokencky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 901–920,Short summary
European methane (CH4) emissions are estimated for 2006–2012 using atmospheric in situ measurements from 18 European monitoring stations and 7 different inverse models. Our analysis highlights the potential significant contribution of natural emissions from wetlands (including peatlands and wet soils) to the total European emissions. The top-down estimates of total EU-28 CH4 emissions are broadly consistent with the sum of reported anthropogenic CH4 emissions and the estimated natural emissions.
Martin K. Vollmer, Dickon Young, Cathy M. Trudinger, Jens Mühle, Stephan Henne, Matthew Rigby, Sunyoung Park, Shanlan Li, Myriam Guillevic, Blagoj Mitrevski, Christina M. Harth, Benjamin R. Miller, Stefan Reimann, Bo Yao, L. Paul Steele, Simon A. Wyss, Chris R. Lunder, Jgor Arduini, Archie McCulloch, Songhao Wu, Tae Siek Rhee, Ray H. J. Wang, Peter K. Salameh, Ove Hermansen, Matthias Hill, Ray L. Langenfelds, Diane Ivy, Simon O'Doherty, Paul B. Krummel, Michela Maione, David M. Etheridge, Lingxi Zhou, Paul J. Fraser, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, and Peter G. Simmonds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 979–1002,Short summary
We measured the three chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFC-13, CFC-114, and CFC-115 in the atmosphere because they are important in stratospheric ozone depletion. These compounds should have decreased in the atmosphere because they are banned by the Montreal Protocol but we find the opposite. Emissions over the last decade have not declined on a global scale. We use inverse modeling and our observations to find that a large part of the emissions originate in the Asian region.
Kelley C. Wells, Dylan B. Millet, Nicolas Bousserez, Daven K. Henze, Timothy J. Griffis, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Eri Saikawa, Gao Xiang, Ronald G. Prinn, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Ray F. Weiss, Geoff S. Dutton, James W. Elkins, Paul B. Krummel, Ray Langenfelds, and L. Paul Steele
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 735–756,Short summary
This paper uses three different frameworks to derive nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions based on global surface observations. One of these frameworks employs a new approach that allows for fast computation and explores a larger solution space than other methods. Our results point to a few conclusions about the global N2O budget, including a larger contribution from tropical sources, an overestimate of natural soil emissions, and an underestimate of agricultural sources particularly in springtime.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Ray Weiss, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11135–11161,Short summary
Following the Global Methane Budget 2000–2012 published in Saunois et al. (2016), we use the same dataset of bottom-up and top-down approaches to discuss the variations in methane emissions over the period 2000–2012. The changes in emissions are discussed both in terms of trends and quasi-decadal changes. The ensemble gathered here allows us to synthesise the robust changes in terms of regional and sectorial contributions to the increasing methane emissions.
Dominik Brunner, Tim Arnold, Stephan Henne, Alistair Manning, Rona L. Thompson, Michela Maione, Simon O'Doherty, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10651–10674,Short summary
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and SF6 are industrially produced gases with a large greenhouse-gas warming potential. In this study, we estimated the emissions of HFCs and SF6 over Europe by combining measurements at three background stations with four different model systems. We identified significant differences between our estimates and nationally reported numbers, but also found that the network of only three sites in Europe is insufficient to reliably attribute emissions to individual countries.
Thibaud Thonat, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Isabelle Pison, Zeli Tan, Qianlai Zhuang, Patrick M. Crill, Brett F. Thornton, David Bastviken, Ed J. Dlugokencky, Nikita Zimov, Tuomas Laurila, Juha Hatakka, Ove Hermansen, and Doug E. J. Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8371–8394,Short summary
Atmospheric methane simulations in the Arctic have been made for 2012 and compared to continuous observations at six measurement sites. All methane sources significantly affect the measurements at all stations, at least at the synoptic scale, except for biomass burning. An appropriate modelling framework combined with continuous observations of atmospheric methane enables us to gain knowledge on regional methane sources, including those which are usually poorly represented, such as freshwater.
Malte Meinshausen, Elisabeth Vogel, Alexander Nauels, Katja Lorbacher, Nicolai Meinshausen, David M. Etheridge, Paul J. Fraser, Stephen A. Montzka, Peter J. Rayner, Cathy M. Trudinger, Paul B. Krummel, Urs Beyerle, Josep G. Canadell, John S. Daniel, Ian G. Enting, Rachel M. Law, Chris R. Lunder, Simon O'Doherty, Ron G. Prinn, Stefan Reimann, Mauro Rubino, Guus J. M. Velders, Martin K. Vollmer, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ray Weiss
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2057–2116,Short summary
Climate change is primarily driven by human-induced increases of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. Based on ongoing community efforts (e.g. AGAGE and NOAA networks, ice cores), this study presents historical concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O and 40 other GHGs from year 0 to year 2014. The data is recommended as input for climate models for pre-industrial, historical runs under CMIP6. Global means, but also latitudinal by monthly surface concentration fields are provided.
Peter G. Simmonds, Matthew Rigby, Archie McCulloch, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Jens Mühle, Paul B. Krummel, Paul Steele, Paul J. Fraser, Alistair J. Manning, Ray F. Weiss, Peter K. Salameh, Chris M. Harth, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4641–4655,Short summary
This paper reports how long-term atmospheric measurements demonstrate that the Montreal Protocol has been effective in controlling production and consumption of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons, a group of industrial chemicals that have detrimental effects on the ozone layer and also contribute to global warming as greenhouse gases and their hydrofluorocarbon substitutes which are also potent greenhouse gases but do not materially affect the ozone layer.
Sophie L. Nixon, Jon P. Telling, Jemma L. Wadham, and Charles S. Cockell
Biogeosciences, 14, 1445–1455,Short summary
Despite their permanently cold and dark characteristics, subglacial environments (glacier ice–sediment interface) are known to harbour active microbial communities. However, the role of microbial iron cycling in these environments is poorly understood. Here we show that subglacial sediments harbour active iron-reducing microorganisms, and they appear to be cold-adapted. These results may have important implications for global biogeochemical iron cycling and export to marine ecosystems.
Whitney Bader, Benoît Bovy, Stephanie Conway, Kimberly Strong, Dan Smale, Alexander J. Turner, Thomas Blumenstock, Chris Boone, Martine Collaud Coen, Ancelin Coulon, Omaira Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Petra Hausmann, Nicholas Jones, Paul Krummel, Isao Murata, Isamu Morino, Hideaki Nakajima, Simon O'Doherty, Clare Paton-Walsh, John Robinson, Rodrigue Sandrin, Matthias Schneider, Christian Servais, Ralf Sussmann, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2255–2277,Short summary
An increase of 0.31 ± 0.03 % year−1 of atmospheric methane is reported using 10 years of solar observations performed at 10 ground-based stations since 2005. These trend agree with a GEOS-Chem-tagged simulation that accounts for the contribution of each emission source and one sink in the total methane. The GEOS-Chem simulation shows that anthropogenic emissions from coal mining and gas and oil transport and exploration have played a major role in the increase methane since 2005.
Martyn P. Chipperfield, Qing Liang, Matthew Rigby, Ryan Hossaini, Stephen A. Montzka, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, L. Paul Steele, James D. Happell, Robert C. Rhew, James Butler, Shari A. Yvon-Lewis, Bradley Hall, David Nance, Fred Moore, Ben R. Miller, James W. Elkins, Jeremy J. Harrison, Chris D. Boone, Elliot L. Atlas, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15741–15754,Short summary
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a compound which, when released into the atmosphere, can cause depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Its emissions are controlled under the Montreal Protocol, and its atmospheric abundance is slowly decreasing. However, this decrease is not as fast as expected based on estimates of its emissions and its atmospheric lifetime. We have used an atmospheric model to look at the uncertainties in the CCl4 lifetime and to examine the impact on its atmospheric decay.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
Jemma Louise Wadham, Jonathan Hawkings, Jon Telling, Dave Chandler, Jon Alcock, Emily O'Donnell, Preeti Kaur, Elizabeth Bagshaw, Martyn Tranter, Andre Tedstone, and Peter Nienow
Biogeosciences, 13, 6339–6352,Short summary
Fjord and continental shelf environments in the polar regions are host to some of the planet's most productive ecosystems and support economically important fisheries. A key limiting nutrient for many of these marine phytoplankton is nitrogen. Here we evaluate the potential for a melting Greenland Ice Sheet to supply nitrogen to Arctic coastal ecosystems. We show nitrogen fluxes of a similar order of magnitude to one large Arctic river but yields that are double those typical of Arctic rivers.
Florian Obersteiner, Harald Bönisch, Timo Keber, Simon O'Doherty, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5265–5279,Short summary
The analysis of trace gases in ambient air requires a preconcentration technique, in many cases to make the species of interest detectable and quantifiable. In this paper, such a preconcentration set-up is presented. Target species are trapped on adsorptive material cooled by a Stirling cooler which allows for a very low adsorption temperature but only requires electrical power. A simple and lightweight mechanical design guarantees very good suitability for remote-site field operation.
Francesco Graziosi, Jgor Arduini, Paolo Bonasoni, Francesco Furlani, Umberto Giostra, Alistair J. Manning, Archie McCulloch, Simon O'Doherty, Peter G. Simmonds, Stefan Reimann, Martin K. Vollmer, and Michela Maione
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12849–12859,Short summary
Carbon tetrachloride is an ozone-depleting greenhouse gas banned under the Montreal Protocol. Measurements of atmospheric levels combined with global transport models indicate that it is still being emitted, in contrast to what is reported. In order to help solve the "mystery of carbon tetrachloride", we estimated European emissions during 2006–2014 using atmospheric observations and models. We identified emission hot spots and showed inconsistencies in national emission declarations.
Cathy M. Trudinger, Paul J. Fraser, David M. Etheridge, William T. Sturges, Martin K. Vollmer, Matt Rigby, Patricia Martinerie, Jens Mühle, David R. Worton, Paul B. Krummel, L. Paul Steele, Benjamin R. Miller, Johannes Laube, Francis S. Mani, Peter J. Rayner, Christina M. Harth, Emmanuel Witrant, Thomas Blunier, Jakob Schwander, Simon O'Doherty, and Mark Battle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11733–11754,Short summary
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are potent, long-lived and mostly man-made greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere mainly during aluminium production and semiconductor manufacture. Here we present the first continuous histories of three PFCs from 1800 to 2014, derived from measurements of these PFCs in the atmosphere and in air bubbles in polar ice. The records show how human actions have affected these important greenhouse gases over the past century.
Emily C. O'Donnell, Jemma L. Wadham, Grzegorz P. Lis, Martyn Tranter, Amy E. Pickard, Marek Stibal, Paul Dewsbury, and Sean Fitzsimons
Biogeosciences, 13, 3833–3846,Short summary
We use a novel ion chromatographic analysis that provides the first identification and quantification of major low-molecular-weight dissolved organic carbon (LMW-DOC) compounds in basal ice. LMW-DOC concentrations were dependent on the bioavailability of the overridden organic carbon, which in turn was influenced by the type of overridden material. The overridden material may thus act as a direct (abiotic leaching) and indirect (microbial cycling) source of DOC to the subglacial environment.
Joe McNorton, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Manuel Gloor, Chris Wilson, Wuhu Feng, Garry D. Hayman, Matt Rigby, Paul B. Krummel, Simon O'Doherty, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Dickon Young, Ed Dlugokencky, and Steve A. Montzka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7943–7956,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. The growth of atmospheric CH4 stalled from 1999 to 2006, with current explanations focussed mainly on changing surface fluxes. We combine models with observations and meteorological data to assess the atmospheric contribution to CH4 changes. We find that variations in mean atmospheric hydroxyl concentration can explain part of the stall in growth. Our study highlights the role of multi-annual variability in atmospheric chemistry in global CH4 trends.
M. Chirkov, G. P. Stiller, A. Laeng, S. Kellmann, T. von Clarmann, C. D. Boone, J. W. Elkins, A. Engel, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, C. M. Harth, M. Kiefer, F. Kolonjari, P. B. Krummel, A. Linden, C. R. Lunder, B. R. Miller, S. A. Montzka, J. Mühle, S. O'Doherty, J. Orphal, R. G. Prinn, G. Toon, M. K. Vollmer, K. A. Walker, R. F. Weiss, A. Wiegele, and D. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3345–3368,Short summary
HCFC-22 global distributions from MIPAS measurements for 2005 to 2012 are presented. Tropospheric trends are in good agreement with ground-based observations. A layer of enhanced HCFC-22 in the upper tropospheric tropics and northern subtropics is identified to come from Asian sources uplifted in the Asian monsoon. Stratospheric distributions provide show seasonal, semi-annual, and QBO-related variations. Hemispheric asymmetries of trends hint towards a change in the stratospheric circulation.
P. G. Simmonds, M. Rigby, A. J. Manning, M. F. Lunt, S. O'Doherty, A. McCulloch, P. J. Fraser, S. Henne, M. K. Vollmer, J. Mühle, R. F. Weiss, P. K. Salameh, D. Young, S. Reimann, A. Wenger, T. Arnold, C. M. Harth, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, B. L. Dunse, B. R. Miller, C. R. Lunder, O. Hermansen, N. Schmidbauer, T. Saito, Y. Yokouchi, S. Park, S. Li, B. Yao, L. X. Zhou, J. Arduini, M. Maione, R. H. J. Wang, D. Ivy, and R. G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 365–382,Short summary
We report regional and global emissions estimates of HFC-152a using high frequency measurements from 11 observing sites and archived air samples dating back to 1978 together with atmospheric transport models. The "bottom-up" emissions of HFC-152a reported to the UNFCCC appear to significantly underestimate those reported here from observations. This discrepancy we suggest arises from largely underestimated USA and undeclared Asian emissions.
K. C. Wells, D. B. Millet, N. Bousserez, D. K. Henze, S. Chaliyakunnel, T. J. Griffis, Y. Luan, E. J. Dlugokencky, R. G. Prinn, S. O'Doherty, R. F. Weiss, G. S. Dutton, J. W. Elkins, P. B. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, E. A. Kort, S. C. Wofsy, and T. Umezawa
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3179–3198,Short summary
This paper introduces a new inversion framework for N2O using GEOS-Chem and its adjoint, which we employed in a series of observing system simulation experiments to evaluate the source and sink constraints provided by surface and aircraft-based N2O measurements. We also applied a new approach for estimating a posteriori uncertainty for high-dimensional inversions, and used it to quantify the spatial and temporal resolution of N2O emission constraints achieved with the current observing network.
A. L. Ganesan, A. J. Manning, A. Grant, D. Young, D .E. Oram, W. T. Sturges, J. B. Moncrieff, and S. O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6393–6406,Short summary
The UK is one of several countries to enact legislation to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. We present top-down emissions of methane and nitrous oxide for the UK and Ireland over 2012-2014. We inferred average UK emissions of 2.09Tg/yr CH4 and 0.101Tg/yr N2O and used sectoral distributions to determine whether these discrepancies can be attributed to specific source sectors. We found the agricultural sector likely to be overestimated in the bottom-up emissions inventories of both gases.
D. M. Chandler, J. D. Alcock, J. L. Wadham, S. L. Mackie, and J. Telling
The Cryosphere, 9, 487–504,Short summary
The Greenland Ice Sheet surface shows a diverse range of characteristics, and hosts active microbial communities in debris-rich ''cryoconite holes'' (CHs). Field and satellite data for a complete melt season revealed significant links between surface albedo, CH coverage and biological activity. This suggests satellites may be able to monitor CH biological processes. Nevertheless, caution is needed when extrapolating point measurements of biological processes to larger space and time scales.
P. Bergamaschi, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, M. Athanassiadou, R. L. Thompson, I. Pison, A. J. Manning, P. Bousquet, A. Segers, A. T. Vermeulen, G. Janssens-Maenhout, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, F. Meinhardt, T. Aalto, L. Haszpra, J. Moncrieff, M. E. Popa, D. Lowry, M. Steinbacher, A. Jordan, S. O'Doherty, S. Piacentino, and E. Dlugokencky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 715–736,
M. Maione, F. Graziosi, J. Arduini, F. Furlani, U. Giostra, D. R. Blake, P. Bonasoni, X. Fang, S. A. Montzka, S. J. O'Doherty, S. Reimann, A. Stohl, and M. K. Vollmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9755–9770,
S. O'Doherty, M. Rigby, J. Mühle, D. J. Ivy, B. R. Miller, D. Young, P. G. Simmonds, S. Reimann, M. K. Vollmer, P. B. Krummel, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, B. Dunse, P. K. Salameh, C. M. Harth, T. Arnold, R. F. Weiss, J. Kim, S. Park, S. Li, C. Lunder, O. Hermansen, N. Schmidbauer, L. X. Zhou, B. Yao, R. H. J. Wang, A. J. Manning, and R. G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9249–9258,
S. N. Vardag, S. Hammer, S. O'Doherty, T. G. Spain, B. Wastine, A. Jordan, and I. Levin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8403–8418,
E. C. Lawson, J. L. Wadham, M. Tranter, M. Stibal, G. P. Lis, C. E. H. Butler, J. Laybourn-Parry, P. Nienow, D. Chandler, and P. Dewsbury
Biogeosciences, 11, 4015–4028,
R. L. Thompson, K. Ishijima, E. Saikawa, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, P. K. Patra, P. Bergamaschi, F. Chevallier, E. Dlugokencky, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, P. B. Krummel, A. Vermeulen, Y. Tohjima, A. Jordan, L. Haszpra, M. Steinbacher, S. Van der Laan, T. Aalto, F. Meinhardt, M. E. Popa, J. Moncrieff, and P. Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6177–6194,
R. Death, J. L. Wadham, F. Monteiro, A. M. Le Brocq, M. Tranter, A. Ridgwell, S. Dutkiewicz, and R. Raiswell
Biogeosciences, 11, 2635–2643,
R. L. Thompson, P. K. Patra, K. Ishijima, E. Saikawa, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, C. Wilson, P. Bergamaschi, E. Dlugokencky, C. Sweeney, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, P. B. Krummel, M. Saunois, M. Chipperfield, and P. Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4349–4368,
A. L. Ganesan, M. Rigby, A. Zammit-Mangion, A. J. Manning, R. G. Prinn, P. J. Fraser, C. M. Harth, K.-R. Kim, P. B. Krummel, S. Li, J. Mühle, S. J. O'Doherty, S. Park, P. K. Salameh, L. P. Steele, and R. F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3855–3864,
A. L. Ganesan, A. Chatterjee, R. G. Prinn, C. M. Harth, P. K. Salameh, A. J. Manning, B. D. Hall, J. Mühle, L. K. Meredith, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, and D. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10633–10644,
Related subject area
Subject: Biosphere Interactions | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Interannual variability in the ecosystem CO2 fluxes at a paludified spruce forest and ombrotrophic bog in the southern taigaOverview: Recent advances in the understanding of the northern Eurasian environments and of the urban air quality in China – a Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) programme perspectiveVolatile organic compound fluxes over a winter wheat field by PTR-Qi-TOF-MS and eddy covarianceVolatile organic compound fluxes in a subarctic peatland and lakeOH and HO2 radical chemistry in a midlatitude forest: measurements and model comparisonsPTR-TOF-MS eddy covariance measurements of isoprene and monoterpene fluxes from an eastern Amazonian rainforestSignificant emissions of dimethyl sulfide and monoterpenes by big-leaf mahogany trees: discovery of a missing dimethyl sulfide source to the atmospheric environmentPlant assemblages in atmospheric depositionEmission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning – an updated assessmentInvestigation of coastal sea-fog formation using the WIBS (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor) techniqueSoil–atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide in a Mediterranean citrus orchardMeasurements of nitric oxide and ammonia soil fluxes from a wet savanna ecosystem site in West Africa during the DACCIWA field campaignPhysicochemical uptake and release of volatile organic compounds by soil in coated-wall flow tube experiments with ambient airInteractions between the atmosphere, cryosphere, and ecosystems at northern high latitudesImpacts of an intense wildfire smoke episode on surface radiation, energy and carbon fluxes in southwestern British Columbia, CanadaSurface–atmosphere exchange of inorganic water-soluble gases and associated ions in bulk aerosol above agricultural grassland pre- and postfertilisationSoil fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide in a boreal forest in southern FinlandDrivers for spatial, temporal and long-term trends in atmospheric ammonia and ammonium in the UKAnnual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesisEthene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions from a ponderosa pine forest measured by relaxed eddy accumulationAdverse effects of increasing drought on air quality via natural processesA synthesis of research needs for improving the understanding of atmospheric mercury cyclingArctic regional methane fluxes by ecotope as derived using eddy covariance from a low-flying aircraftEffect of mid-term drought on Quercus pubescens BVOCs' emission seasonality and their dependency on light and/or temperatureField observations of volatile organic compound (VOC) exchange in red oaksTerpenoid and carbonyl emissions from Norway spruce in Finland during the growing seasonA top-down approach of surface carbonyl sulfide exchange by a Mediterranean oak forest ecosystem in southern FranceAir–surface exchange of gaseous mercury over permafrost soil: an investigation at a high-altitude (4700 m a.s.l.) and remote site in the central Qinghai–Tibet PlateauImbalanced phosphorus and nitrogen deposition in China's forestsRole of needle surface waxes in dynamic exchange of mono- and sesquiterpenesCanopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern ItalyMethanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. (Hypericaceae) in the central Amazon forestFuture vegetation–climate interactions in Eastern Siberia: an assessment of the competing effects of CO2 and secondary organic aerosolsConceptual design of a measurement network of the global changeEffects of global change during the 21st century on the nitrogen cycleIntroduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) – multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research and capacity-building initiativeThe Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO): overview of pilot measurements on ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gases, and aerosolsAn ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurementsArctic microbial and next-generation sequencing approach for bacteria in snow and frost flowers: selected identification, abundance and freezing nucleationDiel and seasonal changes of biogenic volatile organic compounds within and above an Amazonian rainforestSources and fluxes of organic nitrogen in precipitation over the southern East Sea/Sea of JapanInfluence of local air pollution on the deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate to a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystemVariability of BVOC emissions from a Mediterranean mixed forest in southern France with a focus on Quercus pubescensForest canopy interactions with nucleation mode particlesThe balances of mixing ratios and segregation intensity: a case study from the field (ECHO 2003)Concentrations and fluxes of isoprene and oxygenated VOCs at a French Mediterranean oak forestFrom emissions to ambient mixing ratios: online seasonal field measurements of volatile organic compounds over a Norway spruce-dominated forest in central GermanyOverview of the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory: site description and selected science results from 2008 to 2013Eddy covariance fluxes and vertical concentration gradient measurements of NO and NO2 over a ponderosa pine ecosystem: observational evidence for within-canopy chemical removal of NOxBiogenic volatile organic compound emissions during BEARPEX 2009 measured by eddy covariance and flux–gradient similarity methods
Vadim Mamkin, Vitaly Avilov, Dmitry Ivanov, Andrey Varlagin, and Julia Kurbatova
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2273–2291,Short summary
We collected 6 years of flux measurements at two southern taiga peatland ecosystems, namely a paludified spruce forest and ombrotrophic bog located in the same landscape in western Russia, which showed that the interannual variability in the environmental conditions affect CO2 ecosystem–atmosphere exchange differently in forest and non-forest peatlands. We observed that an anomalously warm winter and spring led to increasing CO2 uptake at the paludified forest (more than at the bog).
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vihma, Jouni Räisänen, Alexander Baklanov, Sergey Chalov, Igor Esau, Ekaterina Ezhova, Matti Leppäranta, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Jukka Pumpanen, Meinrat O. Andreae, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Jianhui Bai, Igor Bashmachnikov, Boris Belan, Federico Bianchi, Boris Biskaborn, Michael Boy, Jaana Bäck, Bin Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Jonathan Duplissy, Egor Dyukarev, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Martin Forsius, Martin Heimann, Sirkku Juhola, Vladimir Konovalov, Igor Konovalov, Pavel Konstantinov, Kajar Köster, Elena Lapshina, Anna Lintunen, Alexander Mahura, Risto Makkonen, Svetlana Malkhazova, Ivan Mammarella, Stefano Mammola, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Outi Meinander, Eugene Mikhailov, Victoria Miles, Stanislav Myslenkov, Dmitry Orlov, Jean-Daniel Paris, Roberta Pirazzini, Olga Popovicheva, Jouni Pulliainen, Kimmo Rautiainen, Torsten Sachs, Vladimir Shevchenko, Andrey Skorokhod, Andreas Stohl, Elli Suhonen, Erik S. Thomson, Marina Tsidilina, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Petteri Uotila, Aki Virkkula, Nadezhda Voropay, Tobias Wolf, Sayaka Yasunaka, Jiahua Zhang, Yubao Qiu, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Nikolay Kasimov, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4413–4469,Short summary
We summarize results during the last 5 years in the northern Eurasian region, especially from Russia, and introduce recent observations of the air quality in the urban environments in China. Although the scientific knowledge in these regions has increased, there are still gaps in our understanding of large-scale climate–Earth surface interactions and feedbacks. This arises from limitations in research infrastructures and integrative data analyses, hindering a comprehensive system analysis.
Benjamin Loubet, Pauline Buysse, Lais Gonzaga-Gomez, Florence Lafouge, Raluca Ciuraru, Céline Decuq, Julien Kammer, Sandy Bsaibes, Christophe Boissard, Brigitte Durand, Jean-Christophe Gueudet, Olivier Fanucci, Olivier Zurfluh, Letizia Abis, Nora Zannoni, François Truong, Dominique Baisnée, Roland Sarda-Estève, Michael Staudt, and Valérie Gros
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2817–2842,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are precursors of tropospheric pollutants like ozone or aerosols. Emission by agricultural land was still poorly characterized. We report experimental measurements of ecosystem-scale VOC fluxes above a wheat field with a highly sensitive proton transfer mass spectrometer. We report the fluxes of 123 compounds and confirm that methanol is the most emitted VOC by wheat. The second most emitted compound was C6H4O. Around 75 % of the compounds were deposited.
Roger Seco, Thomas Holst, Mikkel Sillesen Matzen, Andreas Westergaard-Nielsen, Tao Li, Tihomir Simin, Joachim Jansen, Patrick Crill, Thomas Friborg, Janne Rinne, and Riikka Rinnan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13399–13416,Short summary
Northern ecosystems exchange climate-relevant trace gases with the atmosphere, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We measured VOC fluxes from a subarctic permafrost-free fen and its adjacent lake in northern Sweden. The graminoid-dominated fen emitted mainly isoprene during the peak of the growing season, with a pronounced response to increasing temperatures stronger than assumed by biogenic emission models. The lake was a sink of acetone and acetaldehyde during both periods measured.
Michelle M. Lew, Pamela S. Rickly, Brandon P. Bottorff, Emily Reidy, Sofia Sklaveniti, Thierry Léonardis, Nadine Locoge, Sebastien Dusanter, Shuvashish Kundu, Ezra Wood, and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9209–9230,Short summary
The OH radical is the primary oxidant in the atmosphere, and measurements of its concentration provide a rigorous test of our understanding of atmospheric chemistry. Previous measurements of OH concentrations in forest environments have shown large discrepancies with model predictions. In this paper, we present measurements of OH in a forest in Indiana, USA, and compare the results to model predictions to test our understanding of this important chemistry.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Alex B. Guenther, Jeong-Hoo Park, Roger Seco, Eliane Alves, Sarah Batalha, Raoni Santana, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Julio Tóta, and Oscar Vega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7179–7191,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are important components of the atmosphere due to their contribution to atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we report major BVOCs, e.g. isoprene and total monoterpene flux measurements with a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) using the eddy covariance (EC) method at a primary rainforest in eastern Amazonia. We used the measured data to evaluate the MEGAN2.1 model for the emission site.
Lejish Vettikkat, Vinayak Sinha, Savita Datta, Ashish Kumar, Haseeb Hakkim, Priya Yadav, and Baerbel Sinha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 375–389,Short summary
There are several widely grown tree species whose BVOC emission potentials are still unknown. Studies over the Amazon rainforest have reported presence of terrestrial dimethyl sulfide sources. Here, we show that mahogany, which is grown widely in several regions of the world, is a high emitter of dimethyl sulfide and monoterpenes. With future land use and land cover changes promoting plantations of this tree for economic purposes, its impact on air quality could be quite significant.
Ke Dong, Cheolwoon Woo, and Naomichi Yamamoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11969–11983,Short summary
The work reported here is the first, the most comprehensive molecularly based study of atmospheric deposition of plants. Plants disperse spores, pollen, and fragments into the atmosphere. The emitted plant particles return to the pedosphere by sedimentation (dry deposition) and/or by precipitation (wet deposition), comprising part of the Earth's cycling of substances. This study reports plant assemblages in dry and wet atmospheric deposits collected together at the same sampling point.
Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8523–8546,Short summary
Biomass burning is one of the largest sources of atmospheric pollutants worldwide. This paper presents an up-to-date compilation of emission factors for over 120 trace gas and aerosol species from the different forms of open vegetation fires and domestic biofuel use, based on an analysis of over 370 published studies. Using these emission factors and current global burning activity data, the annual emissions of important species released by the various types of biomass burning are estimated.
Shane M. Daly, David J. O'Connor, David A. Healy, Stig Hellebust, Jovanna Arndt, Eoin J. McGillicuddy, Patrick Feeney, Michael Quirke, John C. Wenger, and John R. Sodeau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5737–5751,Short summary
For a long time sea-salt particles were considered the only types of particles that drive sea-fog formation but recently iodine oxide particles released from kelp have been identified as a source. There are no previous field studies to provide a direct timeline link between molecular iodine release, particle formation and sea-fog formation. The present observations from Cork Harbour provide such a link. A stabilizing mechanism enhancing distribution of iodine in the troposphere is suggested.
Fulin Yang, Rafat Qubaja, Fyodor Tatarinov, Rafael Stern, and Dan Yakir
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3873–3883,Short summary
The contribution of soil carbonyl sulfate (COS) flux is probably the major limitation to the application of COS as a novel tracer of canopy-scale CO2 uptake. We provide new, field-based high-resolution results on the spatial and temporal variations in soil COS flux, its relationships to CO2 exchange and the key factors influencing it. We furthermore provide the only study, to our knowledge, that validate the surface dynamic chamber approach, increasingly used, with soil concentration profiles.
Federica Pacifico, Claire Delon, Corinne Jambert, Pierre Durand, Eleanor Morris, Mat J. Evans, Fabienne Lohou, Solène Derrien, Venance H. E. Donnou, Arnaud V. Houeto, Irene Reinares Martínez, and Pierre-Etienne Brilouet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2299–2325,Short summary
Biogenic fluxes from soil at a local and regional scale are crucial to study air pollution and climate. Here we present field measurements of soil fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) observed over four different land cover types, i.e. bare soil, grassland, maize field, and forest, at an inland rural site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign in June and July 2016.
Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Uwe Kuhn, Rongjuan Xu, Yudong Yang, Hannah Meusel, Zhibin Wang, Nan Ma, Yusheng Wu, Meng Li, Jonathan Williams, Thorsten Hoffmann, Markus Ammann, Ulrich Pöschl, Min Shao, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2209–2232,Short summary
VOCs play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. Emission and deposition on soil have been suggested as important sources and sinks of atmospheric trace gases. The exchange characteristics and heterogeneous chemistry of VOCs on soil, however, are not well understood. We used a newly designed differential coated-wall flow tube system to investigate the long-term variability of bidirectional air–soil exchange of 13 VOCs at ambient air conditions of an urban background site in Beijing.
Michael Boy, Erik S. Thomson, Juan-C. Acosta Navarro, Olafur Arnalds, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Jaana Bäck, Frank Berninger, Merete Bilde, Zoé Brasseur, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Dimitri Castarède, Maryam Dalirian, Gerrit de Leeuw, Monika Dragosics, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Jonathan Duplissy, Annica M. L. Ekman, Keyan Fang, Jean-Charles Gallet, Marianne Glasius, Sven-Erik Gryning, Henrik Grythe, Hans-Christen Hansson, Margareta Hansson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Trond Iversen, Ingibjorg Jonsdottir, Ville Kasurinen, Alf Kirkevåg, Atte Korhola, Radovan Krejci, Jon Egill Kristjansson, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Antti Lauri, Matti Leppäranta, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Makkonen, Andreas Massling, Outi Meinander, E. Douglas Nilsson, Haraldur Olafsson, Jan B. C. Pettersson, Nønne L. Prisle, Ilona Riipinen, Pontus Roldin, Meri Ruppel, Matthew Salter, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, Heikki Seppä, Henrik Skov, Joana Soares, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Jonas Svensson, Erik Swietlicki, Ksenia Tabakova, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Aki Virkkula, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Yusheng Wu, Paul Zieger, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2015–2061,Short summary
The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere–Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011–2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date and aimed to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. The paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated and provides a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC.
Ian G. McKendry, Andreas Christen, Sung-Ching Lee, Madison Ferrara, Kevin B. Strawbridge, Norman O'Neill, and Andrew Black
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 835–846,Short summary
Wildfire smoke in July 2015 had a significant impact on air quality, radiation, and energy budgets across British Columbia. With lighter smoke, a wetland and forested site showed enhanced photosynthetic activity (taking in carbon dioxide). However, with dense smoke the forested site became a strong source. These results suggest that smoke during the growing season potentially plays an important role in the carbon budget, and this effect will likely increase as climate changes.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Marsailidh M. Twigg, Nicholas Cowan, Matthew R. Jones, Sarah R. Leeson, William J. Bloss, Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh Crilley, Matthias Sörgel, Meinrat Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16953–16978,Short summary
Understanding the impact of agricultural activities on the atmosphere requires more measurements of inorganic trace gases and associated aerosol counterparts. This research presents 1 month of measurements above agricultural grassland during a period of fertiliser application. It was found that emissions of the important trace gases ammonia and nitrous acid peaked after fertiliser use and that the velocity at which the measured aerosols were deposited was dependent upon their size.
Wu Sun, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Kadmiel Maseyk, Huilin Chen, Ivan Mammarella, Timo Vesala, Janne Levula, Helmi Keskinen, and Ulli Seibt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1363–1378,Short summary
Most soils consume carbonyl sulfide (COS) and CO due to microbial uptake, but whether boreal forest soils act like this is uncertain. We measured growing season soil COS and CO fluxes in a Finnish pine forest. The soil behaved as a consistent and relatively invariant sink of COS and CO. Uptake rates of COS and CO decrease with soil moisture due to diffusion limitation and increase with respiration because of microbial control. Using COS to infer photosynthesis is not affected by soil COS flux.
Yuk S. Tang, Christine F. Braban, Ulrike Dragosits, Anthony J. Dore, Ivan Simmons, Netty van Dijk, Janet Poskitt, Gloria Dos Santos Pereira, Patrick O. Keenan, Christopher Conolly, Keith Vincent, Rognvald I. Smith, Mathew R. Heal, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 705–733,Short summary
A unique long-term dataset of NH3 and NH4+ data from the NAMN is used to assess spatial, seasonal and long-term variability across the UK. NH3 is spatially variable, with distinct temporal profiles according to source types. NH4+ is spatially smoother, with peak concentrations in spring from long-range transport. Decrease in NH3 is smaller than emissions, but NH4+ decreased faster than NH3, due to a shift from stable (NH4)2SO4 to semi-volatile NH4NO3, increasing the atmospheric lifetime of NH3.
Pertti Hari, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Liisa Kulmala, Markku Kulmala, Steffen Noe, Tuukka Petäjä, Anni Vanhatalo, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15045–15053,Short summary
We developed a theory on the seasonal behaviour of photosynthesis in natural conditions and tested the theory with intensive measurements. Light, temperature, water vapor and CO2 concentration explained the daily variation in photosynthesis, and the physiological state of the photosynthetic machinery explained the annual pattern of photosynthesis. The theory explained about 95 % of the variance of photosynthesis measured with chambers in the field in northern Finland.
Robert C. Rhew, Malte Julian Deventer, Andrew A. Turnipseed, Carsten Warneke, John Ortega, Steve Shen, Luis Martinez, Abigail Koss, Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, James N. Smith, Alex B. Guenther, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13417–13438,Short summary
Alkenes emanate from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can contribute to atmospheric ozone production. This study measured
lightalkene (ethene, propene and butene) fluxes from a ponderosa pine forest using a novel relaxed eddy accumulation method, revealing much larger emissions than previously estimated and accounting for a significant fraction of OH reactivity. Emissions have a diurnal cycle related to sunlight and temperature, and the forest canopy appears to be the source.
Yuxuan Wang, Yuanyu Xie, Wenhao Dong, Yi Ming, Jun Wang, and Lu Shen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12827–12843,Short summary
Besides the well-known large impact on agriculture and water resources, drought is associated with significant adverse effects on air quality. Drought-induced degradation of air quality is largely due to natural processes, offsetting the effort of anthropogenic emission reduction during the past decades. Such adverse impacts should be included in modeling processes under current and future climate for mitigation policy.
Leiming Zhang, Seth Lyman, Huiting Mao, Che-Jen Lin, David A. Gay, Shuxiao Wang, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Xinbin Feng, and Frank Wania
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9133–9144,Short summary
Future research needs are proposed for improving the understanding of atmospheric mercury cycling. These include refinement of mercury emission estimations, quantification of dry deposition and air–surface exchange, improvement of the treatment of chemical mechanisms in chemical transport models, increase in the accuracy of oxidized mercury measurements, better interpretation of atmospheric mercury chemistry data, and harmonization of network operation.
David S. Sayres, Ronald Dobosy, Claire Healy, Edward Dumas, John Kochendorfer, Jason Munster, Jordan Wilkerson, Bruce Baker, and James G. Anderson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8619–8633,Short summary
Arctic temperatures have risen faster than the global average, causing the depth of melting of the frozen ground to increase. Previously frozen organic carbon, once exposed to air, water, and microbes, is turned into carbon dioxide and methane, both of which are important greenhouse gases. Due to the large and varied surface area of the Arctic and the difficulty of making measurements there we use a low flying aircraft (<25 m) to measure the amount of methane released from different regions.
Amélie Saunier, Elena Ormeño, Christophe Boissard, Henri Wortham, Brice Temime-Roussel, Caroline Lecareux, Alexandre Armengaud, and Catherine Fernandez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7555–7566,Short summary
We investigated the BVOC emissions variations of Quercus Pubescens, under natural and amplified drought, in situ, in order to determine the dependency to light and/or temperature of these emissions. Our results showed that all BVOC emissions were reduced with amplified drought. Moreover, we highlighted two dependences: (i) light and temperature and (ii) light and temperature during the day and to temperature during the night. These results can be useful to enhance emission models.
Luca Cappellin, Alberto Algarra Alarcon, Irina Herdlinger-Blatt, Juaquin Sanchez, Franco Biasioli, Scot T. Martin, Francesco Loreto, and Karena A. McKinney
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4189–4207,Short summary
The role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in plant interactions with the atmosphere is investigated through field observations of branch-level VOC exchange in a New England forest. The data reveal previously unknown sources and sinks of oxygenated VOCs. The emission of methyl ethyl ketone is linked to uptake of methyl vinyl ketone, suggesting the possibility of within-leaf isoprene oxidation. Bidirectional fluxes of some VOCs are also reported, including for benzaldehyde for the first time.
Hannele Hakola, Virpi Tarvainen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Kerneels Jaars, Marja Hemmilä, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, and Heidi Hellén
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3357–3370,Short summary
We present spring and summer VOC emission rate measurements from Norway spruce using an in situ gas chromatograph. Monoterpene and C4–C10 aldehyde emission rates reached maxima in July. SQT emissions increased at the end of July and in August SQT were the most abundant group. The MT emission pattern varied a lot from tree to tree and therefore emission fluxes on canopy level should be conducted for more representative measurements. However, leaf level measurements produce more reliable SQT data.
Sauveur Belviso, Ilja Marco Reiter, Benjamin Loubet, Valérie Gros, Juliette Lathière, David Montagne, Marc Delmotte, Michel Ramonet, Cerise Kalogridis, Benjamin Lebegue, Nicolas Bonnaire, Victor Kazan, Thierry Gauquelin, Catherine Fernandez, and Bernard Genty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14909–14923,Short summary
The role that soil, foliage, and atmospheric dynamics have on surface OCS exchange in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem in southern France (O3HP) was investigated in June of 2012 and 2013 with essentially a top-down approach. Atmospheric data suggest that the site is appropriate for estimating GPP directly from eddy covariance measurements of OCS fluxes, but it is less adequate for scaling NEE to GPP from observations of vertical gradients of OCS relative to CO2 during the daytime.
Zhijia Ci, Fei Peng, Xian Xue, and Xiaoshan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14741–14754,Short summary
We performed field measurements and controlled field experiments to examine the flux, temporal variation and influencing factors of air–surface Hg(0) exchange at a high-altitude and remote site in the central Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. We found that the environmental conditions greatly influenced the air–surface Hg dynamics. Our results have important implications for the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the soils of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau under rapid climate warming and environmental change.
Enzai Du, Wim de Vries, Wenxuan Han, Xuejun Liu, Zhengbing Yan, and Yuan Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8571–8579,Short summary
Accelerated N emissions in China may lead to an imbalance of atmospheric nutrient inputs in various ecosystems. Our assessment of P and N deposition in China's forests showed relatively high rates of P deposition, but they were accompanied by even much higher N deposition, resulting in high N : P deposition ratios. P and N deposition both showed a power-law increase with closer distance to the nearest large cities. Our results suggest an anthropogenic imbalance of regional N and P cycling.
Johanna Joensuu, Nuria Altimir, Hannele Hakola, Michael Rostás, Maarit Raivonen, Mika Vestenius, Hermanni Aaltonen, Markus Riederer, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7813–7823,Short summary
Plants produce volatile compounds (BVOCs) that have a major role in atmospheric chemistry. Our aim was to see if terpenes, a key group of BVOCs, can be found on surfaces of pine needles and, if so, how they compare with the emissions of the same tree. Both emissions and wax extracts were clearly dominated by monoterpenes, but there were also differences in the emission and wax spectra. The results support the existence of BVOCs on needle surfaces, with possible implications for air chemistry.
W. Joe F. Acton, Simon Schallhart, Ben Langford, Amy Valach, Pekka Rantala, Silvano Fares, Giulia Carriero, Ralf Tillmann, Sam J. Tomlinson, Ulrike Dragosits, Damiano Gianelle, C. Nicholas Hewitt, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7149–7170,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a large source of reactive carbon in the atmosphere and hence have a significant impact on air quality. It is therefore important that we can accurately quantify their emission. In this paper we use three methods to determine the fluxes of reactive VOCs from a woodland canopy. We show that two different canopy-scale measurement methods give good agreement, whereas estimates based on leaf-level-based emission underestimate isoprene fluxes.
Kolby J. Jardine, Angela B. Jardine, Vinicius F. Souza, Vilany Carneiro, Joao V. Ceron, Bruno O. Gimenez, Cilene P. Soares, Flavia M. Durgante, Niro Higuchi, Antonio O. Manzi, José F. C. Gonçalves, Sabrina Garcia, Scot T. Martin, Raquel F. Zorzanelli, Luani R. Piva, and Jeff Q. Chambers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6441–6452,Short summary
In this study, high light-dependent isoprene emissions were observed from mature V. guianensis leaves in the central Amazon. As predicted by energetic models, isoprene emission increased nonlinearly with net photosynthesis. High leaf temperatures resulted in the classic uncoupling of net photosynthesis from isoprene emissions. Finally, leaf phenology differentially controlled methanol and isoprene emissions.
Almut Arneth, Risto Makkonen, Stefan Olin, Pauli Paasonen, Thomas Holst, Maija K. Kajos, Markku Kulmala, Trofim Maximov, Paul A. Miller, and Guy Schurgers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5243–5262,Short summary
We study the potentially contrasting effects of enhanced ecosystem CO2 release in response to warmer temperatures vs. emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and their formation of secondary organic aerosol through a combination of measurements and modelling at a remote location in Eastern Siberia. The study aims to highlight the number of potentially opposing processes and complex interactions between vegetation physiology, soil processes and trace-gas exchanges in the climate system.
P. Hari, T. Petäjä, J. Bäck, V.-M. Kerminen, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Vihma, T. Laurila, Y. Viisanen, T. Vesala, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1017–1028,Short summary
This manuscript introduces a conceptual design of a global, hierarchical observation network which provides tools and increased understanding to tackle the inter-connected environmental and societal challenges that we will face in the coming decades. Each ecosystem type on the globe has its own characteristic features that need to be taken into consideration. The hierarchical network is able to tackle problems related to large spatial scales, heterogeneity of ecosystems and their complexity.
D. Fowler, C. E. Steadman, D. Stevenson, M. Coyle, R. M. Rees, U. M. Skiba, M. A. Sutton, J. N. Cape, A. J. Dore, M. Vieno, D. Simpson, S. Zaehle, B. D. Stocker, M. Rinaldi, M. C. Facchini, C. R. Flechard, E. Nemitz, M. Twigg, J. W. Erisman, K. Butterbach-Bahl, and J. N. Galloway
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13849–13893,
M. Kulmala, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Petäjä, T. Kurten, V.-M. Kerminen, Y. Viisanen, P. Hari, S. Sorvari, J. Bäck, V. Bondur, N. Kasimov, V. Kotlyakov, G. Matvienko, A. Baklanov, H. D. Guo, A. Ding, H.-C. Hansson, and S. Zilitinkevich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13085–13096,Short summary
The Pan-European Experiment (PEEX) is introduced. PEEX is a multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research, research infrastructure and capacity-building program. This paper outlines the mission, vision and objectives of PEEX and introduces its main components, including the research agenda, research infrastructure, knowledge transfer and potential impacts on society. The paper also summarizes the main scientific questions that PEEX is going to tackle in the future.
M. O. Andreae, O. C. Acevedo, A. Araùjo, P. Artaxo, C. G. G. Barbosa, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Brito, S. Carbone, X. Chi, B. B. L. Cintra, N. F. da Silva, N. L. Dias, C. Q. Dias-Júnior, F. Ditas, R. Ditz, A. F. L. Godoi, R. H. M. Godoi, M. Heimann, T. Hoffmann, J. Kesselmeier, T. Könemann, M. L. Krüger, J. V. Lavric, A. O. Manzi, A. P. Lopes, D. L. Martins, E. F. Mikhailov, D. Moran-Zuloaga, B. W. Nelson, A. C. Nölscher, D. Santos Nogueira, M. T. F. Piedade, C. Pöhlker, U. Pöschl, C. A. Quesada, L. V. Rizzo, C.-U. Ro, N. Ruckteschler, L. D. A. Sá, M. de Oliveira Sá, C. B. Sales, R. M. N. dos Santos, J. Saturno, J. Schöngart, M. Sörgel, C. M. de Souza, R. A. F. de Souza, H. Su, N. Targhetta, J. Tóta, I. Trebs, S. Trumbore, A. van Eijck, D. Walter, Z. Wang, B. Weber, J. Williams, J. Winderlich, F. Wittmann, S. Wolff, and A. M. Yáñez-Serrano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10723–10776,Short summary
This paper describes the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a new atmosphere-biosphere observatory located in the remote Amazon Basin. It presents results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected at the ATTO site during the first 3 years of operation.
G. Wohlfahrt, C. Amelynck, C. Ammann, A. Arneth, I. Bamberger, A. H. Goldstein, L. Gu, A. Guenther, A. Hansel, B. Heinesch, T. Holst, L. Hörtnagl, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, A. Neftel, K. McKinney, J. W. Munger, S. G. Pallardy, G. W. Schade, R. Seco, and N. Schoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7413–7427,Short summary
Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates. Here we present micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight sites in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial methanol exchange.
R. Mortazavi, S. Attiya, and P. A. Ariya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6183–6204,Short summary
Next-generation sequencing revealed the existence of diverse community of bacteria in the Arctic samples with many originating from distinct ecological environments. The observed varied range in ice nucleation of cultivable bacteria and in all of the melted samples further revealed the existence of the heterogeneous pool of bacteria. Changes in the microbial pool and its impact on the freezing and melting process may potentially lead to changing the Arctic environment and thus global climate.
A. M. Yáñez-Serrano, A. C. Nölscher, J. Williams, S. Wolff, E. Alves, G. A. Martins, E. Bourtsoukidis, J. Brito, K. Jardine, P. Artaxo, and J. Kesselmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3359–3378,
G. Yan and G. Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2761–2774,
A. Moravek, P. Stella, T. Foken, and I. Trebs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 899–911,
A.-C. Genard-Zielinski, C. Boissard, C. Fernandez, C. Kalogridis, J. Lathière, V. Gros, N. Bonnaire, and E. Ormeño
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 431–446,
S. C. Pryor, K. E. Hornsby, and K. A. Novick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11985–11996,Short summary
What role do forests play in determining the concentration (and composition) of climate-relevant aerosol particles? This study seeks to address two aspects of this question. Firstly, we document high in-canopy removal of recently formed particles. Then we show evidence that growth rates of particles are a function of soil water availability via a reduction in canopy emissions of gases responsible for particle growth to climate-relevant sizes during drought conditions.
R. Dlugi, M. Berger, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, K. Lu, and G. Kramm
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10333–10362,
C. Kalogridis, V. Gros, R. Sarda-Esteve, B. Langford, B. Loubet, B. Bonsang, N. Bonnaire, E. Nemitz, A.-C. Genard, C. Boissard, C. Fernandez, E. Ormeño, D. Baisnée, I. Reiter, and J. Lathière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10085–10102,
E. Bourtsoukidis, J. Williams, J. Kesselmeier, S. Jacobi, and B. Bonn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6495–6510,
J. Ortega, A. Turnipseed, A. B. Guenther, T. G. Karl, D. A. Day, D. Gochis, J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, P. J. DeMott, Y. Tobo, E. G. Patton, A. Hodzic, Y. Y. Cui, P. C. Harley, R. S. Hornbrook, E. C. Apel, R. K. Monson, A. S. D. Eller, J. P. Greenberg, M. C. Barth, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, J. L. Jimenez, A. C. Aiken, M. K. Dubey, C. Geron, J. Offenberg, M. G. Ryan, P. J. Fornwalt, S. C. Pryor, F. N. Keutsch, J. P. DiGangi, A. W. H. Chan, A. H. Goldstein, G. M. Wolfe, S. Kim, L. Kaser, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Hansel, C. A. Cantrell, R. L. Mauldin, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6345–6367,
K.-E. Min, S. E. Pusede, E. C. Browne, B. W. LaFranchi, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5495–5512,
J.-H. Park, S. Fares, R. Weber, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 231–244,
ACIA: Arctic climate impacts assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2005.
Albers, C. N., Jacobsen, O. S., Flores, E. M. M., and Johnsen, A. R.: Arctic and subarctic natural soils emit chloroform and brominated analogues by alkaline hydrolysis of trihaloacetyl compounds, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 6131–6138, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b00144, 2017.
Amachi, S., Kamagata, Y., Kanagawa, T., and Muramatsu, Y.: Bacteria mediate methylation of iodine in marine and terrestrial environments, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 67, 2718–2722, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.67.6.2718, 2001.
Bekku, Y. S., Nakatsubo, T., Kume, A., Adachi, M., and Koizumi, H.: Effect of warming on the temperature dependence of soil respiration rate in arctic, temperate and tropical soils, Appl. Soil Ecol., 22, 205–210, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0929-1393(02)00158-0, 2003.
Bradley, J. A., Singarayer, J. S., and Anesio, A. M.: Microbial community dynamics in the forefield of glaciers, Proc. R. Soc. B, 281, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.0882, 2014.
Bradley, J. A., Arndt, S., Šabacká, M., Benning, L. G., Barker, G. L., Blacker, J. J., Yallop, M. L., Wright, K. E., Bellas, C. M., Telling, J., Tranter, M., and Anesio, A. M.: Microbial dynamics in a High Arctic glacier forefield: a combined field, laboratory, and modelling approach, Biogeosciences, 13, 5677–5696, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-5677-2016, 2016.
Butler, J. H.: Better budgets for methyl halides?, Nature, 403, p. 260, https://doi.org/10.1038/35002232, 2000.
Carpenter, L. J., Malin, G., Liss, P. S., and Küpper, F. C.: Novel biogenic iodine-containing trihalomethanes and other short-lived halocarbons in the coastal East Atlantic, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 14, 1191–1204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GB001257, 2000.
Carpenter, L. J., Wevill, D. J., Palmer, C. J., and Michels, J.: Depth profiles of volatile iodine and bromine-containing halocarbons in coastal Antarctic waters, Mar. Chem., 103, 227–236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2006.08.003, 2007.
Carpenter, L. J., Reimann, S., Burkholder, J. B., Clerbaux, C., Hall, B. D., Hossaini, R., Laube, J. C., and Yvon-Lewis, S. A.: Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODSs) and Other Gases of Interest to the Montreal Protocol, in: Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2014, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project-Report No. 55, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2014.
Chiri, E., Nauer, P. A., Henneberger, R., Zeyer, J., and Schroth, M. H.: Soil–methane sink increases with soil age in forefields of Alpine glaciers, Soil Biol. Biochem., 84, 83–95, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.02.003, 2015.
Chuck, A. L., Turner, S. M., and Liss, P. S.: Oceanic distributions and air-sea fluxes of biogenic halocarbons in the open ocean, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans., 110, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002741, 2005.
Derendorp, L., Wishkerman, A., Keppler, F., McRoberts, C., Holzinger, R., and Röckmann, T.: Methyl chloride emissions from halophyte leaf litter: Dependence on temperature and chloride content, Chemosphere, 87, 483–489, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.12.035, 2012.
Dimmer, C. H., Simmonds, P. G., Nickless, G., and Bassford, M. R.: Biogenic fluxes of halomethanes from Irish peatland ecosystems, Atmos. Environ., 35, 321–330, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00151-5, 2001.
Engel, A., Rigby, M., Burkholder, J. B., Fernandez, R. P., Froidevaux, L., Hall, B. D., Hossaini, R., Saito, T., Vollmer, M. K., and Yao, B.: Update on Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODSs) and Other Gases of Interest to the Montreal Protocol, in: Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2018, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project – Report No. 58, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, available at: https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/csd/assessments/ozone/2018/downloads/ (last access: 15 November 2019), 2018.
Farhan Ul Haque, M., Besaury, L., Nadalig, T., Bringel, F., Mutterer, J., Schaller, H., and Vuilleumier, S.: Correlated production and consumption of chloromethane in the Arabidopsis thaliana phyllosphere, Sci. Rep., 7, 17589, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-17421-y, 2017.
Faust, D. R. and Liebig, M. A.: Effects of storage time and temperature on greenhouse gas samples in Exetainer vials with chlorobutyl septa caps, MethodsX, 5, 857–864, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2018.06.016, 2018.
Forczek, S. T., Laturnus, F., Doležalová, J., Holík, J., and Wimmer, Z.: Emission of climate relevant volatile organochlorines by plants occurring in temperate forests, Plant, Soil Environ., 61, 103–108, https://doi.org/10.17221/900/2014-PSE, 2015.
Gjelten, H. M.: Duration of snow cover on land, MOSJ – environmental monitoring of Svalbard and Jan Mayen, Nor. Meteorol. Inst., available at: http://www.mosj.no/en/climate/land/duration-snow-cover.html, last access: 20 June 2018.
Graversen, R. G., Mauritsen, T., Tjernström, M., Källén, E., and Svensson, G.: Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming, Nature, 451, 53–56, https://doi.org/10.1038/Nature06502, 2008.
Hodkinson, I. D., Coulson, S. J., and Webb, N. R.: Community assembly along proglacial chronosequences in the high Arctic: Vegetation and soil development in north-west Svalbard, J. Ecol., 91, 651–663, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.2003.00786.x, 2003.
Huber, S. G., Kotte, K., Scholer, H. F., and Williams, J.: Natural abiotic formation of trihalomethanes in soil: results from laboratory studies and field samples, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 4934–4939, https://doi.org/10.1021/Es8032605, 2009.
Johnson, T. L., Palenik, B., and Brahamsha, B.: Characterization of a functional vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase in the marine cyanobacterium synechococcus SP. CC9311, J. Phycol., 47, 792–801, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01007.x, 2011.
Karlsson, A., Auer, N., Schulz-Bull, D., and Abrahamsson, K.: Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic – A source of halocarbons, Mar. Chem., 110, 129–139, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2008.04.010, 2008.
Keppler, F., Eiden, R., Niedan, V., Pracht, J., and Scholer, H. F.: Halocarbons produced by natural oxidation processes during degradation of organic matter, Nature, 403, 298–301, 2000.
Khan, M. A. H., Whelan, M. E., and Rhew, R. C.: Effects of temperature and soil moisture on methyl halide and chloroform fluxes from drained peatland pasture soils, J. Environ. Monit., 14, 241–249, https://doi.org/10.1039/C1EM10639B, 2012.
Kohler, J., James, T. D., Murray, T., Nuth, C., Brandt, O., Barrand, N. E., Aas, H. F., and Luckman, A.: Acceleration in thinning rate on western Svalbard glaciers, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030681, 2007.
Laturnus, F.: Volatile halocarbons released from Arctic macroalgae, Mar. Chem., 55, 359–366, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4203(97)89401-7, 1996.
Laturnus, F.: Marine macroalgae in polar regions as natural sources for volatile organohalogens, Environ. Sci. Pollut. R., 8, 103–108, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02987302, 2001.
Laturnus, F., Adams, F. C., and Wiencke, C.: Methyl halides from Antarctic macroalgae, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 773–776, https://doi.org/10.1029/98GL00490, 1998.
Law, K., Sturges, W. T., Blake, D. R., Bake, N. J., Burkholder, J. B., Butler, J. H., Cox, R. A., Haynes, P. H., Ko, M. K. ., Kreher, K., Mari, C., Pfeilsticker, K., Plane, J. M. C., Salawitch, R. J., Schiller, C., Sinnhuber, B.-M., Von Glasow, R., Warwick, N. J., Wuebbles, D. J., and Yvon-Lewis, S. A.: Halogenated Very Short-Lived Substances, in: Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project-Report No. 50, 57 pp., World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006.
Leedham, E. C., Hughes, C., Keng, F. S. L., Phang, S.-M., Malin, G., and Sturges, W. T.: Emission of atmospherically significant halocarbons by naturally occurring and farmed tropical macroalgae, Biogeosciences, 10, 3615–3633, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-3615-2013, 2013.
Macdonald, M., Wadham, J., Young, D., O'Doherty, S., Lunder, C., Hermansen, O., and Lamarche-Gagnon, G.: Gas fluxes and biological and physiochemical measurements made across an Arctic forefield, Figshare, https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.8081129.v1, 2019.
Manley, S. L.: Phytogenesis of halomethanes: A product of selection or a metabolic accident?, Biogeochemistry, 60, 163–180, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019859922489, 2002.
Matthews, E.: Global Vegetation and Land Use: New High-Resolution Data Bases for Climate Studies, J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 22, 474–487, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1983)022<0474:GVALUN>2.0.CO;2, 1983.
McCann, C. M., Wade, M. J., Gray, N. D., Roberts, J. A., Hubert, C. R. J., and Graham, D. W.: Microbial communities in a high arctic polar desert landscape, Front. Microbiol., 7, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00419, 2016.
Mellouki, A., Talukdar, R. K., Schmoltner, Anne-Marie, M., Gierczak, T., Mills, M. J., Solomon, S., and Ravishankara, A. R.: Atmospheric lifetimes and ozone depletion potentials of methyl bromide (CH3Br) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 2059–2062, https://doi.org/10.1029/92GL01612, 1992.
Montzka, S. A., Reimann, S., Engel, A., Kruger, K., O'Doherty, S., Sturges, W., Blake, D., Dorf, M., Fraser, P., Froidevaux, L., Jucks, K., Kreher, K., Kurylo, M. J., Mellouki, A., Miller, J., Nielsen, O.-J., Orkin, V. L., Prinn, R. G., Rhew, R., Santee, M. L., Stohl, A., Verdonik, D., and Al, E.: Ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and related chemicals, in: Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project-Report No. 52, 516 pp., World Meteorological Association, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011.
Moreau, M., Mercier, D., Laffly, D., and Roussel, E.: Impacts of recent paraglacial dynamics on plant colonization: A case study on Midtre Lovénbreen foreland, Spitsbergen (79∘ N), Geomorphology, 95, 48–60, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.07.031, 2008.
Muraoka, H., Noda, H., Uchida, M., Ohtsuka, T., Koizumi, H., and Nakatsubo, T.: Photosynthetic characteristics and biomass distribution of the dominant vascular plant species in a high Arctic tundra ecosystem, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard: implications for their role in ecosystem carbon gain, J. Plant Res., 121, 137, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-007-0134-8, 2008.
Nadalig, T., Greule, M., Bringel, F., Keppler, F., and Vuilleumier, S.: Probing the diversity of chloromethane-degrading bacteria by comparative genomics and isotopic fractionation, Front. Microbiol., 5, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00523, 2014.
Norway MET: Weather and climate data, eKlima, Nor. Meteorol. Inst., available at: http://eklima.met.no (last access: 19 April 2018), 2017.
Norwegian Polar Institute: Kartdata Svalbard 1:100 000 (S100 Kardata)/Map data, Nor. Polar Inst., available at: https://doi.org/10.21334/npolar.2014.645336c7, 2014.
Prinn, R. G., Weiss, R. F., Arduini, J., Arnold, T., DeWitt, H. L., Fraser, P. J., Ganesan, A. L., Gasore, J., Harth, C. M., Hermansen, O., Kim, J., Krummel, P. B., Li, S., Loh, Z. M., Lunder, C. R., Maione, M., Manning, A. J., Miller, B. R., Mitrevski, B., Mühle, J., O'Doherty, S., Park, S., Reimann, S., Rigby, M., Saito, T., Salameh, P. K., Schmidt, R., Simmonds, P. G., Steele, L. P., Vollmer, M. K., Wang, R. H., Yao, B., Yokouchi, Y., Young, D., and Zhou, L.: History of chemically and radiatively important atmospheric gases from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 985–1018, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-985-2018, 2018.
Redeker, K. R. and Kalin, R. M.: Methyl chloride isotopic signatures from Irish forest soils and a comparison between abiotic and biogenic methyl halide soil fluxes, Glob. Change Biol., 18, 1453–1467, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02600.x, 2012.
Redeker, K. R., Meinardi, S., Blake, D., and Sass, R.: Gaseous emissions from flooded rice paddy agriculture, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4386, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002814, 2003.
Redeker, K. R., Chong, J. P. J., Aguion, A., Hodson, A., and Pearce, D. A.: Microbial metabolism directly affects trace gases in (sub) polar snowpacks, J. R. Soc. Interface, 14, 20170729, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2017.0729, 2017.
Rhew, R. C., Teh, Y. A., and Abel, T.: Methyl halide and methane fluxes in the northern Alaskan coastal tundra, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 112, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JG000314, 2007.
Rhew, R. C., Teh, Y. A., Abel, T., Atwood, A., and Mazéas, O.: Chloroform emissions from the Alaskan Arctic tundra, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L21811, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL035762, 2008.
Rhew, R. C., Chen, C., Teh, Y. A., and Baldocchi, D.: Gross fluxes of methyl chloride and methyl bromide in a California oak-savanna woodland, Atmos. Environ., 44, 2054–2061, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.12.014, 2010.
Roy, R., Pratihary, A., Narvenkar, G., Mochemadkar, S., Gauns, M., and Naqvi, S. W. A.: The relationship between volatile halocarbons and phytoplankton pigments during a Trichodesmium bloom in the coastal eastern Arabian Sea, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 95, 110–118, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2011.08.025, 2011.
Shorter, J. H., Kolb, C. E., Crill, P. M., Kerwin, R. A., Talbot, R. W., Hines, M. E., and Harriss, R. C.: Rapid degradation of atmospheric methyl bromide in soils, Nature, 377, 717–719, https://doi.org/10.1038/377717a0, 1995.
Simmonds, P. G., O'Doherty, S., Nickless, G., Sturrock, G. A., Swaby, R., Knight, P., Ricketts, J., Woffendin, G., and Smith, R.: Automated Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer for Routine Atmospheric Field Measurements of the CFC Replacement Compounds, the Hydrofluorocarbons and Hydrochlorofluorocarbons, Anal. Chem., 67, 717–723, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00100a005, 1995.
Simmonds, P. G., Derwent, R. G., Manning, A. J., O'Doherty, S., and Spain, G.: Natural chloroform emissions from the blanket peat bogs in the vicinity of Mace Head, Ireland over a 14-year period, Atmos. Environ., 44, 1284–1291, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.12.027, 2010.
Stemmler, I., Hense, I., Quack, B., and Maier-Reimer, E.: Methyl iodide production in the open ocean, Biogeosciences, 11, 4459–4476, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-4459-2014, 2014.
Sturges, W. T., Sullivan, C. W., Schnell, R. C., Heidt, L. E., and Pollock, W. H.: Bromoalkane production by Antarctic ice algae, Tellus B, 45, 120–126, https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0889.1993.t01-1-00004.x, 1993.
Swanson, A. L., Blake, N. J., Blake, D. R., Sherwood Rowland, F., Dibb, J. E., Lefer, B. L., and Atlas, E.: Are methyl halides produced on all ice surfaces? Observations from snow-laden field sites, Atmos. Environ., 41, 5162–5177, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.11.064, 2007.
Teh, Y. A., Mazéas, O., Atwood, A. R., Abel, T., and Rhew, R. C.: Hydrologic regulation of gross methyl chloride and methyl bromide uptake from Alaskan Arctic tundra, Glob. Change Biol., 15, 330–345, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01749.x, 2009.
Tokarczyk, R. and Moore, R. M.: Production of volatile organo halogens by phytoplankton cultures, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 285–288, https://doi.org/10.1029/94GL00009, 1994.
Wang, J. J., Jiao, Y., Rhew, R. C., and Chow, A. T.: Haloform formation in coastal wetlands along a salinity gradient at South Carolina, United States, Environ. Chem., 13, 745–756, https://doi.org/10.1071/EN15145, 2016.
Wei, T. and Simko, V.: R package “corrplot”: Visualization of a Correlation Matrix (Version 0.84) available at: https://github.com/taiyun/corrplot (last access: 15 May 2019), 2017.
Welker, J. M., Fahnestock, J. T. and Jones, M. H.: Annual CO2 flux in dry and moist Arctic tundra: field responses to increases in summer temperatures and winter snow depth, Climatic Change, 44, 139–150, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005555012742, 2000.
WGMS: World Glacier Inventory, Version 1, Boulder, Color, USA, https://doi.org/10.7265/N5/NSIDC-WGI-2012-02, 2012.
Wishkerman, A., Gebhardt, S., Mcroberts, C. W., Hamilton, J. T. G., Williams, J., and Keppler, F.: Abiotic methyl bromide formation from vegetation, and its strong dependence on temperature, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 6837–6842, https://doi.org/10.1021/es800411j, 2008.
Ziska, F., Quack, B., Abrahamsson, K., Archer, S. D., Atlas, E., Bell, T., Butler, J. H., Carpenter, L. J., Jones, C. E., Harris, N. R. P., Hepach, H., Heumann, K. G., Hughes, C., Kuss, J., Krüger, K., Liss, P., Moore, R. M., Orlikowska, A., Raimund, S., Reeves, C. E., Reifenhäuser, W., Robinson, A. D., Schall, C., Tanhua, T., Tegtmeier, S., Turner, S., Wang, L., Wallace, D., Williams, J., Yamamoto, H., Yvon-Lewis, S., and Yokouchi, Y.: Global sea-to-air flux climatology for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8915–8934, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-8915-2013, 2013.
Climate change has caused glaciers in the Arctic to shrink, uncovering new soils. We used field measurements to study the exchange of a group of gases involved in ozone destruction, called halocarbons, between these new soils and the atmosphere. We found that mats of cyanobacteria, early colonisers of soils, are linked to a larger-than-expected exchange of halocarbons with the atmosphere. We also found that gases which are commonly thought to be marine in origin were released from these soils.
Climate change has caused glaciers in the Arctic to shrink, uncovering new soils. We used field...