Articles | Volume 14, issue 13
Research article 04 Jul 2014
Research article | 04 Jul 2014
Changes in atmospheric aerosol loading retrieved from space-based measurements during the past decade
J. Yoon et al.
No articles found.
Elizaveta Malinina, Alexei Rozanov, Ulrike Niemeier, Sandra Wallis, Carlo Arosio, Felix Wrana, Claudia Timmreck, Christian von Savigny, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14871–14891,Short summary
In the paper, changes in the stratospheric aerosol loading after the 2018 Ambae eruption were analyzed using OMPS-LP observations. The eruption was also simulated with the MAECHAM5-HAM global climate model. Generally, the model and observations agree very well. We attribute the good consistency of the results to a precisely determined altitude and mass of the volcanic injection, as well as nudging of the meteorological data. The radiative forcing from the eruption was estimated to be −0.13 W m−2.
Nora Mettig, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Carlo Arosio, John P. Burrows, Pepijn Veefkind, Anne M. Thompson, Richard Querel, Thierry Leblanc, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Rigel Kivi, and Matthew B. Tully
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6057–6082,Short summary
TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing satellite that has observed global atmospheric trace gases at unprecedented spatial resolution since 2017. The retrieval of ozone profiles with high accuracy has been demonstrated using the TOPAS (Tikhonov regularised Ozone Profile retrievAl with SCIATRAN) algorithm and applying appropriate spectral corrections to TROPOMI UV data. Ozone profiles from TROPOMI were compared to ozonesonde and lidar profiles, showing an agreement to within 5 % in the stratosphere.
Kai Krause, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Denis Pöhler, Andreas Weigelt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5791–5807,Short summary
Ships are an important source of key pollutants. Usually, these are measured aboard the ship or on the coast using in situ instruments. This study shows how active optical remote sensing can be used to measure ship emissions and how to determine emission rates of individual ships out of those measurements. These emission rates are valuable input for the assessment of the influence of shipping emissions in regions close to the shipping lanes.
Andrea Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Carlo Arosio, Annette Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5771–5789,Short summary
OMPS/NPP (2012–present) allows obtaining the tropospheric ozone column by combining ozone data from limb and nadir observations from the same instrument platform. In a first step, the retrieval of the total ozone column from the OMPS Nadir Mapper using the weighting function fitting approach (WFFA) is described here. The OMPS total ozone was compared with ground-based and other satellite measurements, showing agreement within 2.5 %.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Klausner, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, Jose L. Gomez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John Phillip Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in-situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Lily N. Zhang, Susan Solomon, Kane A. Stone, Jonathan D. Shanklin, Joshua D. Eveson, Steve Colwell, John P. Burrows, Mark Weber, Pieternel F. Levelt, Natalya A. Kramarova, and David P. Haffner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9829–9838,Short summary
In the 1980s, measurements at the British Antarctic Survey station in Halley, Antarctica, led to the discovery of the ozone hole. The Halley total ozone record continues to be uniquely valuable for studies of long-term changes in Antarctic ozone. Environmental conditions in 2017 forced a temporary cessation of operations, leading to a gap in the historic record. We develop and test a method for filling in the Halley record using satellite data and find evidence to further support ozone recovery.
Linlu Mei, Vladimir Rozanov, Christine Pohl, Marco Vountas, and John P. Burrows
The Cryosphere, 15, 2757–2780,Short summary
This paper presents a new snow property retrieval algorithm from satellite observations. This is Part 1 of two companion papers and shows the method description and sensitivity study. The paper investigates the major factors, including the assumptions of snow optical properties, snow particle distribution and atmospheric conditions (cloud and aerosol), impacting snow property retrievals from satellite observation.
Linlu Mei, Vladimir Rozanov, Evelyn Jäkel, Xiao Cheng, Marco Vountas, and John P. Burrows
The Cryosphere, 15, 2781–2802,Short summary
This paper presents a new snow property retrieval algorithm from satellite observations. This is Part 2 of two companion papers and shows the results and validation. The paper performs the new retrieval algorithm on the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) instrument and compares the retrieved snow properties with ground-based measurements, aircraft measurements and other satellite products.
Tobias Küchler, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, John Philip Burrows, Thomas Wagner, Christian Borger, Tobias Borsdorff, and Andreas Schneider
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
We applied the Air Mass Corrected Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMC-DOAS) method to derive total column water vapour (TCWV) from Sentinel 5p measurements and compared it to independent data sets. The correlation coefficients of typically more than 0.9 and the small deviations up to 2.5 kg m−2 reveal good agreement between our data product and other TCWV data sets. Especially for the different Sentinel 5p water vapour products the deviations are around 1 kg m−2.
Daniel Zawada, Ghislain Franssens, Robert Loughman, Antti Mikkonen, Alexei Rozanov, Claudia Emde, Adam Bourassa, Seth Dueck, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Didier Ramon, Vladimir Rozanov, Emmanuel Dekemper, Erkki Kyrölä, John P. Burrows, Didier Fussen, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3953–3972,Short summary
Satellite measurements of atmospheric composition often rely on computer tools known as radiative transfer models to model the propagation of sunlight within the atmosphere. Here we have performed a detailed inter-comparison of seven different radiative transfer models in a variety of conditions. We have found that the models agree remarkably well, at a level better than previously reported. This result provides confidence in our understanding of atmospheric radiative transfer.
Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Hilker, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, Matthias Buschmann, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, James R. Podolske, David F. Pollard, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Kei Shiomi, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3837–3869,Short summary
We present the first GOSAT and GOSAT-2 XCO2 data derived with the FOCAL retrieval algorithm. Comparisons of the GOSAT-FOCAL product with other data reveal long-term agreement within about 1 ppm over 1 decade, differences in seasonal variations of about 0.5 ppm, and a mean regional bias to ground-based TCCON data of 0.56 ppm with a mean scatter of 1.89 ppm. GOSAT-2-FOCAL data are preliminary only, but first comparisons show that they compare well with the GOSAT-FOCAL results and TCCON.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Monika Szeląg, Johanna Tamminen, Erkki Kyrölä, Doug Degenstein, Chris Roth, Daniel Zawada, Alexei Rozanov, Carlo Arosio, John P. Burrows, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Lucien Froidevaux, Nathaniel Livesey, Michel van Roozendael, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6707–6720,Short summary
The MErged GRIdded Dataset of Ozone Profiles is a long-term (2001–2018) stratospheric ozone profile climate data record with resolved longitudinal structure that combines the data from six limb satellite instruments. The dataset can be used for various analyses, some of which are discussed in the paper. In particular, regionally and vertically resolved ozone trends are evaluated, including trends in the polar regions.
Kezia Lange, Andreas Richter, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In this study, we investigated short time variability of NOx emissions and lifetimes on a global scale. We combined two years of satellite Sentinel-5P TROPOMI tropospheric NO2 column data with wind data. 45 NOx sources distributed around the world are analyzed. The retrieved emissions show a clear seasonal dependence. NOx lifetime shows a latitudinal dependence but only a week seasonal dependence. NOx emissions show a clear weekly pattern which in contrast is not visible for NOx lifetimes.
Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Stefan Noël, Klaus Bramstedt, Oliver Schneising, Michael Hilker, Blanca Fuentes Andrade, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Antonio Di Noia, Hartmut Boesch, Lianghai Wu, Jochen Landgraf, Ilse Aben, Christian Retscher, Christopher W. O'Dell, and David Crisp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2141–2166,Short summary
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduced anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during 2020 in large parts of the world. We have used a small ensemble of satellite retrievals of column-averaged CO2 (XCO2) to find out if a regional-scale reduction of atmospheric CO2 can be detected from space. We focus on East China and show that it is challenging to reliably detect and to accurately quantify the emission reduction, which only results in regional XCO2 reductions of about 0.1–0.2 ppm.
Jakob Borchardt, Konstantin Gerilowski, Sven Krautwurst, Heinrich Bovensmann, Andrew K. Thorpe, David R. Thompson, Christian Frankenberg, Charles E. Miller, Riley M. Duren, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1267–1291,Short summary
The AVIRIS-NG hyperspectral imager has been used successfully to identify and quantify anthropogenic methane sources utilizing different retrieval and inversion methods. Here, we examine the adaption and application of the WFM-DOAS algorithm to AVIRIS-NG measurements to retrieve local methane column enhancements, compare the results with other retrievals, and quantify the uncertainties resulting from the retrieval method. Additionally, we estimate emissions from five detected methane plumes.
Soheila Jafariserajehlou, Vladimir V. Rozanov, Marco Vountas, Charles K. Gatebe, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 369–389,Short summary
In this work, we study retrieval of snow grain morphologies and their impact on the reflectance in a coupled snow–atmosphere system. We present a sensitivity study to highlight the importance of having adequate information about snow and atmosphere. A novel two-stage algorithm for retrieving the size and shape of snow grains is presented. The reflectance simulation results are compared to that of airborne measurements; high correlations of 0.98 at IR and 0.88–0.98 at VIS are achieved.
Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, Michael Buchwitz, Jakob Borchardt, Sven Krautwurst, Konstantin Gerilowski, Matthias Lindauer, Dagmar Kubistin, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 153–172,Short summary
CO2 measurements from a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) can provide a cost-effective way to complement and validate satellite-based measurements of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We introduce an sUAS which is capable of determining atmospheric CO2 mass fluxes from its own sensor data. We show results of validation flights at the ICOS atmospheric station in Steinkimmen and from demonstration flights downwind a CO2-emitting natural gas processing facility.
Sven Krautwurst, Konstantin Gerilowski, Jakob Borchardt, Norman Wildmann, Michal Galkowski, Justyna Swolkien, Julia Marshall, Alina Fiehn, Anke Roiger, Thomas Ruhtz, Christoph Gerbig, Jaroslaw Necki, John P. Burrows, Andreas Fix, and Heinrich Bovensmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The study reports on observations from the passive airborne remote sensing instrument MAMAP, from which atmospheric CH4 column anomalies are retrieved to investigate CH4 emissions from coal mine shafts in Poland. Emissions from small groups of shafts have successfully been computed from the anomalies and compared to inventory data. The comparison revealed that caution is required if inventory data is only available on an annual basis and that an exact source assignment requires 2D instruments.
Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Nikos Daskalakis, Angelos Gkouvousis, Andreas Hilboll, Twan van Noije, Jason E. Williams, Philippe Le Sager, Vincent Huijnen, Sander Houweling, Tommi Bergman, Johann Rasmus Nüß, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Maria Kanakidou, and Maarten C. Krol
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5507–5548,Short summary
This work documents and evaluates the detailed tropospheric gas-phase chemical mechanism MOGUNTIA in the three-dimensional chemistry transport model TM5-MP. The Rosenbrock solver, as generated by the KPP software, is implemented in the chemistry code, which can successfully replace the classical Euler backward integration method. The MOGUNTIA scheme satisfactorily simulates a large suite of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are observed in the atmosphere at significant levels.
Sora Seo, Andreas Richter, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Ilias Bougoudis, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12285–12312,Short summary
In this study, we present spatial distributions of occurrence frequency of enhanced total BrO column and various meteorological parameters affecting it in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice regions by using 10 years of GOME-2 measurements and meteorological model data. Statistical analysis using the long-term dataset shows clear differences in the meteorological conditions between the mean field and the situation of enhanced total BrO columns in both polar sea ice regions.
Ilias Bougoudis, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Andreas Richter, Sora Seo, John Philip Burrows, Nicolas Theys, and Annette Rinke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11869–11892,Short summary
A 22-year (1996 to 2017) consistent Arctic tropospheric BrO dataset derived from four satellite remote sensing instruments is presented. An increase in tropospheric BrO VCDs over this period, and especially during polar springs, can be seen. Comparisons of tropospheric BrO VCDs with first-year sea ice reveal a moderate spatial and temporal correlation between the two, suggesting that the increase in first-year sea ice in the Arctic has an impact on tropospheric BrO abundancies.
Stefan Noël, Klaus Bramstedt, Alexei Rozanov, Elizaveta Malinina, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5643–5666,Short summary
A new approach to derive stratospheric aerosol extinction profiles from SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements based on an onion-peeling method is presented. The resulting extinctions at 452, 525 and 750 nm compare well with other limb and occultation data from, e.g. SAGE and SCIAMACHY, but show small oscillating features which vanish in monthly anomalies. Major volcanic eruptions, polar stratospheric clouds and influences of the quasi-biennial oscillation can be identified in the time series.
Hirofumi Ohyama, Isamu Morino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Theresa Klausner, Gerry Bagtasa, Matthäus Kiel, Matthias Frey, Akihiro Hori, Osamu Uchino, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Alina Fiehn, Anke Roiger, Michael Lichtenstern, Hans Schlager, Pao K. Wang, Charles C.-K. Chou, Maria Dolores Andrés-Hernández, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5149–5163,Short summary
Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 measured by a solar viewing portable Fourier transform spectrometer (EM27/SUN) were validated with in situ profile data obtained during the transfer flights of two aircraft campaigns. Atmospheric dynamical properties based on ERA5 and WRF-Chem were used as criteria for selecting the best aircraft profiles for the validation. The resulting air-mass-independent correction factors for the EM27/SUN data were 0.9878 for CO2 and 0.9829 for CH4.
Yang Wang, Arnoud Apituley, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Nuria Benavent, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Henning Finkenzeller, Martina M. Friedrich, Udo Frieß, David Garcia-Nieto, Laura Gómez-Martín, François Hendrick, Andreas Hilboll, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Theodore K. Koenig, Karin Kreher, Vinod Kumar, Aleksandra Kyuberis, Johannes Lampel, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Oleg L. Polyansky, Oleg Postylyakov, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Stefan Schmitt, Xin Tian, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Michel Van Roozendael, Rainer Volkamer, Zhuoru Wang, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5087–5116,
Oliver Schneising, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Steffen Vanselow, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9169–9182,Short summary
The switch from the use of coal to natural gas or oil for energy generation potentially reduces the impact on global warming due to lower CO2 emissions with the same energy content. However, this climate benefit is offset by fugitive methane emissions during the production and distribution process. We quantify emission and leakage rates relative to production for several large production regions based on satellite observations to evaluate the climate footprint of the gas and oil industry.
Tina Hilbig, Klaus Bramstedt, Mark Weber, John P. Burrows, and Matthijs Krijger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3893–3907,Short summary
One of the main limitations for long-term space-based measurements is instrument degradation. We present an optimisation of the degradation correction approach (Krijger et al. 2014) for SCIAMACHY on-board Envisat, focusing on the improvement of the solar spectral irradiance data. The main achievement of this study is the successful integration of SCIAMACHY’s internal white light source (WLS) into the existing degradation model and the characterisation of WLS ageing in space.
Steven Compernolle, Tijl Verhoelst, Gaia Pinardi, José Granville, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Sander Niemeijer, Bruno Rino, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Folkert Boersma, John P. Burrows, Isabelle De Smedt, Henk Eskes, Florence Goutail, François Hendrick, Alba Lorente, Andrea Pazmino, Ankie Piters, Enno Peters, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Jos van Geffen, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, and Jean-Christopher Lambert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8017–8045,Short summary
Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 columns from the OMI QA4ECV NO2 satellite product are validated by comparison with ground-based measurements at 11 sites. The OMI stratospheric column has a small negative bias, and the OMI tropospheric column has a stronger negative bias relative to the ground-based data. Discrepancies are attributed to comparison errors (e.g. difference in horizontal smoothing) and measurement errors (e.g. clouds, aerosols, vertical smoothing and a priori proﬁle assumptions).
Midhun George, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Yangzhuoran Liu, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2577–2600,Short summary
The accurate measurement of peroxy radicals is essential for understanding the chemistry of air masses probed in the free troposphere. The PeRCEAS instrument has been designed, developed and thoroughly characterised for the measurement of the total sum of peroxy radicals (RO2*) aboard airborne platforms. Parameters expected to affect the precision and accuracy of the measurement have been investigated in detail.
Oliver Schneising, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3317–3332,Short summary
As a consequence of climate change, droughts in California are occurring more often, providing ample fuel for destructive wildfires. The associated smoke is reducing air quality as it contains pollutants considered harmful to public health and the environment such as carbon monoxide (CO). We analyse the statewide distribution of CO during the first days of two specific wildfires using satellite measurements and assess the corresponding air quality burden in major Californian cities.
Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Joaquim Arteta, Adriana Coman, Lyana Curier, Henk Eskes, Gilles Foret, Clio Gielen, Francois Hendrick, Virginie Marécal, Frédérik Meleux, Jonathan Parmentier, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie J. M. Piters, Matthieu Plu, Andreas Richter, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Álvaro M. Valdebenito, Michel Van Roozendael, Julius Vira, Tim Vlemmix, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2795–2823,Short summary
MAX-DOAS tropospheric NO2 vertical column retrievals from a set of European measurement stations are compared to regional air quality models which contribute to the operational Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Correlations are on the order of 35 %–75 %; large differences occur for individual pollution plumes. The results demonstrate that future model development needs to concentrate on improving representation of diurnal cycles and associated temporal scalings.
Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Andreas Richter, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Andreas Hilboll, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Oliver Schneising, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2057–2072,Short summary
We present CHOCHO and HCHO columns retrieved from measurements by TROPOMI. Elevated amounts of CHOCHO and HCHO are observed during the fire season in BC, Canada, where a large number of fires occurred in 2018. CHOCHO and HCHO plumes from individual fires are observed in air masses travelling over distances of up to 1500 km. Comparison with FLEXPART simulations with different lifetimes shows that effective lifetimes of 20 h and more are needed to explain the observations.
Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Antonio Di Noia, Jasdeep Anand, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Lianghai Wu, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Kei Shiomi, Yukio Yoshida, Isamu Morino, David Crisp, Christopher W. O'Dell, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Rigel Kivi, David F. Pollard, Frank Hase, Ralf Sussmann, Yao V. Té, Kimberly Strong, Sébastien Roche, Mahesh K. Sha, Martine De Mazière, Dietrich G. Feist, Laura T. Iraci, Coleen M. Roehl, Christian Retscher, and Dinand Schepers
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 789–819,Short summary
We present new satellite-derived data sets of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The data products are column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4. The products cover the years 2003–2018 and are merged Level 2 (satellite footprints) and merged Level 3 (gridded at monthly time and 5° x 5° spatial resolution) products obtained from combining several individual sensor products. We present the merging algorithms and product validation results.
Oliver Schneising, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Tobias Borsdorff, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Christian Hermans, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Jochen Landgraf, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Sébastien Roche, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6771–6802,Short summary
We introduce an algorithm that is used to simultaneously derive the abundances of the important atmospheric constituents carbon monoxide and methane from the TROPOMI instrument onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, which enables the determination of both gases with an unprecedented level of detail on a global scale. The quality of the resulting data sets is assessed and the first results are presented.
André Seyler, Andreas C. Meier, Folkard Wittrock, Lisa Kattner, Barbara Mathieu-Üffing, Enno Peters, Andreas Richter, Thomas Ruhtz, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan Schmolke, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5959–5977,Short summary
This study describes a novel application of an
onion-peelingapproach to MAX-DOAS measurements of shipping emissions to study the inhomogeneous NO2 field above a shipping lane. It is shown how the method can be used to derive the approximate plume positions in the observed area, and, by using a simple Gaussian plume model, to calculate in-plume NO2 volume mixing ratios. For validation, a comparison to airborne imaging DOAS measurements during the NOSE campaign in July 2013 is included.
Lisa K. Behrens, Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Folkard Wittrock, John P. Burrows, and Mihalis Vrekoussis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10257–10278,Short summary
MAX-DOAS measurements were conducted on the research vessel Maria S. Merian during a cruise from the Azores to South Africa in October 2016. The measurements indicate enhanced levels of HCHO and CHOCHO over the remote Atlantic Ocean, which is unexpected due to their short lifetime. Precursors of these gases or gas–aerosol combinations might be transported. Model simulations indicate potential source regions over the African continent, probably related to biomass burning or biogenic emissions.
Enno Peters, Mareike Ostendorf, Tim Bösch, André Seyler, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, Jeroen Sebastiaan Henzing, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4171–4190,Short summary
A novel imaging-DOAS instrument (IMPACT) is presented for measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the atmosphere. The instrument combines full-azimuthal pointing (360°) with a large vertical coverage (40°). Complete panoramic scans and vertical NO2 profiles around the measurement site are acquired at a temporal resolution of 15 min. In addition, information about the aerosol phase function is retrieved from O4 slant columns along multiple almucantar scans measured simultaneously by IMPACT.
Dan Weaver, Kimberly Strong, Kaley A. Walker, Chris Sioris, Matthias Schneider, C. Thomas McElroy, Holger Vömel, Michael Sommer, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, John P. Burrows, William G. Read, Evan Fishbein, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4039–4063,Short summary
This work assesses water vapour profiles acquired by Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) using comparisons to radiosondes and ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer measurements acquired at a Canadian high Arctic measurement site in Eureka, Nunavut. Additional comparisons are made between these Eureka measurements and other water vapour satellite datasets for context, including AIRS, MLS, and others.
Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Sven Krautwurst, Christopher W. O'Dell, Andreas Richter, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9371–9383,Short summary
The quantification of anthropogenic emissions with current CO2 satellite sensors is difficult, but NO2 is co-emitted, making it a suitable tracer of recently emitted CO2. We analyze enhancements of CO2 and NO2 observed by OCO-2 and S5P and estimate the CO2 plume cross-sectional fluxes that we compare with emission databases. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of simultaneous satellite observations of CO2 and NO2 as envisaged for the European Copernicus anthropogenic CO2 monitoring mission
Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Rokjin J. Park, Gonzalo González Abad, Kelly Chance, Thomas P. Kurosu, Jhoon Kim, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Van Roozendael, Enno Peters, and John Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3551–3571,Short summary
The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) will be launched by South Korea in 2019, and it will measure radiances ranging from 300 to 500 nm every hour with a fine spatial resolution of 7 km x 8 km over Seoul in South Korea to monitor column concentrations of air pollutants including O3, NO2, SO2, and HCHO, as well as aerosol optical properties. This paper describes a GEMS formaldehyde retrieval algorithm including a number of sensitivity tests for algorithm evaluation.
Elizaveta Malinina, Alexei Rozanov, Landon Rieger, Adam Bourassa, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3485–3502,Short summary
This paper covers the problems related to the derivation of aerosol extinction coefficients and Ångström exponents from space-borne instruments working in limb and occultation viewing geometries. Aerosol extinction coefficients and Ångström exponents were calculated from the SCIAMACHY aerosol particle size data set. The results were compared with the data from SAGE II and OSIRIS. The Ångström exponent in the tropical regions and its dependency on particle size parameters are discussed.
Sora Seo, Andreas Richter, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Ilias Bougoudis, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2913–2932,Short summary
TROPOMI on board the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor platform can measure various atmospheric compositions at high spatial resolution and improved spectral resolution compared to its predecessors. Bromine monoxide (BrO) is one of the gases that can be derived from the measured radiances of TROPOMI using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy method. In this paper, we present the first retrieval results of BrO column amounts from TROPOMI observations on global and regional scales.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Michael Kiefer, Kaley A. Walker, Jean-Loup Bertaux, Laurent Blanot, James M. Russell, Ellis E. Remsberg, John C. Gille, Takafumi Sugita, Christopher E. Sioris, Bianca M. Dinelli, Enzo Papandrea, Piera Raspollini, Maya García-Comas, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Anu Dudhia, William G. Read, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Robert P. Damadeo, Joseph M. Zawodny, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, Stefan Noël, John P. Burrows, Hideo Sagawa, Yasuko Kasai, Joachim Urban, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Mark E. Hervig, Charlotta Högberg, Dale F. Hurst, and Karen H. Rosenlof
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2693–2732,
Stefan F. Schreier, Andreas Richter, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5853–5879,Short summary
In this case stuy, we have coupled ground-based remote-sensing measurements with surface in situ measurements to investigate NO2 distributions in the planetary boundary layer in the Viennese metropolitan area. We find that the application of a novel linear regression analysis for the conversion of tropospheric NO2 vertical columns into near-surface NO2 mixing ratios is promising and thus the method needs to be further explored and tested on satellite observations in future studies.
Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Elizaveta Malinina, Mark Weber, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2423–2444,Short summary
The aim of this study is the merging of stratospheric ozone profiles from three satellite data sets. The merged time series is used to compute long-term changes as a function of altitude, latitude and longitude to study the evolution of the ozone layer over 1985–2018. During the last 16 years we found positive trends in the upper stratosphere at mid latitudes, a large variability of the ozone changes as a function of longitude and a fluctuation in the tropical middle stratospheric trend.
Soheila Jafariserajehlou, Linlu Mei, Marco Vountas, Vladimir Rozanov, John P. Burrows, and Rainer Hollmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1059–1076,Short summary
We developed a new algorithm for cloud identification over the Arctic. This algorithm called ASCIA, utilizes time-series measurements of Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on Envisat and Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) on Sentinel-3A and -3B. The data product of ASCIA is compared with three satellite products: ASCIA shows an improved performance compared to them. We validated ASCIA by ground-based measurements and a promising agreement is achieved.
Stefan Bender, Miriam Sinnhuber, Patrick J. Espy, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2135–2147,Short summary
We present an empirical model for nitric oxide (NO) in the mesosphere (60–90 km) derived from SCIAMACHY limb scan data. Our model relates the daily (longitudinally) averaged NO number densities from SCIAMACHY as a function of geomagnetic latitude to the solar Lyman-alpha and the geomagnetic AE indices. We use a non-linear regression model, incorporating a finite and seasonally varying lifetime for the geomagnetically induced NO.
Evgenia Galytska, Alexey Rozanov, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip. S. Dhomse, Mark Weber, Carlo Arosio, Wuhu Feng, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 767–783,Short summary
In this study we analysed ozone changes in the tropical mid-stratosphere as observed by the SCIAMACHY instrument during 2004–2012. We used simulations from TOMCAT model with different chemical and dynamical forcings to reveal primary causes of ozone changes. We also considered measured NO2 and modelled NOx, NOx, and N2O data. With modelled AoA data we identified seasonal changes in the upwelling speed and explained how those changes affect N2O chemistry which leads to observed ozone changes.
Tim Bösch, Vladimir Rozanov, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Alexei Rozanov, Folkard Wittrock, Alexis Merlaud, Johannes Lampel, Stefan Schmitt, Marijn de Haij, Stijn Berkhout, Bas Henzing, Arnoud Apituley, Mirjam den Hoed, Jan Vonk, Martin Tiefengraber, Moritz Müller, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6833–6859,Short summary
A new MAX-DOAS profiling algorithm for aerosols and trace gases was developed. The performance of this novel algorithm was tested with the help of synthetic data and measurements from the CINDI-2 campaign in Cabauw, the Netherlands, in 2016.
Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Oliver Schneising, Stefan Noël, Bettina Gier, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Jasdeep Anand, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Rob G. Detmers, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, André Butz, Akihiko Kuze, Hiroshi Suto, Yukio Yoshida, David Crisp, and Christopher O'Dell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17355–17370,Short summary
We present a new satellite data set of column-averaged mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), which covers the time period 2003 to 2016. We used this data set to compute annual mean atmospheric CO2 growth rates. We show that the growth rate is highest during 2015 and 2016 despite nearly constant CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning in recent years. The high growth rates are attributed to year 2015-2016 El Nino episodes. We present correlations with fossil fuel emissions and ENSO indices.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Stefan Lossow, Gabriele P. Stiller, Karen H. Rosenlof, Joachim Urban, John P. Burrows, Robert P. Damadeo, Patrick Eriksson, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Michael Kiefer, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4435–4463,Short summary
Time series of stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour using 33 data sets from 15 satellite instruments were compared in the framework of the second SPARC water vapour assessment. We find that most data sets can be considered in observational and modelling studies addressing, e.g. stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour variability and trends if data-set-specific characteristics (e.g. a drift) and restrictions (e.g. temporal and spatial coverage) are taken into account.
Landon A. Rieger, Elizaveta P. Malinina, Alexei V. Rozanov, John P. Burrows, Adam E. Bourassa, and Doug A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3433–3445,Short summary
This paper compares aerosol extinction records from two limb scattering instruments, OSIRIS and SCIAMACHY, to that from the occultation instrument SAGE II. Differences are investigated through modelling and retrieval studies and important sources of systematic errors are quantified. It is found that the largest biases come from uncertainties in the aerosol size distribution and the aerosol particle concentration at altitudes above 30 km.
Lisa K. Behrens, Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Henk Eskes, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2769–2795,Short summary
We developed a novel NO2 DOAS retrieval for the GOME-2A instrument in the UV spectral range, which is compared with a NO2 retrieval in the visible and model values. Regions representative for both anthropogenic and biomass burning NO2 pollution are investigated. Anthropogenic air pollution is mostly located in the boundary layer close to the surface. In contrast, biomass burning NO2 is often uplifted into elevated layers.
Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Huan Yu, Thomas Danckaert, Christophe Lerot, Steven Compernolle, Michel Van Roozendael, Andreas Richter, Andreas Hilboll, Enno Peters, Mattia Pedergnana, Diego Loyola, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Henk Eskes, Jos van Geffen, Klaas Folkert Boersma, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2395–2426,Short summary
This paper introduces the formaldehyde (HCHO) tropospheric vertical column retrieval algorithm implemented in the TROPOMI/Sentinel-5 Precursor operational processor, and comprehensively describes its various retrieval steps. Furthermore, algorithmic improvements developed in the framework of the EU FP7-project QA4ECV are described for future updates of the processor. Detailed error estimates are discussed in the light of Copernicus user requirements and needs for validation are highlighted.
Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Elizaveta Malinina, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Thomas von Clarmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2135–2149,Short summary
This paper describes the development of a retrieval algorithm at the University of Bremen which derives stratospheric ozone profiles from limb observations performed by the OMPS satellite instrument. Here we present the implementation of the algorithm and the validation of our results (1 year of data against independent satellite and ground-based measurements). Good agreement is generally found between 20 and 55 km, mostly within 10 % at all latitudes.
Evgenia Galytska, Vassyl Danylevsky, René Hommel, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2101–2118,Short summary
This research assesses the influence of biomass burning during forest fires throughout summer 2010 on aerosol load over Ukraine, the European territory of Russia (ETR) and Eastern Europe. We apply and compare ground-based and satellite measurements to determine aerosol content, dynamics, and properties. With the application of modeling techniques (HYSPLIT), we show that the maximum AOD in August 2010 over Ukraine was caused by particle transport from the forest fires in the ETR.
Elizaveta Malinina, Alexei Rozanov, Vladimir Rozanov, Patricia Liebing, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2085–2100,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosols play an important role in climate change. This paper presents the retrieval algorithm of two aerosol particle size distribution parameters in the stratosphere from remote sensing instruments. A unique data set was created by implementing this algorithm on SCIAMACHY limb measurements. The general behaviour of the aerosol particle size parameters was revealed. Comparison of the retrieved parameters with another instrument showed good agreement.
Stefan Noël, Katja Weigel, Klaus Bramstedt, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4463–4476,Short summary
The combined analysis of stratospheric methane and water vapour data derived from SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements shows the expected anti-correlation and a clear temporal variation related to waves in equatorial zonal winds. Above about 20 km most of the additional water vapour is attributed to the oxidation of methane. The SCIAMACHY data confirm that at lower altitudes water vapour and methane are transported from the tropics to higher latitudes.
Linlu Mei, Vladimir Rozanov, Marco Vountas, John P. Burrows, and Andreas Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2511–2523,
Mark Weber, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Vitali E. Fioletov, Stacey M. Frith, Jeannette D. Wild, John P. Burrows, Craig S. Long, and Diego Loyola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2097–2117,Short summary
This paper commemorates the 30-year anniversary of the initial signing of the Montreal Protocol (MP) on substances that deplete the ozone layer. The MP is so far successful in reducing ozone-depleting substances, and total ozone decline was successfully stopped by the late 1990s. Total ozone levels have been mostly stable since then. In some regions, barely significant upward trends are observed that suggest an emergence into the expected ozone recovery phase.
Thomas Krings, Bruno Neininger, Konstantin Gerilowski, Sven Krautwurst, Michael Buchwitz, John P. Burrows, Carsten Lindemann, Thomas Ruhtz, Dirk Schüttemeyer, and Heinrich Bovensmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 721–739,
Amirmahdi Zarboo, Stefan Bender, John P. Burrows, Johannes Orphal, and Miriam Sinnhuber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 473–487,Short summary
We present the retrieved volume emission rates (VERs) from the airglow of both the daytime and twilight O2(1Σ) band and O2(1Δ) band emissions in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). We have investigated the daily mean latitudinal distributions and the time series of the retrieved VER in the altitude range from 53 to 149 km. These observations provide information about the chemistry and dynamics and can be used to infer ozone, solar heating rates, and temperature in the MLT.
Patricia Liebing, Matthijs Krijger, Ralph Snel, Klaus Bramstedt, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 265–289,Short summary
This article describes a method to determine the polarization sensitivity of SCIAMACHY, a spectrometer on Envisat, from in-orbit data. Polarization is a preference of a direction in which light oscillates, and many optical instruments suffer from a dependence of their measured signals on this. To measure and correct for this effect, a statistical analysis of in-flight data combined with a model of the atmosphere and the instrument was performed, showing that the instrument changed after launch.
Johannes Lampel, Yang Wang, Andreas Hilboll, Steffen Beirle, Holger Sihler, Janis Puķīte, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4819–4831,Short summary
Experience of differential atmospheric absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) shows that a spectral shift between measurement and reference spectrum is frequently required in order to achieve optimal fit results. The shift is often attributed to temporal instabilities of the instrument but implicitly solved the problem of the tilt effect discussed in this paper. The tilt effect results from the finite resolution of the measurements and amounts to 2 pm for the example data set.
Yang Wang, Steffen Beirle, Francois Hendrick, Andreas Hilboll, Junli Jin, Aleksandra A. Kyuberis, Johannes Lampel, Ang Li, Yuhan Luo, Lorenzo Lodi, Jianzhong Ma, Monica Navarro, Ivan Ortega, Enno Peters, Oleg L. Polyansky, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Olga Puentedura, Michel Van Roozendael, André Seyler, Jonathan Tennyson, Rainer Volkamer, Pinhua Xie, Nikolai F. Zobov, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3719–3742,Short summary
Slant column densities of nitrous acid (HONO) derived from different MAX-DOAS instruments and retrieval software are systematically compared for the first time during the Multi Axis DOAS – Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) campaign held at MPIC in Mainz, Germany, from June to October 2013. Through the inter-comparisons and sensitivity studies we quantified the uncertainties in the DOAS fits of HONO from different sources and concluded a recommended setting.
Sven Krautwurst, Konstantin Gerilowski, Haflidi H. Jonsson, David R. Thompson, Richard W. Kolyer, Laura T. Iraci, Andrew K. Thorpe, Markus Horstjann, Michael Eastwood, Ira Leifer, Samuel A. Vigil, Thomas Krings, Jakob Borchardt, Michael Buchwitz, Matthew M. Fladeland, John P. Burrows, and Heinrich Bovensmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3429–3452,Short summary
This study investigates a subset of data collected during the CO2 and Methane EXperiment (COMEX) in 2014. It focuses on airborne measurements to quantify the emissions from landfills in the Los Angeles Basin. Airborne remote sensing data have been used to estimate the emission rate of one particular landfill on four different days. The results have been compared to airborne in situ measurements. Airborne imaging spectroscopy has been used to identify emission hotspots across the landfill.
André Seyler, Folkard Wittrock, Lisa Kattner, Barbara Mathieu-Üffing, Enno Peters, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmolke, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10997–11023,Short summary
Shipping accounts for a significant part of the emissions from the transportation sector. We have analyzed 3 years of MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2 and SO2 from a small island in the German Bight, showing that despite the vicinity to the shipping lane, the contribution of shipping sources to air pollution is only about 40 %. The implementation of stricter fuel sulfur limits led to a significant reduction in SO2-to-NO2 ratios in shipping emissions and ambient SO2 levels at the German coast.
Martin P. Langowski, Christian von Savigny, John P. Burrows, Didier Fussen, Erin C. M. Dawkins, Wuhu Feng, John M. C. Plane, and Daniel R. Marsh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2989–3006,Short summary
Meteoric metals form metal layers in the upper atmosphere anandplay a role in the formation of middle-atmospheric clouds and aerosols. However, the total metal influx rate is not well known. Global Na datasets from measurements and a model are available, which had not been compared yet on a global scale until this paper. Overall the agreement is good, and many differences between measurements are also found in the model simulations. However, the modeled layer altitude is too low.
Klaus Bramstedt, Thomas C. Stone, Manfred Gottwald, Stefan Noël, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2413–2423,Short summary
The satellite instrument SCIAMACHY on board the ESA's platform Envisat (2002–2012) performed observations of the Earth's atmosphere. Using sun and moon observations of the instrument itself, we derived a set of correction parameters for the determination of the viewing directions of the instrument. From this work, all vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters from SCIAMACHY's limb and occultation measurements will be improved by a more accurate altitude information.
Andreas Carlos Meier, Anja Schönhardt, Tim Bösch, Andreas Richter, André Seyler, Thomas Ruhtz, Daniel-Eduard Constantin, Reza Shaiganfar, Thomas Wagner, Alexis Merlaud, Michel Van Roozendael, Livio Belegante, Doina Nicolae, Lucian Georgescu, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1831–1857,Short summary
We present airborne remote sensing measurements of NO2 in the urban area of Bucharest. NO2 is a harmful pollutant, which is emitted in combustion processes. The measurements presented here enable the creation of maps, showing the horizontal NO2 distribution across the whole city within a relatively short time window of 1.5 h. These data provide new insight into urban pollution levels and their spatial distribution.
Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Maximilian Reuter, Jens Heymann, Sven Krautwurst, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Hartmut Boesch, Robert J. Parker, Peter Somkuti, Rob G. Detmers, Otto P. Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, André Butz, Christian Frankenberg, and Alexander J. Turner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5751–5774,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas and increasing atmospheric concentrations result in global warming. We present a simple method to derive annual methane emission estimates of methane hotspot areas from satellite data. We present results for four source areas. We found that our estimates are in good agreement with other studies/data sets for the Four Corners region in the USA and for Azerbaijan but we also found higher emissions for parts of California and Turkmenistan.
Jia Jia, Annette Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Xuewei Hou, Alexei Rozanov, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4915–4930,
Anja Schönhardt, Andreas Richter, Nicolas Theys, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4857–4870,Short summary
Iodine monoxide, IO, is observed in satellite measurements following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Large IO columns are detected by SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and by GOME-2 on MetOp-A for several days. IO amounts are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of BrO. Details in the spatial distributions differ between IO, BrO and sulfur dioxide, SO2. The total mass of IO in the volcanic plume is determined to be on the order of 10 Mg.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, John. P. Burrows, Bianca M. Dinelli, Patrick Eriksson, Patrick J. Espy, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen H. Rosenlof, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Gabriele P. Stiller, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1111–1137,
Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, André Seyler, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, Tim Bösch, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Theano Drosoglou, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Yugo Kanaya, Xiaoyi Zhao, Kimberly Strong, Johannes Lampel, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore Koenig, Ivan Ortega, Olga Puentedura, Mónica Navarro-Comas, Laura Gómez, Margarita Yela González, Ankie Piters, Julia Remmers, Yang Wang, Thomas Wagner, Shanshan Wang, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, David García-Nieto, Carlos A. Cuevas, Nuria Benavent, Richard Querel, Paul Johnston, Oleg Postylyakov, Alexander Borovski, Alexander Elokhov, Ilya Bruchkouski, Haoran Liu, Cheng Liu, Qianqian Hong, Claudia Rivera, Michel Grutter, Wolfgang Stremme, M. Fahim Khokhar, Junaid Khayyam, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 955–978,Short summary
This work is about harmonization of differential optical absorption spectroscopy retrieval codes, which is a remote sensing technique widely used to derive atmospheric trace gas amounts. The study is based on ground-based measurements performed during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany, in summer 2013. In total, 17 international groups working in the field of the DOAS technique participated in this study.
Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
We investigate the temporal evolution of the important tropospheric air pollutant nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since the early 2000s, and correlate NO2 abundances with indicators of economic development. Until 2012, NO2 pollution and economic growth are strongly correlated, with annual increases of up to 4.4 %. Since then, tropospheric NO2 pollution has stabilized or is even declining, probably as a result of a slow-down in Indian economic growth combined with the implementation of cleaner technology.
Alba Lorente, K. Folkert Boersma, Huan Yu, Steffen Dörner, Andreas Hilboll, Andreas Richter, Mengyao Liu, Lok N. Lamsal, Michael Barkley, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Van Roozendael, Yang Wang, Thomas Wagner, Steffen Beirle, Jin-Tai Lin, Nickolay Krotkov, Piet Stammes, Ping Wang, Henk J. Eskes, and Maarten Krol
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 759–782,Short summary
Choices and assumptions made to represent the state of the atmosphere introduce an uncertainty of 42 % in the air mass factor calculation in trace gas satellite retrievals in polluted regions. The AMF strongly depends on the choice of a priori trace gas profile, surface albedo data set and the correction method to account for clouds and aerosols. We call for well-designed validation exercises focusing on situations when AMF structural uncertainty has the highest impact on satellite retrievals.
Ruixiong Zhang, Yuhang Wang, Qiusheng He, Laiguo Chen, Yuzhong Zhang, Hang Qu, Charles Smeltzer, Jianfeng Li, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3083–3095,Short summary
We use short-lived reactive aromatics as proxies to diagnose transport of pollutants to Tibet. In situ observations of short-lived reactive aromatics across the Tibetan Plateau are analyzed using a regional chemistry and transport model. Our results suggest that the cut-off low system is a major pathway for long-range transport of pollutants such as black carbon. The modeling analysis reveals that even the state-of-the-science reanalysis cannot simulate this cut-off system accurately.
Alba Badia, Oriol Jorba, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Donald Dabdub, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Andreas Hilboll, María Gonçalves, and Zavisa Janjic
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 609–638,Short summary
This paper presents a comprehensive description and benchmark evaluation of the tropospheric gas-phase chemistry component of the Multiscale Online Nonhydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry model (NMMB-MONARCH), an online chemical weather prediction system conceived for both the regional and global scales. We provide an extensive evaluation of a global annual cycle simulation using a variety of background surface stations, ozonesondes, aircraft data and satellite observations.
Stefan Bender, Miriam Sinnhuber, Martin Langowski, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 209–220,Short summary
We present the retrieval of NO number densities from 60 km to 85 km from measurements of SCIAMACHY/Envisat in its nominal limb mode (0–91 km). We derive the densities from the NO gamma bands (230–300 nm). Using prior input reduces the incorrect attribution of NO from the lower thermosphere. The SCIAMACHY nominal limb scans provide almost 10 years of daily NO data in this altitude range, a unique data record to constrain NO in the mesosphere for testing and validating chemistry climate models.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Chris A. McLinden, Peter F. Bernath, Adam E. Bourassa, John P. Burrows, Doug A. Degenstein, Bernd Funke, Didier Fussen, Gloria L. Manney, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, Cora E. Randall, Piera Raspollini, Alexei Rozanov, James M. Russell III, Makoto Suzuki, Masato Shiotani, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, and Joseph M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5781–5810,Short summary
This study validates version 3.5 of the ACE-FTS NOy species data sets by comparing diurnally scaled ACE-FTS data to correlative data from 11 other satellite limb sounders. For all five species examined (NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2), there is good agreement between ACE-FTS and the other data sets in various regions of the atmosphere. In these validated regions, these NOy data products can be used for further investigation into the composition, dynamics, and climate of the stratosphere.
Dhanyalekshmi Pillai, Michael Buchwitz, Christoph Gerbig, Thomas Koch, Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, Julia Marshall, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9591–9610,Short summary
Approximately 70 % of total CO2 emissions arise from cities; however, there exist large uncertainties in quantifying urban emissions. The present study investigates the potential of a satellite mission like CarbonSat to retrieve the city emissions via inverse modelling techniques. The study makes a valid conclusion that an instrument like CarbonSat has high potential to provide important information on city emissions when exploiting the observations using a high-resolution modelling system.
Elpida Leventidou, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Mark Weber, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3407–3427,Short summary
Here, we present a 17 years tropical tropospheric ozone columns dataset (1996–2012) using GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2 data, developed as part of the verification algorithm for TROPOMI on S5p mission.The uncertainty is less than 2 DU. Validation with SHADOZ ozonesonde data showed biases within 5 DU and RMS errors less than 10 DU. Comparisons with tropospheric ozone columns derived from limb–nadir matching showed that the bias and RMS are within the range of the CCD_IUP comparison with the sondes.
Stefan Noël, Klaus Bramstedt, Michael Hilker, Patricia Liebing, Johannes Plieninger, Max Reuter, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1485–1503,Short summary
Stratospheric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) profiles have been derived from solar occultation measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument. The accuracy of these profiles is estimated to be about 5–10 % for CH4 and 2–3 % for CO2, mainly limited by unexpected vertical oscillations. Results are available for August 2002 to April 2012 and latitudes between about 50 and 70° N. From these, time series trends have been estimated, which are in reasonable agreement with total column trends.
Stefan F. Schreier, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2803–2817,Short summary
Mixing ratios of NO2 and HCHO in the free troposphere are obtained from MAX-DOAS measurements at two mountain stations at midlatitudes and in the tropics using a modified geometrical approach. The method is applied in the UV wavelength range and, thus, allows the detection of HCHO mixing ratios, in addition to NO2. We find that mixing ratios of both species are increased in the tropical free troposphere due to biomass burning.
Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Luca Lelli, Christian von Savigny, Harjinder Sembhi, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 793–815,Short summary
Height-resolved limb radiance spectra of the satellite instrument SCIAMACHY are used to retrieve cloud top heights with a colour index method. Clouds are detectable from the lower to the uppermost troposphere. These cloud heights help to improve the trace gas retrieval for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Comparisons with other data sets have shown good agreement. As clouds and aerosols are not distinguishable, lower stratospheric volcanic aerosol clouds are detected in some years.
A.-M. Blechschmidt, A. Richter, J. P. Burrows, L. Kaleschke, K. Strong, N. Theys, M. Weber, X. Zhao, and A. Zien
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1773–1788,Short summary
A comprehensive case study of a comma-shaped bromine monoxide plume in the Arctic, which was transported by a polar cyclone and was observed by the GOME-2 satellite sensor over several days, is presented. By making combined use of different kinds of satellite data and numerical models, we demonstrate the important role of the frontal weather system in favouring the bromine activation cycle and blowing snow production, which may have acted as a bromine source during the bromine explosion event.
Sébastien Massart, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Jens Heymann, Michael Buchwitz, Frédéric Chevallier, Maximilian Reuter, Michael Hilker, John P. Burrows, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Frank Hase, Ralf Sussmann, Filip Desmet, Manvendra K. Dubey, David W. T. Griffith, Rigel Kivi, Christof Petri, Matthias Schneider, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1653–1671,Short summary
This study presents the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) monitoring of atmospheric CO2 using measurements from the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). We show that the modelled CO2 has a better precision than standard CO2 satellite products compared to ground-based measurements. We also present the CO2 forecast based on our best knowledge of the atmospheric CO2 distribution. We show that it has skill to forecast the largest scale CO2 patterns up to day 5.
M. P. Langowski, C. von Savigny, J. P. Burrows, V. V. Rozanov, T. Dunker, U.-P. Hoppe, M. Sinnhuber, and A. C. Aikin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 295–311,Short summary
An algorithm has been developed for the retrieval of sodium atom (Na) number density on a latitude and altitude grid from SCIAMACHY limb measurements of the Na resonance fluorescence (multiannual means 2008–2012). The Na layer peaks at 90 to 93 km altitude and has a FWHM of 5 to 15 km. A summer minimum in peak density and width is observed at high latitudes. At low latitudes, a semiannual oscillation is found. The results are compared with other measurements and models and agree well with these.
F. Ebojie, J. P. Burrows, C. Gebhardt, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, C. von Savigny, A. Rozanov, M. Weber, and H. Bovensmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 417–436,Short summary
The goal of this study is to determine the global and zonal changes in the tropospheric ozone data product derived from SCIAMACHY limb-nadir-matching (LNM) observations during the period 2003–2011. Tropospheric O3 shows statistically significant increases over some regions of South Asia, the South American continent, Alaska, around Congo in Africa and over some continental outflows. Significant decrease in TOC is observed over some continents and oceans.
K. Weigel, A. Rozanov, F. Azam, K. Bramstedt, R. Damadeo, K.-U. Eichmann, C. Gebhardt, D. Hurst, M. Kraemer, S. Lossow, W. Read, N. Spelten, G. P. Stiller, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 133–158,Short summary
The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard the Envisat satellite provided measurements between 2002 and 2012 with different viewing geometries. The limb viewing geometry allows the retrieval of water vapour profiles in the UTLS (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere) from the near-infrared spectral range (1353–1410 nm). Here, we present data version 3.01 and compare it to other water vapour data.
F. Khosrawi, J. Urban, S. Lossow, G. Stiller, K. Weigel, P. Braesicke, M. C. Pitts, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, and D. Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 101–121,Short summary
Our sensitivity studies based on air parcel trajectories confirm that Polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation is quite sensitive to water vapour and temperature changes. Considering water vapour time series from satellite measurements we do not find a consistent, significant trend in water vapour in the lower stratosphere during the past 15 years (2000–2014). Thus, the severe dentrification observed in 2010/2011 cannot be directly related to increases in stratospheric water vapour.
A. Wagner, A.-M. Blechschmidt, I. Bouarar, E.-G. Brunke, C. Clerbaux, M. Cupeiro, P. Cristofanelli, H. Eskes, J. Flemming, H. Flentje, M. George, S. Gilge, A. Hilboll, A. Inness, J. Kapsomenakis, A. Richter, L. Ries, W. Spangl, O. Stein, R. Weller, and C. Zerefos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 14005–14030,Short summary
The Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project (MACC) operationally produces global analyses and forecasts of reactive gases and aerosol fields. We have investigated the ability of the model to simulate concentrations of reactive gases (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone) between 2009 and 2012. The model reproduced reactive gas concentrations with consistent quality, however, with a seasonally dependent bias compared to surface and satellite observations.
C. von Savigny, F. Ernst, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, K.-U. Eichmann, V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, and L. W. Thomason
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5223–5235,Short summary
This article presents validation results for stratospheric aerosol extinction profiles retrieved from limb-scatter measurements with the SCIAMACHY instrument on the Envisat satellite. The SCIAMACHY retrievals are compared to co-located measurements with the SAGE II instrument. Very good agreement to within about 15% is found in a global average sense at altitudes above 15 km. The article also presents sample results on the global morphology of the stratospheric aerosol layer from 2003 to 2011.
A. Schönhardt, P. Altube, K. Gerilowski, S. Krautwurst, J. Hartmann, A. C. Meier, A. Richter, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5113–5131,Short summary
The study reports on the application of an aircraft-based instrument (AirMAP) measuring atmospheric nitrogen dioxide. Two-dimensional maps are produced at a spatial resolution of 28m x 30m and with wide spatial coverage. The instrument characteristics are explained and the detailed mapping of a power plant emission plume is demonstrated. Small-scale enhanced amounts of nitrogen dioxide from traffic are observed above a motorway.
N. Rahpoe, M. Weber, A. V. Rozanov, K. Weigel, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Laeng, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, E. Kyrölä, V. F. Sofieva, J. Tamminen, K. Walker, D. Degenstein, A. E. Bourassa, R. Hargreaves, P. Bernath, J. Urban, and D. P. Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4369–4381,Short summary
The analyses among six satellite instruments measuring ozone reveals that the relative drift between the sensors is not significant in the stratosphere and we conclude that merging of data from these instruments is possible. The merged ozone profiles can then be ingested in global climate models for long-term forecasts of ozone and climate change in the atmosphere. The added drift uncertainty is estimated at about 3% per decade (1 sigma) and should be applied in the calculation of ozone trends.
S. Bender, M. Sinnhuber, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, J. Urban, K. Pérot, K. A. Walker, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4171–4195,Short summary
We compare the nitric oxide (NO) daily zonal mean number density data sets in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT, 60km to 150km) from four instruments: ACE-FTS (2004--2010), MIPAS (2005--2012), SCIAMACHY (2008--2012), and SMR (2003--2012). We find that these data sets from different instruments consistently constrain NO in the MLT. Thus, they offer reliable forcing inputs for climate and chemistry climate models as an initial step to include solar and geomagnetic activity.
L. Kattner, B. Mathieu-Üffing, J. P. Burrows, A. Richter, S. Schmolke, A. Seyler, and F. Wittrock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10087–10092,Short summary
On 1 January 2015, the International Maritime Organisation tightened the regulations for sulfur content of shipping fuels in Sulfur Emission Control Areas. Here we present data from a station near Hamburg harbour in the North Sea SECA, which uses in situ measurements of atmospheric trace gases to deduce the sulphur fuel content of passing ships. We compare data from 2014 before the regulation change and from January 2015 and show how this method can be used for compliance monitoring.
J. Jia, A. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3369–3383,
J. Heymann, M. Reuter, M. Hilker, M. Buchwitz, O. Schneising, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Kuze, H. Suto, N. M. Deutscher, M. K. Dubey, D. W. T. Griffith, F. Hase, S. Kawakami, R. Kivi, I. Morino, C. Petri, C. Roehl, M. Schneider, V. Sherlock, R. Sussmann, V. A. Velazco, T. Warneke, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2961–2980,Short summary
Long-term data sets of global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations based on observations from different satellite instruments may suffer from inconsistencies originating from the use of different retrieval algorithms. This issue has been addressed by applying the Bremen Optimal Estimation DOAS retrieval algorithm to SCIAMACHY and TANSO-FTS observations. Detailed comparisons with TCCON and CarbonTracker show good consistency between the SCIAMACHY and TANSO-FTS data sets.
T. Dinter, V. V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, and A. Bracher
Ocean Sci., 11, 373–389,
M. P. Langowski, C. von Savigny, J. P. Burrows, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, D. R. Marsh, D. Janches, M. Sinnhuber, A. C. Aikin, and P. Liebing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 273–295,Short summary
Global concentration fields of Mg and Mg+ in the Earth's upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (70-150km) are presented. These are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat satellite grating spectrometer measurements in limb viewing geometry between 2008 and 2012. These were compared with WACCM-Mg model results and a large fraction of the available measurement results for these species, and an interpretation of the results is done. The variation of these species during NLC presence is discussed.
M. Reuter, M. Buchwitz, M. Hilker, J. Heymann, O. Schneising, D. Pillai, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, H. Bösch, R. Parker, A. Butz, O. Hasekamp, C. W. O'Dell, Y. Yoshida, C. Gerbig, T. Nehrkorn, N. M. Deutscher, T. Warneke, J. Notholt, F. Hase, R. Kivi, R. Sussmann, T. Machida, H. Matsueda, and Y. Sawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13739–13753,Short summary
Current knowledge about the European terrestrial biospheric carbon sink relies upon bottom-up and global surface flux inverse model estimates using in situ measurements. Our analysis of five satellite data sets comprises a regional inversion designed to be insensitive to potential retrieval biases and transport errors. We show that the satellite-derived sink is larger (1.0±0.3GtC/a) than previous estimates (0.4±0.4GtC/a).
G. D. Hayman, F. M. O'Connor, M. Dalvi, D. B. Clark, N. Gedney, C. Huntingford, C. Prigent, M. Buchwitz, O. Schneising, J. P. Burrows, C. Wilson, N. Richards, and M. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13257–13280,Short summary
Globally, wetlands are a major source of methane, which is the second most important greenhouse gas. We find the JULES wetland methane scheme to perform well in general, although there is a tendency for it to overpredict emissions in the tropics and underpredict them in northern latitudes. Our study highlights novel uses of satellite data as a major tool to constrain land-atmosphere methane flux models in a warming world.
J. Aschmann, J. P. Burrows, C. Gebhardt, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, M. Weber, and A. M. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12803–12814,Short summary
This study compares observations and simulation results of ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere. It shows that ozone in this region decreased from 1985 up to about 2002, which is consistent with an increase in tropical upwelling predicted by climate models. However, the decrease effectively stops after 2002, indicating that significant changes in tropical upwelling have occurred. The most important factor appears to be that the vertical ascent in the tropics is no longer accelerating.
E. Peters, F. Wittrock, A. Richter, L. M. A. Alvarado, V. V. Rozanov, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4203–4221,Short summary
In this study, a correction spectrum accounting for insufficiencies in commonly used liquid water absorption spectra in DOAS applications is retrieved from ship-borne field measurements. The correction spectrum compensates at the same time for broadband parts of vibrational Raman scattering. With this, an entire compensation of liquid water spectral effects in DOAS applications was achieved.
L. M. A. Alvarado, A. Richter, M. Vrekoussis, F. Wittrock, A. Hilboll, S. F. Schreier, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4133–4150,Short summary
An improved glyoxal retrieval for OMI measurements using the DOAS method has been developed. The retrieval is based on sensitivity tests for the selection of most appropriate retrieval parameters. Also, corrections for reduction of interferences with other species have been applied. In addition, the link between pyrogenic emissions and glyoxal over regions with large wildfires have been investigated, and showed that fires are an important source of glyoxal.
J. Strandgren, L. Mei, M. Vountas, J. P. Burrows, A. Lyapustin, and Y. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
K. Noguchi, A. Richter, V. Rozanov, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, H. Irie, and K. Kita
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3497–3508,
A. Spolaor, P. Vallelonga, J. Gabrieli, T. Martma, M. P. Björkman, E. Isaksson, G. Cozzi, C. Turetta, H. A. Kjær, M. A. J. Curran, A. D. Moy, A. Schönhardt, A.-M. Blechschmidt, J. P. Burrows, J. M. C. Plane, and C. Barbante
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9613–9622,
D. Y. Chang, H. Tost, B. Steil, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
L. L. Mei, Y. Xue, A. A. Kokhanovsky, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, G. de Leeuw, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2411–2420,
A. W. Zien, A. Richter, A. Hilboll, A.-M. Blechschmidt, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7367–7396,
W. Chehade, M. Weber, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7059–7074,
F. Ebojie, C. von Savigny, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Rozanov, M. Weber, K.-U. Eichmann, S. Bötel, N. Rahpoe, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2073–2096,
B. Dils, M. Buchwitz, M. Reuter, O. Schneising, H. Boesch, R. Parker, S. Guerlet, I. Aben, T. Blumenstock, J. P. Burrows, A. Butz, N. M. Deutscher, C. Frankenberg, F. Hase, O. P. Hasekamp, J. Heymann, M. De Mazière, J. Notholt, R. Sussmann, T. Warneke, D. Griffith, V. Sherlock, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1723–1744,
L. Lelli, A. A. Kokhanovsky, V. V. Rozanov, M. Vountas, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5679–5692,
M. Horstjann, M. D. Andrés Hernández, V. Nenakhov, A. Chrobry, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1245–1257,
R. Hommel, K.-U. Eichmann, J. Aschmann, K. Bramstedt, M. Weber, C. von Savigny, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, F. Wittrock, F. Khosrawi, R. Bauer, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3247–3276,
S. F. Schreier, A. Richter, J. W. Kaiser, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2447–2466,
V. Gorshelev, A. Serdyuchenko, M. Weber, W. Chehade, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 609–624,
A. Serdyuchenko, V. Gorshelev, M. Weber, W. Chehade, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 625–636,
C. Gebhardt, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, M. Weber, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, and A. M. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 831–846,
M. Langowski, M. Sinnhuber, A. C. Aikin, C. von Savigny, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 29–48,
O. Schneising, M. Reuter, M. Buchwitz, J. Heymann, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 133–141,
M. Buchwitz, M. Reuter, H. Bovensmann, D. Pillai, J. Heymann, O. Schneising, V. Rozanov, T. Krings, J. P. Burrows, H. Boesch, C. Gerbig, Y. Meijer, and A. Löscher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3477–3500,
J. Yoon, A. Pozzer, P. Hoor, D. Y. Chang, S. Beirle, T. Wagner, S. Schloegl, J. Lelieveld, and H. M. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11307–11316,
W. Chehade, V. Gorshelev, A. Serdyuchenko, J. P. Burrows, and M. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3055–3065,
N. Rahpoe, C. von Savigny, M. Weber, A.V. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2825–2837,
S. Bender, M. Sinnhuber, J. P. Burrows, M. Langowski, B. Funke, and M. López-Puertas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2521–2531,
T. Holzer-Popp, G. de Leeuw, J. Griesfeller, D. Martynenko, L. Klüser, S. Bevan, W. Davies, F. Ducos, J. L. Deuzé, R. G. Graigner, A. Heckel, W. von Hoyningen-Hüne, P. Kolmonen, P. Litvinov, P. North, C. A. Poulsen, D. Ramon, R. Siddans, L. Sogacheva, D. Tanre, G. E. Thomas, M. Vountas, J. Descloitres, J. Griesfeller, S. Kinne, M. Schulz, and S. Pinnock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1919–1957,
W. Chehade, B. Gür, P. Spietz, V. Gorshelev, A. Serdyuchenko, J. P. Burrows, and M. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1623–1632,
M. D. Andrés-Hernández, D. Kartal, J. N. Crowley, V. Sinha, E. Regelin, M. Martínez-Harder, V. Nenakhov, J. Williams, H. Harder, H. Bozem, W. Song, J. Thieser, M. J. Tang, Z. Hosaynali Beigi, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5731–5749,
A. Hilboll, A. Richter, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4145–4169,
O. Schneising, J. Heymann, M. Buchwitz, M. Reuter, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2445–2454,
A. Hilboll, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, Ø. Hodnebrog, A. Heckel, S. Solberg, F. Stordal, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 565–584,
M. Reuter, H. Bösch, H. Bovensmann, A. Bril, M. Buchwitz, A. Butz, J. P. Burrows, C. W. O'Dell, S. Guerlet, O. Hasekamp, J. Heymann, N. Kikuchi, S. Oshchepkov, R. Parker, S. Pfeifer, O. Schneising, T. Yokota, and Y. Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1771–1780,
T. Krings, K. Gerilowski, M. Buchwitz, J. Hartmann, T. Sachs, J. Erzinger, J. P. Burrows, and H. Bovensmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 151–166,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Aerosol properties and aerosol–radiation interactions in clear-sky conditions over GermanyGlobal dust optical depth climatology derived from CALIOP and MODIS aerosol retrievals on decadal timescales: regional and interannual variabilityAerosol optical properties derived from POLDER-3/PARASOL (2005–2013) over the Western Mediterranean Sea – Part 2: Spatial distribution and temporal variabilityObservation and modeling of the historic “Godzilla” African dust intrusion into the Caribbean Basin and the southern US in June 2020Multi-dimensional satellite observations of aerosol properties and aerosol types over three major urban clusters in eastern ChinaGeometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 1: MethodologyGeometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 2: Case studiesSpatiotemporal changes in aerosol properties by hygroscopic growth and impacts on radiative forcing and heating rates during DISCOVER-AQ 2011Estimating radiative forcing efficiency of dust aerosol based on direct satellite observations: case studies over the Sahara and Taklimakan DesertSatellite-based estimation of the impacts of summertime wildfires on PM2.5 concentration in the United StatesAirborne and ground-based measurements of aerosol optical depth of freshly emitted anthropogenic plumes in the Athabasca Oil Sands RegionCloud drop number concentrations over the western North Atlantic Ocean: seasonal cycle, aerosol interrelationships, and other influential factorsThree-dimensional climatology, trends and meteorological drivers of global and regional tropospheric type-dependent aerosols: Insights from 13 years (2007–2019) of CALIOP observationsSeparating emission and meteorological contributions to long-term PM2.5 trends over eastern China during 2000–2018Overview of the SLOPE I and II campaigns: aerosol properties retrieved with lidar and sun–sky photometer measurementsRestoring the top-of-atmosphere reflectance during solar eclipses: a proof of concept with the UV absorbing aerosol index measured by TROPOMIAssessing the contribution of the ENSO and MJO to Australian dust activity based on satellite- and ground-based observationsAerosol above-cloud direct radiative effect and properties in the Namibian region during the AErosol, RadiatiOn, and CLOuds in southern Africa (AEROCLO-sA) field campaign – Multi-Viewing, Multi-Channel, Multi-Polarization (3MI) airborne simulator and sun photometer measurementsHimawari-8-derived diurnal variations in ground-level PM2.5 pollution across China using the fast space-time Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM)Lidar depolarization ratio of atmospheric pollen at multiple wavelengthsLidar vertical observation network and data assimilation reveal key processes driving the 3-D dynamic evolution of PM2.5 concentrations over the North China PlainAEROCOM and AEROSAT AAOD and SSA study – Part 1: Evaluation and intercomparison of satellite measurementsAerosol radiative impact during the summer 2019 heatwave produced partly by an inter-continental Saharan dust outbreak – Part 1: Short-wave dust direct radiative effectImpact of smoke and non-smoke aerosols on radiation and low-level clouds over the southeast Atlantic from co-located satellite observationsAerosol particle depolarization ratio at 1565 nm measured with a Halo Doppler lidarLong-term variation in aerosol lidar ratio in Shanghai based on Raman lidar measurementsAerosol characteristics at the three poles of the Earth as characterized by Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite ObservationsAerosol impacts on warm-cloud microphysics and drizzle in a moderately polluted environmentAtmospheric boundary layer height estimation from aerosol lidar: a new approach based on morphological image processing techniquesThe spatiotemporal relationship between PM2.5 and AOD in China: Influencing factors and Implications for satellite PM2.5 estimations by MAIAC AODLong-term multi-source data analysis about the characteristics of aerosol optical properties and types over AustraliaStatistical aerosol properties associated with fire events from 2002 to 2019 and a case analysis in 2019 over AustraliaObservation of absorbing aerosols above clouds over the south-east Atlantic Ocean from the geostationary satellite SEVIRI – Part 2: Comparison with MODIS and aircraft measurements from the CLARIFY-2017 field campaignFirst validation of GOME-2/MetOp absorbing aerosol height using EARLINET lidar observationsAutomated time–height-resolved air mass source attribution for profiling remote sensing applicationsAerosol type classification analysis using EARLINET multiwavelength and depolarization lidar observationsSatellite retrieval of aerosol combined with assimilated forecastA global analysis of diurnal variability in dust and dust mixture using CATS observationsSatellite-based radiative forcing by light-absorbing particles in snow across the Northern HemisphereConstraining the relationships between aerosol height, aerosol optical depth and total column trace gas measurements using remote sensing and modelsAerosol-enhanced high precipitation events near the Himalayan foothillsOptical characterization of pure pollen types using a multi-wavelength Raman polarization lidarMeasurement Report: Determination of aerosol vertical features on different timescales over East Asia based on CATS aerosol productsNorth African mineral dust sources: new insights from a combined analysis based on 3D dust aerosol distributions, surface winds and ancillary soil parametersEARLINET observations of Saharan dust intrusions over the northern Mediterranean region (2014–2017): properties and impact on radiative forcingElevated dust layers inhibit dissipation of heavy anthropogenic surface air pollutionBiomass burning events measured by lidars in EARLINET – Part 1: Data analysis methodologyAn AeroCom–AeroSat study: intercomparison of satellite AOD datasets for aerosol model evaluationRadiative effects of long-range-transported Saharan air layers as determined from airborne lidar measurementsAerosol solar radiative forcing near the Taklimakan Desert based on radiative transfer and regional meteorological simulations during the Dust Aerosol Observation-Kashi campaign
Jonas Witthuhn, Anja Hünerbein, Florian Filipitsch, Stefan Wacker, Stefanie Meilinger, and Hartwig Deneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14591–14630,Short summary
Knowledge of aerosol–radiation interactions is important for understanding the climate system and for the renewable energy sector. Here, two complementary approaches are used to assess the consistency of the underlying aerosol properties and the resulting radiative effect in clear-sky conditions over Germany in 2015. An approach based on clear-sky models and broadband irradiance observations is contrasted to the use of explicit radiative transfer simulations using CAMS reanalysis data.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Paul Ginoux, and Jerry Shen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13369–13395,Short summary
We present a satellite-derived global dust climatological record over the last two decades, including the monthly mean visible dust optical depth (DAOD) and vertical distribution of dust extinction coefficient at a 2º × 5º spatial resolution derived from CALIOP and MODIS. In addition, the CALIOP climatological dataset also includes dust vertical extinction profiles. Based on these two datasets, we carried out a comprehensive comparative study of the spatial and temporal climatology of dust.
Isabelle Chiapello, Paola Formenti, Lydie Mbemba Kabuiku, Fabrice Ducos, Didier Tanré, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12715–12737,Short summary
The Mediterranean atmosphere is impacted by a variety of particle pollution, which exerts a complex pressure on climate and air quality. We analyze the 2005–2013 POLDER-3 satellite advanced aerosol data set over the Western Mediterranean Sea. Aerosols' spatial distribution and temporal evolution suggests a large-scale improvement of air quality related to the fine aerosol component, most probably resulting from reduction of anthropogenic particle emissions in the surrounding European countries.
Hongbin Yu, Qian Tan, Lillian Zhou, Yaping Zhou, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Claire L. Ryder, Robert C. Levy, Yaswant Pradhan, Yingxi Shi, Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Peter R. Colarco, Dongchul Kim, Lorraine A. Remer, Tianle Yuan, Olga Mayol-Bracero, and Brent N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12359–12383,Short summary
This study characterizes a historic African dust intrusion into the Caribbean Basin in June 2020 using satellites and NASA GEOS. Dust emissions in West Africa were large albeit not extreme. However, a unique synoptic system accumulated the dust near the coast for about 4 d before it was ventilated. Although GEOS reproduced satellite-observed plume tracks well, it substantially underestimated dust emissions and did not lift up dust high enough for ensuing long-range transport.
Yuqin Liu, Tao Lin, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Lamei Shi, Yiyi Huang, Xian Wu, Hao Zhou, Jiahua Zhang, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12331–12358,Short summary
The four-dimensional variation of aerosol properties over the BTH, YRD and PRD (east China) were investigated using satellite observations from 2007 to 2020. Distinct differences between the aerosol optical depth and vertical distribution of the occurrence of aerosol types over these regions depend on season, aerosol loading and meteorological conditions. Day–night differences between the vertical distribution of aerosol types suggest effects of boundary layer dynamics and aerosol transport.
Ákos Horváth, James L. Carr, Olga A. Girina, Dong L. Wu, Alexey A. Bril, Alexey A. Mazurov, Dmitry V. Melnikov, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12189–12206,Short summary
We give a detailed description of a new technique to estimate the height of volcanic eruption columns from near-limb geostationary imagery. Such oblique angle observations offer spectacular side views of eruption columns protruding from the Earth ellipsoid and thereby facilitate a height-by-angle estimation method. Due to its purely geometric nature, the new technique is unaffected by the limitations of traditional brightness-temperature-based height retrievals.
Ákos Horváth, Olga A. Girina, James L. Carr, Dong L. Wu, Alexey A. Bril, Alexey A. Mazurov, Dmitry V. Melnikov, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12207–12226,Short summary
We demonstrate the side view plume height estimation technique described in Part 1 on seven volcanic eruptions from 2019 and 2020, including the 2019 Raikoke eruption. We explore the strengths and limitations of the new technique in comparison to height estimation from brightness temperatures, stereo observations, and ground-based video footage.
Daniel Pérez-Ramírez, David N. Whiteman, Igor Veselovskii, Richard Ferrare, Gloria Titos, María José Granados-Muñoz, Guadalupe Sánchez-Hernández, and Francisco Navas-Guzmán
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12021–12048,Short summary
This paper shows how aerosol hygroscopicity enhances the vertical profile of aerosol backscattering and extinction. The study is possible thanks to the large set of remote sensing instruments and focuses on the the Baltimore–Washington DC metropolitan area during hot and humid summer days with very relevant anthropogenic emission aerosol sources. The results illustrate how the combination of aerosol emissions and meteorological conditions ultimately alters the aerosol radiative forcing.
Lin Tian, Lin Chen, Peng Zhang, and Lei Bi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11669–11687,Short summary
The result shows dust aerosols from the Taklimakan Desert have higher aerosol scattering during dust storm cases of this paper, and this caused higher negative direct radiative forcing efficiency (DRFEdust) than aerosols from the Sahara. The microphysical properties and particle shapes of dust aerosol significantly influence DRFEdust. The satellite-based equi-albedo method has a unique advantage in DRFEdust estimation: it could validate the results derived from the numerical model directly.
Zhixin Xue, Pawan Gupta, and Sundar Christopher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11243–11256,Short summary
Frequent and widespread wildfires in the northwestern United States and Canada have become the
new normalduring the Northern Hemisphere summer months, which degrades particulate matter air quality in the United States significantly. Using satellite data, we show that smoke aerosols caused significant pollution changes over half of the United States. We estimate that nearly 29 states have increased PM2.5 during the fire-active year when compared to fire-inactive years.
Konstantin Baibakov, Samuel LeBlanc, Keyvan Ranjbar, Norman T. O'Neill, Mengistu Wolde, Jens Redemann, Kristina Pistone, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, Tak W. Chan, Michael J. Wheeler, Leonid Nichman, Connor Flynn, and Roy Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10671–10687,Short summary
We find that the airborne measurements of the vertical extinction due to aerosols (aerosol optical depth, AOD) obtained in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) can significantly exceed ground-based values. This can have an effect on estimating the AOSR radiative impact and is relevant to satellite validation based on ground-based measurements. We also show that the AOD can marginally increase as the plumes are being transported away from the source and the new particles are being formed.
Hossein Dadashazar, David Painemal, Majid Alipanah, Michael Brunke, Seethala Chellappan, Andrea F. Corral, Ewan Crosbie, Simon Kirschler, Hongyu Liu, Richard H. Moore, Claire Robinson, Amy Jo Scarino, Michael Shook, Kenneth Sinclair, K. Lee Thornhill, Christiane Voigt, Hailong Wang, Edward Winstead, Xubin Zeng, Luke Ziemba, Paquita Zuidema, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10499–10526,Short summary
This study investigates the seasonal cycle of cloud drop number concentration (Nd) over the western North Atlantic Ocean (WNAO) using multiple datasets. Reasons for the puzzling discrepancy between the seasonal cycles of Nd and aerosol concentration were identified. Results indicate that Nd is highest in winter (when aerosol proxy values are often lowest) due to conditions both linked to cold-air outbreaks and that promote greater droplet activation.
Ke Gui, Huizheng Che, Yu Zheng, Hujia Zhao, Wenrui Yao, Lei Li, Lei Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study utilized the globally gridded aerosol extinction data from CALIOP during 2007–2019 to investigate the 3D climatology, trends and meteorological drivers of tropospheric type-dependent aerosols. Results revealed that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere contribute 61.86 % and 38.13 %, respectively, of the global tropospheric TAOD. Trends in CALIOP-derived aerosol loading, in particular those partitioned in the PBL, can be explained to a large extent by meteorology.
Qingyang Xiao, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Cuihong Chen, Xiaomeng Huang, Huizheng Che, Xiaoye Zhang, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9475–9496,Short summary
We used both statistical methods and a chemical transport model to assess the contribution of meteorology and emissions to PM2.5 during 2000–2018. Both methods revealed that emissions dominated the long-term PM2.5 trend with notable meteorological effects ranged up to 37.9 % of regional annual average PM2.5. The meteorological contribution became more beneficial to PM2.5 control in southern China but more unfavorable in northern China during the studied period.
Jose Antonio Benavent-Oltra, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Roberto Román, Hassan Lyamani, Daniel Pérez-Ramírez, María José Granados-Muñoz, Milagros Herrera, Alberto Cazorla, Gloria Titos, Pablo Ortiz-Amezcua, Andrés Esteban Bedoya-Velásquez, Gregori de Arruda Moreira, Noemí Pérez, Andrés Alastuey, Oleg Dubovik, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Francisco José Olmo-Reyes, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9269–9287,Short summary
In this paper, we use the GRASP algorithm combining different remote sensing measurements to obtain the aerosol vertical and column properties during the SLOPE I and II campaigns. We show an overview of aerosol properties retrieved by GRASP during these campaigns and evaluate the retrievals of aerosol properties using the in situ measurements performed at a high-altitude station and airborne flights. For the first time we present an evaluation of the absorption coefficient by GRASP.
Victor Trees, Ping Wang, and Piet Stammes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8593–8614,Short summary
Given the time and location of a point on the Earth's surface, we explain how to compute the wavelength-dependent obscuration during solar eclipses. We restore the top-of-atmosphere reflectances and the absorbing aerosol index in the partial Moon shadow during the solar eclipses on 26 December 2019 and 21 June 2020 measured by TROPOMI. This correction method resolves eclipse anomalies and allows for study of the effect of solar eclipses on the composition of the Earth's atmosphere from space.
Yan Yu and Paul Ginoux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8511–8530,Short summary
Despite Australian dust’s critical role in the regional climate and surrounding marine ecosystems, the controlling factors of its spatiotemporal variations are not fully understood. This study establishes the connection between large-scale climate variability and regional dust emission, leading to a better understanding of the spatiotemporal variation in dust activity and improved prediction of dust's climate and ecological influences.
Aurélien Chauvigné, Fabien Waquet, Frédérique Auriol, Luc Blarel, Cyril Delegove, Oleg Dubovik, Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Philippe Goloub, Rodrigue Loisil, Marc Mallet, Jean-Marc Nicolas, Frédéric Parol, Fanny Peers, Benjamin Torres, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8233–8253,Short summary
This work presents aerosol above-cloud properties close to the Namibian coast from a combination of airborne passive remote sensing. The complete analysis of aerosol and cloud optical properties and their microphysical and radiative properties allows us to better identify the impacts of biomass burning emissions. This work also gives a complete overview of the key parameters for constraining climate models in case aerosol and cloud coexist in the troposphere.
Jing Wei, Zhanqing Li, Rachel T. Pinker, Jun Wang, Lin Sun, Wenhao Xue, Runze Li, and Maureen Cribb
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7863–7880,Short summary
This study developed a space-time Light Gradient Boosting Machine (STLG) model to derive the high-temporal-resolution (1 h) and high-quality PM2.5 dataset in China (i.e., ChinaHighPM2.5) at a 5 km spatial resolution from the Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager aerosol products. Our model outperforms most previous related studies with a much lower computation burden in terms of speed and memory, making it most suitable for real-time air pollution monitoring in China.
Stephanie Bohlmann, Xiaoxia Shang, Ville Vakkari, Elina Giannakaki, Ari Leskinen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Sanna Pätsi, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7083–7097,Short summary
Measurements of the multi-wavelength Raman polarization lidar PollyXT and a Halo Photonics StreamLine Doppler lidar have been combined with measurements of pollen type and concentration using a traditional pollen trap at the rural forest site in Vehmasmäki, Finland. Depolarization ratios were measured at three wavelengths. High depolarization ratios were detected during an event with high birch and spruce pollen concentrations and a wavelength dependence of the depolarization ratio was observed.
Yan Xiang, Tianshu Zhang, Chaoqun Ma, Lihui Lv, Jianguo Liu, Wenqing Liu, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7023–7037,Short summary
For the first time, a vertical observation network consisting of 13 aerosol lidars and more than 1000 ground observation stations were combined with a data assimilation technique to reveal key processes driving the 3-D dynamic evolution of PM2.5 concentrations during extreme heavy aerosol pollution on the North China Plain.
Nick Schutgens, Oleg Dubovik, Otto Hasekamp, Omar Torres, Hiren Jethva, Peter J. T. Leonard, Pavel Litvinov, Jens Redemann, Yohei Shinozuka, Gerrit de Leeuw, Stefan Kinne, Thomas Popp, Michael Schulz, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6895–6917,Short summary
Absorptive aerosol has a potentially large impact on climate change. We evaluate and intercompare four global satellite datasets of absorptive aerosol optical depth (AAOD) and single-scattering albedo (SSA). We show that these datasets show reasonable correlations with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) reference, although significant biases remain. In a follow-up paper we show that these observations nevertheless can be used for model evaluation.
Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, Michaël Sicard, María-Ángeles López-Cayuela, Albert Ansmann, Adolfo Comerón, María-Paz Zorzano, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, and Constantino Muñoz-Porcar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6455–6479,Short summary
The particular pathway of dust outbreaks defines the aerosol scenario and short-wave (SW) dust direct radiative effect (DRE). The synergetic use of POLIPHON method with continuous P-MPL measurements allows SW DRE of coarse (Dc) and fine (Df) dust particles to be evaluated separately. A dust-induced cooling effect is found, and despite Dc usually being dominant in intense dust events, the Df contribution to the total DRE can be significant, being higher at the top of atmosphere than on surface.
Alejandro Baró Pérez, Abhay Devasthale, Frida A.-M. Bender, and Annica M. L. Ekman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6053–6077,Short summary
We study the impacts of above-cloud biomass burning plumes on radiation and clouds over the southeast Atlantic using data derived from satellite observations and data-constrained model simulations. A substantial amount of the aerosol within the plumes is not classified as smoke by the satellite. The atmosphere warms more with increasing smoke aerosol loading. No clear influence of aerosol type, loading, or moisture within the overlying aerosol plumes is detected on the cloud top cooling rates.
Ville Vakkari, Holger Baars, Stephanie Bohlmann, Johannes Bühl, Mika Komppula, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, and Ewan James O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5807–5820,Short summary
The depolarization ratio is a valuable parameter for aerosol categorization from remote sensing measurements. Here, we introduce particle depolarization ratio measurements at the 1565 nm wavelength, which is substantially longer than previously utilized wavelengths and enhances our capabilities to study the wavelength dependency of the particle depolarization ratio.
Tongqiang Liu, Qianshan He, Yonghang Chen, Jie Liu, Qiong Liu, Wei Gao, Guan Huang, Wenhao Shi, and Xiaohong Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5377–5391,Short summary
The variation in aerosol 355 nm lidar ratio and its influence factors were analyzed in Shanghai. About 90 % of the lidar ratio was distributed in 10 sr–80 sr, with an average of 41.0±22.5 sr, and the lidar ratio decreased with the increase in height. Due to aerosol radiative effects, the vertical slope of the lidar ratio presented a decreasing trend with increasing atmospheric turbidity. A large lidar ratio above 1 km was related to biomass burning aerosols and high relative humidity.
Yikun Yang, Chuanfeng Zhao, Quan Wang, Zhiyuan Cong, Xingchuan Yang, and Hao Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4849–4868,Short summary
The occurrence frequency of different aerosol types and aerosol optical depth over the Arctic, Antarctic and Tibetan Plateau (TP) show distinctive spatiotemporal differences. The aerosol extinction coefficient in the Arctic and TP has a broad vertical distribution, while that of the Antarctic has obvious seasonal differences. Compared with the Antarctic, the Arctic and TP are vulnerable to surrounding pollutants, and the source of air masses has obvious seasonal variations.
Ying-Chieh Chen, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Qilong Min, Sarah Lu, Pay-Liam Lin, Neng-Huei Lin, Kao-Shan Chung, and Everette Joseph
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4487–4502,Short summary
In this study, we integrate satellite and surface observations to statistically quantify aerosol impacts on low-level warm-cloud microphysics and drizzle over northern Taiwan. Our result provides observational evidence for aerosol indirect effects. The frequency of drizzle is reduced under polluted conditions. For light-precipitation events (≤ 1 mm h-1), however, higher aerosol concentrations drive raindrops toward smaller sizes and thus increase the appearance of the drizzle drops.
Gemine Vivone, Giuseppe D'Amico, Donato Summa, Simone Lolli, Aldo Amodeo, Daniele Bortoli, and Gelsomina Pappalardo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4249–4265,Short summary
We developed a methodology to retrieve the atmospheric boundary layer height from elastic and multi-wavelength lidar observations that uses a new approach based on morphological image processing techniques. The intercomparison with other state-of-the-art algorithms shows on average 30 % improved performance. The algorithm also shows excellent performance with respect to the running time, i.e., just few seconds to execute the whole signal processing chain over 72 h of continuous measurements.
Qingqing He, Mengya Wang, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACP
Xingchuan Yang, Chuanfeng Zhao, Yikun Yang, and Hao Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3803–3825,Short summary
We investigate the spatiotemporal distributions of aerosol optical properties and major aerosol types, along with the vertical distribution of the major aerosol types over Australia based on multi-source data. The results of this study provide significant information on aerosol optical properties in Australia, which can help to understand their characteristics and potential climate impacts.
Xingchuan Yang, Chuanfeng Zhao, Yikun Yang, Xing Yan, and Hao Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3833–3853,Short summary
Using long-term multi-source data, this study shows significant impacts of fire events on aerosol properties over Australia. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the total was 26 % of the annual average but larger (30–43 %) in September–December; smoke and dust are the two dominant aerosol types at different heights in southeastern Australia for the 2019 fire case. These findings are helpful for understanding aerosol climate effects and improving climate modeling in Australia in future.
Fanny Peers, Peter Francis, Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Keith N. Bower, Michael I. Cotterell, Ian Crawford, Nicholas W. Davies, Cathryn Fox, Stuart Fox, Justin M. Langridge, Kerry G. Meyer, Steven E. Platnick, Kate Szpek, and Jim M. Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3235–3254,Short summary
Satellite observations at high temporal resolution are a valuable asset to monitor the transport of biomass burning plumes and the cloud diurnal cycle in the South Atlantic, but they need to be validated. Cloud and above-cloud aerosol properties retrieved from SEVIRI are compared against MODIS and measurements from the CLARIFY-2017 campaign. While some systematic differences are observed between SEVIRI and MODIS, the overall agreement in the cloud and aerosol properties is very satisfactory.
Konstantinos Michailidis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Nikolaos Siomos, Dimitris Balis, Olaf Tuinder, L. Gijsbert Tilstra, Lucia Mona, Gelsomina Pappalardo, and Daniele Bortoli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3193–3213,Short summary
The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the GOME-2 instrument aboard the MetOp-A, MetOp-B and MetOp-C platforms to deliver accurate geometrical features of lofted aerosol layers. For this purpose, we use archived ground-based data from lidar stations available from the EARLINET database. We show that for this well-developed and spatially well-spread aerosol layer, most GOME-2 retrievals fall within 1 km of the exact temporally collocated lidar observation.
Martin Radenz, Patric Seifert, Holger Baars, Athena Augusta Floutsi, Zhenping Yin, and Johannes Bühl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3015–3033,
Maria Mylonaki, Elina Giannakaki, Alexandros Papayannis, Christina-Anna Papanikolaou, Mika Komppula, Doina Nicolae, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Aldo Amodeo, Holger Baars, and Ourania Soupiona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2211–2227,Short summary
We introduce an automated aerosol type classification method, SCAN. The output of SCAN is compared with two aerosol classification methods: (1) the Mahalanobis distance automatic aerosol type classification and (2) a neural network aerosol typing algorithm. A total of 97 free tropospheric aerosol layers from four EARLINET stations in the period 2014–2018 were classified.
Mayumi Yoshida, Keiya Yumimoto, Takashi M. Nagao, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Maki Kikuchi, and Hiroshi Murakami
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1797–1813,Short summary
We developed a new aerosol satellite retrieval algorithm combining a numerical aerosol forecast. This is the first study that utilizes the assimilated model forecast of aerosol as an a priori estimate of the retrieval. Aerosol retrievals were improved by effectively incorporating both model and satellite information. By using the assimilated forecast as an a priori estimate, information from previous observations can be propagated to future retrievals, thus leading to better retrieval accuracy.
Yan Yu, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Michael J. Garay, Huikyo Lee, Myungje Choi, Gregory S. Okin, John E. Yorks, James R. Campbell, and Jared Marquis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1427–1447,Short summary
Given the current uncertainties in the simulated diurnal variability of global dust mobilization and concentration, observational characterization of the variations in dust mobilization and concentration will provide a valuable benchmark for evaluating and constraining such model simulations. The current study investigates the diurnal cycle of dust loading across the global tropics, subtropics, and mid-latitudes by analyzing aerosol observations from the International Space Station.
Jiecan Cui, Tenglong Shi, Yue Zhou, Dongyou Wu, Xin Wang, and Wei Pu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 269–288,Short summary
We make the first quantitative, remote-sensing-based, and hemisphere-scale assessment of radiative forcing (RF) due to light-absorbing particles (LAPs) in snow. We observed significant spatial variations in snow albedo reduction and RF due to LAPs throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with the lowest values occurring in the Arctic and the highest in northeastern China. We determined that the LAPs in snow play a critical role in spatial variability in Northern Hemisphere albedo reduction and RF.
Shuo Wang, Jason Blake Cohen, Chuyong Lin, and Weizhi Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15401–15426,Short summary
We analyze global measurements of aerosol height from fires. A plume rise model reproduces measurements with a low bias in five regions, while a statistical model based on satellite measurements of trace gasses co-emitted from the fires reproduces measurements without bias in eight regions. We propose that the magnitude of the pollutants emitted may impact their height and subsequent downwind transport. Using satellite data allows better modeling of the global aerosol distribution.
Goutam Choudhury, Bhishma Tyagi, Naresh Krishna Vissa, Jyotsna Singh, Chandan Sarangi, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, and Matthias Tesche
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15389–15399,Short summary
This study uses 17 years (2001–2017) of observed rain rate, aerosol optical depth (AOD), meteorological reanalysis fields and outgoing long-wave radiation to investigate high precipitation events at the foothills of the Himalayas. Composite analysis of all data sets for high precipitation events (daily rainfall > 95th percentile) indicates clear and robust associations between high precipitation events, high aerosol loading and high moist static energy values.
Xiaoxia Shang, Elina Giannakaki, Stephanie Bohlmann, Maria Filioglou, Annika Saarto, Antti Ruuskanen, Ari Leskinen, Sami Romakkaniemi, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15323–15339,Short summary
Measurements of the multi-wavelength Raman polarization lidar PollyXT have been combined with measurements of pollen type and concentration using a traditional pollen sampler at a rural forest site in Kuopio, Finland. The depolarization ratio was enhanced when there were pollen grains in the atmosphere, illustrating the potential of lidar to track pollen grains in the atmosphere. The depolarization ratio of pure pollen particles was assessed for birch and pine pollen using a novel algorithm.
Yueming Cheng, Tie Dai, Jiming Li, and Guangyu Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15307–15322,Short summary
In this paper we present the analysis of the aerosol vertical features observed by CATS collected from 2015 to 2017 over three selected regions (North China, the Tibetan Plateau, and the Tarim Basin) over different timescales. This comprehensive information provides insights into the seasonal variations and diurnal cycles of the aerosol vertical features across East Asia.
Sophie Vandenbussche, Sieglinde Callewaert, Kerstin Schepanski, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15127–15146,Short summary
Mineral dust aerosols blown mostly from desert areas are a key player in the climate system. We use a new desert dust aerosol low-altitude concentration data set as well as additional information on the surface state and low-altitude winds to infer desert dust emission and source maps over North Africa. With 9 years of data, we observe a full seasonal cycle of dust emissions, differentiating morning and afternoon/evening emissions and providing a first glance at long-term changes.
Ourania Soupiona, Alexandros Papayannis, Panagiotis Kokkalis, Romanos Foskinis, Guadalupe Sánchez Hernández, Pablo Ortiz-Amezcua, Maria Mylonaki, Christina-Anna Papanikolaou, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Stefanos Samaras, Silke Groß, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Aldo Amodeo, and Basil Psiloglou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15147–15166,Short summary
51 dust events over the Mediterranean from EARLINET were studied regarding the aerosol geometrical, optical and microphysical properties and radiative forcing. We found δp532 values of 0.24–0.28, LR532 values of 49–52 sr and AOT532 of 0.11–0.40. The aerosol mixing state was also examined. Depending on the dust properties, intensity and solar zenith angle, the estimated solar radiative forcing ranged from −59 to −22 W m−2 at the surface and from −24 to −1 W m−2 at the TOA (cooling effect).
Zhuang Wang, Cheng Liu, Zhouqing Xie, Qihou Hu, Meinrat O. Andreae, Yunsheng Dong, Chun Zhao, Ting Liu, Yizhi Zhu, Haoran Liu, Chengzhi Xing, Wei Tan, Xiangguang Ji, Jinan Lin, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14917–14932,Short summary
Significant stratification of aerosols was observed in North China. Polluted dust dominated above the PBL, and anthropogenic aerosols prevailed within the PBL, which is mainly driven by meteorological conditions. The key role of the elevated dust is to alter atmospheric thermodynamics and stability, causing the suppression of turbulence exchange and a decrease in PBL height, especially during the dissipation stage, thereby inhibiting dissipation of persistent heavy surface haze pollution.
Mariana Adam, Doina Nicolae, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Alexandros Papayannis, and Dimitris Balis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13905–13927,Short summary
Biomass burning events measured by EARLINET are analysed using intensive parameters. The pollution layers are labelled smoke layers if fires were found along the air-mass back trajectory. The number of contributing fires to the smoke measurements is quantified. It is shown that most of the time we measure mixed smoke. The methodology provides three research directions: fires measured by several stations, long-range transport from N. America, and an analysis function of continental sources.
Nick Schutgens, Andrew M. Sayer, Andreas Heckel, Christina Hsu, Hiren Jethva, Gerrit de Leeuw, Peter J. T. Leonard, Robert C. Levy, Antti Lipponen, Alexei Lyapustin, Peter North, Thomas Popp, Caroline Poulsen, Virginia Sawyer, Larisa Sogacheva, Gareth Thomas, Omar Torres, Yujie Wang, Stefan Kinne, Michael Schulz, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12431–12457,Short summary
We intercompare 14 different datasets of satellite observations of aerosol. Such measurements are challenging but also provide the best opportunity to globally observe an atmospheric component strongly related to air pollution and climate change. Our study shows that most datasets perform similarly well on a global scale but that locally errors can be quite different. We develop a technique to estimate satellite errors everywhere, even in the absence of surface reference data.
Manuel Gutleben, Silke Groß, Martin Wirth, and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12313–12327,Short summary
Airborne lidar measurements in the vicinity of Barbados are used to investigate radiative effects of long-range-transported Saharan air layers. Derived atmospheric heating rates indicate that observed enhanced water vapor concentrations inside these layers are the main drivers for dust vertical mixing inside the layers. Additionally, they may play a major role for the suppression of subjacent convective cloud development.
Li Li, Zhengqiang Li, Wenyuan Chang, Yang Ou, Philippe Goloub, Chengzhe Li, Kaitao Li, Qiaoyun Hu, Jianping Wang, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10845–10864,Short summary
Dust Aerosol Observation-Kashi (DAO-K) campaign was conducted near the Taklimakan Desert in April 2019 to obtain comprehensive aerosol, atmosphere, and surface parameters. Estimations of aerosol solar radiative forcing by a radiative transfer (RT) model were improved based on the measured aerosol parameters, additionally considering atmospheric profiles and diurnal variations of surface albedo. RT simulations agree well with simultaneous irradiance observations, even in dust-polluted conditions.
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