Articles | Volume 18, issue 12
22 Jun 2018
Research article | 22 Jun 2018
Radiative impact of an extreme Arctic biomass-burning event
Justyna Lisok et al.
No articles found.
Fabio Giardi, Silvia Nava, Giulia Calzolai, Giulia Pazzi, Massimo Chiari, Andrea Faggi, Bianca Patrizia Andreini, Chiara Collaveri, Elena Franchi, Guido Nincheri, Alessandra Amore, Silvia Becagli, Mirko Severi, Rita Traversi, and Franco Lucarelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9987–10005,Short summary
The restriction measures adopted to contain the COVID-19 virus offered a unique opportunity to study urban particulate emissions in the near absence of traffic, which is one of the main emission sources in the urban environment. However, the drastic decrease in this source of particulate matter during the months of national lockdown did not lead to an equal decrease in the total particulate load. This is due to the inverse behavior shown by different sources, especially secondary sources.
Carlton Xavier, Metin Baykara, Robin Wollesen de Jonge, Barbara Altstädter, Petri Clusius, Ville Vakkari, Roseline Thakur, Lisa Beck, Silvia Becagli, Mirko Severi, Rita Traversi, Radovan Krejci, Peter Tunved, Mauro Mazzola, Birgit Wehner, Mikko Sipilä, Markku Kulmala, Michael Boy, and Pontus Roldin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10023–10043,Short summary
The focus of this work is to study and improve our understanding of processes involved in the formation and growth of new particles in a remote Arctic marine environment. We run the 1D model ADCHEM along air mass trajectories arriving at Ny-Ålesund in May 2018. The model finds that ion-mediated H2SO4–NH3 nucleation can explain the observed new particle formation at Ny-Ålesund. The growth of particles is driven via H2SO4 condensation and formation of methane sulfonic acid in the aqueous phase.
Silvia Becagli, Elena Barbaro, Simone Bonamano, Laura Caiazzo, Alcide di Sarra, Matteo Feltracco, Paolo Grigioni, Jost Heintzenberg, Luigi Lazzara, Michel Legrand, Alice Madonia, Marco Marcelli, Chiara Melillo, Daniela Meloni, Caterina Nuccio, Giandomenico Pace, Ki-Tae Park, Suzanne Preunkert, Mirko Severi, Marco Vecchiato, Roberta Zangrando, and Rita Traversi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9245–9263,Short summary
Measurements of phytoplanktonic dimethylsulfide and its oxidation products in the Antarctic atmosphere allow us to understand the role of the oceanic (sea ice melting, Chl α and dimethylsulfoniopropionate) and atmospheric (wind direction and speed, humidity, solar radiation and transport processes) factors in the biogenic aerosol formation, concentration and characteristic ratio between components in an Antarctic coastal site facing the polynya of the Ross Sea.
Marco Brogioni, Mark J. Andrews, Stefano Urbini, Kenneth C. Jezek, Joel T. Johnson, Marion Leduc-Leballeur, Giovanni Macelloni, Stephen F. Ackley, Alexandra Bringer, Ludovic Brucker, Oguz Demir, Giacomo Fontanelli, Caglar Yardim, Lars Kaleschke, Francesco Montomoli, Leung Tsang, Silvia Becagli, and Massimo Frezzotti
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
In 2018 the first Antarctic campaign of UWBRAD was carried out. UWBRAD is a new radiometer able to collect microwave spectral signatures over the 0.5-2 GHz thus outperforming existing similar sensors. It allows to probe thicker sea ice and the ice sheets down to the bedrock. In this work we tried to assess the UWBRAD potentials for sea ice, glaciers, ice shelve and buried lakes. Also we highlighted the wider range of information the spectral signature can provide to glaciological studies.
Cynthia H. Whaley, Rashed Mahmood, Knut von Salzen, Barbara Winter, Sabine Eckhardt, Stephen Arnold, Stephen Beagley, Silvia Becagli, Rong-You Chien, Jesper Christensen, Sujay Manish Damani, Xinyi Dong, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Gregory Faluvegi, Mark Flanner, Joshua S. Fu, Michael Gauss, Fabio Giardi, Wanmin Gong, Jens Liengaard Hjorth, Lin Huang, Ulas Im, Yugo Kanaya, Srinath Krishnan, Zbigniew Klimont, Thomas Kühn, Joakim Langner, Kathy S. Law, Louis Marelle, Andreas Massling, Dirk Olivié, Tatsuo Onishi, Naga Oshima, Yiran Peng, David A. Plummer, Olga Popovicheva, Luca Pozzoli, Jean-Christophe Raut, Maria Sand, Laura N. Saunders, Julia Schmale, Sangeeta Sharma, Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, Henrik Skov, Fumikazu Taketani, Manu A. Thomas, Rita Traversi, Kostas Tsigaridis, Svetlana Tsyro, Steven Turnock, Vito Vitale, Kaley A. Walker, Minqi Wang, Duncan Watson-Parris, and Tahya Weiss-Gibbons
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5775–5828,Short summary
Air pollutants, like ozone and soot, play a role in both global warming and air quality. Atmospheric models are often used to provide information to policy makers about current and future conditions under different emissions scenarios. In order to have confidence in those simulations, in this study we compare simulated air pollution from 18 state-of-the-art atmospheric models to measured air pollution in order to assess how well the models perform.
Aki Virkkula, Henrik Grythe, John Backman, Tuukka Petäjä, Maurizio Busetto, Christian Lanconelli, Angelo Lupi, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Mirko Severi, Vito Vitale, Patrick Sheridan, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5033–5069,Short summary
Optical properties of surface aerosols at Dome C, Antarctica, in 2007–2013 and their potential source areas are presented. The equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were compared with eBC measured at three other Antarctic sites: the South Pole (SPO) and two coastal sites, Neumayer and Syowa. Transport analysis suggests that South American BC emissions are the largest contributor to eBC at Dome C.
Marjan Marbouti, Sehyun Jang, Silvia Becagli, Gabriel Navarro, Rita Traversi, Kitack Lee, Tuomo Nieminen, Lisa J. Beck, Markku Kulmala, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This research was done to understand and investigate the roles of Chl-a, PP and sea ice extent in controlling and producing the in-situ measured MSA, SA, HIO3, HOM and aerosol concentrations over the Greenland and Barents Seas. Our results provide strong support to the hypothesis that MSA, SA and small-particle concentrations in the Svalbard area are directly linked to ocean biological activity and sea ice melting during springtime.
Julia Schmale, Sangeeta Sharma, Stefano Decesari, Jakob Pernov, Andreas Massling, Hans-Christen Hansson, Knut von Salzen, Henrik Skov, Elisabeth Andrews, Patricia K. Quinn, Lucia M. Upchurch, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Rita Traversi, Stefania Gilardoni, Mauro Mazzola, James Laing, and Philip Hopke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3067–3096,Short summary
Long-term data sets of Arctic aerosol properties from 10 stations across the Arctic provide evidence that anthropogenic influence on the Arctic atmospheric chemical composition has declined in winter, a season which is typically dominated by mid-latitude emissions. The number of significant trends in summer is smaller than in winter, and overall the pattern is ambiguous with some significant positive and negative trends. This reflects the mixed influence of natural and anthropogenic emissions.
Kevin Ohneiser, Albert Ansmann, Alexandra Chudnovsky, Ronny Engelmann, Christoph Ritter, Igor Veselovskii, Holger Baars, Henriette Gebauer, Hannes Griesche, Martin Radenz, Julian Hofer, Dietrich Althausen, Sandro Dahlke, and Marion Maturilli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15783–15808,Short summary
The highlight of the lidar measurements during the 1-year MOSAiC (Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate) expedition of the German icebreaker Polarstern (October 2019–October 2020) was the detection of a persistent, 10 km deep Siberian wildfire smoke layer in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) from about 7–8 km to 17–18 km height that could potentially have impacted the record-breaking ozone depletion over the Arctic in the spring of 2020.
Raffaello Nardin, Mirko Severi, Alessandra Amore, Silvia Becagli, Francois Burgay, Laura Caiazzo, Virginia Ciardini, Giuliano Dreossi, Massimo Frezzotti, Sang-Bum Hong, Ishaq Khan, Bianca Maria Narcisi, Marco Proposito, Claudio Scarchilli, Enricomaria Selmo, Andrea Spolaor, Barbara Stenni, and Rita Traversi
Clim. Past, 17, 2073–2089,Short summary
The first step to exploit all the potential information buried in ice cores is to produce a reliable age scale. Based on chemical and isotopic records from the 197 m Antarctic GV7(B) ice core, accurate dating was achieved and showed that the archive spans roughly the last 830 years. The relatively high accumulation rate allowed us to use the non-sea-salt sulfate seasonal pattern to count annual layers. The accumulation rate reconstruction exhibited a slight increase since the 18th century.
Matteo Rinaldi, Naruki Hiranuma, Gianni Santachiara, Mauro Mazzola, Karam Mansour, Marco Paglione, Cheyanne A. Rodriguez, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, David Cappelletti, and Franco Belosi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14725–14748,Short summary
This study aims to add to the still scant ice-nucleating particle (INP) observations in the Arctic environment, investigating INP concentrations and potential sources, during spring and summertime, at the ground-level site of GVB. The lack of a clear concentration seasonal trend, in contrast with previous works, shows an important interannual variability of Arctic INP sources, which may be both terrestrial and marine, outside the Arctic haze period.
Michele Bertò, David Cappelletti, Elena Barbaro, Cristiano Varin, Jean-Charles Gallet, Krzysztof Markowicz, Anna Rozwadowska, Mauro Mazzola, Stefano Crocchianti, Luisa Poto, Paolo Laj, Carlo Barbante, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12479–12493,Short summary
We present the daily and seasonal variability in black carbon (BC) in surface snow inferred from two specific experiments based on the hourly and daily time resolution sampling during the Arctic spring in Svalbard. These unique data sets give us, for the first time, the opportunity to evaluate the associations between the observed surface snow BC mass concentration and a set of predictors corresponding to the considered meteorological and snow physico-chemical parameters.
Congbo Song, Manuel Dall'Osto, Angelo Lupi, Mauro Mazzola, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Stefania Gilardoni, Stergios Vratolis, Karl Espen Yttri, David C. S. Beddows, Julia Schmale, James Brean, Agung Ghani Kramawijaya, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11317–11335,Short summary
We present a cluster analysis of relatively long-term (2015–2019) aerosol aerodynamic volume size distributions up to 20 μm in the Arctic for the first time. The study found that anthropogenic and natural aerosols comprised 27 % and 73 % of the occurrence of the coarse-mode aerosols, respectively. Our study shows that about two-thirds of the coarse-mode aerosols are related to two sea-spray-related aerosol clusters, indicating that sea spray aerosol may more complex in the Arctic environment.
Sehyun Jang, Ki-Tae Park, Kitack Lee, Young Jun Yoon, Kitae Kim, Hyun Young Chung, Eunho Jang, Silvia Becagli, Bang Yong Lee, Rita Traversi, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Radovan Krejci, and Ove Hermansen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9761–9777,Short summary
This study provides comprehensive datasets encompassing seasonal and interannual variations in sulfate and MSA concentration in aerosol particles in the Arctic atmosphere. As oxidation products of DMS have important roles in new particle formation and growth, we focused on factors affecting their variability and the branching ratio of DMS oxidation. We found a strong correlation between the ratio and the light condition, chemical properties of particles, and biological activities near Svalbard.
Dmitry M. Kabanov, Christoph Ritter, and Sergey M. Sakerin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5303–5317,Short summary
Long-term photometer measurements of two sites on Spitsbergen, Barentsburg and Ny-Ålesund, in the European Arctic are presented and compared. We find slightly higher aerosol optical depths at Barentsburg and attribute this to a higher concentration of small particles.
Yuri Galletti, Silvia Becagli, Alcide di Sarra, Margherita Gonnelli, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Damiano M. Sferlazzo, Rita Traversi, Stefano Vestri, and Chiara Santinelli
Biogeosciences, 17, 3669–3684,Short summary
This paper reports the first data about atmospheric deposition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the island of Lampedusa. It also shows the implications for the surface marine layer by studying the impact of atmospheric organic carbon deposition in the marine ecosystem. It is a preliminary study, but it is pioneering and important for having new data that can be crucial in order to understand the impact of atmospheric deposition on the marine carbon cycle in a global climate change scenario.
Michele Bertò, David Cappelletti, Elena Barbaro, Cristiano Varin, Jean-Charles Gallet, Krzysztof Markowicz, Anna Rozwadowska, Mauro Mazzola, Stefano Crocchianti, Luisa Poto, Paolo Laj, Carlo Barbante, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We present the daily and seasonal variability of Black carbon inferred from two specific experiment based on the hourly and daily time resolution sampling strategy. These unique datasets give us for the first time the opportunity to evaluate the associations between the observed surface snow rBC mass concentration and a set of predictors corresponding to the considered meteorological and snow physico-chemical parameters, via a multiple linear regression approach.
Tatiana Nomokonova, Kerstin Ebell, Ulrich Löhnert, Marion Maturilli, and Christoph Ritter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5157–5173,Short summary
This paper presents an influence of water vapor anomalies on cloud properties and their radiative effect at Ny-Ålesund. The study is based on a 2.5-year active and passive cloud observation and a radiative transfer model. The results show that moist and dry conditions are related to strong changes in cloud occurrence, phase partitioning, water path, and, consequently, modulate the surface radiative budget.
Andrea Spolaor, Elena Barbaro, David Cappelletti, Clara Turetta, Mauro Mazzola, Fabio Giardi, Mats P. Björkman, Federico Lucchetta, Federico Dallo, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, Hélène Angot, Aurelien Dommergue, Marion Maturilli, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlo Barbante, and Warren R. L. Cairns
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13325–13339,Short summary
The main aims of the study are to (a) detect whether mercury in the surface snow undergoes a daily cycle as determined in the atmosphere, (b) compare the mercury concentration in surface snow with the concentration in the atmosphere, (c) evaluate the effect of snow depositions, (d) detect whether iodine and bromine in the surface snow undergo a daily cycle, and (e) evaluate the role of metereological and atmospheric conditions. Different behaviours were determined during different seasons.
Eunho Jang, Ki-Tae Park, Young Jun Yoon, Tae-Wook Kim, Sang-Bum Hong, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Jaeseok Kim, and Yeontae Gim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7595–7608,Short summary
We reported long-term observations (from 2009 to 2016) of the nanoparticles measured at the Antarctic Peninsula (62.2° S, 58.8° W), and satellite-derived estimates of the biological characteristics were analyzed to identify the link between new particle formation and marine biota. The key finding from this research is that the formation of nanoparticles was strongly associated not only with the biomass of phytoplankton but, more importantly, also its taxonomic composition in the Antarctic Ocean.
Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Peter Tunved, Roy M. Harrison, Angelo Lupi, Vito Vitale, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Ki-Tae Park, Young Jun Yoon, Andreas Massling, Henrik Skov, Robert Lange, Johan Strom, and Radovan Krejci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7377–7395,Short summary
We present a cluster analysis of particle size distributions simultaneously collected from three European high Arctic sites centred in the Fram Strait during a 3-year period. Confined for longer time periods by consolidated pack sea ice regions, the Greenland site shows lower ultrafine-mode aerosol concentrations during summer relative to the Svalbard sites. Our study supports international environmental cooperation concerning the Arctic region.
Heike Wex, Lin Huang, Wendy Zhang, Hayley Hung, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Rebecca J. Sheesley, Claire E. Moffett, Tate E. Barrett, Rossana Bossi, Henrik Skov, Anja Hünerbein, Jasmin Lubitz, Mareike Löffler, Olivia Linke, Markus Hartmann, Paul Herenz, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5293–5311,Short summary
We found an annual cycle for ice-nucleating particles in the Arctic. These particles are important for Arctic clouds, as they can change the lifetime of clouds. We suggest that higher concentrations of these particles in summertime originate from the Arctic biosphere (both marine and terrestrial). With a warming Arctic, these concentrations may increase further, influencing aerosol–cloud interactions and therewith the observed strong warming of the Arctic.
Tatiana Nomokonova, Kerstin Ebell, Ulrich Löhnert, Marion Maturilli, Christoph Ritter, and Ewan O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4105–4126,Short summary
In this study, properties of clouds at the French–German Arctic research station in Ny-Ålesund are related to in-cloud thermodynamic conditions. The dataset used was collected within the Arctic Amplification project with a set of active and passive remote instruments. The results are compared with a model output. Significant divergence in observations and modelling of single-layer ice and mixed-phase clouds was found.
Alessandra D'Angelo, Federico Giglio, Stefano Miserocchi, Anna Sanchez-Vidal, Stefano Aliani, Tommaso Tesi, Angelo Viola, Mauro Mazzola, and Leonardo Langone
Biogeosciences, 15, 5343–5363,Short summary
A 6-year time series of physical parameters and particle fluxes collected by a mooring in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) suggests that the subglacial and watershed run-off driven by air temperature are the main processes affecting the lithogenic supply. As the Arctic temperature rises, glacier material will increase accordingly. The winter inflow of warm Atlantic waters is progressively increasing, hampering the nutrient supply from the bottom waters and severely reducing the biological production.
Roberto Salzano, Antonello Pasini, Antonietta Ianniello, Mauro Mazzola, Rita Traversi, and Roberto Udisti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6959–6969,Short summary
The radon progeny can describe the circulation of air masses in the Arctic region, evidencing a seasonality and stability dynamics that can influence the persistence of pollutants in the lower layer of the atmosphere. This paper, for the first time, considered high-time resolved radon-progeny measurements in the Arctic region. These data were used for tracing air masses in terms of age, origin, permafrost dynamics, seasonality and local effects.
Ki-Tae Park, Sehyun Jang, Kitack Lee, Young Jun Yoon, Min-Seob Kim, Kihong Park, Hee-Joo Cho, Jung-Ho Kang, Roberto Udisti, Bang-Yong Lee, and Kyung-Hoon Shin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9665–9675,Short summary
We evaluated the connection between DMS and the formation of aerosol particles in the Arctic atmosphere by analyzing multiple datasets of atmospheric DMS, aerosol particle size distributions and aerosol chemical composition that were collected at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (78.5° N, 11.8° E), during April–May 2015. The key finding from this research is that the contribution of biogenic DMS to the formation of aerosol particles was substantial during the phytoplankton bloom period.
Silvia Becagli, Fabrizio Anello, Carlo Bommarito, Federico Cassola, Giulia Calzolai, Tatiana Di Iorio, Alcide di Sarra, José-Luis Gómez-Amo, Franco Lucarelli, Miriam Marconi, Daniela Meloni, Francesco Monteleone, Silvia Nava, Giandomenico Pace, Mirko Severi, Damiano Massimiliano Sferlazzo, Rita Traversi, and Roberto Udisti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2067–2084,Short summary
The paper aims to implement a specific strategy to target the aerosol due to ship emissions. PM10 is collected south and north of the main shipping route through the Mediterranean. Other than ions and metals the analysis is complemented with measurements of rare earth elements, trajectories from a high resolution regional model and actual observations of ship traffic. The combination of these approaches allows for unambiguous identification of the ship contribution (8–11 % of PM10) in this area.
Barbara Stenni, Claudio Scarchilli, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Elisabeth Schlosser, Virginia Ciardini, Giuliano Dreossi, Paolo Grigioni, Mattia Bonazza, Anselmo Cagnati, Daniele Karlicek, Camille Risi, Roberto Udisti, and Mauro Valt
The Cryosphere, 10, 2415–2428,Short summary
Here, we focus on the Concordia Station, central East Antarctic plateau, providing a multi-year record (2008–2010) of daily precipitation types identified from crystal morphologies, precipitation amounts and isotopic composition. Relationships between local meteorological data and precipitation oxygen isotope composition are investigated. Our dataset is available for in-depth model evaluation at the synoptic scale.
Luca Ferrero, David Cappelletti, Maurizio Busetto, Mauro Mazzola, Angelo Lupi, Christian Lanconelli, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Laura Caiazzo, Fabio Giardi, Beatrice Moroni, Stefano Crocchianti, Martin Fierz, Griša Močnik, Giorgia Sangiorgi, Maria G. Perrone, Marion Maturilli, Vito Vitale, Roberto Udisti, and Ezio Bolzacchini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12601–12629,Short summary
This study reports results from systematic vertical aerosol profiles measured in the Arctic using a tethered balloon platform. The collected data allowed for finding common rules of aerosol behavior along height and seasons. Transport events, secondary aerosol formation and ship impact are examples of the issues investigated along height. The importance of these issues is related to their climatic implications in reference to the aerosol direct and indirect effects in the Arctic atmosphere.
Holger Baars, Thomas Kanitz, Ronny Engelmann, Dietrich Althausen, Birgit Heese, Mika Komppula, Jana Preißler, Matthias Tesche, Albert Ansmann, Ulla Wandinger, Jae-Hyun Lim, Joon Young Ahn, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Patric Seifert, Julian Hofer, Annett Skupin, Florian Schneider, Stephanie Bohlmann, Andreas Foth, Sebastian Bley, Anne Pfüller, Eleni Giannakaki, Heikki Lihavainen, Yrjö Viisanen, Rakesh Kumar Hooda, Sérgio Nepomuceno Pereira, Daniele Bortoli, Frank Wagner, Ina Mattis, Lucja Janicka, Krzysztof M. Markowicz, Peggy Achtert, Paulo Artaxo, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Ved Prakesh Sharma, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Johan Paul Beukes, Junying Sun, Erich G. Rohwer, Ruru Deng, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, and Felix Zamorano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5111–5137,Short summary
The findings from more than 10 years of global aerosol lidar measurements with Polly systems are summarized, and a data set of optical properties for specific aerosol types is given. An automated data retrieval algorithm for continuous Polly lidar observations is presented and discussed by means of a Saharan dust advection event in Leipzig, Germany. Finally, a statistic on the vertical aerosol distribution including the seasonal variability at PollyNET locations around the globe is presented.
Marion Maturilli and Christoph Ritter
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 159–164,Short summary
The total solar eclipse over Ny-Ålesund (78.9° N, 11.9° E), Svalbard, on 20 March 2015 has been followed by various sensors. Here, we present the surface radiation measurements in the context of the meteorological observations, providing basic data for further studies on e.g. radiative transfer or micrometeorology.
Fulvio Amato, Andrés Alastuey, Angeliki Karanasiou, Franco Lucarelli, Silvia Nava, Giulia Calzolai, Mirko Severi, Silvia Becagli, Vorne L. Gianelle, Cristina Colombi, Celia Alves, Danilo Custódio, Teresa Nunes, Mario Cerqueira, Casimiro Pio, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Evangelia Diapouli, Cristina Reche, María Cruz Minguillón, Manousos-Ioannis Manousakas, Thomas Maggos, Stergios Vratolis, Roy M. Harrison, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3289–3309,Short summary
Harmonized source apportionment of atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) at 5 EU cities (Barcelona, Florence, Milan, Athens and Porto) reveals that vehicle exhaust (excluding nitrate) plus non-exhaust contributes 16–32 % to PM10 and 15–36 % to PM2.5. Secondary PM represents 37–82 % of PM2.5. Biomass burning varies from < 2 to 24 % of PM10, depending on the residential heating fuel. Other sources are local dust (7–19 % of PM10), industries (4–11 % of PM10), shipping, sea salt and Saharan dust.
S. Mailler, L. Menut, A. G. di Sarra, S. Becagli, T. Di Iorio, B. Bessagnet, R. Briant, P. Formenti, J.-F. Doussin, J. L. Gómez-Amo, M. Mallet, G. Rea, G. Siour, D. M. Sferlazzo, R. Traversi, R. Udisti, and S. Turquety
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1219–1244,Short summary
We studied the impact of aerosols on tropospheric photolysis rates at Lampedusa during the CharMEx/ADRIMED campaign in June 2013. It is shown by using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model (CTM) as well as in situ and remote-sensing measurements that taking into account the radiative effect of the tropospheric aerosols improves the ability of the model to reproduce the observed photolysis rates. It is hence important for CTMs to include the radiative effect of aerosols on photochemistry.
G. Calzolai, S. Nava, F. Lucarelli, M. Chiari, M. Giannoni, S. Becagli, R. Traversi, M. Marconi, D. Frosini, M. Severi, R. Udisti, A. di Sarra, G. Pace, D. Meloni, C. Bommarito, F. Monteleone, F. Anello, and D. M. Sferlazzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13939–13955,
J.-L. Tison, M. de Angelis, G. Littot, E. Wolff, H. Fischer, M. Hansson, M. Bigler, R. Udisti, A. Wegner, J. Jouzel, B. Stenni, S. Johnsen, V. Masson-Delmotte, A. Landais, V. Lipenkov, L. Loulergue, J.-M. Barnola, J.-R. Petit, B. Delmonte, G. Dreyfus, D. Dahl-Jensen, G. Durand, B. Bereiter, A. Schilt, R. Spahni, K. Pol, R. Lorrain, R. Souchez, and D. Samyn
The Cryosphere, 9, 1633–1648,Short summary
The oldest paleoclimatic information is buried within the lowermost layers of deep ice cores. It is therefore essential to judge how deep these records remain unaltered. We study the bottom 60 meters of the EPICA Dome C ice core from central Antarctica to show that the paleoclimatic signal is only affected at the small scale (decimeters) in terms of some of the global ice properties. However our data suggest that the time scale has been considerably distorted by mechanical stretching.
J. Struzewska, M. Zdunek, J. W. Kaminski, L. Łobocki, M. Porebska, M. Jefimow, and L. Gawuc
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3971–3990,Short summary
In the scope of the AQMEII Phase 1 project the GEM-AQ model was run over Europe for the year 2006 with a resolution of 0.2 × 0.2 degrees. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of the GEM-AQ model results were analyzed for surface ozone and PM10 concentrations in the context of regional climate characteristics. The GEM-AQ model performance was characterized for station types, European climatic regions, and seasons.
M. Marconi, D. M. Sferlazzo, S. Becagli, C. Bommarito, G. Calzolai, M. Chiari, A. di Sarra, C. Ghedini, J. L. Gómez-Amo, F. Lucarelli, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, S. Nava, G. Pace, S. Piacentino, F. Rugi, M. Severi, R. Traversi, and R. Udisti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2039–2054,
E. Järvinen, A. Virkkula, T. Nieminen, P. P. Aalto, E. Asmi, C. Lanconelli, M. Busetto, A. Lupi, R. Schioppo, V. Vitale, M. Mazzola, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7473–7487,
A. Svensson, M. Bigler, T. Blunier, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, S. Fujita, K. Goto-Azuma, S. J. Johnsen, K. Kawamura, S. Kipfstuhl, M. Kohno, F. Parrenin, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, J. Schwander, I. Seierstad, M. Severi, J. P. Steffensen, R. Udisti, R. Uemura, P. Vallelonga, B. M. Vinther, A. Wegner, F. Wilhelms, and M. Winstrup
Clim. Past, 9, 749–766,
Related subject area
Subject: Radiation | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Climate consequences of hydrogen emissionsInvestigating the impact of Saharan dust aerosols on analyses and forecasts of African easterly waves by constraining aerosol effects in radiance data assimilationDistinct surface response to black carbon aerosolsEstimating the potential cooling effect of cirrus thinning achieved via the seeding approachImpacts of multi-layer overlap on contrail radiative forcingBias in CMIP6 models as compared to observed regional dimming and brighteningA test of the ability of current bulk optical models to represent the radiative properties of cirrus cloud across the mid- and far-infraredThe incorporation of the Tripleclouds concept into the δ-Eddington two-stream radiation scheme: solver characterization and its application to shallow cumulus cloudsRadiative heating rate profiles over the southeast Atlantic Ocean during the 2016 and 2017 biomass burning seasonsEffective radiative forcing and adjustments in CMIP6 modelsResponse of surface shortwave cloud radiative effect to greenhouse gases and aerosols and its impact on summer maximum temperatureCombining atmospheric and snow radiative transfer models to assess the solar radiative effects of black carbon in the ArcticAccurate 3-D radiative transfer simulation of spectral solar irradiance during the total solar eclipse of 21 August 2017Quantifying the bias of radiative heating rates in numerical weather prediction models for shallow cumulus cloudsThe climate effects of increasing ocean albedo: an idealized representation of solar geoengineeringChanges in clouds and thermodynamics under solar geoengineering and implications for required solar reductionContrails and their impact on shortwave radiation and photovoltaic power production – a regional model studyThe influence of internal variability on Earth's energy balance framework and implications for estimating climate sensitivityInsights into the diurnal cycle of global Earth outgoing radiation using a numerical weather prediction modelDetermining the infrared radiative effects of Saharan dust: a radiative transfer modelling study based on vertically resolved measurements at LampedusaThe early summertime Saharan heat low: sensitivity of the radiation budget and atmospheric heating to water vapour and dust aerosolThe role of 1-D and 3-D radiative heating in the organization of shallow cumulus convection and the formation of cloud streetsModeling the erythemal surface diffuse irradiance fraction for Badajoz, SpainDisk and circumsolar radiances in the presence of ice cloudsEffects of 3-D thermal radiation on the development of a shallow cumulus cloud fieldRegional and seasonal radiative forcing by perturbations to aerosol and ozone precursor emissionsThe spectral signature of cloud spatial structure in shortwave irradianceEffects of urban agglomeration on surface-UV doses: a comparison of Brewer measurements in Warsaw and Belsk, Poland, for the period 2013–2015Global and regional radiative forcing from 20 % reductions in BC, OC and SO4 – an HTAP2 multi-model studyA new parameterization of the UV irradiance altitude dependence for clear-sky conditions and its application in the on-line UV tool over Northern EurasiaImplementation of Bessel's method for solar eclipses prediction in the WRF-ARW modelImpact of buildings on surface solar radiation over urban BeijingEvaluating the spatio-temporal performance of sky-imager-based solar irradiance analysis and forecastsOn the ability of RegCM4 regional climate model to simulate surface solar radiation patterns over Europe: an assessment using satellite-based observationsAn investigation of how radiation may cause accelerated rates of tropical cyclogenesis and diurnal cycles of convective activityThe impact of parameterising light penetration into snow on the photochemical production of NOx and OH radicals in snowA global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over the Sierra Nevada and Rocky MountainsRadiative forcing and climate metrics for ozone precursor emissions: the impact of multi-model averagingErythemal ultraviolet irradiation trends in the Iberian Peninsula from 1950 to 2011Regional climate model assessment of the urban land-surface forcing over central EuropeImpact of cirrus clouds heterogeneities on top-of-atmosphere thermal infrared radiationSummer Arctic sea ice albedo in CMIP5 modelsA WRF simulation of the impact of 3-D radiative transfer on surface hydrology over the Rocky Mountains and Sierra NevadaTechnical Note: Evaluating a simple parameterization of radiative shortwave forcing from surface albedo changeThe cloud–aerosol–radiation (CAR) ensemble modeling systemDust vertical profile impact on global radiative forcing estimation using a coupled chemical-transport–radiative-transfer modelSource attribution of insoluble light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow across northern ChinaModeling the radiative effects of desert dust on weather and regional climateSimulating 3-D radiative transfer effects over the Sierra Nevada Mountains using WRFOn the interpretation of an unusual in-situ measured ice crystal scattering phase function
Ilissa B. Ocko and Steven P. Hamburg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9349–9368,Short summary
Hydrogen is considered a key strategy to decarbonize the global economy. However, hydrogen is also a short-lived indirect greenhouse gas that can easily leak into the atmosphere. Given that the climate impacts from hydrogen emissions are not well understood, especially in the near term, we assess impacts over all timescales for plausible emissions rates. We find that hydrogen leakage can cause more warming than widely perceived; thus, attention is needed to minimize emissions.
Dustin Francis Phillip Grogan, Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Shih-Wei Wei, and Sheng-Po Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2385–2398,Short summary
This study shows that incorporating aerosols into satellite radiance calculations affects the representation of African easterly waves (AEWs), and their environment, over North Africa and the eastern Atlantic in a numerical weather model. These changes are driven by radiative effects of Saharan dust captured by the aerosol-affected radiances, which modify the initial fields and can improve the forecasting of AEWs.
Tao Tang, Drew Shindell, Yuqiang Zhang, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Gunnar Myhre, Gregory Faluvegi, Bjørn H. Samset, Timothy Andrews, Dirk Olivié, Toshihiko Takemura, and Xuhui Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13797–13809,Short summary
Previous studies showed that black carbon (BC) could warm the surface with decreased incoming radiation. With climate models, we found that the surface energy redistribution plays a more crucial role in surface temperature compared with other forcing agents. Though BC could reduce the surface heating, the energy dissipates less efficiently, which is manifested by reduced convective and evaporative cooling, thereby warming the surface.
Jiaojiao Liu and Xiangjun Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10609–10624,Short summary
Cirrus thinning, which reduces the warming effect of cirrus clouds, has been investigated as a new geoengineering approach. In this study, a flexible seeding method is used to exploit the potential cooling effect of cirrus thinning. Simulation results show that the seeding method is essential for estimating the cooling effect. Cirrus thinning with the flexible seeding method could produce a considerable cooling effect, which is much stronger than the fixed seeding method.
Inés Sanz-Morère, Sebastian D. Eastham, Florian Allroggen, Raymond L. Speth, and Steven R. H. Barrett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1649–1681,Short summary
Contrails cause ~50 % of aviation climate impacts, but this is highly uncertain. This is partly due to the effect of overlap between contrails and other cloud layers. We developed a model to quantify this effect, finding that overlap with natural clouds increased contrails' radiative forcing in 2015. This suggests that cloud avoidance may help in reducing aviation's climate impacts. We also find that contrail–contrail overlap reduces impacts by ~3 %, increasing non-linearly with optical depth.
Kine Onsum Moseid, Michael Schulz, Trude Storelvmo, Ingeborg Rian Julsrud, Dirk Olivié, Pierre Nabat, Martin Wild, Jason N. S. Cole, Toshihiko Takemura, Naga Oshima, Susanne E. Bauer, and Guillaume Gastineau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16023–16040,Short summary
In this study we compare solar radiation at the surface from observations and Earth system models from 1961 to 2014. We find that the models do not reproduce the so-called
global dimmingas found in observations. Only model experiments with anthropogenic aerosol emissions display any dimming at all. The discrepancies between observations and models are largest in China, which we suggest is in part due to erroneous aerosol precursor emission inventories in the emission dataset used for CMIP6.
Richard J. Bantges, Helen E. Brindley, Jonathan E. Murray, Alan E. Last, Jacqueline E. Russell, Cathryn Fox, Stuart Fox, Chawn Harlow, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Keith N. Bower, Bryan A. Baum, Ping Yang, Hilke Oetjen, and Juliet C. Pickering
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12889–12903,Short summary
Understanding how ice clouds influence the Earth's energy balance remains a key challenge for predicting the future climate. These clouds are ubiquitous and are composed of ice crystals that have complex shapes that are incredibly difficult to model. This work exploits new measurements of the Earth's emitted thermal energy made from instruments flown on board an aircraft to test how well the latest ice cloud models can represent these clouds. Results indicate further developments are required.
Nina Črnivec and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10733–10755,Short summary
Unresolved interaction between clouds and atmospheric radiation is a source of uncertainty in weather and climate models. The present study highlights the potential of the state-of-the-art Tripleclouds radiative solver for shallow cumulus clouds, exposing the significance of properly representing subgrid cloud horizontal heterogeneity. The Tripleclouds concept was thereby incorporated in the widely employed δ-Eddington two-stream radiation scheme within the comprehensive libRadtran library.
Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Mark A. Miller, Lynne C. Trabachino, Michael P. Jensen, and Meng Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10073–10090,Short summary
Uncertainties in marine boundary layer clouds arise in the presence of biomass burning aerosol, as is the case over the southeast Atlantic Ocean. Heating due to this aerosol has the potential to alter the thermodynamic profile as the aerosol is transported across the Atlantic Ocean. Radiation transfer experiments indicate local shortwave aerosol heating is ~2–8 K d−1; however uncertainties in this quantity exist due to the single-scattering albedo and back trajectories of the aerosol plume.
Christopher J. Smith, Ryan J. Kramer, Gunnar Myhre, Kari Alterskjær, William Collins, Adriana Sima, Olivier Boucher, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Pierre Nabat, Martine Michou, Seiji Yukimoto, Jason Cole, David Paynter, Hideo Shiogama, Fiona M. O'Connor, Eddy Robertson, Andy Wiltshire, Timothy Andrews, Cécile Hannay, Ron Miller, Larissa Nazarenko, Alf Kirkevåg, Dirk Olivié, Stephanie Fiedler, Anna Lewinschal, Chloe Mackallah, Martin Dix, Robert Pincus, and Piers M. Forster
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9591–9618,Short summary
The spread in effective radiative forcing for both CO2 and aerosols is narrower in the latest CMIP6 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) generation than in CMIP5. For the case of CO2 it is likely that model radiation parameterisations have improved. Tropospheric and stratospheric radiative adjustments to the forcing behave differently for different forcing agents, and there is still significant diversity in how clouds respond to forcings, particularly for total anthropogenic forcing.
Tao Tang, Drew Shindell, Yuqiang Zhang, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Gunnar Myhre, Camilla W. Stjern, Gregory Faluvegi, and Bjørn H. Samset
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8251–8266,Short summary
By using climate simulations, we found that both CO2 and black carbon aerosols could reduce low-level cloud cover, which is mainly due to changes in relative humidity, cloud water, dynamics, and stability. Because the impact of cloud on solar radiation is in effect only during daytime, such cloud reduction could enhance solar heating, thereby raising the daily maximum temperature by 10–50 %, varying by region, which has great implications for extreme climate events and socioeconomic activity.
Tobias Donth, Evelyn Jäkel, André Ehrlich, Bernd Heinold, Jacob Schacht, Andreas Herber, Marco Zanatta, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8139–8156,Short summary
Solar radiative effects of Arctic black carbon (BC) particles (suspended in the atmosphere and in the surface snowpack) were quantified under cloudless and cloudy conditions. An atmospheric and a snow radiative transfer model were coupled to account for radiative interactions between both compartments. It was found that (i) the warming effect of BC in the snowpack overcompensates for the atmospheric BC cooling effect, and (ii) clouds tend to reduce the atmospheric BC cooling and snow BC warming.
Paul Ockenfuß, Claudia Emde, Bernhard Mayer, and Germar Bernhard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1961–1976,Short summary
We model solar radiation as it would be measured on the Earth's surface in the core shadow of a total solar eclipse. Subsequently, we compare our results to observations during the total eclipse 2017 for ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Moreover, we analyze the effect of the surface reflectance, the ozone profile, aerosol and the topography and give a visualization of the prevailing photons paths in the atmosphere during the eclipse.
Nina Črnivec and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8083–8100,Short summary
The interaction between radiation and clouds represents a source of uncertainty in numerical weather prediction (NWP), due to both intrinsic problems of one-dimensional radiation schemes and poor representation of clouds. The underlying question addressed in this study is how large the bias is of radiative heating rates in NWP models for shallow cumulus clouds and how it scales with various parameters, such as solar zenith angle, surface albedo, cloud cover and liquid water path.
Ben Kravitz, Philip J. Rasch, Hailong Wang, Alan Robock, Corey Gabriel, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Jim Haywood, Duoying Ji, Andy Jones, Andrew Lenton, John C. Moore, Helene Muri, Ulrike Niemeier, Steven Phipps, Hauke Schmidt, Shingo Watanabe, Shuting Yang, and Jin-Ho Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13097–13113,Short summary
Marine cloud brightening has been proposed as a means of geoengineering/climate intervention, or deliberately altering the climate system to offset anthropogenic climate change. In idealized simulations that highlight contrasts between land and ocean, we find that the globe warms, including the ocean due to transport of heat from land. This study reinforces that no net energy input into the Earth system does not mean that temperature will necessarily remain unchanged.
Rick D. Russotto and Thomas P. Ackerman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11905–11925,Short summary
In simulations with different climate models in which the strength of the Sun is reduced to cancel the surface warming from a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, low cloud cover decreases, high cloud cover increases, the upper troposphere and stratosphere cool, and water vapor concentration decreases. The stratospheric cooling and low cloud reduction result in more sunlight reduction being needed than originally thought.
Simon Gruber, Simon Unterstrasser, Jan Bechtold, Heike Vogel, Martin Jung, Henry Pak, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6393–6411,Short summary
A numerical model also used for operational weather forecast was applied to investigate the impact of contrails and contrail cirrus on the radiative fluxes at the earth's surface. Accounting for contrails produced by aircraft enables the model to simulate high clouds that are otherwise missing. In a case study, we find that the effect of these extra clouds is to reduce the incoming shortwave radiation at the surface as well as the production of photovoltaic power by up to 10 %.
Andrew E. Dessler, Thorsten Mauritsen, and Bjorn Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5147–5155,Short summary
One of the most important parameters in climate science is the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS). Estimates of this quantity based on 20th-century observations suggest low values of ECS (below 2 °C). We show that these calculations may be significantly in error. Together with other recent work on this problem, it seems probable that the ECS is larger than suggested by the 20th-century observations.
Jake J. Gristey, J. Christine Chiu, Robert J. Gurney, Cyril J. Morcrette, Peter G. Hill, Jacqueline E. Russell, and Helen E. Brindley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5129–5145,
Daniela Meloni, Alcide di Sarra, Gérard Brogniez, Cyrielle Denjean, Lorenzo De Silvestri, Tatiana Di Iorio, Paola Formenti, José L. Gómez-Amo, Julian Gröbner, Natalia Kouremeti, Giuliano Liuzzi, Marc Mallet, Giandomenico Pace, and Damiano M. Sferlazzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4377–4401,Short summary
This study examines how different aerosol optical properties determine the dust longwave radiative effects at the surface, in the atmosphere and at the top of the atmosphere, based on the combination of remote sensing and in situ observations from the ground, from airborne sensors, and from space, by means of radiative transfer modelling. The closure experiment is based on longwave irradiances and spectral brightness temperatures measured during the 2013 ChArMEx–ADRIMED campaign at Lampedusa.
Netsanet K. Alamirew, Martin C. Todd, Claire L. Ryder, John H. Marsham, and Yi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1241–1262,Short summary
This paper quantifies the radiative effects of dust and water vapour in the Saharan heat low. Dust has a warming effect at the top of the atmosphere while cooling the surface. Water vapour has a warming effect both at the top of atmosphere and the surface. We find dust and water vapour have similar effects in driving the variability in the top-of-atmosphere radiative budget, while dust has a stronger effect than water vapour in controlling day-to-day variability of the surface radiative budget.
Fabian Jakub and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13317–13327,Short summary
The formation of shallow cumulus cloud streets was historically attributed primarily to dynamics. Here, we focus on the interaction between radiatively induced surface heterogeneities and the resulting patterns in the flow. Our results suggest that solar radiative heating has the potential to organize clouds perpendicular to the sun's incidence angle.
Guadalupe Sanchez, Antonio Serrano, and María Luisa Cancillo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12697–12708,Short summary
This study proposes models to estimate the UVER diffuse irradiance, which means, at least, 40 % of the ultraviolet solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface at mid-latitudes. These models are inspired by expressions originally used to estimate total diffuse fraction and rely on variables commonly available to favor their applicability. The best model in this paper performs better than previous approaches and no additional information about the cloud or aerosol layer is needed.
Päivi Haapanala, Petri Räisänen, Greg M. McFarquhar, Jussi Tiira, Andreas Macke, Michael Kahnert, John DeVore, and Timo Nousiainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6865–6882,Short summary
The dependence of solar-disk and circumsolar radiances on ice cloud properties is studied with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. Ice crystal roughness (or more generally, non-ideality) is found to be the most important parameter influencing the circumsolar radiance, and ice crystal sizes and shapes also play significant roles. When comparing with radiances measured with the SAM instrument, rough ice crystals reproduce the measurements better than idealized smooth ice crystals do.
Carolin Klinger, Bernhard Mayer, Fabian Jakub, Tobias Zinner, Seung-Bu Park, and Pierre Gentine
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5477–5500,Short summary
Radiation is driving weather and climate. Yet, the effect of radiation on clouds is not fully understood and often only poorly represented in models. Better understanding and better parameterizations of the radiation–cloud interaction are therefore essential. Using our newly developed fast
neighboring column approximationfor 3-D thermal heating and cooling rates, we show that thermal radiation changes cloud circulation and causes organization and a deepening of the clouds.
Nicolas Bellouin, Laura Baker, Øivind Hodnebrog, Dirk Olivié, Ribu Cherian, Claire Macintosh, Bjørn Samset, Anna Esteve, Borgar Aamaas, Johannes Quaas, and Gunnar Myhre
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13885–13910,Short summary
This study uses global climate models to quantify how strongly man-made emissions of selected pollutants modify the energy budget of the Earth. The pollutants studied interact directly and indirectly with sunlight and terrestrial radiation and remain a relatively short time in the atmosphere, leading to regional and seasonal variations in their impacts. This new data set is useful to compare the potential climate impacts of different pollutants in support of policies to reduce climate change.
Shi Song, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Peter Pilewskie, Michael D. King, Andrew K. Heidinger, Andi Walther, Hironobu Iwabuchi, Gala Wind, and Odele M. Coddington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13791–13806,Short summary
The radiative effects of spatially complex cloud fields are notoriously difficult to estimate and are afflicted with errors up to ±50 % of the incident solar radiation. We find that horizontal photon transport, the leading cause for these three-dimensional effects, manifests itself through a spectral fingerprint – a new observable that holds promise for reducing the errors associated with spatial complexity by moving the problem to the spectral dimension.
Agnieszka E. Czerwińska, Janusz W. Krzyścin, Janusz Jarosławski, and Michał Posyniak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13641–13651,Short summary
This article presents a comparison between the two surface-UV dose series, measured with Brewer spectrophotometers working simultaneously at two different sites in Poland: in a large city agglomeration and in the suburbs. We consider whether the city of Warsaw acts as a shield from ultraviolet overexposure. Our study proves that the UV level in Warsaw is slightly lower than that found in cleaner suburbs of the city.
Camilla Weum Stjern, Bjørn Hallvard Samset, Gunnar Myhre, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Yanko Davila, Frank Dentener, Louisa Emmons, Johannes Flemming, Amund Søvde Haslerud, Daven Henze, Jan Eiof Jonson, Tom Kucsera, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Michael Schulz, Kengo Sudo, Toshihiko Takemura, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13579–13599,Short summary
Air pollution can reach distant regions through intercontinental transport. Here we first present results from the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 exercise, where many models performed the same set of coordinated emission-reduction experiments. We find that mitigations have considerable extra-regional effects, and show that this is particularly true for black carbon emissions, as long-range transport elevates aerosols to higher levels where their radiative influence is stronger.
Nataly Chubarova, Yekaterina Zhdanova, and Yelena Nezval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11867–11881,Short summary
Biologically active ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important environmental factor, which affect human health and nature. UV radiation has a significant increase with the altitude. We propose a new method for calculating the altitude UV dependence for different types of biologically active UV radiation. The proposed method was implemented in the on-line UV tool (http://momsu.ru/uv/) for Northern Eurasia. The possible UV effects on human health were considered over Alpine zone.
Alex Montornès, Bernat Codina, John W. Zack, and Yolanda Sola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5949–5967,Short summary
This paper documents a new package for the Weather Research and Forecasting--Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) model that can simulate any partial, total or hybrid solar eclipse for the period 1950–2050 and is also extensible to a longer period. First, a description of the implementation together with a validation for the period 1950–2050 of all solar eclipse trajectories is presented. Second, the model response is analyzed in four total solar eclipse episodes. Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) outcomes are validated with respect to ground-based measurements.
Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, Yu Gu, Cenlin He, Wee-Liang Lee, Xing Chang, Qinbin Li, Shuxiao Wang, Hsien-Liang R. Tseng, Lai-Yung R. Leung, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5841–5852,Short summary
We examine the impact of buildings on surface solar fluxes in Beijing by accounting for their 3-D structures. We find that inclusion of buildings changes surface solar fluxes by within ±1 W m−2, ±1–10 W m−2, and up to ±100 W m−2 at grid resolutions of 4 km, 800 m, and 90 m, respectively. We can resolve pairs of positive-negative flux deviations on different sides of buildings at ≤ 800 m resolutions. We should treat building-effect on solar fluxes differently in models with different resolutions.
Thomas Schmidt, John Kalisch, Elke Lorenz, and Detlev Heinemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3399–3412,Short summary
We performed an irradiance forecast experiment based on analysis of hemispheric sky images and evaluated results on a large data set of 99 pyranometers distributed over 10 × 12 km. We developed a surface irradiance retrieval from cloud information derived from the images. Very high resolution forecasts were processed up to 25 min. A main finding is that forecast skill is enhanced in complex cloud conditions leading to high variability in surface irradiance.
G. Alexandri, A. K. Georgoulias, P. Zanis, E. Katragkou, A. Tsikerdekis, K. Kourtidis, and C. Meleti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13195–13216,Short summary
It is shown here that RegCM4 regional climate model adequately simulates surface solar radiation (SSR) over Europe but significantly over/underestimates several parameters that determine the transmission of solar radiation in the atmosphere. The agreement between RegCM4 and satellite-based SSR observations is actually a result of the conflicting effect of these parameters. We suggest that there should be a reassessment of the way these parameters are represented within this and other models.
M. E. Nicholls
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9003–9029,
H. G. Chan, M. D. King, and M. M. Frey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7913–7927,
W.-L. Lee, Y. Gu, K. N. Liou, L. R. Leung, and H.-H. Hsu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5405–5413,Short summary
This paper investigates 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, using the global CCSM4 (CAM4/CLM4) with a 0.23°×0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. We show that deviations in the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations.
C. R. MacIntosh, K. P. Shine, and W. J. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3957–3969,Short summary
This study examines quantitatively the impact of methodological choices, in particular of averaging of multi-model ensembles, on climate metrics for ozone precursors. Estimates of the standard deviation of radiative forcing (RF), global warming and temperature potential (GWP, GTP) from ensemble-mean input fields generally overestimate the true value. The multi-model average fields are appropriate for calculating mean metrics, but are not a reliable method for calculating the uncertainty.
R. Román, J. Bilbao, and A. de Miguel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 375–391,Short summary
This paper develops two models for the reconstruction of ultraviolet erythemal radiation (UVER). The models are based on shortwave radiation (SW) and sunshine duration measurements. Both models are used to reconstruct UVER irradiation at nine Spanish places from 1950 to 2011. The trends of UVER are calculated at different periods. UVER presented a brightening phenomenon, but not dimming, due to the ozone depletion until the mid-1990s.
P. Huszar, T. Halenka, M. Belda, M. Zak, K. Sindelarova, and J. Miksovsky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12393–12413,Short summary
The impact of cities and urban surfaces on climate of central Europe is examined using a regional climate model coupled to a single-layer urban canopy model. Results show a significant impact on temperature (up to 1.5K increase in summer), the boundary layer height, surface wind with a winter decrease and precipitation (a summer decrease). Applying the urban canopy model, the regional climate model exhibits a decreased model bias when compared to observations.
T. Fauchez, C. Cornet, F Szczap, P. Dubuisson, and T. Rosambert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5599–5615,
T. Koenigk, A. Devasthale, and K.-G. Karlsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1987–1998,
K. N. Liou, Y. Gu, L. R. Leung, W. L. Lee, and R. G. Fovell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11709–11721,
R. M. Bright and M. M. Kvalevåg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11169–11174,
X.-Z. Liang and F. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8335–8364,
L. Zhang, Q. B. Li, Y. Gu, K. N. Liou, and B. Meland
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7097–7114,
R. Zhang, D. A. Hegg, J. Huang, and Q. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6091–6099,
C. Spyrou, G. Kallos, C. Mitsakou, P. Athanasiadis, C. Kalogeri, and M. J. Iacono
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5489–5504,
Y. Gu, K. N. Liou, W.-L. Lee, and L. R. Leung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9965–9976,
A. J. Baran, J.-F. Gayet, and V. Shcherbakov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9355–9364,
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The aim of the presented study was to investigate the impact on the radiation budget and atmospheric dynamics of a biomass-burning plume, transported from Alaska to the High Arctic region of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in early July 2015. We found that the smoke plume may significantly alter radiative properties of the atmosphere. Furthermore, the simulations of atmospheric dynamics indicated a vertical positive displacement and broadening of the plume with time.
The aim of the presented study was to investigate the impact on the radiation budget and...