Articles | Volume 18, issue 12
Research article
27 Jun 2018
Research article |  | 27 Jun 2018

Impact of surface and near-surface processes on ice crystal concentrations measured at mountain-top research stations

Alexander Beck, Jan Henneberger, Jacob P. Fugal, Robert O. David, Larissa Lacher, and Ulrike Lohmann

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Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)
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Cited articles

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Beck, A., Henneberger, J., Schöpfer, S., Fugal, J., and Lohmann, U.: HoloGondel: in situ cloud observations on a cable car in the Swiss Alps using a holographic imager, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 459–476,, 2017. a, b
Bergeron, T.: On the physics of clouds and precipitation, in: Proces Verbaux de l'Association de Météorologie, Int. Union of Geodesy and Geophys., 156–178, 1935. a
Boose, Y., Welti, A., Atkinson, J., Ramelli, F., Danielczok, A., Bingemer, H. G., Plötze, M., Sierau, B., Kanji, Z. A., and Lohmann, U.: Heterogeneous ice nucleation on dust particles sourced from nine deserts worldwide – Part 1: Immersion freezing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15075–15095,, 2016. a
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Short summary
This study assesses the impact of surface processes (e.g. blowing snow) on in situ cloud observations at Sonnblick Observatory. Vertical profiles of ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) above a snow-covered surface were observed up to a height of 10 m. The ICNC near the ground is at least a factor of 2 larger than at 10 m. Therefore, in situ measurements of ICNCs at mountain-top research stations close to the surface are strongly influenced by surface processes and overestimate the ICNC.
Final-revised paper