Articles | Volume 15, issue 10
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
A novel methodology for large-scale daily assessment of the direct radiative forcing of smoke aerosols
E. T. Sena
Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Elisa T. Sena, Allison McComiskey, and Graham Feingold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11301–11318,Short summary
A new method for assessing aerosol effects on clouds is proposed. For the first time, 14 years of collocated, coincident ground-based observations have been used to study cloud–aerosol–meteorology–radiation interactions in the USA. For this site, the results indicate that the influence of the aerosol on cloud radiative effect and cloud albedo is weak, and that macroscopic cloud properties play a much larger role in determining the cloud radiative effect compared to aerosol effects.
E. T. Sena, P. Artaxo, and A. L. Correia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1261–1275,
Wiebke Scholz, Jiali Shen, Diego Aliaga, Cheng Wu, Samara Carbone, Isabel Moreno, Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Huang, Liine Heikkinen, Jean Luc Jaffrezo, Gaelle Uzu, Eva Partoll, Markus Leiminger, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Laj, Patrick Ginot, Paolo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markku Kulmala, Claudia Mohr, Marcos Andrade, Victoria Sinclair, Federico Bianchi, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 895–920,Short summary
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), emitted from the ocean, is the most abundant biogenic sulfur emission into the atmosphere. OH radicals, among others, can oxidize DMS to sulfuric and methanesulfonic acid, which are relevant for aerosol formation. We quantified DMS and nearly all DMS oxidation products with novel mass spectrometric instruments for gas and particle phase at the high mountain station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian Andes in free tropospheric air after long-range transport.
Yunfan Liu, Hang Su, Siwen Wang, Chao Wei, Wei Tao, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid O. Krüger, Thorsten Hoffmann, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 251–272,Short summary
The origins of the abundant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the upper troposphere (UT) of the Amazon remain unclear. With model developments of new secondary organic aerosol schemes and constrained by observation, we show that strong aerosol nucleation and condensation in the UT is triggered by biogenic organics, and organic condensation is key for UT CCN production. This UT CCN-producing mechanism may prevail over broader vegetation canopies and deserves emphasis in aerosol–climate feedback.
Xurong Wang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Maria Prass, Christopher Pöhlker, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Paulo Artaxo, Jianwei Gu, Ning Yang, Xiajie Yang, Jiangchuan Tao, Juan Hong, Nan Ma, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
In this work, with optimized particle mass size distribution, we well captured observed AOD and coarse aerosol concentrations over source and/or receptor regions, demonstrating the well performance in simulating the export of African dust towards the Amazon Basin. In addition to the factors controlling the trans-Atlantic transport of African dust, the study also investigated the impact of African dust over the Amazon Basin including the nutrient inputs associated with dust deposition.
Micael Amore Cecchini, Marco de Bruine, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11867–11888,Short summary
Shallow clouds (vertical extent up to 3 km height) are ubiquitous throughout the Amazon and are responsible for redistributing the solar heat and moisture vertically and horizontally. They are a key component of the water cycle because they can grow past the shallow phase to contribute significantly to the precipitation formation. However, they need favourable environmental conditions to grow. In this study, we analyse how changing wind patterns affect the development of such shallow clouds.
Marco A. Franco, Florian Ditas, Leslie A. Kremper, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro Araújo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Joel F. de Brito, Samara Carbone, Bruna A. Holanda, Fernando G. Morais, Janaína P. Nascimento, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Marta Sá, Jorge Saturno, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3469–3492,Short summary
In Central Amazonia, new particle formation in the planetary boundary layer is rare. Instead, there is the appearance of sub-50 nm aerosols with diameters larger than about 20 nm that eventually grow to cloud condensation nuclei size range. Here, 254 growth events were characterized which have higher predominance in the wet season. About 70 % of them showed direct relation to convective downdrafts, while 30 % occurred partly under clear-sky conditions, evidencing still unknown particle sources.
Luiz A. T. Machado, Marco A. Franco, Leslie A. Kremper, Florian Ditas, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Micael A. Cecchini, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ivan Saraiva, Stefan Wolff, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18065–18086,Short summary
Several studies evaluate aerosol–cloud interactions, but only a few attempted to describe how clouds modify aerosol properties. This study evaluates the effect of weather events on the particle size distribution at the ATTO, combining remote sensing and in situ data. Ultrafine, Aitken and accumulation particles modes have different behaviors for the diurnal cycle and for rainfall events. This study opens up new scientific questions that need to be pursued in detail in new field campaigns.
Diego Aliaga, Victoria A. Sinclair, Marcos Andrade, Paulo Artaxo, Samara Carbone, Evgeny Kadantsev, Paolo Laj, Alfred Wiedensohler, Radovan Krejci, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16453–16477,Short summary
We investigate the origin of air masses sampled at Mount Chacaltaya, Bolivia. Three-quarters of the measured air has not been influenced by the surface in the previous 4 d. However, it is rare that, at any given time, the sampled air has not been influenced at all by the surface, and often the sampled air has multiple origins. The influence of the surface is more prevalent during day than night. Furthermore, during the 6-month study, one-third of the air masses originated from Amazonia.
Maria Prass, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Paulo Artaxo, Florian Ditas, Wolfgang Elbert, Jan-David Förster, Marco Aurélio Franco, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Thomas Klimach, Leslie Ann Kremper, Eckhard Thines, David Walter, Jens Weber, Bettina Weber, Bernhard M. Fuchs, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Biogeosciences, 18, 4873–4887,Short summary
Bioaerosols in the atmosphere over the Amazon rain forest were analyzed by molecular biological staining and microscopy. Eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal aerosols were quantified in time series and altitude profiles which exhibited clear differences in number concentrations and vertical distributions. Our results provide insights into the sources and dispersion of different Amazonian bioaerosol types as a basis for a better understanding of biosphere–atmosphere interactions.
James Weber, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Nathan Luke Abraham, Youngsub M. Shin, Thomas J. Bannan, Carl J. Percival, Asan Bacak, Paulo Artaxo, Michael Jenkin, M. Anwar H. Khan, Dudley E. Shallcross, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Jonathan Williams, and Alex T. Archibald
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5239–5268,Short summary
The new mechanism CRI-Strat 2 features state-of-the-art isoprene chemistry not previously available in UKCA and improves UKCA's ability to reproduce observed concentrations of isoprene, monoterpenes, and OH in tropical regions. The enhanced ability to model isoprene, the most widely emitted non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC), will allow understanding of how isoprene and other biogenic VOCs affect atmospheric composition and, through biosphere–atmosphere feedbacks, climate change.
Djacinto Monteiro dos Santos, Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Samara Carbone, Patrick Schlag, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8761–8773,Short summary
The metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP), with very extensive biofuel use, has unique atmospheric chemistry among world megacities. In this study, we examine the complex relationships between aerosol chemical composition and particle size distribution. Our findings provide a better understanding of the dynamics of the physicochemical properties of submicron particles and highlight the key role of secondary organic aerosol formation in the pollution levels in São Paulo.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Matthias Sörgel, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Biogeosciences, 18, 2809–2825,Short summary
The exchange of the gas ammonia between the atmosphere and the surface is an important biogeochemical process, but little is known of this exchange for certain ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest. This study took measurements of ammonia exchange over an Amazon rainforest site and subsequently modelled the observed deposition and emission patterns. We observed emissions of ammonia from the rainforest, which can be simulated accurately by using a canopy resistance modelling approach.
Janaína P. Nascimento, Megan M. Bela, Bruno B. Meller, Alessandro L. Banducci, Luciana V. Rizzo, Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Helber Gomes, Sameh A. A. Rafee, Marco A. Franco, Samara Carbone, Glauber G. Cirino, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Stuart A. McKeen, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6755–6779,
Guilherme F. Camarinha-Neto, Julia C. P. Cohen, Cléo Q. Dias-Júnior, Matthias Sörgel, José Henrique Cattanio, Alessandro Araújo, Stefan Wolff, Paulo A. F. Kuhn, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Luciana V. Rizzo, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 339–356,Short summary
It was observed that friagem phenomena (incursion of cold waves from the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere to the Amazon region), very common in the dry season of the Amazon region, produced significant changes in microclimate and atmospheric chemistry. Moreover, the effects of the friagem change the surface O3 and CO2 mixing ratios and therefore interfere deeply in the microclimatic conditions and the chemical composition of the atmosphere above the rainforest.
Jann Schrod, Erik S. Thomson, Daniel Weber, Jens Kossmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Paulo Artaxo, Valérie Clouard, Jean-Marie Saurel, Martin Ebert, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15983–16006,Short summary
Long-term ice-nucleating particle (INP) data are presented from four semi-pristine sites located in the Amazon, the Caribbean, Germany and the Arctic. Average INP concentrations did not differ by orders of magnitude between the sites. For all sites short-term variability dominated the time series, which lacked clear trends and seasonalities. Common drivers to explain the INP levels and their variations could not be identified, illustrating the complex nature of heterogeneous ice nucleation.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Matthias Sörgel, Mathew R. Heal, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Marta Sá, Christopher Pöhlker, Jost Lavric, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15551–15584,Short summary
The Amazon rainforest is a unique
laboratoryto study the processes which govern the exchange of gases and aerosols to and from the atmosphere. This study investigated these processes by measuring the atmospheric concentrations of trace gases and particles at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory. We found that the long-range transport of pollutants can affect the atmospheric composition above the Amazon rainforest and that the gases ammonia and nitrous acid can be emitted from the rainforest.
Lixia Liu, Yafang Cheng, Siwen Wang, Chao Wei, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Paulo Artaxo, Manish Shrivastava, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13283–13301,Short summary
This modeling paper reveals how aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs) and aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs) induced by biomass burning (BB) aerosols act oppositely on radiation, cloud, and precipitation in the Amazon during the dry season. The varying relative significance of ACIs and ARIs with BB aerosol concentration leads to a nonlinear dependence of the total climate response on BB aerosol loading and features the growing importance of ARIs at high aerosol loading.
Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Zhaoheng Gong, Suzane de Sá, Adam P. Bateman, Scot T. Martin, Joel F. de Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Glauber G. Cirino, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, and Peter R. Buseck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11923–11939,Short summary
Occurrences, size distributions, and number fractions of individual aerosol particles from the Amazon basin during the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. Aerosol particles from natural sources (e.g., mineral dust, primary biological aerosols, and sea salts) during the wet season originated from the Amazon forest and long-range transports (the Saharan desert and the Atlantic Ocean). They commonly mix at an individual particle scale during transport.
Camille Mouchel-Vallon, Julia Lee-Taylor, Alma Hodzic, Paulo Artaxo, Bernard Aumont, Marie Camredon, David Gurarie, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Donald H. Lenschow, Scot T. Martin, Janaina Nascimento, John J. Orlando, Brett B. Palm, John E. Shilling, Manish Shrivastava, and Sasha Madronich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5995–6014,Short summary
The GoAmazon 2014/5 field campaign took place near the city of Manaus, Brazil, isolated in the Amazon rainforest, to study the impacts of urban pollution on natural air masses. We simulated this campaign with an extremely detailed organic chemistry model to understand how the city would affect the growth and composition of natural aerosol particles. Discrepancies between the model and the measurements indicate that the chemistry of naturally emitted organic compounds is still poorly understood.
William T. Morgan, James D. Allan, Stéphane Bauguitte, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael J. Flynn, James Lee, Dantong Liu, Ben Johnson, Jim Haywood, Karla M. Longo, Paulo E. Artaxo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5309–5326,Short summary
We flew a large atmospheric research aircraft across a number of different environments in the Amazon basin during the 2012 biomass burning season. Smoke from fires builds up and has a significant impact on weather, climate, health and natural ecosystems. Our goal was to quantify changes in the properties of the smoke emitted by fires as it is transported through the atmosphere. We found that the major control on the properties of the smoke was due to differences in the fires themselves.
Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Jeannine Ditas, Florian Ditas, Christiane Schulz, Marco Aurélio Franco, Qiaoqiao Wang, Tobias Donth, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Joel Brito, Yafang Cheng, Maximilian Dollner, Johannes W. Kaiser, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Ovid O. Krüger, Daniel Fütterer, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Luiz A. T. Machado, Jing Ming, Fernando G. Morais, Hauke Paulsen, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Johannes Schneider, Hang Su, Bernadett Weinzierl, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4757–4785,Short summary
Biomass burning smoke from African savanna and grassland is transported across the South Atlantic Ocean in defined layers within the free troposphere. The combination of in situ aircraft and ground-based measurements aided by satellite observations showed that these layers are transported into the Amazon Basin during the early dry season. The influx of aged smoke, enriched in black carbon and cloud condensation nuclei, has important implications for the Amazonian aerosol and cloud cycling.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Jennifer M. Comstock, Ralf Weigel, Martina Krämer, Christoph Mahnke, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Charles N. Long, Manfred Wendisch, Luiz A. T. Machado, Beat Schmid, Trismono Krisna, Mikhail Pekour, John Hubbe, Andreas Giez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Martin Zoeger, Mira L. Pöhlker, Hans Schlager, Micael A. Cecchini, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Suzane S. de Sá, Jiwen Fan, Jason Tomlinson, Stephen Springston, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, Christopher Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Andreas Minikin, Armin Afchine, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 661–684,Short summary
In 2014, the US DOE G1 aircraft and the German HALO aircraft overflew the Amazon basin to study how aerosols influence cloud cycles under a clean condition and around a tropical megacity. This paper describes how to meaningfully compare similar measurements from two research aircraft and identify the potential measurement issue. We also discuss the uncertainty range for each measurement for further usage in model evaluation and satellite data validation.
Nina Löbs, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Sebastian Brill, David Walter, Florian Ditas, Marta de Oliveira Sá, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Leonardo R. de Oliveira, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Stefan Wolff, Meike Piepenbring, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, and Bettina Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 153–164,Short summary
Bioaerosols are considered to play a relevant role in atmospheric processes, but their sources, properties, and spatiotemporal distribution in the atmosphere are not yet well characterized. Measurement data on the release of fungal spores under natural conditions are also sparse. Here, we present an experimental approach to analyze and quantify the spore release from fungi and other spore-producing organisms under natural and laboratory conditions.
Hayley S. Glicker, Michael J. Lawler, John Ortega, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Rodrigo de Souza, Julio Tota, Annmarie Carlton, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13053–13066,Short summary
An understanding of the chemical composition of the smallest particles in the air over the Amazon Basin provides insights into the natural and human-caused influences on particle production in this sensitive region. We present measurements of the composition of sub-100 nm diameter particles performed during the wet season and identify unique constituents that point to both natural and human-caused sources and processes.
Carly L. Reddington, William T. Morgan, Eoghan Darbyshire, Joel Brito, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, Catherine E. Scott, John Marsham, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9125–9152,Short summary
We use an aerosol model and observations to explore model representation of aerosol emissions from fires in the Amazon. We find that observed aerosol concentrations are captured by the model over deforestation fires in the western Amazon but underestimated over savanna fires in the Cerrado environment. The model underestimates observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) even when the observed aerosol vertical profile is reproduced. We suggest this may be due to uncertainties in the AOD calculation.
Christopher Pöhlker, David Walter, Hauke Paulsen, Tobias Könemann, Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Céline Degrendele, Viviane R. Després, Florian Ditas, Bruna A. Holanda, Johannes W. Kaiser, Gerhard Lammel, Jošt V. Lavrič, Jing Ming, Daniel Pickersgill, Mira L. Pöhlker, Maria Praß, Nina Löbs, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Qiaoqiao Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8425–8470,Short summary
The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been established to monitor the rain forest's biosphere–atmosphere exchange, which experiences the combined pressures from human-made deforestation and progressing climate change. This work is meant to be a reference study, which characterizes various geospatial properties of the ATTO footprint region and shows how the human-made transformation of Amazonia may impact future atmospheric observations at ATTO.
Suzane S. de Sá, Luciana V. Rizzo, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yingjun J. Liu, Arthur Sedlacek, Stephen Springston, Allen H. Goldstein, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7973–8001,Short summary
This study investigates the impacts of urban and fire emissions on the concentration, composition, and optical properties of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in central Amazonia during the dry season. Biomass-burning and urban emissions appeared to contribute at least 80 % of brown carbon absorption while accounting for 30 % to 40 % of the organic PM1 mass concentration. Only a fraction of the 9-fold increase in mass concentration relative to the wet season was due to biomass burning.
Eoghan Darbyshire, William T. Morgan, James D. Allan, Dantong Liu, Michael J. Flynn, James R. Dorsey, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Douglas Lowe, Kate Szpek, Franco Marenco, Ben T. Johnson, Stephane Bauguitte, Jim M. Haywood, Joel F. Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Karla M. Longo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5771–5790,Short summary
A novel analysis of aerosol and gas-phase vertical profiles shows a marked regional pollution contrast: composition is driven by the fire regime and vertical distribution is driven by thermodynamics. These drivers ought to be well represented in simulations to ensure realistic prediction of climate and air quality impacts. The BC : CO ratio in haze and plumes increases with altitude – long-range transport or fire stage coupled to plume dynamics may be responsible. Further enquiry is advocated.
Florent F. Malavelle, Jim M. Haywood, Lina M. Mercado, Gerd A. Folberth, Nicolas Bellouin, Stephen Sitch, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1301–1326,Short summary
Diffuse light can increase the efficiency of vegetation photosynthesis. Diffuse light results from scattering by either clouds or aerosols in the atmosphere. During the dry season biomass burning (BB) on the edges of the Amazon rainforest contributes significantly to the aerosol burden over the entire region. We show that despite a modest effect of change in light conditions, the overall impact of BB aerosols on the vegetation is still important when indirect climate feedbacks are considered.
Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Oliver Appel, Anja Costa, Suzane S. de Sá, Volker Dreiling, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Scot T. Martin, Stephan Mertes, Mira L. Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Bernadett Weinzierl, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Luiz A. T. Machado, Ulrich Pöschl, Manfred Wendisch, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14979–15001,Short summary
Aerosol chemical composition measurements in the tropical upper troposphere over the Amazon region show that 78 % of the aerosol in the upper troposphere consists of organic matter. Up to 20 % of the organic aerosol can be attributed to isoprene epoxydiol secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA). Furthermore, organic nitrates were identified, suggesting a connection to the IEPOX-SOA formation.
Daniela Wimmer, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Hanna Elina Manninen, Juha Kangasluoma, Alessandro Franchin, Tuomo Nieminen, John Backman, Jian Wang, Chongai Kuang, Radovan Krejci, Joel Brito, Fernando Goncalves Morais, Scot Turnbull Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Markku Kulmala, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13245–13264,Short summary
This work focuses on understanding the production of very small airborne particles in the undisturbed environment of the Amazon basin. Computer models have shown that up to 70 % of these tiny particles are responsible for cloud formation on a global scale. The processes behind the production of these very small particles have been studied intensely recently. Their appearance has been observed almost all over the world. We directly measure sub-3 nm aerosols for the first time in the Amazon basin.
Jorge Saturno, Bruna A. Holanda, Christopher Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Qiaoqiao Wang, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Jeannine Ditas, Thorsten Hoffmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Tobias Könemann, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Jing Ming, Hauke Paulsen, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Patrick Schlag, Hang Su, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Yuxuan Zhang, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12817–12843,Short summary
Biomass burning emits light-absorbing aerosol particles that warm the atmosphere. One of them is the primarily emitted black carbon, which strongly absorbs radiation in the visible and UV spectral regions. Another one is the so-called brown carbon, a fraction of organic aerosol particles that are able to absorb radiation, especially in the UV spectral region. The contribution of both kinds of aerosol particles to light absorption over the Amazon rainforest is studied in this paper.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Igor O. Ribeiro, Glauber G. Cirino, Yingjun Liu, Ryan Thalman, Arthur Sedlacek, Aaron Funk, Courtney Schumacher, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Karena A. McKinney, Henrique Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12185–12206,Short summary
This study aimed at understanding and quantifying the changes in mass concentration and composition of submicron airborne particulate matter (PM) in Amazonia due to urban pollution. Downwind of Manaus, PM concentrations increased by up to 200 % under polluted compared with background conditions. The observed changes included contributions from both primary and secondary processes. The differences in organic PM composition suggested a shift in the pathways of secondary production with pollution.
John E. Shilling, Mikhail S. Pekour, Edward C. Fortner, Paulo Artaxo, Suzane de Sá, John M. Hubbe, Karla M. Longo, Luiz A. T. Machado, Scot T. Martin, Stephen R. Springston, Jason Tomlinson, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10773–10797,Short summary
We report aircraft observations of the evolution of organic aerosol in the Manaus urban plume as it ages. We observe dynamic changes in the organic aerosol. The mean carbon oxidation state of the OA increases from −0.6 to −0.45. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) mass is lost and is balanced out by formation of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA). Because HOA loss is balanced by OOA formation, we observe little change in the net Δorg / ΔCO values with aging.
Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Marloes Penning de Vries, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Samara Carbone, David Walter, Nicole Bobrowski, Joel Brito, Xuguang Chi, Alexandra Gutmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Luiz A. T. Machado, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Julian Rüdiger, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Qiaoqiao Wang, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10391–10405,Short summary
This study uses satellite observations to track volcanic emissions in eastern Congo and their subsequent transport across the Atlantic Ocean into the Amazon Basin. Aircraft and ground-based observations are used to characterize the influence of volcanogenic aerosol on the chemical and microphysical properties of Amazonian aerosols. Further, this work is an illustrative example of the conditions and dynamics driving the transatlantic transport of African emissions to South America.
Lindsay D. Yee, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Rebecca A. Wernis, Meng Meng, Ventura Rivera, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Susanne V. Hering, Mads S. Bering, Marianne Glasius, Mary Alice Upshur, Ariana Gray Bé, Regan J. Thomson, Franz M. Geiger, John H. Offenberg, Michael Lewandowski, Ivan Kourtchev, Markus Kalberer, Suzane de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jose L. Jimenez, Yingjun Liu, Karena A. McKinney, Paulo Artaxo, Juarez Viegas, Antonio Manzi, Maria B. Oliveira, Rodrigo de Souza, Luiz A. T. Machado, Karla Longo, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10433–10457,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds react in the atmosphere to form secondary organic aerosol, yet the chemical pathways remain unclear. We collected filter samples and deployed a semi-volatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph in the central Amazon. We measured 30 sesquiterpenes and 4 diterpenes and find them to be important for reactive ozone loss. We estimate that sesquiterpene oxidation contributes at least 0.4–5 % (median 1 %) of observed submicron organic aerosol mass.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Jorge Saturno, Thomas Klimach, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Alessandro C. Araùjo, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Reiner Ditz, Sachin S. Gunthe, Bruna A. Holanda, Konrad Kandler, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Tobias Könemann, Ovid O. Krüger, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Eugene Mikhailov, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Luciana V. Rizzo, Diana Rose, Hang Su, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, Jian Wang, Stefan Wolff, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10289–10331,Short summary
This paper presents the aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) variability for characteristic atmospheric states – such as biomass burning, long-range transport, and pristine rain forest conditions – in the vulnerable and climate-relevant Amazon Basin. It summarizes the key properties of aerosol and CCN and, thus, provides a basis for an in-depth analysis of aerosol–cloud interactions in the Amazon region.
Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Pontus Roldin, Joel Brito, John Backman, Erik Swietlicki, Radovan Krejci, Peter Tunved, Tukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10255–10274,Short summary
Aerosols are tiny particles suspended in the air that can interact with sunlight and form clouds, which in turn affect the climate. They can also recycle nutrients in forest environments. Aerosols are naturally emitted at the surface in the Amazon forest, in addition to being brought down from above the boundary layer by intense air movements. In this work, we describe how the particle size number concentrations of aerosols change over hours, days and seasons in a multi-year study in Amazonia.
Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Florian Ditas, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Xuguang Chi, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Holger Baars, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Birgit Heese, Bruna A. Holanda, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Jing Ming, Mira L. Pöhlker, Nina Ruckteschler, Hang Su, Yaqiang Wang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Zhibin Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10055–10088,Short summary
This study presents multiple years of aerosol coarse mode observations at the remote ATTO site in the Amazon Basin. The results are discussed in light of the frequent and episodic long-range transport of Saharan dust plumes in the early wet season as well as the persistent background bioaerosol cycling in the rain forest ecosystem. This work provides a solid basis for future studies on the dynamic coarse mode aerosol cycling and its biogeochemical relevance in the Amazon.
Luiz A. T. Machado, Alan J. P. Calheiros, Thiago Biscaro, Scott Giangrande, Maria A. F. Silva Dias, Micael A. Cecchini, Rachel Albrecht, Meinrat O. Andreae, Wagner F. Araujo, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Casey Burleyson, Cristiano W. Eichholz, Jiwen Fan, Zhe Feng, Gilberto F. Fisch, Michael P. Jensen, Scot T. Martin, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Jean-François Ribaud, Daniel Rosenfeld, Jaci M. B. Saraiva, Courtney Schumacher, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6461–6482,Short summary
This overview discuss the main precipitation processes and their sensitivities to environmental conditions in the Central Amazon Basin. It presents a review of the knowledge acquired about cloud processes and rainfall formation in Amazonas. In addition, this study provides a characterization of the seasonal variation and rainfall sensitivities to topography, surface cover, and aerosol concentration. Airplane measurements were evaluated to characterize and contrast cloud microphysical properties.
Amy K. Hodgson, William T. Morgan, Sebastian O'Shea, Stéphane Bauguitte, James D. Allan, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael J. Flynn, Dantong Liu, James Lee, Ben Johnson, Jim M. Haywood, Karla M. Longo, Paulo E. Artaxo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5619–5638,Short summary
We flew a large atmospheric research aircraft across a number of different biomass burning environments in the Amazon Basin in September and October 2012. In this paper, we focus on smoke sampled very close to fresh fires (only 600–900 m above the fires and smoke that was 4–6 min old) to examine the chemical components that make up the smoke and their abundance. We found substantial differences in the emitted smoke that are due to the fuel type and combustion processes driving the fires.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Adriana Rocha-Lima, J. Vanderlei Martins, Lorraine A. Remer, Martin Todd, John H. Marsham, Sebastian Engelstaedter, Claire L. Ryder, Carolina Cavazos-Guerra, Paulo Artaxo, Peter Colarco, and Richard Washington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1023–1043,Short summary
We present results of ground-based measurements and subsequent laboratory analysis of Sahara dust samples collected in Algeria and Mauritania during the Fennec campaign in 2011. The results show that the sampled dust has low absorption characteristics and exhibits a distinct spectral bow-like shape. We find distinctive differences in the composition and optical characteristics of the dust from the two sites, corroborating with other studies that not all Saharan dust is the same.
Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel Albrecht, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Micael A. Cecchini, Anja Costa, Maximilian Dollner, Daniel Fütterer, Emma Järvinen, Tina Jurkat, Thomas Klimach, Tobias Konemann, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Trismono Krisna, Luiz A. T. Machado, Stephan Mertes, Andreas Minikin, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Antonio Spanu, Vinicius B. Sperling, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Jian Wang, Bernadett Weinzierl, Manfred Wendisch, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 921–961,Short summary
We made airborne measurements of aerosol particle concentrations and properties over the Amazon Basin. We found extremely high concentrations of very small particles in the region between 8 and 14 km altitude all across the basin, which had been recently formed by gas-to-particle conversion at these altitudes. This makes the upper troposphere a very important source region of atmospheric particles with significant implications for the Earth's climate system.
Brett B. Palm, Suzane S. de Sá, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Joel Brito, Florian Wurm, Paulo Artaxo, Ryan Thalman, Jian Wang, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Allen H. Goldstein, Yingjun Liu, Stephen R. Springston, Rodrigo Souza, Matt K. Newburn, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 467–493,Short summary
Ambient air was oxidized by OH or O3 in an oxidation flow reactor during both wet and dry seasons in the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated how much biogenic, urban, and biomass burning sources contributed to the ambient concentrations of SOA precursor gases and how their contributions changed diurnally and seasonally. SOA yields and hygroscopicity of organic aerosol in the oxidation flow reactor were also studied.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Manfred Wendisch, Anja Costa, Martina Krämer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Mahnke, Scot T. Martin, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Lianet H. Pardo, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14727–14746,Short summary
This study introduces and explores the concept of gamma phase space. This space is able to represent all possible variations in the cloud droplet size distributions (DSDs). The methodology was applied to recent in situ aircraft measurements over the Amazon. It is shown that the phase space is able to represent several processes occurring in the clouds in a simple manner. The consequences for cloud studies, modeling, and the representation of the transition from warm to mixed phase are discussed.
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Svetlana Mironova, Gregory Mironov, Sergey Vlasenko, Alexey Panov, Xuguang Chi, David Walter, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Martin Heimann, Jost Lavric, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14365–14392,
Ryan Thalman, Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Mira L. Pöhlker, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Castillo, Douglas A. Day, Chongai Kuang, Antonio Manzi, Nga Lee Ng, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Rodrigo Souza, Stephen Springston, Thomas Watson, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, Scot T. Martin, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11779–11801,Short summary
Particle hygroscopicity, mixing state, and the hygroscopicity of organic components were characterized in central Amazonia for 1 year; their seasonal and diel variations were driven by a combination of primary emissions, photochemical oxidation, and boundary layer development. The relationship between the hygroscopicity of organic components and their oxidation level was examined, and the results help to reconcile the differences among the relationships observed in previous studies.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat, Christoph Mahnke, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Christiane Voigt, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10037–10050,Short summary
We study the effects of aerosol particles and updraft speed on the warm phase of Amazonian clouds. We expand the sensitivity analysis usually found in the literature by concomitantly considering cloud evolution and the effects on droplet size distribution (DSD) shape. The quantitative results show that particle concentration is the primary driver for the vertical profiles of effective diameter and droplet concentration in the warm phase of Amazonian convective clouds.
Jorge Saturno, Christopher Pöhlker, Dario Massabò, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Florian Ditas, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Daniel Morán-Zuloaga, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, David Walter, Qiaoqiao Wang, Paulo Artaxo, Paolo Prati, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2837–2850,Short summary
Different Aethalometer correction schemes were compared to a multi-wavelength absorption reference measurement. One of the correction schemes was found to artificially increase the short-wavelength absorption coefficients. It was found that accounting for aerosol scattering properties in the correction is crucial to retrieve the proper absorption Ångström exponent (AAE). We found that the raw AAE of uncompensated Aethalometer attenuation significantly correlates with a measured reference AAE.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ralf Weigel, Tina Jurkat, Meinrat O. Andreae, Manfred Wendisch, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Christiane Voigt, Christoph Mahnke, Stephan Borrmann, Rachel I. Albrecht, Sergej Molleker, Daniel A. Vila, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7365–7386,
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Matthew K. Newburn, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Ryan Thalman, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Antonio O. Manzi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Fan Mei, John E. Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Jason D. Surratt, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6611–6629,
Oleg Travnikov, Hélène Angot, Paulo Artaxo, Mariantonia Bencardino, Johannes Bieser, Francesco D'Amore, Ashu Dastoor, Francesco De Simone, María del Carmen Diéguez, Aurélien Dommergue, Ralf Ebinghaus, Xin Bin Feng, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Olivier Magand, Lynwill Martin, Volker Matthias, Nikolay Mashyanov, Nicola Pirrone, Ramesh Ramachandran, Katie Alana Read, Andrei Ryjkov, Noelle E. Selin, Fabrizio Sena, Shaojie Song, Francesca Sprovieri, Dennis Wip, Ingvar Wängberg, and Xin Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5271–5295,Short summary
The study provides a complex analysis of processes governing Hg fate in the atmosphere involving both measurement data and simulation results of chemical transport models. Evaluation of the model simulations and numerical experiments against observations allows explaining spatial and temporal variations of Hg concentration in the near-surface atmospheric layer and shows possibility of multiple pathways of Hg oxidation occurring concurrently in various parts of the atmosphere.
Diego A. Gouveia, Boris Barja, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Patric Seifert, Holger Baars, Theotonio Pauliquevis, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3619–3636,Short summary
We derive the first comprehensive statistics of cirrus clouds over a tropical rain forest. Monthly frequency of occurrence can be as high as 88 %. The diurnal cycle follows that of precipitation, and frequently cirrus is found in the tropopause layer. The mean values of cloud top, base, thickness, optical depth and lidar ratio were 14.3 km, 12.9 km, 1.4 km, 0.25, and 23 sr respectively. The high fraction (42 %) of subvisible clouds may contaminate satellite measurements to an unknown extent.
Joana A. Rizzolo, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Guilherme C. Borillo, Ana F. L. Godoi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Rita V. Andreoli, Antônio O. Manzi, Marta O. Sá, Eliane G. Alves, Christopher Pöhlker, Isabella H. Angelis, Florian Ditas, Jorge Saturno, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Luciana V. Rizzo, Nilton E. Rosário, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Rosa M. N. Santos, Carlos I. Yamamoto, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Philip E. Taylor, and Ricardo H. M. Godoi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2673–2687,Short summary
Particles collected from the air above the Amazon Basin during the wet season were identified as Saharan dust. Soluble minerals were analysed to assess the bioavailability of iron. Dust deposited onto the canopy and topsoil can likely benefit organisms such as fungi and lichens. The ongoing deposition of Saharan dust across the Amazon rainforest provides an iron-rich source of essential macronutrients and micronutrients to plant roots, and also directly to plant leaves during the wet season.
Francesco De Simone, Paulo Artaxo, Mariantonia Bencardino, Sergio Cinnirella, Francesco Carbone, Francesco D'Amore, Aurélien Dommergue, Xin Bin Feng, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Matthew S. Landis, Francesca Sprovieri, Noriuki Suzuki, Ingvar Wängberg, and Nicola Pirrone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1881–1899,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) releases of Hg, usually considered to be Hg(0), are a significant global source of atmospheric Hg. However there is experimental evidence that a fraction of this Hg is bound to particulate matter, Hg(P). This modelling study shows how increasing fractions of Hg(P) reduce the availability of Hg to the global pool, raising Hg exposure for those regions characterized by high BB, with implications for the sub-Arctic and also rice-growing areas in South-East Asia.
Adam P. Bateman, Zhaoheng Gong, Tristan H. Harder, Suzane S. de Sá, Bingbing Wang, Paulo Castillo, Swarup China, Yingjun Liu, Rachel E. O'Brien, Brett B. Palm, Hung-Wei Shiu, Glauber G. Cirino, Ryan Thalman, Kouji Adachi, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Allan K. Bertram, Peter R. Buseck, Mary K. Gilles, Jose L. Jimenez, Alexander Laskin, Antonio O. Manzi, Arthur Sedlacek, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Rahul Zaveri, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1759–1773,Short summary
The occurrence of nonliquid and liquid physical states of submicron atmospheric particulate matter (PM) downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia was investigated. Air masses representing background conditions, urban pollution, and regional- and continental-scale biomass were measured. Anthropogenic influences contributed to the presence of nonliquid PM in the atmospheric particle population, while liquid PM dominated during periods of biogenic influence.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Thomas Klimach, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Alessandro Araújo, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Reiner Ditz, Sachin S. Gunthe, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Tobias Könemann, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Eugene Mikhailov, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Diana Rose, Jorge Saturno, Hang Su, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, Jian Wang, Stefan Wolff, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15709–15740,Short summary
The paper presents a systematic characterization of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration in the central Amazonian atmosphere. Our results show that the CCN population in this globally important ecosystem follows a pollution-related seasonal cycle, in which it mainly depends on changes in total aerosol size distribution and to a minor extent in the aerosol chemical composition. Our results allow an efficient modeling and prediction of the CCN population based on a novel approach.
Qiaoqiao Wang, Jorge Saturno, Xuguang Chi, David Walter, Jost V. Lavric, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Florian Ditas, Christopher Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14775–14794,Short summary
We use a chemical transport model to interpret observed aerosol concentrations and absorption over the Amazon Basin during the wet season. With daily temporal resolution for open fire emissions and modified aerosol optical properties, our model successfully captures the observed variation in aerosol concentrations and absorption over the Amazon Basin. The simulation indicates the important influence of open fire mainly from northern South America and from northern Africa in the wet season.
Ben T. Johnson, James M. Haywood, Justin M. Langridge, Eoghan Darbyshire, William T. Morgan, Kate Szpek, Jennifer K. Brooke, Franco Marenco, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, Karla M. Longo, Jane P. Mulcahy, Graham W. Mann, Mohit Dalvi, and Nicolas Bellouin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14657–14685,Short summary
Biomass burning is a large source of carbonaceous aerosols, which scatter and absorb solar radiation, and modify cloud properties. We evaluate the simulation of biomass burning aerosol processes and properties in the HadGEM3 climate model using observations, including those from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis. We find that modelled aerosol optical depths are underestimated unless aerosol emissions (Global Fire Emission Database v3) are increased by a factor of 1.6–2.0.
Xuan Wang, Colette L. Heald, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Thomas B. Watson, Allison C. Aiken, Stephen R. Springston, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12733–12752,Short summary
We describe a new approach to estimate the absorption of brown carbon (BrC) from multiple-wavelength absorption measurements. By applying this method to column and surface observations globally, we find that BrC contributes up to 40 % of the absorption measured at 440 nm. The analysis of two surface sites also suggests that BrC absorptivity decreases with photochemical aging in biomass burning plumes, but not in typical urban conditions.
Francesca Sprovieri, Nicola Pirrone, Mariantonia Bencardino, Francesco D'Amore, Francesco Carbone, Sergio Cinnirella, Valentino Mannarino, Matthew Landis, Ralf Ebinghaus, Andreas Weigelt, Ernst-Günther Brunke, Casper Labuschagne, Lynwill Martin, John Munthe, Ingvar Wängberg, Paulo Artaxo, Fernando Morais, Henrique de Melo Jorge Barbosa, Joel Brito, Warren Cairns, Carlo Barbante, María del Carmen Diéguez, Patricia Elizabeth Garcia, Aurélien Dommergue, Helene Angot, Olivier Magand, Henrik Skov, Milena Horvat, Jože Kotnik, Katie Alana Read, Luis Mendes Neves, Bernd Manfred Gawlik, Fabrizio Sena, Nikolay Mashyanov, Vladimir Obolkin, Dennis Wip, Xin Bin Feng, Hui Zhang, Xuewu Fu, Ramesh Ramachandran, Daniel Cossa, Joël Knoery, Nicolas Marusczak, Michelle Nerentorp, and Claus Norstrom
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11915–11935,Short summary
This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded within the GMOS global network analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. The over-arching beneﬁt of this coordinated Hg monitoring network would clearly be the production of high-quality measurement datasets on a global scale useful in developing and validating models on different spatial and temporal scales.
Elisa T. Sena, Allison McComiskey, and Graham Feingold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11301–11318,Short summary
A new method for assessing aerosol effects on clouds is proposed. For the first time, 14 years of collocated, coincident ground-based observations have been used to study cloud–aerosol–meteorology–radiation interactions in the USA. For this site, the results indicate that the influence of the aerosol on cloud radiative effect and cloud albedo is weak, and that macroscopic cloud properties play a much larger role in determining the cloud radiative effect compared to aerosol effects.
Carly L. Reddington, Dominick V. Spracklen, Paulo Artaxo, David A. Ridley, Luciana V. Rizzo, and Andrea Arana
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11083–11106,Short summary
We use a global aerosol model evaluated against long-term observations of surface aerosol and aerosol optical depth (AOD) to better understand the impacts of biomass burning on tropical aerosol. We use three satellite-derived fire emission datasets in the model, identifying regions where these datasets capture observations and where emissions are likely to be underestimated. For coincident observations of surface aerosol and AOD, model underestimation of AOD is greater than of surface aerosol.
A. M. Yáñez-Serrano, A. C. Nölscher, E. Bourtsoukidis, B. Derstroff, N. Zannoni, V. Gros, M. Lanza, J. Brito, S. M. Noe, E. House, C. N. Hewitt, B. Langford, E. Nemitz, T. Behrendt, J. Williams, P. Artaxo, M. O. Andreae, and J. Kesselmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10965–10984,Short summary
This paper provides a general overview of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) ambient observations in different ecosystems around the world in order to provide insights into the sources, sink and role of MEK in the atmosphere.
James D. Whitehead, Eoghan Darbyshire, Joel Brito, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Ian Crawford, Rafael Stern, Martin W. Gallagher, Paul H. Kaye, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9727–9743,Short summary
We present measurements of aerosols during the transition from wet to dry seasons at a pristine rainforest site in central Amazonia. By excluding pollution episodes, we focus on natural biogenic aerosols. Submicron aerosols are dominated by organic material, similar to previous wet season measurements. Larger particles are dominated by biological material, mostly fungal spores, with higher concentrations at night. This study provides important data on the nature of particles above the Amazon.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Jennifer M. Comstock, Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Jiwen Fan, Jason M. Tomlinson, Beat Schmid, Rachel Albrecht, Scot T. Martin, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7029–7041,Short summary
This work focuses on the analysis of anthropogenic impacts on Amazonian clouds. The experiment was conducted around Manaus (Brazil), which is a city with 2 million inhabitants and is surrounded by the Amazon forest in every direction. The clouds that form over the pristine atmosphere of the forest are understood as the background clouds and the ones that form over the city pollution are the anthropogenically impacted ones. The paper analyses microphysical characteristics of both types of clouds.
Stijn Hantson, Almut Arneth, Sandy P. Harrison, Douglas I. Kelley, I. Colin Prentice, Sam S. Rabin, Sally Archibald, Florent Mouillot, Steve R. Arnold, Paulo Artaxo, Dominique Bachelet, Philippe Ciais, Matthew Forrest, Pierre Friedlingstein, Thomas Hickler, Jed O. Kaplan, Silvia Kloster, Wolfgang Knorr, Gitta Lasslop, Fang Li, Stephane Mangeon, Joe R. Melton, Andrea Meyn, Stephen Sitch, Allan Spessa, Guido R. van der Werf, Apostolos Voulgarakis, and Chao Yue
Biogeosciences, 13, 3359–3375,Short summary
Our ability to predict the magnitude and geographic pattern of past and future fire impacts rests on our ability to model fire regimes. A large variety of models exist, and it is unclear which type of model or degree of complexity is required to model fire adequately at regional to global scales. In this paper we summarize the current state of the art in fire-regime modelling and model evaluation, and outline what lessons may be learned from the Fire Model Intercomparison Project – FireMIP.
Holger Baars, Thomas Kanitz, Ronny Engelmann, Dietrich Althausen, Birgit Heese, Mika Komppula, Jana Preißler, Matthias Tesche, Albert Ansmann, Ulla Wandinger, Jae-Hyun Lim, Joon Young Ahn, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Patric Seifert, Julian Hofer, Annett Skupin, Florian Schneider, Stephanie Bohlmann, Andreas Foth, Sebastian Bley, Anne Pfüller, Eleni Giannakaki, Heikki Lihavainen, Yrjö Viisanen, Rakesh Kumar Hooda, Sérgio Nepomuceno Pereira, Daniele Bortoli, Frank Wagner, Ina Mattis, Lucja Janicka, Krzysztof M. Markowicz, Peggy Achtert, Paulo Artaxo, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Ved Prakesh Sharma, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Johan Paul Beukes, Junying Sun, Erich G. Rohwer, Ruru Deng, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, and Felix Zamorano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5111–5137,Short summary
The findings from more than 10 years of global aerosol lidar measurements with Polly systems are summarized, and a data set of optical properties for specific aerosol types is given. An automated data retrieval algorithm for continuous Polly lidar observations is presented and discussed by means of a Saharan dust advection event in Leipzig, Germany. Finally, a statistic on the vertical aerosol distribution including the seasonal variability at PollyNET locations around the globe is presented.
S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. A. T. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Fan, G. Fisch, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. L. Jimenez, U. Pöschl, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785–4797,Short summary
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
Eliane G. Alves, Kolby Jardine, Julio Tota, Angela Jardine, Ana Maria Yãnez-Serrano, Thomas Karl, Julia Tavares, Bruce Nelson, Dasa Gu, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Scot Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Antonio Manzi, and Alex Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3903–3925,Short summary
For a long time, it was thought that tropical rainforests are evergreen forests and the processes involved in these ecosystems do not change all year long. However, some satellite retrievals have suggested that ecophysiological processes may present seasonal variations mainly due to variation in light and leaf phenology in Amazonia. These in situ measurements are the first showing of a seasonal trend of volatile organic compound emissions, correlating with light and leaf phenology in Amazonia.
Franco Marenco, Ben Johnson, Justin M. Langridge, Jane Mulcahy, Angela Benedetti, Samuel Remy, Luke Jones, Kate Szpek, Jim Haywood, Karla Longo, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2155–2174,Short summary
A widespread and persistent smoke layer was observed in the Amazon region during the biomass burning season, spanning a distance of 2200 km and a period of 14 days. The larger smoke content was typically found in elevated layers, from 1–1.5 km to 4–6 km. Measurements have been compared to model predictions, and the latter were able to reproduce the general features of the smoke layer, but with some differences which are analysed and described in the paper.
C. E. Scott, D. V. Spracklen, J. R. Pierce, I. Riipinen, S. D. D'Andrea, A. Rap, K. S. Carslaw, P. M. Forster, P. Artaxo, M. Kulmala, L. V. Rizzo, E. Swietlicki, G. W. Mann, and K. J. Pringle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12989–13001,Short summary
To understand the radiative effects of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) it is necessary to consider the manner in which it is distributed across the existing aerosol size distribution. We explore the importance of the approach taken by global-scale models to do this, when calculating the direct radiative effect (DRE) & first aerosol indirect effect (AIE) due to biogenic SOA. This choice has little effect on the DRE, but a substantial impact on the magnitude and even sign of the first AIE
A. M. Womack, P. E. Artaxo, F. Y. Ishida, R. C. Mueller, S. R. Saleska, K. T. Wiedemann, B. J. M. Bohannan, and J. L. Green
Biogeosciences, 12, 6337–6349,Short summary
Fungi in the atmosphere can affect precipitation by nucleating the formation of clouds and ice. This process is important over the Amazon rainforest where precipitation is limited by the types and amount of airborne particles. We found that the total and metabolically active fungi communities were dominated by different taxonomic groups, and the active community unexpectedly contained many lichen fungi, which are effective at nucleating ice.
W. W. Hu, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, D. A. Day, A. M. Ortega, P. L. Hayes, J. E. Krechmer, Q. Chen, M. Kuwata, Y. J. Liu, S. S. de Sá, K. McKinney, S. T. Martin, M. Hu, S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. Riva, J. D. Surratt, J. M. St. Clair, G. Isaacman-Van Wertz, L. D. Yee, A. H. Goldstein, S. Carbone, J. Brito, P. Artaxo, J. A. de Gouw, A. Koss, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, T. Karl, L. Kaser, W. Jud, A. Hansel, K. S. Docherty, M. L. Alexander, N. H. Robinson, H. Coe, J. D. Allan, M. R. Canagaratna, F. Paulot, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11807–11833,Short summary
This work summarized all the studies reporting isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) measured globally by aerosol mass spectrometer and compare them with modeled gas-phase IEPOX, with results suggestive of the importance of IEPOX-SOA for regional and global OA budgets. A real-time tracer of IEPOX-SOA is thoroughly evaluated for the first time by combing multiple field and chamber studies. A quick and easy empirical method on IEPOX-SOA estimation is also presented.
M. O. Andreae, O. C. Acevedo, A. Araùjo, P. Artaxo, C. G. G. Barbosa, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Brito, S. Carbone, X. Chi, B. B. L. Cintra, N. F. da Silva, N. L. Dias, C. Q. Dias-Júnior, F. Ditas, R. Ditz, A. F. L. Godoi, R. H. M. Godoi, M. Heimann, T. Hoffmann, J. Kesselmeier, T. Könemann, M. L. Krüger, J. V. Lavric, A. O. Manzi, A. P. Lopes, D. L. Martins, E. F. Mikhailov, D. Moran-Zuloaga, B. W. Nelson, A. C. Nölscher, D. Santos Nogueira, M. T. F. Piedade, C. Pöhlker, U. Pöschl, C. A. Quesada, L. V. Rizzo, C.-U. Ro, N. Ruckteschler, L. D. A. Sá, M. de Oliveira Sá, C. B. Sales, R. M. N. dos Santos, J. Saturno, J. Schöngart, M. Sörgel, C. M. de Souza, R. A. F. de Souza, H. Su, N. Targhetta, J. Tóta, I. Trebs, S. Trumbore, A. van Eijck, D. Walter, Z. Wang, B. Weber, J. Williams, J. Winderlich, F. Wittmann, S. Wolff, and A. M. Yáñez-Serrano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10723–10776,Short summary
This paper describes the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a new atmosphere-biosphere observatory located in the remote Amazon Basin. It presents results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected at the ATTO site during the first 3 years of operation.
J. G. Levine, A. R. MacKenzie, O. J. Squire, A. T. Archibald, P. T. Griffiths, N. L. Abraham, J. A. Pyle, D. E. Oram, G. Forster, J. F. Brito, J. D. Lee, J. R. Hopkins, A. C. Lewis, S. J. B. Bauguitte, C. F. Demarco, P. Artaxo, P. Messina, J. Lathière, D. A. Hauglustaine, E. House, C. N. Hewitt, and E. Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
This study explores our ability to simulate atmospheric chemistry stemming from isoprene emissions—a reactive gas emitted from vegetation—in pristine and polluted regions of the Amazon basin. We explore how two contrasting models fare in reproducing recent airborne measurements in the region. Their differing treatments of transport and mixing are found to: profoundly affect their performance; and yield very different pictures of the exposure of the rainforest to harmful ozone concentrations.
Q. Chen, D. K. Farmer, L. V. Rizzo, T. Pauliquevis, M. Kuwata, T. G. Karl, A. Guenther, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, J. L. Jimenez, P. Artaxo, and S. T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3687–3701,Short summary
Submicron particle mass concentration in the Amazon during the wet season of 2008 was dominated by organic material. The PMF analysis finds a comparable importance of gas-phase (gas-to-particle condensation) and particle-phase (reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products, especially of epoxydiols to acidic haze, fog, or cloud droplets) production of secondary organic material during the study period, together accounting for >70% of the organic-particle mass concentration.
A. M. Yáñez-Serrano, A. C. Nölscher, J. Williams, S. Wolff, E. Alves, G. A. Martins, E. Bourtsoukidis, J. Brito, K. Jardine, P. Artaxo, and J. Kesselmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3359–3378,
F. Pacifico, G. A. Folberth, S. Sitch, J. M. Haywood, L. V. Rizzo, F. F. Malavelle, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2791–2804,
G. Snider, C. L. Weagle, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, K. Conrad, D. Cunningham, C. Gordon, M. Zwicker, C. Akoshile, P. Artaxo, N. X. Anh, J. Brook, J. Dong, R. M. Garland, R. Greenwald, D. Griffith, K. He, B. N. Holben, R. Kahn, I. Koren, N. Lagrosas, P. Lestari, Z. Ma, J. Vanderlei Martins, E. J. Quel, Y. Rudich, A. Salam, S. N. Tripathi, C. Yu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Brauer, A. Cohen, M. D. Gibson, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 505–521,Short summary
We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations to measure concentrations of fine aerosols in urban environments. Our findings include major ions species, total mass, and total scatter at three wavelengths. Results will be used to further evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates.
M. M. Bela, K. M. Longo, S. R. Freitas, D. S. Moreira, V. Beck, S. C. Wofsy, C. Gerbig, K. Wiedemann, M. O. Andreae, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 757–782,Short summary
In the Amazon Basin, gases that lead to the formation of ozone (O3), an air pollutant and greenhouse gas, are emitted from fire, urban and biogenic sources. This study presents the first basin wide aircraft measurements of O3 during the dry-to-wet and wet-to-dry transition seasons, which show extremely low values above undisturbed forest and increases from fires. This work also demonstrates the capabilities and limitations of regional atmospheric chemistry models in representing O3 in Amazonia.
J. Brito, L. V. Rizzo, W. T. Morgan, H. Coe, B. Johnson, J. Haywood, K. Longo, S. Freitas, M. O. Andreae, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12069–12083,Short summary
This paper details the physical--chemical characteristics of aerosols in a region strongly impacted by biomass burning in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon region. For such, a large suite of state-of-the-art instruments for realtime analysis was deployed at a ground site. Among the key findings, we observe the strong prevalence of organic aerosols associated to fire emissions, with important climate effects, and indications of its very fast processing in the atmosphere.
J. D. Allan, W. T. Morgan, E. Darbyshire, M. J. Flynn, P. I. Williams, D. E. Oram, P. Artaxo, J. Brito, J. D. Lee, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11393–11407,
K. Tsigaridis, N. Daskalakis, M. Kanakidou, P. J. Adams, P. Artaxo, R. Bahadur, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, A. Benedetti, T. Bergman, T. K. Berntsen, J. P. Beukes, H. Bian, K. S. Carslaw, M. Chin, G. Curci, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, S. L. Gong, A. Hodzic, C. R. Hoyle, T. Iversen, S. Jathar, J. L. Jimenez, J. W. Kaiser, A. Kirkevåg, D. Koch, H. Kokkola, Y. H Lee, G. Lin, X. Liu, G. Luo, X. Ma, G. W. Mann, N. Mihalopoulos, J.-J. Morcrette, J.-F. Müller, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. L. Ng, D. O'Donnell, J. E. Penner, L. Pozzoli, K. J. Pringle, L. M. Russell, M. Schulz, J. Sciare, Ø. Seland, D. T. Shindell, S. Sillman, R. B. Skeie, D. Spracklen, T. Stavrakou, S. D. Steenrod, T. Takemura, P. Tiitta, S. Tilmes, H. Tost, T. van Noije, P. G. van Zyl, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, Z. Wang, Z. Wang, R. A. Zaveri, H. Zhang, K. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and X. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10845–10895,
A. Rocha-Lima, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, N. A. Krotkov, M. H. Tabacniks, Y. Ben-Ami, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10649–10661,
G. P. Almeida, J. Brito, C. A. Morales, M. F. Andrade, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7559–7572,
G. G. Cirino, R. A. F. Souza, D. K. Adams, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6523–6543,
H. M. J. Barbosa, B. Barja, T. Pauliquevis, D. A. Gouveia, P. Artaxo, G. G. Cirino, R. M. N. Santos, and A. B. Oliveira
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1745–1762,
J. Brito, L. V. Rizzo, P. Herckes, P. C. Vasconcellos, S. E. S. Caumo, A. Fornaro, R. Y. Ynoue, P. Artaxo, and M. F. Andrade
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12199–12213,
L. V. Rizzo, P. Artaxo, T. Müller, A. Wiedensohler, M. Paixão, G. G. Cirino, A. Arana, E. Swietlicki, P. Roldin, E. O. Fors, K. T. Wiedemann, L. S. M. Leal, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2391–2413,
E. T. Sena, P. Artaxo, and A. L. Correia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1261–1275,
J. A. Huffman, B. Sinha, R. M. Garland, A. Snee-Pollmann, S. S. Gunthe, P. Artaxo, S. T. Martin, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11997–12019,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Comparison of dust optical depth from multi-sensor products and MONARCH (Multiscale Online Non-hydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry) dust reanalysis over North Africa, the Middle East, and EuropeUnderstanding day–night differences in dust aerosols over the dust belt of North Africa, the Middle East, and AsiaSatellite observations of smoke–cloud–radiation interactions over the Amazon rainforestSingle-scattering properties of ellipsoidal dust aerosols constrained by measured dust shape distributionsValidation of the TROPOMI/S5P aerosol layer height using EARLINET lidarsThe importance of detection thresholds for the quantification of source and timing of high-latitude dust emission using remote sensingVertical characterization of fine and coarse dust particles during an intense Saharan dust outbreak over the Iberian Peninsula in springtime 2021Aerosol optical depth regime over megacities of the worldSouth American 2020 regional smoke plume: intercomparison with previous years, impact on solar radiation, and the role of Pantanal biomass burning seasonCircular polarization in atmospheric aerosolsSpatiotemporal continuous estimates of daily 1 km PM2.5 from 2000 to present under the Tracking Air Pollution in China (TAP) frameworkRobust evidence for reversal of the trend in aerosol effective climate forcingSatellite (GOSAT-2 CAI-2) retrieval and surface (ARFINET) observations of Aerosol Black Carbon over IndiaSimultaneous retrievals of biomass burning aerosols and trace gases from the ultraviolet to near-infrared over northern Thailand during the 2019 pre-monsoon seasonA decadal assessment of the climatology of aerosol and cloud properties over South AfricaAerosol characterisation in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic region using long-term AERONET measurementsLong-range transport of Asian dust to the Arctic: identification of transport pathways, evolution of aerosol optical properties, and impact assessment on surface albedo changesCanadian and Alaskan wildfire smoke particle properties, their evolution, and controlling factors, from satellite observationsEvaluation of aerosol optical depths and clear-sky radiative fluxes of the CERES Edition 4.1 SYN1deg data productArctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth baseline from long-term observations and model reanalyses – Part 1: Climatology and trendVertical structure of biomass burning aerosol transported over the southeast Atlantic OceanArctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth baseline from long-term observations and model reanalyses – Part 2: Statistics of extreme AOD events, and implications for the impact of regional biomass burning processesAerosol atmospheric rivers: climatology, event characteristics, and detection algorithm sensitivitiesDust transport and advection measurement with spaceborne lidars ALADIN and CALIOP and model reanalysis dataRecord-breaking dust loading during two mega dust storm events over northern China in March 2021: aerosol optical and radiative properties and meteorological driversWintertime Saharan dust transport towards the Caribbean: an airborne lidar case study during EUREC4AEvaluation of aerosol number concentrations from CALIPSO with ATom airborne in situ measurementsZonal variations in the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols over the Indian region and the consequent radiative effectsGlobal maps of aerosol single scattering albedo using combined CERES-MODIS retrievalThe characterization of long-range transported North American biomass burning plumes: what can a multi-wavelength Mie–Raman-polarization-fluorescence lidar provide?Fluorescence lidar observations of wildfire smoke inside cirrus: a contribution to smoke–cirrus interaction researchA novel method of identifying and analysing oil smoke plumes based on MODIS and CALIPSO satellite dataPollen observations at four EARLINET stations during the ACTRIS-COVID-19 campaignIdentifying chemical aerosol signatures using optical suborbital observations: how much can optical properties tell us about aerosol composition?Quantification of the dust optical depth across spatiotemporal scales with the MIDAS global dataset (2003–2017)Aerosol radiative impact during the summer 2019 heatwave produced partly by an inter-continental Saharan dust outbreak – Part 2: Long-wave and net dust direct radiative effectComment on “Short-cut transport path for Asian dust directly to the Arctic: a case Study” by Huang et al. (2015) in Environ. Res. Lett.Statistical validation of Aeolus L2A particle backscatter coefficient retrievals over ACTRIS/EARLINET stations on the Iberian PeninsulaInferring iron-oxide species content in atmospheric mineral dust from DSCOVR EPIC observationsMesoscale spatio-temporal variability of airborne lidar-derived aerosol properties in the Barbados region during EUREC4ALong-term characterisation of the vertical structure of the Saharan Air Layer over the Canary Islands using lidar and radiosonde profiles: implications for radiative and cloud processes over the subtropical Atlantic OceanObserved slump of sea land breeze in Brisbane under the effect of aerosols from remote transport during 2019 Australian mega fire eventsMeasurement report: Vehicle-based multi-lidar observational study of the effect of meteorological elements on the three-dimensional distribution of particles in the western Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay AreaMarine aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean in relation to the wintertime meteorological conditionsThe spatiotemporal relationship between PM2.5 and aerosol optical depth in China: influencing factors and implications for satellite PM2.5 estimations using MAIAC aerosol optical depthMeasurement report: Characterization of the vertical distribution of airborne Pinus pollen in the atmosphere with lidar-derived profiles – a modeling case study in the region of Barcelona, NE SpainInvestigation of near-global daytime boundary layer height using high-resolution radiosondes: first results and comparison with ERA5, MERRA-2, JRA-55, and NCEP-2 reanalysesEstimation of the vertical distribution of particle matter (PM2.5) concentration and its transport flux from lidar measurements based on machine learning algorithmsRelating geostationary satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia to fine particulate matter (PM2.5): insights from the KORUS-AQ aircraft campaign and GEOS-Chem model simulationsThree-dimensional climatology, trends, and meteorological drivers of global and regional tropospheric type-dependent aerosols: insights from 13 years (2007–2019) of CALIOP observations
Michail Mytilinaios, Sara Basart, Sergio Ciamprone, Juan Cuesta, Claudio Dema, Enza Di Tomaso, Paola Formenti, Antonis Gkikas, Oriol Jorba, Ralph Kahn, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Serena Trippetta, and Lucia Mona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5487–5516,Short summary
Multiscale Online Non-hydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry model (MONARCH) dust reanalysis provides a high-resolution 3D reconstruction of past dust conditions, allowing better quantification of climate and socioeconomic dust impacts. We assess the performance of the reanalysis needed to reproduce dust optical depth using dust-related products retrieved from satellite and ground-based observations and show that it reproduces the spatial distribution and seasonal variability of atmospheric dust well.
Jacob Z. Tindan, Qinjian Jin, and Bing Pu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5435–5466,Short summary
We use the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) retrievals of dust variables (dust optical depth and dust layer height) and surface observations to understand the day- and nighttime variations in dust aerosols over the dust belt. Our results show that daytime dust aerosols are significantly different from nighttime, and such day–night variations are influenced by meteorological factors such as wind speed, precipitation, and turbulent motions within the atmospheric boundary layer.
Ross Herbert and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4595–4616,Short summary
We provide robust evidence from multiple sources showing that smoke from fires in the Amazon rainforest significantly modifies the diurnal cycle of convection and cools the climate. Low to moderate amounts of smoke increase deep convective clouds and rain, whilst beyond a threshold amount, the smoke starts to suppress the convection and rain. We are currently at this threshold, suggesting increases in fires from agricultural practices or droughts will reduce cloudiness and rain over the region.
Yue Huang, Jasper F. Kok, Masanori Saito, and Olga Muñoz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2557–2577,Short summary
Global aerosol models and remote sensing retrievals use dust optical models with inconsistent and inaccurate dust shape approximations. Here, we present a new dust optical model constrained by measured dust shape distributions. This new dust optical model is an improvement on the current dust optical models used in models and retrieval algorithms, as quantified by comparisons against laboratory and field observations of dust optics.
Konstantinos Michailidis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Dimitris Balis, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Martin de Graaf, Lucia Mona, Nikolaos Papagianopoulos, Gesolmina Pappalardo, Ioanna Tsikoudi, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Anna Gialitaki, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, Argyro Nisantzi, Daniele Bortoli, Maria João Costa, Vanda Salgueiro, Alexandros Papayannis, Maria Mylonaki, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Salvatore Romano, Maria Rita Perrone, and Holger Baars
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1919–1940,Short summary
Comparisons with ground-based correlative lidar measurements constitute a key component in the validation of satellite aerosol products. This paper presents the validation of the TROPOMI aerosol layer height (ALH) product, using archived quality assured ground-based data from lidar stations that belong to the EARLINET network. Comparisons between the TROPOMI ALH and co-located EARLINET measurements show good agreement over the ocean.
Rosemary Alice Huck, Robert G. Bryant, and James King
This study shows that mineral aerosols (dust) emission events in high-latitude areas are under-represented in both ground and space detecting methods. This is done through a suite of ground-based data to prove that dust emissions from the proglacial area, Lhù’ààn Mân occur almost daily but are not always recorded at different timescales. Dust has multiple effects on atmospheric process, therefore accurate quantification is important in the calibration and validation of climate models.
María Ángeles López-Cayuela, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, Diego Bermejo-Pantaleón, Michaël Sicard, Vanda Salgueiro, Francisco Molero, Clara Violeta Carvajal-Pérez, María José Granados-Muñoz, Adolfo Comerón, Flavio T. Couto, Rubén Barragán, María-Paz Zorzano, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, María João Costa, Begoña Artíñano, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, Daniele Bortoli, Manuel Pujadas, Jesús Abril-Gago, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, and Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 143–161,Short summary
An intense Saharan dust outbreak crossing the Iberian Peninsula in springtime was monitored to determinine the specific contribution of fine and coarse dust particles at five lidar stations, strategically covering its SW–central–NE pathway. Expected dust ageing along the transport started unappreciated. A different fine-dust impact on optical (~30 %) and mass (~10 %) properties was found. Use of polarized lidar measurements (mainly in elastic systems) for fine/coarse dust separation is crucial.
Kyriakoula Papachristopoulou, Ioannis-Panagiotis Raptis, Antonis Gkikas, Ilias Fountoulakis, Akriti Masoom, and Stelios Kazadzis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15703–15727,Short summary
Megacities' air quality is determined by atmospheric aerosols. We focus on changes over the last two decades in the 81 largest cities, using satellite data. European and American cities have lower aerosol compared to African and Asian cities. For European, North American and East Asian cities, aerosols are decreasing over time, especially in China and the US. In the remaining cities, aerosol loads are increasing, particularly in India.
Nilton Évora do Rosário, Elisa Thomé Sena, and Marcia Akemi Yamasoe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15021–15033,Short summary
The 2020 burning season in Brazil was marked by an atypically high number of fire spots across Pantanal, leading to high amounts of smoke within the biome. This study shows that smoke over Pantanal, usually a fraction of that over Amazonia, was higher and resulted mainly from fires in conservation and indigenous areas. It also contributes to highlighting Pantanal's 2020 burning season as the worst combination of a climate extreme scenario and inadequately enforced environmental regulations.
Santiago Gassó and Kirk D. Knobelspiesse
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13581–13605,Short summary
Atmospheric particles interact with light resulting in observable optical polarization. Thus, we can learn about their composition from space. New satellite sensor technology measures full polarization of reflected sunlight. This paper considers circular polarization, an overlooked category of polarization with distinctive features that could bring new insights. We review existing literature and make novel computations to consider this previously underappreciated category of polarization.
Qingyang Xiao, Guannan Geng, Shigan Liu, Jiajun Liu, Xia Meng, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13229–13242,Short summary
We provided complete coverage PM2.5 concentrations at a 1-km resolution from 2000 to the present, carefully considering the significant changes in land use characteristics in China. This high-resolution PM2.5 data successfully revealed the local-scale PM2.5 variations. We noticed changes in PM2.5 spatial patterns in association with the clean air policies, with the pollution hotspots having transferred from urban centers to rural regions with limited air quality monitoring.
Johannes Quaas, Hailing Jia, Chris Smith, Anna Lea Albright, Wenche Aas, Nicolas Bellouin, Olivier Boucher, Marie Doutriaux-Boucher, Piers M. Forster, Daniel Grosvenor, Stuart Jenkins, Zbigniew Klimont, Norman G. Loeb, Xiaoyan Ma, Vaishali Naik, Fabien Paulot, Philip Stier, Martin Wild, Gunnar Myhre, and Michael Schulz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12221–12239,Short summary
Pollution particles cool climate and offset part of the global warming. However, they are washed out by rain and thus their effect responds quickly to changes in emissions. We show multiple datasets to demonstrate that aerosol emissions and their concentrations declined in many regions influenced by human emissions, as did the effects on clouds. Consequently, the cooling impact on the Earth energy budget became smaller. This change in trend implies a relative warming.
Mukunda M. Gogoi, S. Suresh Babu, Ryoichi Imasu, and Makiko Hashimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Considering the climate warming potential of atmospheric Black Carbon, satellite-based retrieval is a novel idea. This study highlights the regional distribution of BC based on observations by Cloud and Aerosol Imager-2 on-board the GOSAT-2 satellite and near surface measurements of BC in the ARFINET. The satellite retrieval fairly depicts the regional and seasonal features of BC over the Indian region, which are similar to those recorded by surface observations.
Ukkyo Jeong, Si-Chee Tsay, N. Christina Hsu, David M. Giles, John W. Cooper, Jaehwa Lee, Robert J. Swap, Brent N. Holben, James J. Butler, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Somporn Chantara, Hyunkee Hong, Donghee Kim, and Jhoon Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11957–11986,Short summary
Ultraviolet (UV) measurements from satellite and ground are important for deriving information on several atmospheric trace and aerosol characteristics. Simultaneous retrievals of aerosol and trace gases in this study suggest that water uptake by aerosols is one of the important phenomena affecting aerosol properties over northern Thailand, which is important for regional air quality and climate. Obtained aerosol properties covering the UV are also important for various satellite algorithms.
Abdulaziz Tunde Yakubu and Naven Chetty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11065–11087,Short summary
This study examined the source of atmospheric aerosols and their role in forming clouds and rainfall over South Africa. The research provided answers to the cause of low precipitation, mainly linked to drought and water shortages experienced over the region. Further insight into the cause of occasional flooding that occurs in other parts of the area is provided. Finally, the study described the relationship between aerosol–cloud precipitation based on observation over the region.
África Barreto, Rosa D. García, Carmen Guirado-Fuentes, Emilio Cuevas, A. Fernando Almansa, Celia Milford, Carlos Toledano, Francisco J. Expósito, Juan P. Díaz, and Sergio F. León-Luis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11105–11124,Short summary
A comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic has been carried out in this paper using long-term ground AERONET photometric observations over the period 2005–2020 from a unique network made up of four stations strategically located from sea level to 3555 m height on the island of Tenerife. This is a region that can be considered a key location to study the seasonal dependence of dust transport from the Sahel-Sahara.
Xiaoxi Zhao, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, and Sabur F. Abdullaev
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10389–10407,Short summary
Long-range transport of Asian dust to the Arctic was considered an important source of Arctic air pollution. Different transport routes to the Arctic had divergent effects on the evolution of aerosol properties. Depositions of long-range-transported dust particles can reduce the Arctic surface albedo considerably. This study implied that the ubiquitous long-transport dust from China exerted considerable aerosol indirect effects on the Arctic and may have potential biogeochemical significance.
Katherine T. Junghenn Noyes, Ralph A. Kahn, James A. Limbacher, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10267–10290,Short summary
We compare retrievals of wildfire smoke particle size, shape, and light absorption from the MISR satellite instrument to modeling and other satellite data on land cover type, drought conditions, meteorology, and estimates of fire intensity (fire radiative power – FRP). We find statistically significant differences in the particle properties based on burning conditions and land cover type, and we interpret how changes in these properties point to specific aerosol aging mechanisms.
David W. Fillmore, David A. Rutan, Seiji Kato, Fred G. Rose, and Thomas E. Caldwell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10115–10137,Short summary
This paper presents an evaluation of the aerosol analysis incorporated into the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data products as well as the aerosols' impact on solar radiation reaching the surface. CERES is a NASA Earth observation mission with instruments flying on various polar-orbiting satellites. Its primary objective is the study of the radiative energy balance of the climate system as well as examination of the influence of clouds and aerosols on this balance.
Peng Xian, Jianglong Zhang, Norm T. O'Neill, Travis D. Toth, Blake Sorenson, Peter R. Colarco, Zak Kipling, Edward J. Hyer, James R. Campbell, Jeffrey S. Reid, and Keyvan Ranjbar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9915–9947,Short summary
The study provides baseline Arctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth climatology, trend, and extreme event statistics from 2003 to 2019 using a combination of aerosol reanalyses, remote sensing, and ground observations. Biomass burning smoke has an overwhelming contribution to black carbon (an efficient climate forcer) compared to anthropogenic sources. Burning's large interannual variability and increasing summer trend have important implications for the Arctic climate.
Harshvardhan Harshvardhan, Richard Ferrare, Sharon Burton, Johnathan Hair, Chris Hostetler, David Harper, Anthony Cook, Marta Fenn, Amy Jo Scarino, Eduard Chemyakin, and Detlef Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9859–9876,Short summary
The evolution of aerosol in biomass burning smoke plumes that travel over marine clouds off the Atlantic coast of central Africa was studied using measurements made by a lidar deployed on a high-altitude aircraft. The main finding was that the physical properties of aerosol do not change appreciably once the plume has left land and travels over the ocean over a timescale of 1 to 2 d. Almost all particles in the plume are of radius less than 1 micrometer and spherical in shape.
Peng Xian, Jianglong Zhang, Norm T. O'Neill, Jeffrey S. Reid, Travis D. Toth, Blake Sorenson, Edward J. Hyer, James R. Campbell, and Keyvan Ranjbar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9949–9967,Short summary
The study provides a baseline Arctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth climatology, trend, and extreme event statistics from 2003 to 2019 using a combination of aerosol reanalyses, remote sensing, and ground observations. Biomass burning smoke has an overwhelming contribution to black carbon (an efficient climate forcer) compared to anthropogenic sources. Burning's large interannual variability and increasing summer trend have important implications for the Arctic climate.
Sudip Chakraborty, Bin Guan, Duane E. Waliser, and Arlindo M. da Silva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8175–8195,Short summary
This study explores extreme aerosol transport events by aerosol atmospheric rivers (AARs) and shows the characteristics of individual AARs such as length, width, length-to-width ratio, transport strength, and dominant transport direction, the seasonal variations, the relationship to the spatial distribution of surface emissions, the vertical profiles of wind, aerosol mixing ratio, and aerosol mass fluxes, and the major planetary-scale aerosol transport pathways.
Guangyao Dai, Kangwen Sun, Xiaoye Wang, Songhua Wu, Xiangying E, Qi Liu, and Bingyi Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7975–7993,Short summary
In this paper, a Sahara dust event is tracked with the spaceborne lidars ALADIN and CALIOP and the models ECMWF and HYSPLIT. The performance of ALADIN and CALIOP on tracking the dust event and on the observations of dust optical properties and wind fields during the dust transport is evaluated. The dust mass advection is defined, which is calculated with the combination of data from ALADIN and CALIOP coupled with the products from models to describe the dust transport quantitatively.
Ke Gui, Wenrui Yao, Huizheng Che, Linchang An, Yu Zheng, Lei Li, Hujia Zhao, Lei Zhang, Junting Zhong, Yaqiang Wang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7905–7932,Short summary
This study investigates the aerosol optical and radiative properties and meteorological drivers during two mega SDS events over Northern China in March 2021. The MODIS-retrieved DOD data registered these two events as the most intense episode in the same period in history over the past 20 years. These two extreme SDS events were associated with both atmospheric circulation extremes and local meteorological anomalies that favor enhanced dust emissions in the Gobi Desert.
Manuel Gutleben, Silke Groß, Christian Heske, and Martin Wirth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7319–7330,Short summary
The main transportation route of Saharan mineral dust particles leads over the subtropical Atlantic Ocean and is subject to a seasonal variation. This study investigates the characteristics of wintertime transatlantic dust transport towards the Caribbean by means of airborne lidar measurements. It is found that dust particles are transported at low atmospheric altitudes (<3.5 km) embedded in a relatively moist mixture with two other particle types, namely marine and biomass-burning particles.
Goutam Choudhury, Albert Ansmann, and Matthias Tesche
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7143–7161,Short summary
Lidars provide height-resolved type-specific aerosol properties and are key in studying vertically collocated aerosols and clouds. In this study, we compare the aerosol number concentrations derived from spaceborne lidar with the in situ flight measurements. Our results show a reasonable agreement between both datasets. Such an agreement has not been achieved yet. It shows the potential of spaceborne lidar in studying aerosol–cloud interactions, which is needed to improve our climate forecasts.
Nair K. Kala, Narayana Sarma Anand, Mohanan R. Manoj, Harshavardhana S. Pathak, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, and Sreedharan K. Satheesh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6067–6085,Short summary
We present the 3-D distribution of atmospheric aerosols and highlight its variation with respect to longitudes over the Indian mainland and the surrounding oceans using long-term satellite observations and realistic synthesised data. The atmospheric heating due to the 3-D distribution of aerosols is estimated using radiative transfer calculations. We believe that our findings will have strong implications for aerosol–radiation interactions in regional climate simulations.
Archana Devi and Sreedharan K. Satheesh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5365–5376,Short summary
Global maps of aerosol absorption were generated using a multi-satellite retrieval algorithm. The retrieved values were validated with available aircraft-based measurements and compared with other global datasets. Seasonal and spatial distributions of aerosol absorption over various regions are also presented. The global maps of single scattering albedo with improved accuracy provide important input to climate models for assessing the climatic impact of aerosols on regional and global scales.
Qiaoyun Hu, Philippe Goloub, Igor Veselovskii, and Thierry Podvin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5399–5414,Short summary
Our lidar observations show that the optical properties of wildfire smoke particles are highly varied after long-range transport. The variabilities are probably relevant to vegetation type, combustion condition and the aging process, which alter the smoke particle properties, as well as their impact on cloud processes and properties. The lidar fluorescence channel provides a good opportunity for smoke characterization and heterogenous ice crystal formation.
Igor Veselovskii, Qiaoyun Hu, Albert Ansmann, Philippe Goloub, Thierry Podvin, and Mikhail Korenskiy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5209–5221,Short summary
A remote sensing method based on fluorescence lidar measurements can detect and quantify the smoke content in the upper troposphere and inside cirrus clouds. Based on two case studies, we demonstrate that the fluorescence lidar technique provides the possibility to estimate the smoke surface area concentration within freshly formed cirrus layers. This value was used in a smoke ice nucleating particle parameterization scheme to predict ice crystal number concentrations in cirrus generation cells.
Alexandru Mereuţă, Nicolae Ajtai, Andrei T. Radovici, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Lucia T. Deaconu, Camelia S. Botezan, Horaţiu I. Ştefănie, Doina Nicolae, and Alexandru Ozunu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5071–5098,Short summary
In this study we analysed oil smoke plumes from 30 major industrial events within a 12-year timeframe. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind that uses a synergetic approach based on satellite remote sensing techniques. Satellite data offer access to these events, which are mainly located in war-prone or hazardous areas. Our study highlights the need for improved aerosol models and algorithms for these types of aerosols with implications on air quality and climate change.
Xiaoxia Shang, Holger Baars, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Ina Mattis, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3931–3944,Short summary
This study reports pollen observations at four lidar stations (Hohenpeißenberg, Germany; Kuopio, Finland; Leipzig, Germany; and Warsaw, Poland) during the intensive observation campaign organized in May 2020. A novel simple method for the characterization of the pure pollen is proposed, based on lidar measurements. It was applied to evaluate the pollen depolarization ratio and for the aerosol classifications.
Meloë S. F. Kacenelenbogen, Qian Tan, Sharon P. Burton, Otto P. Hasekamp, Karl D. Froyd, Yohei Shinozuka, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Luke Ziemba, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jack E. Dibb, Taylor Shingler, Armin Sorooshian, Reed W. Espinosa, Vanderlei Martins, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Joshua P. Schwarz, Matthew S. Johnson, Jens Redemann, and Gregory L. Schuster
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3713–3742,Short summary
The impact of aerosols on Earth's radiation budget and human health is important and strongly depends on their composition. One desire of our scientific community is to derive the composition of the aerosol from satellite sensors. However, satellites observe aerosol optical properties (and not aerosol composition) based on remote sensing instrumentation. This study assesses how much aerosol optical properties can tell us about aerosol composition.
Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Vassilis Amiridis, Stelios Kazadzis, Enza Di Tomaso, Eleni Marinou, Nikos Hatzianastassiou, Jasper F. Kok, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3553–3578,Short summary
We present a comprehensive climatological analysis of dust optical depth (DOD) relying on the MIDAS dataset. MIDAS provides columnar mid-visible (550 nm) DOD at fine spatial resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) over a 15-year period (2003–2017). In the current study, the analysis is performed at various spatial (from regional to global) and temporal (from months to years) scales. More specifically, focus is given to specific regions hosting the major dust sources as well as downwind areas of the planet.
Michaël Sicard, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, María-Ángeles López-Cayuela, Albert Ansmann, Adolfo Comerón, María-Paz Zorzano, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, and Constantino Muñoz-Porcar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1921–1937,Short summary
This paper completes the companion paper of Córdoba-Jabonero et al. (2021). We estimate the total direct radiative effect produced by mineral dust particles during the June 2019 mega-heatwave at two sites in Spain and Germany. The results show that the dust particles in the atmosphere contribute to cooling the surface (less radiation reaches the surface) and that the heatwave (parametrized by high surface and air temperatures) contributes to reducing this cooling.
Keyvan Ranjbar, Norm T. O'Neill, and Yasmin Aboel-Fetouh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1757–1760,Short summary
We argue that the illustration employed by Huang et al. (2015) to demonstrate the transport of Asian dust to the high Arctic was, in fact, largely a cloud event and that the actual impact of Asian dust was measurable but much weaker than what they proposed and had occurred a day earlier (in agreement with the transport model they had employed to predict the transport path to the high Arctic).
Jesús Abril-Gago, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Maria João Costa, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Michaël Sicard, Diego Bermejo-Pantaleón, Daniele Bortoli, María José Granados-Muñoz, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, Adolfo Comerón, Pablo Ortiz-Amezcua, Vanda Salgueiro, Marta María Jiménez-Martín, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1425–1451,Short summary
A validation of Aeolus reprocessed optical products is carried out via an intercomparison with ground-based measurements taken at several ACTRIS/EARLINET stations in western Europe. Case studies and a statistical analysis are presented. The stations are located in a hot spot between Africa and the rest of Europe, which guarantees a variety of aerosol types, from mineral dust layers to continental/anthropogenic aerosol, and allows us to test Aeolus performance under different scenarios.
Sujung Go, Alexei Lyapustin, Gregory L. Schuster, Myungje Choi, Paul Ginoux, Mian Chin, Olga Kalashnikova, Oleg Dubovik, Jhoon Kim, Arlindo da Silva, Brent Holben, and Jeffrey S. Reid
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1395–1423,Short summary
This paper presents a retrieval algorithm of iron-oxide species (hematite, goethite) content in the atmosphere from DSCOVR EPIC observations. Our results display variations within the published range of hematite and goethite over the main dust-source regions but show significant seasonal and spatial variability. This implies a single-viewing satellite instrument with UV–visible channels may provide essential information on shortwave dust direct radiative effects for climate modeling.
Patrick Chazette, Alexandre Baron, and Cyrille Flamant
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1271–1292,Short summary
Within the framework of the international EUREC4A project, horizontal lidar measurements were carried out over Barbados from the French research aircraft ATR-42. These measurements highlighted the strong heterogeneity of the aerosol field (mainly dust and biomass burning aerosols) and therefore of the associated optical properties. This heterogeneity varies according to meteorological conditions and could significantly modulate the climatic impact of aerosols trapped over the tropical Atlantic.
África Barreto, Emilio Cuevas, Rosa D. García, Judit Carrillo, Joseph M. Prospero, Luka Ilić, Sara Basart, Alberto J. Berjón, Carlos L. Marrero, Yballa Hernández, Juan José Bustos, Slobodan Ničković, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 739–763,Short summary
In this study, we categorise the different patterns of dust transport over the subtropical North Atlantic and for the first time robustly describe the dust vertical distribution in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) over this region. Our results revealed the important role that both dust and water vapour play in the radiative balance in summer and winter and confirm the role of the SAL in the formation of mid-level clouds as a result of the activation of heterogeneous ice nucleation processes.
Lixing Shen, Chuanfeng Zhao, Xingchuan Yang, Yikun Yang, and Ping Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 419–439,Short summary
Using multi-year data, this study reveals the slump of sea land breeze (SLB) at Brisbane during mega fires and investigates the impact of fire-induced aerosols on SLB. Different aerosols have different impacts on sea wind (SW) and land wind (LW). Aerosols cause the decrease of SW, partially offset by the warming effect of black carbon (BC). The large-scale cooling effect of aerosols on sea surface temperature (SST) and the burst of BC contribute to the slump of LW.
Xinqi Xu, Jielan Xie, Yuman Li, Shengjie Miao, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 139–153,Short summary
The effect of meteorological elements on the three-dimensional distribution structure of particles was studied by making vehicle-based multi-lidar observations in the western Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area of China. Results showed that distribution of particles was closely related to horizontal wind speed and direction, vertical wind speed, and temperature. A model for meteorological elements affecting the vertical distribution of urban particles was offered in this study.
Manu Anna Thomas, Abhay Devasthale, and Michael Kahnert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 119–137,Short summary
The Southern Ocean (SO) covers a large area of our planet and its boundary layer is dominated by sea salt aerosols during winter. These aerosols have large implications for the regional climate through their direct and indirect effects. Using satellite and reanalysis data, we document if and how the aerosol properties over the SO are dependent on different local meteorological parameters. Such an observational assessment is necessary to improve the understanding of atmospheric aerosol processes.
Qingqing He, Mengya Wang, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18375–18391,Short summary
We explore the spatiotemporal relationship between PM2.5 and AOD over China using a multi-scale analysis with MODIS MAIAC 1 km aerosol observations and ground measurements. The impact factors (vertical distribution, relative humidity and terrain) on the relationship are quantitatively studied. Our results provide significant information on PM2.5 and AOD, which is informative for mapping high-resolution PM2.5 and furthering the understanding of aerosol properties and the PM2.5 pollution status.
Michaël Sicard, Oriol Jorba, Jiang Ji Ho, Rebeca Izquierdo, Concepción De Linares, Marta Alarcón, Adolfo Comerón, and Jordina Belmonte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17807–17832,Short summary
This paper investigates the mechanisms involved in the dispersion, structure, and mixing in the vertical column of atmospheric pollen, using observations of pollen concentration obtained at the ground and its stratification in the atmosphere measured by a lidar (laser radar), as well as an atmospheric transport model and a simplified pollen module developed especially for this study. The largest pollen concentration difference between the ground and the layers above is observed during nighttime.
Jianping Guo, Jian Zhang, Kun Yang, Hong Liao, Shaodong Zhang, Kaiming Huang, Yanmin Lv, Jia Shao, Tao Yu, Bing Tong, Jian Li, Tianning Su, Steve H. L. Yim, Ad Stoffelen, Panmao Zhai, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17079–17097,Short summary
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowest part of the troposphere, and boundary layer height (BLH) is the depth of the PBL and is of critical importance to the dispersion of air pollution. The study presents the first near-global BLH climatology by using high-resolution (5-10 m) radiosonde measurements. The variations in BLH exhibit large spatial and temporal dependence, with a peak at 17:00 local solar time. The most promising reanalysis product is ERA-5 in terms of modeling BLH.
Yingying Ma, Yang Zhu, Boming Liu, Hui Li, Shikuan Jin, Yiqun Zhang, Ruonan Fan, and Wei Gong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17003–17016,Short summary
The vertical distribution of the aerosol extinction coefficient (EC) measured by lidar systems has been used to retrieve the profile of particle matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). However, the traditional linear model cannot consider the influence of multiple meteorological variables sufficiently, which then causes low inversion accuracy. In this study, the machine learning algorithms which can input multiple features are used to solve this constraint.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Jared F. Brewer, Ke Li, Jonathan M. Moch, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Hyunkwang Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Su Keun Kuk, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Xuan Wang, Pengfei Liu, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Katherine R. Travis, Johnathan W. Hair, Bruce E. Anderson, Jack E. Dibb, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Qiang Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16775–16791,Short summary
Geostationary satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) has tremendous potential for monitoring surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our study explored the physical relationship between AOD and PM2.5 by integrating data from surface networks, aircraft, and satellites with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We quantitatively showed that accurate simulation of aerosol size distributions, boundary layer depths, relative humidity, coarse particles, and diurnal variations in PM2.5 are essential.
Ke Gui, Huizheng Che, Yu Zheng, Hujia Zhao, Wenrui Yao, Lei Li, Lei Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15309–15336,Short summary
This study utilized the globally gridded aerosol extinction data from CALIOP during 2007–2019 to investigate the 3D climatology, trends, and meteorological drivers of tropospheric type-dependent aerosols. Results revealed that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere contribute 62.08 % and 37.92 %, respectively, of the global tropospheric TAOD. Trends in CALIOP-derived aerosol loading, in particular those partitioned in the PBL, can be explained to a large extent by meteorology.
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A new methodology was developed for retrieving the daily direct radiative forcing of smoke aerosols (24h-DARF) using satellite remote sensing. This method was used to assess the DARF at high temporal resolution and over a large area in Amazonia. We showed that our methodology considerably reduces statistical sources of uncertainties in the estimate of the DARF. DARF assessments using the new methodology agree well with ground-based measurements and radiative transfer models.
A new methodology was developed for retrieving the daily direct radiative forcing of smoke...