Articles | Volume 20, issue 1
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15–27, 2020
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Special issue: Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) Special Issue
02 Jan 2020
Research article | 02 Jan 2020
Planetary boundary layer evolution over the Amazon rainforest in episodes of deep moist convection at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory
Maurício I. Oliveira et al.
No articles found.
Yunfan Liu, Hang Su, Siwen Wang, Chao Wei, Wei Tao, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid O. Krüger, Thorsten Hoffmann, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The origins of the abundant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the upper troposphere (UT) of the Amazon remain unclear. With model developments of new secondary organic aerosol schemes and constrained by observation, we show that the UT aerosol formation triggered by biogenic organics shapes the UT aerosols, and organic condensation is key for UT CCN production. This UT CCN-producing mechanism may prevail over broader vegetation canopies and deserves emphasis in aerosol-climate feedback.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vihma, Jouni Räisänen, Alexander Baklanov, Sergey Chalov, Igor Esau, Ekaterina Ezhova, Matti Leppäranta, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Jukka Pumpanen, Meinrat O. Andreae, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Jianhui Bai, Igor Bashmachnikov, Boris Belan, Federico Bianchi, Boris Biskaborn, Michael Boy, Jaana Bäck, Bin Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Jonathan Duplissy, Egor Dyukarev, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Martin Forsius, Martin Heimann, Sirkku Juhola, Vladimir Konovalov, Igor Konovalov, Pavel Konstantinov, Kajar Köster, Elena Lapshina, Anna Lintunen, Alexander Mahura, Risto Makkonen, Svetlana Malkhazova, Ivan Mammarella, Stefano Mammola, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Outi Meinander, Eugene Mikhailov, Victoria Miles, Stanislav Myslenkov, Dmitry Orlov, Jean-Daniel Paris, Roberta Pirazzini, Olga Popovicheva, Jouni Pulliainen, Kimmo Rautiainen, Torsten Sachs, Vladimir Shevchenko, Andrey Skorokhod, Andreas Stohl, Elli Suhonen, Erik S. Thomson, Marina Tsidilina, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Petteri Uotila, Aki Virkkula, Nadezhda Voropay, Tobias Wolf, Sayaka Yasunaka, Jiahua Zhang, Yubao Qiu, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Nikolay Kasimov, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4413–4469,Short summary
We summarize results during the last 5 years in the northern Eurasian region, especially from Russia, and introduce recent observations of the air quality in the urban environments in China. Although the scientific knowledge in these regions has increased, there are still gaps in our understanding of large-scale climate–Earth surface interactions and feedbacks. This arises from limitations in research infrastructures and integrative data analyses, hindering a comprehensive system analysis.
Marco A. Franco, Florian Ditas, Leslie A. Kremper, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro Araújo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Joel F. de Brito, Samara Carbone, Bruna A. Holanda, Fernando G. Morais, Janaína P. Nascimento, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Marta Sá, Jorge Saturno, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3469–3492,Short summary
In Central Amazonia, new particle formation in the planetary boundary layer is rare. Instead, there is the appearance of sub-50 nm aerosols with diameters larger than about 20 nm that eventually grow to cloud condensation nuclei size range. Here, 254 growth events were characterized which have higher predominance in the wet season. About 70 % of them showed direct relation to convective downdrafts, while 30 % occurred partly under clear-sky conditions, evidencing still unknown particle sources.
Meinrat O. Andreae, Tracey W. Andreae, Florian Ditas, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2487–2505,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol particles are key players in the Earth’s climate system, but there is still considerable uncertainty about where and how these particles are initially formed. We present the first study of new particle formation (NPF) at a pristine site in a subboreal forest region of North America. Our data suggest that, in this environment, there is frequent NPF from biogenic organic precursor compounds, which was likely the predominant source of particles in the preindustrial environment.
Charlotte M. Beall, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Tobias Köneman, Michael Pikridas, Frank Drewnick, Hartwig Harder, Christopher Pöhlker, Jos Lelieveld, Bettina Weber, Minas Iakovides, Roman Prokeš, Jean Sciare, Meinrat O. Andreae, M. Dale Stokes, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are rare aerosols that can trigger ice formation in clouds and affect multiple climate-relevant cloud properties such as phase, reflectivity and lifetime. Dust is the dominant INP source, yet few measurements have been reported near major dust sources. Here we report INP observations within 100s of km of the two biggest dust source regions globally: the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula. Results show that at temperatures > −15 °C, INPs are dominated by organics.
Luiz A. T. Machado, Marco A. Franco, Leslie A. Kremper, Florian Ditas, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Micael A. Cecchini, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ivan Saraiva, Stefan Wolff, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18065–18086,Short summary
Several studies evaluate aerosol–cloud interactions, but only a few attempted to describe how clouds modify aerosol properties. This study evaluates the effect of weather events on the particle size distribution at the ATTO, combining remote sensing and in situ data. Ultrafine, Aitken and accumulation particles modes have different behaviors for the diurnal cycle and for rainfall events. This study opens up new scientific questions that need to be pursued in detail in new field campaigns.
Ramon Campos Braga, Barbara Ervens, Daniel Rosenfeld, Meinrat O. Andreae, Jan-David Förster, Daniel Fütterer, Lianet Hernández Pardo, Bruna A. Holanda, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Ovid O. Krüger, Oliver Lauer, Luiz A. T. Machado, Christopher Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17513–17528,Short summary
Interactions of aerosol particles with clouds represent a large uncertainty in estimates of climate change. Properties of aerosol particles control their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Using aerosol measurements in the Amazon, we performed model studies to compare predicted and measured cloud droplet number concentrations at cloud bases. Our results confirm previous estimates of particle hygroscopicity in this region.
Igor B. Konovalov, Nikolai A. Golovushkin, Matthias Beekmann, Mikhail V. Panchenko, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6647–6673,Short summary
The absorption of solar light by organic matter, known as brown carbon (BrC), contributes significantly to the radiative budget of the Earth’s atmosphere, but its representation in atmospheric models is uncertain. This paper advances a methodology to constrain model parameters characterizing BrC absorption of atmospheric aerosol originating from biomass burning with the available remote ground-based observations of atmospheric aerosol.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ovid O. Krüger, Barbara Ervens, Bruna A. Holanda, Manfred Wendisch, Trismono Krisna, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christiane Voigt, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14079–14088,Short summary
Quantifying the precipitation within clouds is crucial for our understanding of the Earth's hydrological cycle. Using in situ measurements of cloud and rain properties over the Amazon Basin and Atlantic Ocean, we show here a linear relationship between the effective radius (re) and precipitation water content near the tops of convective clouds for different pollution states and temperature levels. Our results emphasize the role of re to determine both initiation and amount of precipitation.
Maria Prass, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Paulo Artaxo, Florian Ditas, Wolfgang Elbert, Jan-David Förster, Marco Aurélio Franco, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Thomas Klimach, Leslie Ann Kremper, Eckhard Thines, David Walter, Jens Weber, Bettina Weber, Bernhard M. Fuchs, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Biogeosciences, 18, 4873–4887,Short summary
Bioaerosols in the atmosphere over the Amazon rain forest were analyzed by molecular biological staining and microscopy. Eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal aerosols were quantified in time series and altitude profiles which exhibited clear differences in number concentrations and vertical distributions. Our results provide insights into the sources and dispersion of different Amazonian bioaerosol types as a basis for a better understanding of biosphere–atmosphere interactions.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Matthias Sörgel, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Biogeosciences, 18, 2809–2825,Short summary
The exchange of the gas ammonia between the atmosphere and the surface is an important biogeochemical process, but little is known of this exchange for certain ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest. This study took measurements of ammonia exchange over an Amazon rainforest site and subsequently modelled the observed deposition and emission patterns. We observed emissions of ammonia from the rainforest, which can be simulated accurately by using a canopy resistance modelling approach.
Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Nina G. Reijrink, Achim Edtbauer, Akima Ringsdorf, Nora Zannoni, Alessandro Araújo, Florian Ditas, Bruna A. Holanda, Marta O. Sá, Anywhere Tsokankunku, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Jošt V. Lavrič, Christopher Pöhlker, Matthias Sörgel, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6231–6256,Short summary
Tropical forests are globally significant for atmospheric chemistry. However, the mixture of reactive organic gases emitted by these ecosystems is poorly understood. By comprehensive observations at an Amazon forest site, we show that oxygenated species were previously underestimated in their contribution to the tropical-forest reactant mix. Our results show rain and temperature effects and have implications for models and the understanding of ozone and particle formation above tropical forests.
Igor B. Konovalov, Nikolai A. Golovushkin, Matthias Beekmann, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 357–392,Short summary
A lack of consistent observational constraints on the atmospheric evolution of the optical properties of biomass burning (BB) aerosol limits the accuracy of assessments of the aerosol radiative and climate effects. We show that useful insights into the evolution of the BB aerosol optical properties can be inferred from a combination of satellite observations and 3D modeling. We report major changes that occurred in the optical properties of Siberian BB aerosol during its long-range transport.
Guilherme F. Camarinha-Neto, Julia C. P. Cohen, Cléo Q. Dias-Júnior, Matthias Sörgel, José Henrique Cattanio, Alessandro Araújo, Stefan Wolff, Paulo A. F. Kuhn, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Luciana V. Rizzo, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 339–356,Short summary
It was observed that friagem phenomena (incursion of cold waves from the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere to the Amazon region), very common in the dry season of the Amazon region, produced significant changes in microclimate and atmospheric chemistry. Moreover, the effects of the friagem change the surface O3 and CO2 mixing ratios and therefore interfere deeply in the microclimatic conditions and the chemical composition of the atmosphere above the rainforest.
Robert B. Chatfield, Meinrat O. Andreae, ARCTAS Science Team, and SEAC4RS Science Team
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7069–7096,Short summary
Forest burning affects air pollution and global climate. A NASA aircraft studied fire emissions including the Rim Fire near Yosemite. We found frequent confusions between the actual fire emission factors and other effects on the air samples. Effects on CO2 and CO can originate far upwind; the gases can mix variably into a smoke plume. We devised a theory of constant features in plumes. A statistical mixed-effects analysis of a co-emitted tracers model disentangles such mixing from fire effects.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Matthias Sörgel, Mathew R. Heal, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Marta Sá, Christopher Pöhlker, Jost Lavric, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15551–15584,Short summary
The Amazon rainforest is a unique
laboratoryto study the processes which govern the exchange of gases and aerosols to and from the atmosphere. This study investigated these processes by measuring the atmospheric concentrations of trace gases and particles at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory. We found that the long-range transport of pollutants can affect the atmospheric composition above the Amazon rainforest and that the gases ammonia and nitrous acid can be emitted from the rainforest.
Zhuang Wang, Cheng Liu, Zhouqing Xie, Qihou Hu, Meinrat O. Andreae, Yunsheng Dong, Chun Zhao, Ting Liu, Yizhi Zhu, Haoran Liu, Chengzhi Xing, Wei Tan, Xiangguang Ji, Jinan Lin, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14917–14932,Short summary
Significant stratification of aerosols was observed in North China. Polluted dust dominated above the PBL, and anthropogenic aerosols prevailed within the PBL, which is mainly driven by meteorological conditions. The key role of the elevated dust is to alter atmospheric thermodynamics and stability, causing the suppression of turbulence exchange and a decrease in PBL height, especially during the dissipation stage, thereby inhibiting dissipation of persistent heavy surface haze pollution.
Nina Löbs, David Walter, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Sebastian Brill, Rodrigo P. Alves, Gabriela R. Cerqueira, Marta de Oliveira Sá, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Leonardo R. de Oliveira, Florian Ditas, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Ana Paula Pires Florentino, Stefan Wolff, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Sylvia Mota de Oliveira, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christopher Pöhlker, and Bettina Weber
Biogeosciences, 17, 5399–5416,Short summary
Cryptogamic organisms, such as bryophytes, lichens, and algae, cover major parts of vegetation in the Amazonian rain forest, but their relevance in biosphere–atmosphere exchange, climate processes, and nutrient cycling is largely unknown. Over the duration of 2 years we measured their water content, temperature, and light conditions to get better insights into their physiological activity patterns and thus their potential impact on local, regional, and even global biogeochemical processes.
Lixia Liu, Yafang Cheng, Siwen Wang, Chao Wei, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Paulo Artaxo, Manish Shrivastava, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13283–13301,Short summary
This modeling paper reveals how aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs) and aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs) induced by biomass burning (BB) aerosols act oppositely on radiation, cloud, and precipitation in the Amazon during the dry season. The varying relative significance of ACIs and ARIs with BB aerosol concentration leads to a nonlinear dependence of the total climate response on BB aerosol loading and features the growing importance of ARIs at high aerosol loading.
Jan-David Förster, Christian Gurk, Mark Lamneck, Haijie Tong, Florian Ditas, Sarah S. Steimer, Peter A. Alpert, Markus Ammann, Jörg Raabe, Markus Weigand, Benjamin Watts, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3717–3729,Short summary
A gas flow system coupled with a microreactor for X-ray microspectroscopy is presented. Its core objective is to mimic the atmospheric processing of aerosol particles under laboratory conditions in a controlled gas-phase environment and allow in situ observations with high spatial and chemical resolution. We here emphasize its analytical capabilities and show initial results from hydration–dehydration experiments and the observation of water ice at low temperature and high relative humidity.
Santiago Botía, Christoph Gerbig, Julia Marshall, Jost V. Lavric, David Walter, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna Holanda, Gilberto Fisch, Alessandro Carioca de Araújo, Marta O. Sá, Paulo R. Teixeira, Angélica F. Resende, Cleo Q. Dias-Junior, Hella van Asperen, Pablo S. Oliveira, Michel Stefanello, and Otávio C. Acevedo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6583–6606,Short summary
A long record of atmospheric methane concentrations in central Amazonia was analyzed. We describe events in which concentrations at 79 m are higher than at 4 m. These events are more frequent during the nighttime of dry season, but we found no association with fire signals. Instead, we suggest that a combination of nighttime transport and a nearby source could explain such events. Our research gives insights into how methane is transported in the complex nocturnal atmosphere in Amazonia.
Silvana Maldaner, Michel Stefanello, Luis Gustavo N. Martins, Gervásio Annes Degrazia, Umberto Rizza, Débora Regina Roberti, Franciano S. Puhales, and Otávio C. Acevedo
Ann. Geophys., 38, 603–610,Short summary
In this paper, quasi-empirical convective eddy diffusivity parameterizations for a coastal site are obtained. In the derivation we used Taylor's theory of statistical diffusion and sonic anemometer observations collected at 11 levels on a 140 m high tower in a convective planetary boundary layer. The test of the derived coefficients was solved by solving the equation of diffusion–advection by the fractional step/locally one-dimensional (LOD) methods.
Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Jeannine Ditas, Florian Ditas, Christiane Schulz, Marco Aurélio Franco, Qiaoqiao Wang, Tobias Donth, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Joel Brito, Yafang Cheng, Maximilian Dollner, Johannes W. Kaiser, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Ovid O. Krüger, Daniel Fütterer, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Luiz A. T. Machado, Jing Ming, Fernando G. Morais, Hauke Paulsen, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Johannes Schneider, Hang Su, Bernadett Weinzierl, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4757–4785,Short summary
Biomass burning smoke from African savanna and grassland is transported across the South Atlantic Ocean in defined layers within the free troposphere. The combination of in situ aircraft and ground-based measurements aided by satellite observations showed that these layers are transported into the Amazon Basin during the early dry season. The influx of aged smoke, enriched in black carbon and cloud condensation nuclei, has important implications for the Amazonian aerosol and cloud cycling.
Sinikka T. Lennartz, Christa A. Marandino, Marc von Hobe, Meinrat O. Andreae, Kazushi Aranami, Elliot Atlas, Max Berkelhammer, Heinz Bingemer, Dennis Booge, Gregory Cutter, Pau Cortes, Stefanie Kremser, Cliff S. Law, Andrew Marriner, Rafel Simó, Birgit Quack, Günther Uher, Huixiang Xie, and Xiaobin Xu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 591–609,Short summary
Sulfur-containing trace gases in the atmosphere influence atmospheric chemistry and the energy budget of the Earth by forming aerosols. The ocean is an important source of the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and its most important precursor carbon disulfide (CS2). In order to assess global variability of the sea surface concentrations of both gases to calculate their oceanic emissions, we have compiled a database of existing shipborne measurements.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Jennifer M. Comstock, Ralf Weigel, Martina Krämer, Christoph Mahnke, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Charles N. Long, Manfred Wendisch, Luiz A. T. Machado, Beat Schmid, Trismono Krisna, Mikhail Pekour, John Hubbe, Andreas Giez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Martin Zoeger, Mira L. Pöhlker, Hans Schlager, Micael A. Cecchini, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Suzane S. de Sá, Jiwen Fan, Jason Tomlinson, Stephen Springston, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, Christopher Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Andreas Minikin, Armin Afchine, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 661–684,Short summary
In 2014, the US DOE G1 aircraft and the German HALO aircraft overflew the Amazon basin to study how aerosols influence cloud cycles under a clean condition and around a tropical megacity. This paper describes how to meaningfully compare similar measurements from two research aircraft and identify the potential measurement issue. We also discuss the uncertainty range for each measurement for further usage in model evaluation and satellite data validation.
Pascal Polonik, Christoph Knote, Tobias Zinner, Florian Ewald, Tobias Kölling, Bernhard Mayer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Mahnke, Sergej Molleker, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Christiane Voigt, Ralf Weigel, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1591–1605,Short summary
A realistic representation of cloud–aerosol interactions is central to accurate climate projections. Here we combine observations collected during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign with chemistry-transport simulations to evaluate the model’s ability to represent the indirect effects of biomass burning aerosol on cloud microphysics. We find an upper limit for the model sensitivity on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations well below the levels reached during the burning season in the Amazon Basin.
Nina Löbs, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Sebastian Brill, David Walter, Florian Ditas, Marta de Oliveira Sá, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Leonardo R. de Oliveira, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Stefan Wolff, Meike Piepenbring, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, and Bettina Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 153–164,Short summary
Bioaerosols are considered to play a relevant role in atmospheric processes, but their sources, properties, and spatiotemporal distribution in the atmosphere are not yet well characterized. Measurement data on the release of fungal spores under natural conditions are also sparse. Here, we present an experimental approach to analyze and quantify the spore release from fungi and other spore-producing organisms under natural and laboratory conditions.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Yves Balkanski, Lorenzo Caponi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Emilie Journet, Sophie Nowak, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Thuraya Saeed, Stuart Piketh, David Seibert, Earle Williams, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15503–15531,Short summary
This paper presents a new dataset of laboratory measurements of the shortwave (SW) spectral complex refractive index and single-scattering albedo (SSA) for global mineral dust aerosols of varying origin and composition. Our results show that the dust refractive index and SSA vary strongly from source to source, mostly due to particle iron content changes. We recommend that source-dependent values of the SW spectral refractive index and SSA be used in models and remote sensing applications.
Fang Li, Maria Val Martin, Meinrat O. Andreae, Almut Arneth, Stijn Hantson, Johannes W. Kaiser, Gitta Lasslop, Chao Yue, Dominique Bachelet, Matthew Forrest, Erik Kluzek, Xiaohong Liu, Stephane Mangeon, Joe R. Melton, Daniel S. Ward, Anton Darmenov, Thomas Hickler, Charles Ichoku, Brian I. Magi, Stephen Sitch, Guido R. van der Werf, Christine Wiedinmyer, and Sam S. Rabin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12545–12567,Short summary
Fire emissions are critical for atmospheric composition, climate, carbon cycle, and air quality. We provide the first global multi-model fire emission reconstructions for 1700–2012, including carbon and 33 species of trace gases and aerosols, based on the nine state-of-the-art global fire models that participated in FireMIP. We also provide information on the recent status and limitations of the model-based reconstructions and identify the main uncertainty sources in their long-term changes.
Igor B. Konovalov, Matthias Beekmann, Nikolai A. Golovushkin, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12091–12119,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) aerosol has a strong impact on air quality and climate, but a wide diversity of observed effects of its atmospheric transformations (aging) is not yet sufficiently understood and thus not addressed in models. Based on the results of numerical experiments involving a box model, we show that part of this diversity can be due to the factors associated with the intrinsic nonlinearity of the processes governing the atmospheric evolution of organic components of BB aerosol.
Merritt N. Deeter, David P. Edwards, Gene L. Francis, John C. Gille, Debbie Mao, Sara Martínez-Alonso, Helen M. Worden, Dan Ziskin, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4561–4580,Short summary
The MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) satellite instrument has been making nearly continuous observations of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) since 2000. MOPITT CO retrievals are routinely used to analyze emissions from fossil fuels and biomass burning, as well as the atmospheric transport of those emissions. This paper describes recent enhancements to the MOPITT retrieval algorithm. New validation results illustrate clear improvements in the fidelity of the MOPITT product.
Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8523–8546,Short summary
Biomass burning is one of the largest sources of atmospheric pollutants worldwide. This paper presents an up-to-date compilation of emission factors for over 120 trace gas and aerosol species from the different forms of open vegetation fires and domestic biofuel use, based on an analysis of over 370 published studies. Using these emission factors and current global burning activity data, the annual emissions of important species released by the various types of biomass burning are estimated.
Christopher Pöhlker, David Walter, Hauke Paulsen, Tobias Könemann, Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Céline Degrendele, Viviane R. Després, Florian Ditas, Bruna A. Holanda, Johannes W. Kaiser, Gerhard Lammel, Jošt V. Lavrič, Jing Ming, Daniel Pickersgill, Mira L. Pöhlker, Maria Praß, Nina Löbs, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Qiaoqiao Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8425–8470,Short summary
The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been established to monitor the rain forest's biosphere–atmosphere exchange, which experiences the combined pressures from human-made deforestation and progressing climate change. This work is meant to be a reference study, which characterizes various geospatial properties of the ATTO footprint region and shows how the human-made transformation of Amazonia may impact future atmospheric observations at ATTO.
Ralph Dlugi, Martina Berger, Chinmay Mallik, Anywhere Tsokankunku, Michael Zelger, Otávio C. Acevedo, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Gerhard Kramm, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Anke C. Nölscher, Huug Ouwersloot, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Franz Rohrer, Sebastian Tauer, Jonathan Williams, Ana-Maria Yáñez-Serrano, Meinrat O. Andreae, Hartwig Harder, and Matthias Sörgel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
Incomplete mixing (segregation) results in reduced chemical reaction rates compared to those expected from mean values and rate constants. Segregation has been suggested to cause discrepancies between modelled and measured OH radical concentrations. In this work, we summarize the intensities of segregation for the reaction of OH and isoprene for different field and modelling studies and compare those to our results from measurements in a pristine environment.
Dorothea S. Macholdt, Jan-David Förster, Maren Müller, Bettina Weber, Michael Kappl, A. L. David Kilcoyne, Markus Weigand, Jan Leitner, Klaus Peter Jochum, Christopher Pöhlker, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 8, 97–111,Short summary
Focused ion beam (FIB) slicing is a widely used technique to prepare ultrathin slices for the microanalysis of geological and environmental samples. During our investigations of the manganese oxidation states in rock varnish slices, we found an FIB-related reduction of manganese(IV) to manganese(II) at the samples’ surfaces. This study characterizes the observed reduction artifacts and emphasizes that caution is needed in the analysis of transition metal oxidation states upon FIB preparation.
Li Wu, Xue Li, HyeKyeong Kim, Hong Geng, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Ana F. L. Godoi, Carlos I. Yamamoto, Rodrigo A. F. de Souza, Christopher Pöhlker, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Chul-Un Ro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1221–1240,Short summary
Aerosol samples collected at a remote site in the Amazonian rainforest (ATTO) and an urban site in Manaus, Brazil, were investigated on a single particle basis using a quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis, suggesting the different sources and formation mechanisms of secondary aerosols, i.e., the predominant presence of sulfate at the ATTO site from mostly biogenic emissions and the elevated influences of nitrates from anthropogenic activities at the Manaus site.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Marsailidh M. Twigg, Nicholas Cowan, Matthew R. Jones, Sarah R. Leeson, William J. Bloss, Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh Crilley, Matthias Sörgel, Meinrat Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16953–16978,Short summary
Understanding the impact of agricultural activities on the atmosphere requires more measurements of inorganic trace gases and associated aerosol counterparts. This research presents 1 month of measurements above agricultural grassland during a period of fertiliser application. It was found that emissions of the important trace gases ammonia and nitrous acid peaked after fertiliser use and that the velocity at which the measured aerosols were deposited was dependent upon their size.
Emma Järvinen, Olivier Jourdan, David Neubauer, Bin Yao, Chao Liu, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrike Lohmann, Manfred Wendisch, Greg M. McFarquhar, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15767–15781,Short summary
Using light diffraction it is possible to detect microscopic features within ice particles that have not yet been fully characterized. Here, this technique was applied in airborne measurements, where it was found that majority of atmospheric ice particles have features that significantly change the way ice particles interact with solar light. The microscopic features make ice-containing clouds more reflective than previously thought, which could have consequences for predicting our climate.
Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Oliver Appel, Anja Costa, Suzane S. de Sá, Volker Dreiling, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Scot T. Martin, Stephan Mertes, Mira L. Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Bernadett Weinzierl, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Luiz A. T. Machado, Ulrich Pöschl, Manfred Wendisch, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14979–15001,Short summary
Aerosol chemical composition measurements in the tropical upper troposphere over the Amazon region show that 78 % of the aerosol in the upper troposphere consists of organic matter. Up to 20 % of the organic aerosol can be attributed to isoprene epoxydiol secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA). Furthermore, organic nitrates were identified, suggesting a connection to the IEPOX-SOA formation.
Igor B. Konovalov, Daria A. Lvova, Matthias Beekmann, Hiren Jethva, Eugene F. Mikhailov, Jean-Daniel Paris, Boris D. Belan, Valerii S. Kozlov, Philippe Ciais, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14889–14924,Short summary
A good knowledge of black carbon (BC) emissions from open biomass burning (BB) is an important prerequisite for reliable climate predictions, especially in the Arctic. This paper introduces a method to constrain a regional budget of BB BC emissions using satellite measurements of the absorption and extinction optical depths and evaluates its potential application in a large Siberian region.
Jorge Saturno, Bruna A. Holanda, Christopher Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Qiaoqiao Wang, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Jeannine Ditas, Thorsten Hoffmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Tobias Könemann, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Jing Ming, Hauke Paulsen, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Patrick Schlag, Hang Su, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Yuxuan Zhang, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12817–12843,Short summary
Biomass burning emits light-absorbing aerosol particles that warm the atmosphere. One of them is the primarily emitted black carbon, which strongly absorbs radiation in the visible and UV spectral regions. Another one is the so-called brown carbon, a fraction of organic aerosol particles that are able to absorb radiation, especially in the UV spectral region. The contribution of both kinds of aerosol particles to light absorption over the Amazon rainforest is studied in this paper.
Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Marloes Penning de Vries, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Samara Carbone, David Walter, Nicole Bobrowski, Joel Brito, Xuguang Chi, Alexandra Gutmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Luiz A. T. Machado, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Julian Rüdiger, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Qiaoqiao Wang, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10391–10405,Short summary
This study uses satellite observations to track volcanic emissions in eastern Congo and their subsequent transport across the Atlantic Ocean into the Amazon Basin. Aircraft and ground-based observations are used to characterize the influence of volcanogenic aerosol on the chemical and microphysical properties of Amazonian aerosols. Further, this work is an illustrative example of the conditions and dynamics driving the transatlantic transport of African emissions to South America.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Jorge Saturno, Thomas Klimach, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Alessandro C. Araùjo, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Reiner Ditz, Sachin S. Gunthe, Bruna A. Holanda, Konrad Kandler, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Tobias Könemann, Ovid O. Krüger, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Eugene Mikhailov, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Luciana V. Rizzo, Diana Rose, Hang Su, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, Jian Wang, Stefan Wolff, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10289–10331,Short summary
This paper presents the aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) variability for characteristic atmospheric states – such as biomass burning, long-range transport, and pristine rain forest conditions – in the vulnerable and climate-relevant Amazon Basin. It summarizes the key properties of aerosol and CCN and, thus, provides a basis for an in-depth analysis of aerosol–cloud interactions in the Amazon region.
Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Florian Ditas, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Xuguang Chi, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Holger Baars, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Birgit Heese, Bruna A. Holanda, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Jing Ming, Mira L. Pöhlker, Nina Ruckteschler, Hang Su, Yaqiang Wang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Zhibin Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10055–10088,Short summary
This study presents multiple years of aerosol coarse mode observations at the remote ATTO site in the Amazon Basin. The results are discussed in light of the frequent and episodic long-range transport of Saharan dust plumes in the early wet season as well as the persistent background bioaerosol cycling in the rain forest ecosystem. This work provides a solid basis for future studies on the dynamic coarse mode aerosol cycling and its biogeochemical relevance in the Amazon.
Eliane G. Alves, Julio Tóta, Andrew Turnipseed, Alex B. Guenther, José Oscar W. Vega Bustillos, Raoni A. Santana, Glauber G. Cirino, Julia V. Tavares, Aline P. Lopes, Bruce W. Nelson, Rodrigo A. de Souza, Dasa Gu, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, David K. Adams, Jin Wu, Scott Saleska, and Antonio O. Manzi
Biogeosciences, 15, 4019–4032,Short summary
This study shows that leaf quantity and leaf age have an important effect on seasonal changes in isoprene emissions and that these could play an even more important role in regulating ecosystem isoprene fluxes than light and temperature at seasonal timescales in tropical forests. These results bring novelty and new insight for future research because in the past leaf phenology was not considered as an important factor that controls biological processes in the tropics.
Luiz A. T. Machado, Alan J. P. Calheiros, Thiago Biscaro, Scott Giangrande, Maria A. F. Silva Dias, Micael A. Cecchini, Rachel Albrecht, Meinrat O. Andreae, Wagner F. Araujo, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Casey Burleyson, Cristiano W. Eichholz, Jiwen Fan, Zhe Feng, Gilberto F. Fisch, Michael P. Jensen, Scot T. Martin, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Jean-François Ribaud, Daniel Rosenfeld, Jaci M. B. Saraiva, Courtney Schumacher, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6461–6482,Short summary
This overview discuss the main precipitation processes and their sensitivities to environmental conditions in the Central Amazon Basin. It presents a review of the knowledge acquired about cloud processes and rainfall formation in Amazonas. In addition, this study provides a characterization of the seasonal variation and rainfall sensitivities to topography, surface cover, and aerosol concentration. Airplane measurements were evaluated to characterize and contrast cloud microphysical properties.
Trismono C. Krisna, Manfred Wendisch, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Frank Werner, Ralf Weigel, Stephan Borrmann, Christoph Mahnke, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christiane Voigt, and Luiz A. T. Machado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4439–4462,Short summary
The optical thickness and particle effective radius of a cirrus above liquid water clouds and a DCC topped by an anvil cirrus are retrieved based on SMART and MODIS radiance measurements. For the cirrus, retrieved particle effective radius are validated with corresponding in situ data using a vertical weighting method. This approach allows to assess the measurements, retrieval algorithms, and derived cloud products.
Ana María Yáñez-Serrano, Anke Christine Nölscher, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Eliane Gomes Alves, Laurens Ganzeveld, Boris Bonn, Stefan Wolff, Marta Sa, Marcia Yamasoe, Jonathan Williams, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Jürgen Kesselmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3403–3418,Short summary
This study shows the measurements of concentration of different monoterpene species in terms of height, time of day and season. Speciation seems similar during the dry seasons but changes with season. Furthermore, reactivity with the different oxidants demonstrated that a higher abundance of a monoterpene species does not automatically imply higher reactivity and that the most abundant monoterpene may not be the most atmospheric chemically relevant compound.
Pablo E. S. Oliveira, Otávio C. Acevedo, Matthias Sörgel, Anywhere Tsokankunku, Stefan Wolff, Alessandro C. Araújo, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Marta O. Sá, Antônio O. Manzi, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3083–3099,Short summary
Carbon dioxide and latent heat fluxes within the canopy are dominated by low-frequency (nonturbulent) processes. There is a striking contrast between fully turbulent and intermittent nights, such that turbulent processes dominate the total nighttime exchange during the former, while nonturbulent processes are more relevant in the latter. In very stable nights, during which intermittent exchange prevails, the stable boundary layer may be shallower than the highest observational level at 80 m.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Rüdiger Bunk, Zhigang Yi, Thomas Behrendt, Dianming Wu, Meinrat Otto Andreae, and Jürgen Kesselmeier
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
We examined the OCS exchange of four soils with the atmosphere. The laboratory setup used allowed to monitor this exchange while simultaneously monitor soil moisture. The OCS exchange of those soils was measured over full range from very wet to very dry. We found that uptake of OCS is highly dependent on soil moisture, that probably heterotroph and autotrophs drive the uptake at different soil moistures and that the role of soils as net consumer or producers of OCS may vary with soil moisture.
Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel Albrecht, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Micael A. Cecchini, Anja Costa, Maximilian Dollner, Daniel Fütterer, Emma Järvinen, Tina Jurkat, Thomas Klimach, Tobias Konemann, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Trismono Krisna, Luiz A. T. Machado, Stephan Mertes, Andreas Minikin, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Antonio Spanu, Vinicius B. Sperling, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Jian Wang, Bernadett Weinzierl, Manfred Wendisch, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 921–961,Short summary
We made airborne measurements of aerosol particle concentrations and properties over the Amazon Basin. We found extremely high concentrations of very small particles in the region between 8 and 14 km altitude all across the basin, which had been recently formed by gas-to-particle conversion at these altitudes. This makes the upper troposphere a very important source region of atmospheric particles with significant implications for the Earth's climate system.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Manfred Wendisch, Anja Costa, Martina Krämer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Mahnke, Scot T. Martin, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Lianet H. Pardo, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14727–14746,Short summary
This study introduces and explores the concept of gamma phase space. This space is able to represent all possible variations in the cloud droplet size distributions (DSDs). The methodology was applied to recent in situ aircraft measurements over the Amazon. It is shown that the phase space is able to represent several processes occurring in the clouds in a simple manner. The consequences for cloud studies, modeling, and the representation of the transition from warm to mixed phase are discussed.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ralf Weigel, Tina Jurkat, Meinrat O. Andreae, Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, Christiane Voigt, Christoph Mahnke, Stephan Borrmann, Rachel I. Albrecht, Sergej Molleker, Daniel A. Vila, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Lucas Grulich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14433–14456,
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Svetlana Mironova, Gregory Mironov, Sergey Vlasenko, Alexey Panov, Xuguang Chi, David Walter, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Martin Heimann, Jost Lavric, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14365–14392,
Ryan Thalman, Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Mira L. Pöhlker, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Castillo, Douglas A. Day, Chongai Kuang, Antonio Manzi, Nga Lee Ng, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Rodrigo Souza, Stephen Springston, Thomas Watson, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, Scot T. Martin, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11779–11801,Short summary
Particle hygroscopicity, mixing state, and the hygroscopicity of organic components were characterized in central Amazonia for 1 year; their seasonal and diel variations were driven by a combination of primary emissions, photochemical oxidation, and boundary layer development. The relationship between the hygroscopicity of organic components and their oxidation level was examined, and the results help to reconcile the differences among the relationships observed in previous studies.
Yevgeny Derimian, Marie Choël, Yinon Rudich, Karine Deboudt, Oleg Dubovik, Alexander Laskin, Michel Legrand, Bahaiddin Damiri, Ilan Koren, Florin Unga, Myriam Moreau, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Arnon Karnieli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11331–11353,Short summary
We present influence of daily occurrence of the sea breeze flow from the Mediterranean Sea on physicochemical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol deep inland in the Negev Desert of Israel. Sampled airborne dust was found be internally mixed with sea-salt particles and reacted with anthropogenic pollution, which makes the dust highly hygroscopic and a liquid coating of particles appears. These physicochemical transformations are associated with a change in aerosol radiative properties.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat, Christoph Mahnke, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Christiane Voigt, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10037–10050,Short summary
We study the effects of aerosol particles and updraft speed on the warm phase of Amazonian clouds. We expand the sensitivity analysis usually found in the literature by concomitantly considering cloud evolution and the effects on droplet size distribution (DSD) shape. The quantitative results show that particle concentration is the primary driver for the vertical profiles of effective diameter and droplet concentration in the warm phase of Amazonian convective clouds.
Jorge Saturno, Christopher Pöhlker, Dario Massabò, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Florian Ditas, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Daniel Morán-Zuloaga, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, David Walter, Qiaoqiao Wang, Paulo Artaxo, Paolo Prati, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2837–2850,Short summary
Different Aethalometer correction schemes were compared to a multi-wavelength absorption reference measurement. One of the correction schemes was found to artificially increase the short-wavelength absorption coefficients. It was found that accounting for aerosol scattering properties in the correction is crucial to retrieve the proper absorption Ångström exponent (AAE). We found that the raw AAE of uncompensated Aethalometer attenuation significantly correlates with a measured reference AAE.
Evelyn Jäkel, Manfred Wendisch, Trismono C. Krisna, Florian Ewald, Tobias Kölling, Tina Jurkat, Christiane Voigt, Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Armin Afchine, Anja Costa, Martina Krämer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Tianle Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9049–9066,Short summary
Vertical profiles of the cloud particle phase state in tropical deep convective clouds (DCCs) were investigated using airborne imaging spectrometer measurements during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign, which was conducted over the Brazilian rainforest in September 2014. A phase discrimination retrieval was applied to observations of clouds formed in different aerosol conditions. The profiles were compared to in situ and satellite measurements.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ralf Weigel, Tina Jurkat, Meinrat O. Andreae, Manfred Wendisch, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Christiane Voigt, Christoph Mahnke, Stephan Borrmann, Rachel I. Albrecht, Sergej Molleker, Daniel A. Vila, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7365–7386,
Lorenzo Caponi, Paola Formenti, Dario Massabó, Claudia Di Biagio, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Servanne Chevaillier, Gautier Landrot, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Stuart Piketh, Thuraya Saeed, Dave Seibert, Earle Williams, Yves Balkanski, Paolo Prati, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7175–7191,Short summary
This paper presents new laboratory measurements of the shortwave mass absorption efficiency (MAE) used by climate models for mineral dust of different origin and at different sizes. We found that small particles are more efficient, by given mass, in absorbing radiation, particularly at shorter wavelength. Because dust has high concentrations in the atmosphere, light absorption by mineral dust can be competitive to other absorbing atmospheric aerosols such as black and brown carbon.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Matthew K. Newburn, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Ryan Thalman, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Antonio O. Manzi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Fan Mei, John E. Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Jason D. Surratt, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6611–6629,
Igor B. Konovalov, Matthias Beekmann, Evgeny V. Berezin, Paola Formenti, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4513–4537,Short summary
A shortage of consistent observational evidence on biomass burning (BB) aerosol aging processes hinders the development of their adequate representations in atmospheric models. Here we show that useful insights into the BB aerosol dynamics can be obtained from analysis of satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth and carbon dioxide. Our results indicate that aging processes strongly affect the evolution of BB aerosol in smoke plumes from wildfires in Siberia.
Sergey S. Vlasenko, Hang Su, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eugene F. Mikhailov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1269–1280,Short summary
The paper describes a new technique for measuring the hygroscopic properties of laboratory and ambient aerosols. The direct measurements of humidified particle mass allow avoiding complications that occur in the commonly used technique due to poorly defined particle morphology and density. Both test results and field measurements have shown that the system can be applied for aerosol size-resolved mass growth factor measurements in hydration and dehydration modes up to 95 % RH.
Joana A. Rizzolo, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Guilherme C. Borillo, Ana F. L. Godoi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Rita V. Andreoli, Antônio O. Manzi, Marta O. Sá, Eliane G. Alves, Christopher Pöhlker, Isabella H. Angelis, Florian Ditas, Jorge Saturno, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Luciana V. Rizzo, Nilton E. Rosário, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Rosa M. N. Santos, Carlos I. Yamamoto, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Philip E. Taylor, and Ricardo H. M. Godoi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2673–2687,Short summary
Particles collected from the air above the Amazon Basin during the wet season were identified as Saharan dust. Soluble minerals were analysed to assess the bioavailability of iron. Dust deposited onto the canopy and topsoil can likely benefit organisms such as fungi and lichens. The ongoing deposition of Saharan dust across the Amazon rainforest provides an iron-rich source of essential macronutrients and micronutrients to plant roots, and also directly to plant leaves during the wet season.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Yves Balkanski, Lorenzo Caponi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Emilie Journet, Sophie Nowak, Sandrine Caquineau, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Thuraya Saeed, Stuart Piketh, David Seibert, Earle Williams, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1901–1929,Short summary
Modeling the interaction of dust with long-wave (LW) radiation is still a challenge due to the scarcity of information on their refractive index. In this paper, we present a unique dataset of dust refractive indices obtained from in situ measurements in a large smog chamber. Our results show that the dust LW refractive index varies strongly from source to source due to particle composition changes. We recommend taking this variability into account in climate and remote sensing applications.
Adam P. Bateman, Zhaoheng Gong, Tristan H. Harder, Suzane S. de Sá, Bingbing Wang, Paulo Castillo, Swarup China, Yingjun Liu, Rachel E. O'Brien, Brett B. Palm, Hung-Wei Shiu, Glauber G. Cirino, Ryan Thalman, Kouji Adachi, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Allan K. Bertram, Peter R. Buseck, Mary K. Gilles, Jose L. Jimenez, Alexander Laskin, Antonio O. Manzi, Arthur Sedlacek, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Rahul Zaveri, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1759–1773,Short summary
The occurrence of nonliquid and liquid physical states of submicron atmospheric particulate matter (PM) downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia was investigated. Air masses representing background conditions, urban pollution, and regional- and continental-scale biomass were measured. Anthropogenic influences contributed to the presence of nonliquid PM in the atmospheric particle population, while liquid PM dominated during periods of biogenic influence.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Thomas Klimach, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Alessandro Araújo, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Reiner Ditz, Sachin S. Gunthe, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Tobias Könemann, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Eugene Mikhailov, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Diana Rose, Jorge Saturno, Hang Su, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, Jian Wang, Stefan Wolff, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15709–15740,Short summary
The paper presents a systematic characterization of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration in the central Amazonian atmosphere. Our results show that the CCN population in this globally important ecosystem follows a pollution-related seasonal cycle, in which it mainly depends on changes in total aerosol size distribution and to a minor extent in the aerosol chemical composition. Our results allow an efficient modeling and prediction of the CCN population based on a novel approach.
Qiaoqiao Wang, Jorge Saturno, Xuguang Chi, David Walter, Jost V. Lavric, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Florian Ditas, Christopher Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14775–14794,Short summary
We use a chemical transport model to interpret observed aerosol concentrations and absorption over the Amazon Basin during the wet season. With daily temporal resolution for open fire emissions and modified aerosol optical properties, our model successfully captures the observed variation in aerosol concentrations and absorption over the Amazon Basin. The simulation indicates the important influence of open fire mainly from northern South America and from northern Africa in the wet season.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Claudia Linke, Inas Ibrahim, Nina Schleicher, Regina Hitzenberger, Meinrat O. Andreae, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5331–5346,Short summary
Various carbonaceous materials are present in the atmosphere. Besides gaseous organic compounds, carbonaceous particles like soot are emitted into the air from traffic sources, residential wood combustion, or wildfires. Variable chemical compositions of such materials, which often result from incomplete combustion processes, show differences in the absorption behavior at visible wavelengths. Our instrument is able to measure the absorption at three visible wavelengths.
Einara Zahn, Nelson L. Dias, Alessandro Araújo, Leonardo D. A. Sá, Matthias Sörgel, Ivonne Trebs, Stefan Wolff, and Antônio Manzi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11349–11366,Short summary
Preliminary data from the ATTO project were analyzed to characterize the exchange of heat, water vapor, and CO2 between the Amazon forest and the atmosphere. The forest roughness makes estimation of their fluxes difficult, and even measurements at 42 m above the canopy show a lot of scatter. Still, measurements made around noon showed much better conformity with standard theories for the exchange of these quantities, opening the possibility of good flux estimates when the sun is high.
A. M. Yáñez-Serrano, A. C. Nölscher, E. Bourtsoukidis, B. Derstroff, N. Zannoni, V. Gros, M. Lanza, J. Brito, S. M. Noe, E. House, C. N. Hewitt, B. Langford, E. Nemitz, T. Behrendt, J. Williams, P. Artaxo, M. O. Andreae, and J. Kesselmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10965–10984,Short summary
This paper provides a general overview of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) ambient observations in different ecosystems around the world in order to provide insights into the sources, sink and role of MEK in the atmosphere.
S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. A. T. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Fan, G. Fisch, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. L. Jimenez, U. Pöschl, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785–4797,Short summary
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
Shang Sun, Alexander Moravek, Lisa von der Heyden, Andreas Held, Matthias Sörgel, and Jürgen Kesselmeier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 599–617,Short summary
We present a dynamic twin-cuvette system for quantifying the trace gas exchange fluxes between plants and the atmosphere under controlled temperature, light, and humidity conditions. We found out that at a relative humidity of 40 %, the deposition velocity ratio of O3 and PAN was determined to be 0.45. At that humidity, the O3-deposition to the plant leaves was found to be only controlled by leaf stomata. For PAN, an additional resistance inhibited the uptake of PAN by the leaves.
I. B. Konovalov, M. Beekmann, E. V. Berezin, H. Petetin, T. Mielonen, I. N. Kuznetsova, and M. O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13269–13297,Short summary
(1) The mesoscale evolution of aerosol from open biomass burning (BB) has been successfully simulated using the volatility basis set (VBS) framework. (2) The simulations disregarding semivolatile nature of organic compounds forming BB aerosol are found to be inconsistent with measurements in the region and period affected by the Russian 2010 wildfires. (3) The VBS method enables one to improve the consistency of "top-down" and "bottom-up" estimates of BB aerosol emissions.
M. Paramonov, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Gysel, P. P. Aalto, M. O. Andreae, E. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, A. Bougiatioti, D. Brus, G. P. Frank, N. Good, S. S. Gunthe, L. Hao, M. Irwin, A. Jaatinen, Z. Jurányi, S. M. King, A. Kortelainen, A. Kristensson, H. Lihavainen, M. Kulmala, U. Lohmann, S. T. Martin, G. McFiggans, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Nenes, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, T. Petäjä, U. Pöschl, G. C. Roberts, D. Rose, B. Svenningsson, E. Swietlicki, E. Weingartner, J. Whitehead, A. Wiedensohler, C. Wittbom, and B. Sierau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12211–12229,Short summary
The research paper presents the first comprehensive overview of field measurements with the CCN Counter performed at a large number of locations around the world within the EUCAARI framework. The paper sheds light on the CCN number concentrations and activated fractions around the world and their dependence on the water vapour supersaturation ratio, the dependence of aerosol hygroscopicity on particle size, and seasonal and diurnal variation of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties.
M. O. Andreae, O. C. Acevedo, A. Araùjo, P. Artaxo, C. G. G. Barbosa, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Brito, S. Carbone, X. Chi, B. B. L. Cintra, N. F. da Silva, N. L. Dias, C. Q. Dias-Júnior, F. Ditas, R. Ditz, A. F. L. Godoi, R. H. M. Godoi, M. Heimann, T. Hoffmann, J. Kesselmeier, T. Könemann, M. L. Krüger, J. V. Lavric, A. O. Manzi, A. P. Lopes, D. L. Martins, E. F. Mikhailov, D. Moran-Zuloaga, B. W. Nelson, A. C. Nölscher, D. Santos Nogueira, M. T. F. Piedade, C. Pöhlker, U. Pöschl, C. A. Quesada, L. V. Rizzo, C.-U. Ro, N. Ruckteschler, L. D. A. Sá, M. de Oliveira Sá, C. B. Sales, R. M. N. dos Santos, J. Saturno, J. Schöngart, M. Sörgel, C. M. de Souza, R. A. F. de Souza, H. Su, N. Targhetta, J. Tóta, I. Trebs, S. Trumbore, A. van Eijck, D. Walter, Z. Wang, B. Weber, J. Williams, J. Winderlich, F. Wittmann, S. Wolff, and A. M. Yáñez-Serrano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10723–10776,Short summary
This paper describes the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a new atmosphere-biosphere observatory located in the remote Amazon Basin. It presents results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected at the ATTO site during the first 3 years of operation.
D. Chang, Y. Cheng, P. Reutter, J. Trentmann, S. M. Burrows, P. Spichtinger, S. Nordmann, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, and H. Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10325–10348,
M. Sörgel, I. Trebs, D. Wu, and A. Held
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9237–9251,Short summary
We measured near-surface (< 2m) profiles of HONO in a clearing and on a forest floor. Both HONO deposition and emissions were observed. By comparing three postulated sources to observed daytime emissions, we made several important findings: ● conversion of NO2 is mostly independent of light due to light saturation ● HONO emissions from a very acidic soil were low ● photolysis of adsorbed HNO3 could serve as HONO source based on empirical parameters but unlikely via the proposed reaction pathway.
E. F. Mikhailov, G. N. Mironov, C. Pöhlker, X. Chi, M. L. Krüger, M. Shiraiwa, J.-D. Förster, U. Pöschl, S. S. Vlasenko, T. I. Ryshkevich, M. Weigand, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, and M. O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8847–8869,Short summary
Our manuscript describes the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the ZOTTO in central Siberia (61º N, 89º E). The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Q. Chen, D. K. Farmer, L. V. Rizzo, T. Pauliquevis, M. Kuwata, T. G. Karl, A. Guenther, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, J. L. Jimenez, P. Artaxo, and S. T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3687–3701,Short summary
Submicron particle mass concentration in the Amazon during the wet season of 2008 was dominated by organic material. The PMF analysis finds a comparable importance of gas-phase (gas-to-particle condensation) and particle-phase (reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products, especially of epoxydiols to acidic haze, fog, or cloud droplets) production of secondary organic material during the study period, together accounting for >70% of the organic-particle mass concentration.
D. Plake, M. Sörgel, P. Stella, A. Held, and I. Trebs
Biogeosciences, 12, 945–959,Short summary
Grasslands cover vast terrestrial areas and the main biomass is concentrated in the lowest part of the canopy. We found that measured transport times in the lowermost canopy layer are fastest during nighttime. During daytime, the reaction of NO with O3, as well as NO2 uptake by plants, was faster than transport. This suggests that grassland canopies of similar structure may exhibit a strong potential to retain soil emitted NO due to oxidation and subsequent uptake of NO2 by plants.
R. Oswald, M. Ermel, K. Hens, A. Novelli, H. G. Ouwersloot, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, M. Sipilä, P. Keronen, J. Bäck, R. Königstedt, Z. Hosaynali Beygi, H. Fischer, B. Bohn, D. Kubistin, H. Harder, M. Martinez, J. Williams, T. Hoffmann, I. Trebs, and M. Sörgel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 799–813,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key species in atmospheric photochemistry since the photolysis leads to the important hydroxyl radical (OH). Although the importance of HONO as a precursor of OH is known, the formation pathways of HONO, especially during daytime, are a major challenge in atmospheric science. We present a detailed analysis of sources and sinks for HONO in the atmosphere for a field measurement campaign in the boreal forest in Finland and wonder if there is really a source term missing.
J. Brito, L. V. Rizzo, W. T. Morgan, H. Coe, B. Johnson, J. Haywood, K. Longo, S. Freitas, M. O. Andreae, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12069–12083,Short summary
This paper details the physical--chemical characteristics of aerosols in a region strongly impacted by biomass burning in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon region. For such, a large suite of state-of-the-art instruments for realtime analysis was deployed at a ground site. Among the key findings, we observe the strong prevalence of organic aerosols associated to fire emissions, with important climate effects, and indications of its very fast processing in the atmosphere.
J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, C. Ruzene Nespoli, D. A. Pickersgill, P. E. Galand, I. Müller-Germann, T. Nunes, J. Gomes Cardoso, S. M. Almeida, C. Pio, M. O. Andreae, R. Conrad, U. Pöschl, and V. R. Després
Biogeosciences, 11, 6067–6079,Short summary
We have investigated the presence of archaea as well as their amoA gene diversity in aerosol particles collected over 1 year in central Europe and found that, within the 16S and amoA gene, Thaumarchaeota prevail and experience a diversity peak in fall, while only few Euryarchaeota were detected primarily in spring. We also compared the results with airborne archaea from Cape Verde and observe that the proportions of Euryarchaeota seem to be enhanced in coastal air compared to continental air.
I. B. Konovalov, E. V. Berezin, P. Ciais, G. Broquet, M. Beekmann, J. Hadji-Lazaro, C. Clerbaux, M. O. Andreae, J. W. Kaiser, and E.-D. Schulze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10383–10410,
M. L. Krüger, S. Mertes, T. Klimach, Y. F. Cheng, H. Su, J. Schneider, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, and D. Rose
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2615–2629,
P. Reutter, J. Trentmann, A. Seifert, P. Neis, H. Su, D. Chang, M. Herzog, H. Wernli, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7573–7583,
X. Chi, J. Winderlich, J.-C. Mayer, A. V. Panov, M. Heimann, W. Birmili, J. Heintzenberg, Y. Cheng, and M. O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12271–12298,
R. J. Yokelson, M. O. Andreae, and S. K. Akagi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2155–2158,
J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, P. J. DeMott, C. Pöhlker, R. H. Mason, N. H. Robinson, J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Y. Tobo, V. R. Després, E. Garcia, D. J. Gochis, E. Harris, I. Müller-Germann, C. Ruzene, B. Schmer, B. Sinha, D. A. Day, M. O. Andreae, J. L. Jimenez, M. Gallagher, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. K. Bertram, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6151–6164,
T. Wagner, M. O. Andreae, S. Beirle, S. Dörner, K. Mies, and R. Shaiganfar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 131–149,
A.-P. Hyvärinen, V. Vakkari, L. Laakso, R. K. Hooda, V. P. Sharma, T. S. Panwar, J. P. Beukes, P. G. van Zyl, M. Josipovic, R. M. Garland, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, and A. Petzold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 81–90,
J. A. Huffman, B. Sinha, R. M. Garland, A. Snee-Pollmann, S. S. Gunthe, P. Artaxo, S. T. Martin, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11997–12019,
Related subject area
Subject: Dynamics | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Characterising the dynamic movement of thunderstorms using very low- and low-frequency (VLF/LF) total lightning data over the Pearl River Delta regionEvolution of turbulent kinetic energy during the entire sandstorm processSeasonal updraft speeds change cloud droplet number concentrations in low-level clouds over the western North AtlanticThe effect of ice supersaturation and thin cirrus on lapse rates in the upper troposphereMomentum fluxes from airborne wind measurements in three cumulus cases over landOrographically induced spontaneous imbalance within the jet causing a large-scale gravity wave eventExploring the elevated water vapor signal associated with the free tropospheric biomass burning plume over the southeast Atlantic OceanOpinion: Gigacity – a source of problems or the new way to sustainable developmentThe thermodynamic structures of the planetary boundary layer dominated by synoptic circulations and the regular effect on air pollution in BeijingTurbulent and boundary layer characteristics during VOCALS-RExA foehn-induced haze front in Beijing: observations and implicationsAirborne measurements and large-eddy simulations of small-scale gravity waves at the tropopause inversion layer over ScandinaviaObservational analysis of the daily cycle of the planetary boundary layer in the central Amazon during a non-El Niño year and El Niño year (GoAmazon project 2014/5)Dominant patterns of summer ozone pollution in eastern China and associated atmospheric circulationsWhat controls the formation of nocturnal low-level stratus clouds over southern West Africa during the monsoon season?Recent trends in climate variability at the local scale using 40 years of observations: the case of the Paris region of FranceNocturnal boundary layer turbulence regimes analysis during the BLLAST campaignLow-level stratiform clouds and dynamical features observed within the southern West African monsoonResidual layer ozone, mixing, and the nocturnal jet in California's San Joaquin ValleyFrom weak to intense downslope winds: origin, interaction with boundary-layer turbulence and impact on CO2 variabilityOn the fine vertical structure of the low troposphere over the coastal margins of East AntarcticaSpatial and temporal variability of turbulence dissipation rate in complex terrainCharacterizing wind gusts in complex terrainLong-term trends of instability and associated parameters over the Indian region obtained using a radiosonde networkImplication of tropical lower stratospheric cooling in recent trends in tropical circulation and deep convective activityThe observed diurnal cycle of low-level stratus clouds over southern West Africa: a case studyNocturnal low-level clouds in the atmospheric boundary layer over southern West Africa: an observation-based analysis of conditions and processesCharacteristics and evolution of diurnal foehn events in the Dead Sea valleyHigh tropospheric ozone in Lhasa within the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone in 2013: influence of convective transport and stratospheric intrusionsAnthropogenic and natural drivers of a strong winter urban heat island in a typical Arctic cityA comparison of plume rise algorithms to stack plume measurements in the Athabasca oil sandsUpscaling surface energy fluxes over the North Slope of Alaska using airborne eddy-covariance measurements and environmental response functionsClimatological study of the Boundary-layer air Stagnation Index for China and its relationship with air pollutionSelf-organized classification of boundary layer meteorology and associated characteristics of air quality in BeijingThe strengthening relationship between Eurasian snow cover and December haze days in central North China after the mid-1990sObservational analyses of dramatic developments of a severe air pollution event in the Beijing areaThe meteorology and chemistry of high nitrogen oxide concentrations in the stable boundary layer at the South PoleMountain waves modulate the water vapor distribution in the UTLSRetrieving characteristics of inertia gravity wave parameters with least uncertainties using the hodograph methodIn situ temperature measurements in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere from 2 decades of IAGOS long-term routine observationA meteorological and chemical overview of the DACCIWA field campaign in West Africa in June–July 2016Investigation of the mixing layer height derived from ceilometer measurements in the Kathmandu Valley and implications for local air qualityAir stagnation in China (1985–2014): climatological mean features and trendsModes of vertical thermodynamic and wind variability over the Maritime ContinentDiurnal variability of the atmospheric boundary layer height over a tropical station in the Indian monsoon regionThe open-ocean sensible heat flux and its significance for Arctic boundary layer mixing during early fallControlled meteorological (CMET) free balloon profiling of the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer around Spitsbergen compared to ERA-Interim and Arctic System ReanalysesBoundary layer evolution over the central Himalayas from radio wind profiler and model simulationsEstimation of the advection effects induced by surface heterogeneities in the surface energy budgetTurbulence kinetic energy budget during the afternoon transition – Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days
Si Cheng, Jianguo Wang, Li Cai, Mi Zhou, Rui Su, Yijun Huang, and Quanxin Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10045–10059,Short summary
This paper helps to improve the recognition of severe thunderstorms in advance by giving a general understanding of how long the storm lasts, how fast the cluster moves and how much area the storm affects via information about the kinematic features of thunderstorms, which are the duration, valid area, the velocity, the direction and the farthest distance, and ideally to establish a foundation for future research that may contribute to the development of a new or improved prediction paradigm.
Hongyou Liu, Yanxiong Shi, and Xiaojing Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8787–8803,Short summary
The sandstorm, which is a common natural disaster, is mechanically characterized by a particle-laden flow experiencing wall turbulence. This work investigates a real sandstorm that was measured at the Qingtu Lake Observation Array through a lens of wall-turbulent flow dynamics. A non-stationary signal processing method is proposed based on the time-varying mean and adaptive segmented stationary method, and the evolution of turbulent kinetic energy during the entire sandstorm process is revealed.
Simon Kirschler, Christiane Voigt, Bruce Anderson, Ramon Campos Braga, Gao Chen, Andrea F. Corral, Ewan Crosbie, Hossein Dadashazar, Richard A. Ferrare, Valerian Hahn, Johannes Hendricks, Stefan Kaufmann, Richard Moore, Mira L. Pöhlker, Claire Robinson, Amy J. Scarino, Dominik Schollmayer, Michael A. Shook, K. Lee Thornhill, Edward Winstead, Luke D. Ziemba, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8299–8319,Short summary
In this study we show that the vertical velocity dominantly impacts the cloud droplet number concentration (NC) of low-level clouds over the western North Atlantic in the winter and summer season, while the cloud condensation nuclei concentration, aerosol size distribution and chemical composition impact NC within a season. The observational data presented in this study can evaluate and improve the representation of aerosol–cloud interactions for a wide range of conditions.
Klaus Gierens, Lena Wilhelm, Sina Hofer, and Susanne Rohs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7699–7712,Short summary
We are interested in the prediction of condensation trails, in particular strong ones. For this we need a good forecast of temperature and humidity in the levels where aircraft cruise. Unfortunately, the humidity forecast is quite difficult for these levels, in particular the ice supersaturation, which is needed for long-lasting contrails. We are thus seeking proxy variables that help distinguish situations where strong contrails can form, for instance the lapse rate.
Ada Mariska Koning, Louise Nuijens, and Christian Mallaun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7373–7388,Short summary
Wind measurements from the mixed layer to cloud tops are scarce, causing a lack of knowledge on wind mixing between and within these layers. We use airborne observations of wind profiles and local wind at high frequency to study wind transport in cloud fields. A case with thick clouds had its maximum transport in the cloud layer, caused by eddies > 700 m, which was not expected from turbulence theory. In other cases large eddies undid transport of smaller eddies resulting in no net transport.
Markus Geldenhuys, Peter Preusse, Isabell Krisch, Christoph Zülicke, Jörn Ungermann, Manfred Ern, Felix Friedl-Vallon, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10393–10412,Short summary
A large-scale gravity wave (GW) was observed spanning the whole of Greenland. The GWs proposed in this paper come from a new jet–topography mechanism. The topography compresses the flow and triggers a change in u- and v-wind components. The jet becomes out of geostrophic balance and sheds energy in the form of GWs to restore the balance. This topography–jet interaction was not previously considered by the community, rendering the impact of the gravity waves largely unaccounted for.
Kristina Pistone, Paquita Zuidema, Robert Wood, Michael Diamond, Arlindo M. da Silva, Gonzalo Ferrada, Pablo E. Saide, Rei Ueyama, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Leonhard Pfister, James Podolske, David Noone, Ryan Bennett, Eric Stith, Gregory Carmichael, Jens Redemann, Connor Flynn, Samuel LeBlanc, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, and Yohei Shinozuka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9643–9668,Short summary
Using aircraft-based measurements off the Atlantic coast of Africa, we found the springtime smoke plume was strongly correlated with the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (more smoke indicated more humidity). We see the same general feature in satellite-assimilated and free-running models. Our analysis suggests this relationship is not caused by the burning but originates due to coincident continental meteorology plus fires. This air is transported over the ocean without further mixing.
Markku Kulmala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Juha Pekkanen, Sami Paatero, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8313–8322,Short summary
The eastern part of China as a whole is practically a gigacity with 650 million inhabitants. The gigacity, with its emissions, processes in the pollution cocktail and numerous feedbacks and interactions, has a crucial and big impact on regional air quality and on global climate. A large-scale research and innovation program is needed to meet the interlinked grand challenges in this gigacity and to serve as a platform for finding pathways for sustainable development of the globe.
Yunyan Jiang, Jinyuan Xin, Ying Wang, Guiqian Tang, Yuxin Zhao, Danjie Jia, Dandan Zhao, Meng Wang, Lindong Dai, Lili Wang, Tianxue Wen, and Fangkun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6111–6128,Short summary
Multiscale-circulation coupling affects pollution by changing the planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure. The multilayer PBL under cyclonic circulation has no diurnal variation; the temperature inversion and zero-speed zone can reach 600–900 m with strong mountain winds. The monolayer PBL under southwestern circulation can reach 2000 m; the inversion is lower than nocturnal PBL (400 m) with strong ambient winds. The zonal winds' vertical shear produces the inversion under western circulation.
Dillon S. Dodson and Jennifer D. Small Griswold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1937–1961,Short summary
The results here reinforce findings from previous in situ studies of the marine boundary layer. It is found that turbulence is maximized in the middle of the stratocumulus layer from latent heating effects. Precipitation acts to increase turbulence in the sub-cloud layer, while acting to stabilize the entire boundary layer after the evaporation of precipitation in the sub-cloud has stopped. A negative correlation is present between the boundary layer height and turbulence.
Ju Li, Zhaobin Sun, Donald H. Lenschow, Mingyu Zhou, Youjun Dou, Zhigang Cheng, Yaoting Wang, and Qingchun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15793–15809,Short summary
We analyzed a haze front event involving warm–dry downslope flow in December 2015 in Beijing, China. The haze front was formed by the collision between a clean warm–dry air mass flowing from a nearby mountainous region and a polluted cold–wet air mass over an urban area. We found that the polluted air advanced toward the clean air, resulting in a severe air pollution event. Our study highlights the need to further investigate the warm–dry downslope and its impacts on air pollution.
Sonja Gisinger, Johannes Wagner, and Benjamin Witschas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10091–10109,Short summary
Gravity waves are an important coupling mechanism in the atmosphere. Measurements by two research aircraft during a mountain wave event over Scandinavia in 2016 revealed changes of the horizontal scales in the vertical velocity field and of momentum fluxes in the vicinity of the tropopause inversion. Idealized simulations revealed the presence of interfacial waves. They are found downstream of the mountain peaks, meaning that they horizontally transport momentum/energy away from their source.
Rayonil G. Carneiro and Gilberto Fisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5547–5558,Short summary
The objective of this study was to conduct observational evaluations of the daily cycle of the height of the planetary boundary layer from data that were measured and/or estimated using instruments such as a radiosonde, sodar, ceilometer, wind profiler, lidar and microwave radiometer installed in the central Amazon during 2014 (considered a typical year) and 2015 during which an intense El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event predominated during the GoAmazon experiment.
Zhicong Yin, Bufan Cao, and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13933–13943,Short summary
Ozone occurs both in the stratosphere and at ground level. Surface ozone is a man-made air pollutant and has harmful effects on people and the environment. Two dominant patterns of summer ozone pollution were determined. The most dominant pattern in 2017 and 2018 was different from that in previous years. The findings of this study help us to understand the features of surface ozone pollution in eastern China and their relationships with large-scale atmospheric circulations.
Karmen Babić, Norbert Kalthoff, Bianca Adler, Julian F. Quinting, Fabienne Lohou, Cheikh Dione, and Marie Lothon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13489–13506,Short summary
This study investigates differences in atmospheric conditions between nights with and without low-level stratus clouds (LLCs) over southern West Africa. We use high-quality observations collected during 2016 summer monsoon season and the ERA5 reanalysis data set. Our results show that the formation of LLCs depends on the interplay between the onset time and strength of the nocturnal low-level jet, horizontal cold-air advection, and the overall moisture level in the whole region.
Justine Ringard, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Sophie Bastin, and Florence Habets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13129–13155,Short summary
This study characterizes the changes observed at Paris urban scale and attempts to identify the surface–atmosphere feedbacks likely to explain the trends observed as a function of the different configurations of large-scale dynamics. This article is interested in several atmospheric parameters and their possible retroactions. Finally, to study urban environments, the analysis at the local scale is essential because it is very poorly represented in the model.
Jesús Yus-Díez, Mireia Udina, Maria Rosa Soler, Marie Lothon, Erik Nilsson, Joan Bech, and Jielun Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9495–9514,Short summary
This study helps improve the understanding of the turbulence description and the interactions occurring in the lower part of the boundary layer. It is carried out at an orographically influenced site close to the Pyrenees to explore the hockey-stick transition (HOST) theory. HOST is seen to be strongly dependent on both the meteorological conditions and the orographic features. Examples of intermittent turbulence events that lead to transitions between the turbulence regimes are also identified.
Cheikh Dione, Fabienne Lohou, Marie Lothon, Bianca Adler, Karmen Babić, Norbert Kalthoff, Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Yannick Bezombes, and Omar Gabella
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8979–8997,Short summary
Low atmospheric dynamics and low-level cloud (LLC) macrophysical properties are analyzed using in situ and remote sensing data collected from 20 June to 30 July at Savè, Benin, during the DACCIWA field campaign in 2016. We find that the low-level jet (LLJ), LLCs, monsoon flow, and maritime inflow reveal a day-to-day variability. LLCs form at the same level as the jet core height. The cloud base height is stationary at night and remains below the jet. The cloud top height is found above the jet.
Dani J. Caputi, Ian Faloona, Justin Trousdell, Jeanelle Smoot, Nicholas Falk, and Stephen Conley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4721–4740,Short summary
This paper covers the importance of understanding ozone pollution in California’s southern San Joaquin Valley from the perspective of meteorological conditions that occur overnight. Our main finding is that stronger winds aloft allow ozone to be depleted overnight, leading to less ozone the following day. This finding has the potential to greatly improve ozone forecasts in the San Joaquin Valley. This study is primarily conducted with aircraft observations.
Jon Ander Arrillaga, Carlos Yagüe, Carlos Román-Cascón, Mariano Sastre, Maria Antonia Jiménez, Gregorio Maqueda, and Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4615–4635,Short summary
Thermally driven downslope winds develop in mountainous areas under a weak large-scale forcing and clear skies. In this work, we find that their onset time and intensity are closely connected with both the large-scale wind and soil moisture. We also show how the distinct downslope intensities shape the turbulent and thermal features of the nocturnal atmosphere. The analysis concludes that the downslope–turbulence interaction and the horizontal transport explain the important CO2 variability.
Étienne Vignon, Olivier Traullé, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4659–4683,Short summary
The future sea-level rise will depend on how much the Antarctic ice sheet gain – via precipitation – or loose mass. The simulation of precipitation by numerical models used for projections depends on the representation of the atmospheric circulation over and around Antarctica. Using daily measurements from balloon soundings at nine Antarctic stations, this study characterizes the structure of the atmosphere over the Antarctic coast and its representation in atmospheric simulations.
Nicola Bodini, Julie K. Lundquist, Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Mikhail Pekour, Larry K. Berg, and Aditya Choukulkar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4367–4382,Short summary
To improve the parameterization of the turbulence dissipation rate (ε) in numerical weather prediction models, we have assessed its temporal and spatial variability at various scales in the Columbia River Gorge during the WFIP2 field experiment. The turbulence dissipation rate shows large spatial variability, even at the microscale, with larger values in sites located downwind of complex orographic structures or in wind farm wakes. Distinct diurnal and seasonal cycles in ε have also been found.
Frederick Letson, Rebecca J. Barthelmie, Weifei Hu, and Sara C. Pryor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3797–3819,Short summary
Wind gusts are a key driver of aerodynamic loading, and common approximations used to describe wind gust behavior may not be appropriate in complex terrain at heights relevant to wind turbines and other structures. High-resolution observations from sonic anemometers and vertically pointing Doppler lidars collected in the Perdigão experiment are analyzed to provide a foundation for improved wind gust characterization in complex terrain.
Rohit Chakraborty, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, and Shaik Ghouse Basha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3687–3705,Short summary
Intense convective phenomena are a common climatic feature in the Indian tropical region which occur during the pre-monsoon to post-monsoon seasons (April–October) and are generally accompanied by intense thunderstorms, lightning, and wind gusts with heavy rainfall. Here we show long-term trends of the parameters related to convection and instability obtained from 27 radiosonde stations across six subdivisions over the Indian region during the period 1980–2016.
Kunihiko Kodera, Nawo Eguchi, Rei Ueyama, Yuhji Kuroda, Chiaki Kobayashi, Beatriz M. Funatsu, and Chantal Claud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2655–2669,Short summary
The recent cooling of the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean occurred in conjunction with enhanced cross-equatorial southerlies associated with a strengthening of the boreal summer Hadley circulation. A combination of land surface warming and reduced static stability in the tropical tropopause layer due to stratospheric cooling is suggested to have caused the increase in the deep ascending branch of the Hadley circulation and related recent decadal change in the tropical troposphere and ocean.
Karmen Babić, Bianca Adler, Norbert Kalthoff, Hendrik Andersen, Cheikh Dione, Fabienne Lohou, Marie Lothon, and Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1281–1299,Short summary
The first detailed observational analysis of the complete diurnal cycle of low-level clouds (LLC) and associated atmospheric processes over southern West Africa is performed using the data gathered within the DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud-Interactions in West Africa) ground-based campaign. We find cooling related to the horizontal advection, which occurs in connection with the inflow of cool maritime air mass and a prominent low-level jet, to have the dominant role in LLC formation.
Bianca Adler, Karmen Babić, Norbert Kalthoff, Fabienne Lohou, Marie Lothon, Cheikh Dione, Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, and Hendrik Andersen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 663–681,Short summary
This study deals with nocturnal stratiform low-level clouds that frequently form in the atmospheric boundary layer over southern West Africa. We use observational data from 11 nights to characterize the clouds and intranight variability of boundary layer conditions as well as to assess the physical processes relevant for cloud formation. We find that cooling is crucial to reach saturation and a large part of the cooling is related to horizontal advection of cool air from the Gulf of Guinea.
Jutta Vüllers, Georg J. Mayr, Ulrich Corsmeier, and Christoph Kottmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18169–18186,Short summary
This paper investigates frequently occurring foehn at the Dead Sea, which strongly impacts the local climatic conditions, in particular temperature and humidity, as well as evaporation from the Dead Sea, the aerosol load, and visibility. A statistical classification exposes two types of foehn and first-time, high-resolution measurements reveal trigger mechanisms and relevant characteristics, such as wind velocities, affected air layers, and resulting phenomena such as hydraulic jumps and rotors.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Jianchun Bian, Gebhard Günther, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Zhixuan Bai, Holger Vömel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17979–17994,Short summary
Balloon-borne measurements performed over Lhasa in August 2013 are investigated using CLaMS trajectory calculations. Here, we focus on high ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Our findings demonstrate that both stratospheric intrusions and convective transport of air pollution play a major role in enhancing middle and upper tropospheric ozone.
Mikhail Varentsov, Pavel Konstantinov, Alexander Baklanov, Igor Esau, Victoria Miles, and Richard Davy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17573–17587,Short summary
This study reports on the urban heat island (UHI) in a typical Arctic city in winter. Using in situ observations, remote sensing data and modeling, we show that the urban temperature anomaly reaches up to 11 K with a mean value of 1.9 K. At least 50 % of this anomaly is caused by the UHI effect, driven mostly by heating. The rest is created by natural microclimatic variability over the hilly terrain. This is a strong argument in support of energy efficiency measures in the Arctic cities.
Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ralf M. Staebler, Junhua Zhang, Ayodeji Akingunola, Wanmin Gong, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14695–14714,Short summary
This work uses aircraft-based measurements of smokestack plumes carried out in northern Alberta in 2013. These measurements are used to test equations used to predict how high in the air smokestack plumes rise. It is important to predict plume rise height accurately as it tells us how far downwind pollutants are carried and what air quality can be expected at the surface. We found that the equations that are typically used significantly underestimate the plume rise at this location.
Andrei Serafimovich, Stefan Metzger, Jörg Hartmann, Katrin Kohnert, Donatella Zona, and Torsten Sachs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10007–10023,Short summary
In order to support the evaluation of coupled atmospheric–land-surface models we investigated spatial patterns of energy fluxes in relation to land-surface properties and upscaled airborne flux measurements to high resolution flux maps. A machine learning technique allows us to estimate environmental response functions between spatially and temporally resolved flux observations and corresponding biophysical and meteorological drivers.
Qianqian Huang, Xuhui Cai, Jian Wang, Yu Song, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7573–7593,Short summary
Air stagnation index is a vital meteorological measure of the atmosphere's ability to dilute air pollutants. We propose a Boundary-layer air Stagnation Index (BSI) based on daily maximal ventilation, real latent instability and precipitation. The BSI is positively correlated with API during 2000–2012, tracks the day-by-day variation of PM2.5 concentration during January 2013 in Beijing well, and successfully represents the improved air quality during November and December in 2017.
Zhiheng Liao, Jiaren Sun, Jialin Yao, Li Liu, Haowen Li, Jian Liu, Jielan Xie, Dui Wu, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6771–6783,Short summary
This paper investigates the modulation effect of ABL meteorology on Beijing’s surface air quality based on self-organizing maps. The self-organized ABL types correspond to significantly distinct pollutant loadings and diurnal evolution, particularly in winter. Anomalous stable ABL conditions are estimated to contribute 58.3 %, 46.4 % and 73.3 % of the elevated PM2.5 concentrations in January 2013, December 2015 and December 2016.
Zhicong Yin and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4753–4763,Short summary
In China, the haze pollution in December has become increasingly serious over recent decades. The relationship between the snow cover and the December haze days was analyzed. This relationship significantly strengthened after the mid-1990s, which is attributed to the effective connections between the snow cover and the Eurasian atmospheric circulations.
Ju Li, Jielun Sun, Mingyu Zhou, Zhigang Cheng, Qingchun Li, Xiaoyan Cao, and Jingjiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3919–3935,Short summary
A rapid increase in the PM2.5 concentration in Beijing, China, on 30 November 2015 was found to be transported from south of Beijing by both turbulent mixing and advection processes. The nighttime relatively clean air was from the downslope flow northwest of Beijing; the rapid increase in the PM2.5 concentration in the morning resulted from the downward convective turbulent transfer of the polluted air that was rapidly advected over the nighttime stable boundary layer.
William Neff, Jim Crawford, Marty Buhr, John Nicovich, Gao Chen, and Douglas Davis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3755–3778,Short summary
Our study examined the effect of the seasonal cycle in meteorology from November through December and the role of stratospheric ozone depletion in the photochemical production of nitrogen oxide (NO) from nitrate in the snow at the South Pole. We found that ozone depletion which now extends into late November–early December coincides with optimum meteorological conditions (clear skies, a stable shallow boundary layer, and light winds) for high concentrations of NO to accumulate at the surface.
Romy Heller, Christiane Voigt, Stuart Beaton, Andreas Dörnbrack, Andreas Giez, Stefan Kaufmann, Christian Mallaun, Hans Schlager, Johannes Wagner, Kate Young, and Markus Rapp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14853–14869,
Gopa Dutta, Palla Vinay Kumar, and Salauddin Mohammad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14811–14819,Short summary
Gravity wave stress is crucial for weather prediction purposes. It is found that proper filtering of the data is essential to reduce uncertainties in the popular hodograph method to delineate low-frequency gravity wave parameters. Our research helped in improving the estimates of gravity wave stress by reducing errors.
Florian Berkes, Patrick Neis, Martin G. Schultz, Ulrich Bundke, Susanne Rohs, Herman G. J. Smit, Andreas Wahner, Paul Konopka, Damien Boulanger, Philippe Nédélec, Valerie Thouret, and Andreas Petzold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12495–12508,Short summary
This study highlights the importance of independent global measurements with high and long-term accuracy to quantify long-term changes, especially in the UTLS region, and to help identify inconsistencies between different data sets of observations and models. Here we investigated temperature trends over different regions within a climate-sensitive area of the atmosphere and demonstrated the value of the IAGOS temperature observations as an anchor point for the evaluation of reanalyses.
Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Adrien Deroubaix, Eleanor Morris, Flore Tocquer, Mat J. Evans, Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Christophe Lavaysse, Celine Mari, John H. Marsham, Rémi Meynadier, Abalo Affo-Dogo, Titike Bahaga, Fabien Brosse, Konrad Deetz, Ridha Guebsi, Issaou Latifou, Marlon Maranan, Philip D. Rosenberg, and Andreas Schlueter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10893–10918,Short summary
In June–July 2016 DACCIWA (Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa), a large, EU-funded European–African project, organised an international field campaign in densely populated southern West Africa, including measurements from ground sites, research aircraft, weather balloons and urban sites. This paper gives an overview of the atmospheric evolution during this period focusing on meteorological (precipitation, cloudiness, winds) and composition (gases, particles) aspects.
Andrea Mues, Maheswar Rupakheti, Christoph Münkel, Axel Lauer, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Tim Butler, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8157–8176,Short summary
Ceilometer measurements taken in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, were used to study the temporal and spatial evolution of the mixing layer height in the valley. This provides important information on the vertical structure of the atmosphere and can thus also help to understand the mixing of air pollutants (e.g. black carbon) in the valley. The seasonal and diurnal cycles of the mixing layer were found to be highly dependent on meteorology and mainly anticorrelated to black carbon concentrations.
Qianqian Huang, Xuhui Cai, Yu Song, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7793–7805,Short summary
Air stagnation is an important meteorological measure of unfavorable air conditions, and previous studies have found that stagnation events are usually related to air pollution episodes. China is currently experiencing heavy air pollution, but to our knowledge, little is known about air stagnation in the country. In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of air stagnation climatology in China based on sounding and surface observations across the country.
Jennie Bukowski, Derek J. Posselt, Jeffrey S. Reid, and Samuel A. Atwood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4611–4626,Short summary
The Maritime Continent (MC) exhibits tremendous meteorological variability. In this study, multiple years of atmospheric soundings over the MC are analyzed to identify key sources of variability in the region's temperature, water vapor, and wind structure. Coherent vertical structures are found among profiles sampled from different geographic locations. The results indicate that the complex meteorology of the region can be described using a few simple structure functions.
Sanjay Kumar Mehta, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Sukumarapillai V. Sunilkumar, Daggumati Narayana Rao, and Boddapaty V. Krishna Murthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 531–549,Short summary
Study of the diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height is important for the knowledge of pollutant dispersion, crucial for all living beings. The most difficult part in the study of the diurnal variation is in identification of the stable boundary layer which occurs ~ 50% of times only and mostly during nighttime winter. Surface temperature and clouds directly affect the diurnal pattern of the ABL. Thus, stronger (weaker) diurnal variation found during pre-monsoon (winter).
Manisha Ganeshan and Dong L. Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13173–13184,Short summary
The amplified Arctic warming has seen a rapid decline in sea ice with serious implications for global climate. The loss of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere is considered important for the recovery of the diminishing sea ice. Yet there is little observational evidence regarding the efficiency of this process. In our study, we explore and quantify the ability of the open ocean to lose heat through sensible heat fluxes. It is found to depend on the prevailing cloud and wind regime.
Tjarda J. Roberts, Marina Dütsch, Lars R. Hole, and Paul B. Voss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12383–12396,Short summary
We present Controlled Meteorological (CMET) balloon flights in the Arctic. CMETs are a novel balloon that can be controlled (by satellite link) to change altitude during the flight and remain in the troposphere up to several days. We performed automated repeated soundings in the Arctic boundary layer during the flight and compared the observations (temperature, humidity, wind) to output from two atmospheric models. CMETs are a valuable tool for probing the lower atmosphere in remote regions.
Narendra Singh, Raman Solanki, Narendra Ojha, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Andrea Pozzer, and Surendra K. Dhaka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10559–10572,Short summary
Our study presents measurements and model simulations of boundary layer evolution over a mountain peak in the central Himalayas. The observations were made as a part of the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment. The implications of biases in model simulated boundary layer towards simulations of trace species is investigated.
Joan Cuxart, Burkhard Wrenger, Daniel Martínez-Villagrasa, Joachim Reuder, Marius O. Jonassen, Maria A. Jiménez, Marie Lothon, Fabienne Lohou, Oscar Hartogensis, Jens Dünnermann, Laura Conangla, and Anirban Garai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9489–9504,Short summary
Estimations of the effect of thermal advection in the surface energy budget are provided. Data from the experimental campaign BLLAST, held in Southern France in summer 2011, are used, including airborne data by drones and surface-based instrumentation. Model data outputs and satellite information are also inspected. Surface heterogeneities of the order of the kilometer or larger seem to have little effect on the budget, whereas hectometer-scale structures may contribute significantly to it.
Erik Nilsson, Fabienne Lohou, Marie Lothon, Eric Pardyjak, Larry Mahrt, and Clara Darbieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8849–8872,Short summary
The evolution of near-surface turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and its budget in the afternoon transition has been studied based on field measurements. The study shows that TKE transport is an important budget term that needs to be taken into account in modeling of TKE. A non-local parametrization of dissipation using a TKE–length scale model which takes into account of boundary layer depth also gave improved results compared to a local parametrization.
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In this study, data collected during four deep convection events at the 80 m tower from the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory are analyzed. It provides a unique view on how such events affect the local boundary layer and how it recovers after their passage. Quantities analyzed include mean wind speed, virtual potential temperature, turbulent kinetic energy, sensible, and latent heat fluxes. A conceptual model for boundary layer structure along the passage of deep convection events is proposed.
In this study, data collected during four deep convection events at the 80 m tower from the...