Articles | Volume 18, issue 10
Research article 25 May 2018
Research article | 25 May 2018
Cloud condensation nuclei activity of CaCO3 particles with oleic acid and malonic acid coatings
Mingjin Wang et al.
Defeng Zhao, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Mingjin Wang, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Ralf Tillmann, Zhaofeng Tan, Anna Novelli, Hendrik Fuchs, Iida Pullinen, Robert Wegener, Franz Rohrer, Jürgen Wildt, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1611–1628,Short summary
Air pollutants emitted by human activities such as NOx and SO2 can influence the abundance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We found that NOx suppressed new particle formation and SOA mass formation. When both SO2 and NOx are present, the suppressing effect of NOx on SOA mass formation was counteracted by SO2. High NOx changed SOA chemical composition, forming more organic nitrate, because NOx changed radical chemistry during VOC oxidation.
Andrea Pozzer, Simon Reifenberg, Vinod Kumar, Bruno Franco, Domenico Taraborrelli, Sergy Gromov, Sebastian Ehrhart, Patrick Jöckel, Rolf Sander, Veronica Fall, Simon Rosanka, Vlassis Karydis, Dimitris Akritidis, Tamara Emmerichs, Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Johannes W. Kaiser, Lieven Clarisse, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Holger Tost, and Alexandra Tsimpidi
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
A newly developed set-up of the chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry) is here evaluated; a comprehensive organic degradation mechanism is used and coupled with a volatility base model. The results show that the model is reproducing most of the tracer and aerosols satisfactorily, although with discrepancies for oxygenated organic gases and that this model configuration can be used for further research in atmospheric chemistry.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Sander Mirme, Mikael Ehn, Iida Pullinen, Katri Leino, Siegfried Schobesberger, Juha Kangasluoma, Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Riikka Väänänen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Radovan Krejci, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Janne Levula, Aadu Mirme, Stefano Decesari, Ralf Tillmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12649–12663,Short summary
We studied aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different locations (Po Valley, Italy, and Hyytiälä, Finland). The observations consist of airborne measurements on board an instrumented Zeppelin and a small airplane combined with comprehensive ground-based measurements.
Luisa Hantschke, Anna Novelli, Birger Bohn, Changmin Cho, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Marvin Glowania, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12665–12685,Short summary
The reactions of Δ3-carene with ozone and the hydroxyl radical (OH) and the photolysis and OH reaction of caronaldehyde were investigated in the simulation chamber SAPHIR. Reaction rate constants of these reactions were determined. Caronaldehyde yields of the ozonolysis and OH reaction were determined. The organic nitrate yield of the reaction of Δ3-carene and caronaldehyde-derived peroxy radicals with NO was determined. The ROx budget (ROx = OH+HO2+RO2) was also investigated.
Zhi-Hui Zhang, Elena Hartner, Battist Utinger, Benjamin Gfeller, Andreas Paul, Martin Sklorz, Hendryk Czech, Bin Xia Yang, Xin Yi Su, Gert Jakobi, Jürgen Orasche, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Seongho Jeong, Thomas Gröger, Michal Pardo, Thorsten Hohaus, Thomas Adam, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Yinon Rudich, Ralf Zimmermann, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Using a novel setup, we comprehensively characterized the formation of particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) in anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA). We found that more than 90 % of all ROS components in both SOA types have a short lifetime. Our results also show that photochemical aging promotes particle-bound ROS production and enhances the oxidative potential of the aerosols. We found consistent results between chemical-based and biological-based ROS analyses.
Simon Rosanka, Bruno Franco, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Andrea Pozzer, Andreas Wahner, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11257–11288,Short summary
The strong El Niño in 2015 led to a particular dry season in Indonesia and favoured severe peatland fires. The smouldering conditions of these fires and the high carbon content of peat resulted in high volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. By using a comprehensive atmospheric model, we show that these emissions have a significant impact on the tropospheric composition and oxidation capacity. These emissions are transported into to the lower stratosphere, resulting in a depletion of ozone.
Najin Kim, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Thomas F. Mentel, Ovid O. Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Broad supersaturation scanning CCN (BS2-CCN) system, in which particles are exposed to a range of supersaturation simultaneously, can measure a broad range of CCN activity distribution with a high-time resolution. We describe how the BS2-CCN system can be effectively calibrated and which factors can affect the calibration curve. For evaluating the BS2-CCN system, inter-comparison experiments between typical DMA-CCN and BS2-CCN measurement were performed.
Zhaofeng Tan, Luisa Hantschke, Martin Kaminski, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Changmin Cho, Hans-Peter Dorn, Xin Li, Anna Novelli, Sascha Nehr, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The photo-oxidation of myrcene, a monoterpene species emitted by plants, was investigated at atmospheric conditions in the outdoor simulation chamber SAPHIR. The chemical structure of myrcene is partly similar to isoprene. Therefore, it can be expected that hydrogen shift reactions could play a role as observed for isoprene. In this work, their potential impact on the regeneration efficiency of hydroxyl radicals is investigated.
Rongrong Wu, Luc Vereecken, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Sungah Kang, Sascha R. Albrecht, Luisa Hantschke, Defeng Zhao, Anna Novelli, Hendrik Fuchs, Ralf Tillmann, Thorsten Hohaus, Philip T. M. Carlsson, Justin Shenolikar, François Bernard, John N. Crowley, Juliane L. Fry, Bellamy Brownwood, Joel A. Thornton, Steven S. Brown, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, Mattias Hallquist, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10799–10824,Short summary
Isoprene is the biogenic volatile organic compound with the largest emissions rates. The nighttime reaction of isoprene with the NO3 radical has a large potential to contribute to SOA. We classified isoprene nitrates into generations and proposed formation pathways. Considering the potential functionalization of the isoprene nitrates we propose that mainly isoprene dimers contribute to SOA formation from the isoprene NO3 reactions with at least a 5 % mass yield.
Simon Rosanka, Rolf Sander, Andreas Wahner, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4103–4115,Short summary
The Jülich Aqueous-phase Mechanism of Organic Chemistry (JAMOC) is developed and implemented into the Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere (MECCA). JAMOC is an explicit in-cloud oxidation scheme for oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), which is suitable for global model applications. Within a box-model study, we show that JAMOC yields reduced gas-phase concentrations of most OVOCs and oxidants, except for nitrogen oxides.
Simon Rosanka, Rolf Sander, Bruno Franco, Catherine Wespes, Andreas Wahner, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9909–9930,Short summary
In-cloud destruction of ozone depends on hydroperoxyl radicals in cloud droplets, where they are produced by oxygenated volatile organic compound (OVOC) oxygenation. Only rudimentary representations of these processes, if any, are currently available in global atmospheric models. By using a comprehensive atmospheric model that includes a complex in-cloud OVOC oxidation scheme, we show that atmospheric oxidants are reduced and models ignoring this process will underpredict clouds as ozone sinks.
Defeng Zhao, Iida Pullinen, Hendrik Fuchs, Stephanie Schrade, Rongrong Wu, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Ralf Tillmann, Franz Rohrer, Jürgen Wildt, Yindong Guo, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, Sungah Kang, Luc Vereecken, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9681–9704,Short summary
The reaction of isoprene, a biogenic volatile organic compound with the globally largest emission rates, with NO3, an nighttime oxidant influenced heavily by anthropogenic emissions, forms a large number of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM). These HOM are formed via one or multiple oxidation steps, followed by autoxidation. Their total yield is much higher than that in the daytime oxidation of isoprene. They may play an important role in nighttime organic aerosol formation and growth.
Marvin Glowania, Franz Rohrer, Hans-Peter Dorn, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4239–4253,Short summary
Three instruments that use different techniques to measure gaseous formaldehyde concentrations were compared in experiments in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR at Forschungszentrum Jülich. The results demonstrated the need to correct the baseline in measurements by instruments that use the Hantzsch reaction or make use of cavity ring-down spectroscopy. After applying corrections, all three methods gave accurate and precise measurements within their specifications.
Clara Betancourt, Christoph Küppers, Tammarat Piansawan, Uta Sager, Andrea B. Hoyer, Heinz Kaminski, Gerhard Rapp, Astrid C. John, Miriam Küpper, Ulrich Quass, Thomas Kuhlbusch, Jochen Rudolph, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Iulia Gensch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5953–5964,Short summary
For the first time, we included stable isotopes in the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART to investigate firewood home heating aerosol. This is an innovative source apportionment methodology since comparison of stable isotope ratio model predictions with observations delivers quantitative understanding of atmospheric processes. The main outcome of this study is that the home heating aerosol in residential areas was not of remote origin.
Michael Priestley, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Stephen D. Worrall, Sungah Kang, Iida Pullinen, Sebastian Schmitt, Ralf Tillmann, Einhard Kleist, Defeng Zhao, Jürgen Wildt, Olga Garmash, Archit Mehra, Asan Bacak, Dudley E. Shallcross, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Åsa M. Hallquist, Mikael Ehn, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Mattias Hallquist, Thomas F. Mentel, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3473–3490,Short summary
A significant fraction of emissions from human activity consists of aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. benzene, which oxidise to form new compounds important for particle growth. Characterisation of benzene oxidation products highlights the range of species produced as well as their chemical properties and contextualises them within relevant frameworks, e.g. MCM. Cluster analysis of the oxidation product time series distinguishes behaviours of CHON compounds that could aid in identifying functionality.
Changmin Cho, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Hendrik Fuchs, Hans-Peter Dorn, Marvin Glowania, Frank Holland, Franz Rohrer, Vaishali Vardhan, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Anna Novelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1851–1877,Short summary
This study describes the implementation and characterization of the chemical modulation reactor (CMR) used in the laser-induced fluorescence instrument of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. The CMR allows for interference-free OH radical measurement in ambient air. During a field campaign in a rural environment, the observed interference was mostly below the detection limit of the instrument and fully explained by the known ozone interference.
Weili Lin, Feng Wang, Chunxiang Ye, and Tong Zhu
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Field observations found that released NOx on the glacier surface of the Tibetan Plateau, an important snow-covered region in the northern mid-latitudes, had a higher concentration than in Antarctic and Arctic regions. Such evidence, and such high fluxes as observed here on the Tibetan plateau is novel. That such high concentrations of nitrogen oxides can be found in remote areas is interesting and important for the oxidative budget of the boundary layer.
Huan Song, Xiaorui Chen, Keding Lu, Qi Zou, Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Alfred Wiedensohler, Daniel R. Moon, Dwayne E. Heard, María-Teresa Baeza-Romero, Mei Zheng, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15835–15850,Short summary
Accurate calculation of the HO2 uptake coefficient is one of the key parameters to quantify the co-reduction of both aerosol and ozone pollution. We modelled various lab measurements of γHO2 based on a gas-liquid phase kinetic model and developed a state-of-the-art parameterized equation. Based on a dataset from a comprehensive field campaign in the North China Plain, we proposed that the determination of the heterogeneous uptake process for HO2 should be included in future field campaigns.
Yiqun Han, Wu Chen, Lia Chatzidiakou, Anika Krause, Li Yan, Hanbin Zhang, Queenie Chan, Ben Barratt, Rod Jones, Jing Liu, Yangfeng Wu, Meiping Zhao, Junfeng Zhang, Frank J. Kelly, Tong Zhu, and the AIRLESS team
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15775–15792,Short summary
Panel studies might be the most suitable way to link intensive air monitoring campaigns for a wide range of pollutant species and personal exposure in different micro-environments, together with epidemiological studies of detailed biological changes in humans. Panel studies are intensive, but related papers are very limited. With the successful collection of a rich dataset, we believe AIRLESS sets a good example for the design of a multidisciplinary study.
Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Defeng Zhao, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Hongyong Li, Pengfei Liu, Junfeng Liu, Chenglong Zhang, Yujing Mu, Wenjin Zhang, Luming Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Kai Li, Min Liu, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13735–13751,Short summary
Based on a field study at Mt. Tai, China, the simultaneous variations of cloud microphysics, aerosol microphysics and their potential interactions during cloud life cycles were discussed. Results demonstrated that clouds on clean days were more susceptible to the concentrations of particle number, while clouds formed on polluted days might be more sensitive to meteorological parameters. Particles larger than 150 nm played important roles in forming cloud droplets with sizes of 5–10 μm.
Michael Rolletter, Marion Blocquet, Martin Kaminski, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13701–13719,Short summary
The photooxidation of pinonaldehyde is investigated in a chamber study under natural sunlight and low NO conditions with and without an added hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger. The experimentally determined pinonaldehyde photolysis frequency is faster by a factor of 3.5 than currently used parameterizations in atmospheric models. Yields of degradation products are measured in the presence and absence of OH. Measurements are compared to current atmospheric models and a theory-based mechanism.
Hans-Christian Clemen, Johannes Schneider, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Franziska Köllner, Andreas Hünig, Florian Rubach, Stephan Mertes, Heike Wex, Frank Stratmann, André Welti, Rebecca Kohl, Fabian Frank, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5923–5953,Short summary
We improved the efficiency of a single-particle mass spectrometer with a newly developed aerodynamic lens system, delayed ion extraction, and better electric shielding. The new components result in significantly improved particle analysis and sample statistics. This is particularly important for measurements of low-number-density particles, such as ice-nucleating particles, and for aircraft-based measurements at high altitudes or where high temporal and spatial resolution is required.
Iida Pullinen, Sebastian Schmitt, Sungah Kang, Mehrnaz Sarrafzadeh, Patrick Schlag, Stefanie Andres, Einhard Kleist, Thomas F. Mentel, Franz Rohrer, Monika Springer, Ralf Tillmann, Jürgen Wildt, Cheng Wu, Defeng Zhao, Andreas Wahner, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10125–10147,Short summary
Biogenic and anthropogenic air masses mix in the atmosphere, bringing plant-emitted monoterpenes and traffic-related nitrogen oxides together. There is debate whether the presence of nitrogen oxides reduces or increases secondary aerosol formation. This is important as secondary aerosols have cooling effects in the climate system but also constitute a health risk in populated areas. We show that the presence of NOx alone should not much affect the mass yields of secondary organic aerosols.
Yang Chen, Guangming Shi, Jing Cai, Zongbo Shi, Zhichao Wang, Xiaojiang Yao, Mi Tian, Chao Peng, Yiqun Han, Tong Zhu, Yue Liu, Xi Yang, Mei Zheng, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9249–9263,Short summary
Individual particles were observed in two field studies during winter 2016 in the urban and rural areas of Beijing. An online single-particle chemical composition analysis was used as a tracing system to investigate the impact of heating activities and the formation of haze events. During the pollution events, a pattern of transport and accumulation was found with evidence of single particles. The transport from Pinggu to Peking University was significant but PKU to PG occurred occasionally.
Tiantian Wang, Yu Song, Zhenying Xu, Mingxu Liu, Tingting Xu, Wenling Liao, Lifei Yin, Xuhui Cai, Ling Kang, Hongsheng Zhang, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8727–8736,Short summary
Satellite measurements have revealed that the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) has the global maximum ammonia concentrations, with a peak from June to August. Here, we studied the reasons for this phenomenon through computer simulations. Low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions and high air temperature over the IGP weaken the swallowing of gaseous ammonia by acidic gases. Additionally, the barrier effects of the Himalayas, like a windshield, are also conducive to the accumulation of ammonia.
Andreas Petzold, Patrick Neis, Mihal Rütimann, Susanne Rohs, Florian Berkes, Herman G. J. Smit, Martina Krämer, Nicole Spelten, Peter Spichtinger, Philippe Nédélec, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8157–8179,Short summary
The first analysis of 15 years of global-scale water vapour and relative humidity observations by passenger aircraft in the MOZAIC and IAGOS programmes resolves detailed features of water vapour and ice-supersaturated air in the mid-latitude tropopause. Key results provide in-depth insight into seasonal and regional variability and chemical signatures of ice-supersaturated air masses, including trend analyses, and show a close link to cirrus clouds and their highly important effects on climate.
Sergej Molleker, Frank Helleis, Thomas Klimach, Oliver Appel, Hans-Christian Clemen, Antonis Dragoneas, Christian Gurk, Andreas Hünig, Franziska Köllner, Florian Rubach, Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3651–3660,Short summary
A novel constant-pressure-inlet design for use in airborne aerosol particle mass spectrometry – an aerodynamic lens focuses aerosol particles into a vacuum chamber – is presented. The pressure of a few hectopascals at the lens is precisely controlled over a large flight altitude range up to 21 km. The constant pressure is achieved by changing the inner diameter of a properly scaled flexible O-ring acting as a critical orifice. Particle transmission at various inlet pressures is characterized.
Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Keren Liao, Yaowei Li, Yong Jie Li, Ru-Jin Huang, Weiwei Hu, Ying Liu, Tong Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Qi Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2457–2472,Short summary
This paper provides important information to help researchers to understand the mass quantification and source apportionment by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers.
Anna Novelli, Luc Vereecken, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Simon Rosanka, Domenico Taraborrelli, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3333–3355,Short summary
Experimental evidence from a simulation chamber study shows that the regeneration efficiency of the hydroxyl radical is maintained globally at values higher than 0.5 for a wide range of nitrogen oxide concentrations as a result of isomerizations of peroxy radicals originating from the OH oxidation of isoprene. The available models were tested, and suggestions on how to improve their ability to reproduce the measured radical and oxygenated volatile organic compound concentrations are provided.
Yu Wang, Ying Chen, Zhijun Wu, Dongjie Shang, Yuxuan Bian, Zhuofei Du, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Rong Su, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Patrick Schlag, Thorsten Hohaus, Aristeidis Voliotis, Keding Lu, Limin Zeng, Chunsheng Zhao, M. Rami Alfarra, Gordon McFiggans, Alfred Wiedensohler, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Yuanhang Zhang, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2161–2175,Short summary
Severe haze events, with high particulate nitrate (pNO3−) burden, frequently prevail in Beijing. In this study, we demonstrate a mutual-promotion effect between aerosol water uptake and pNO3− formation backed up by theoretical calculations and field observations throughout a typical pNO3−-dominated haze event in Beijing wintertime. This self-amplified mutual-promotion effect between aerosol water content and particulate nitrate can rapidly deteriorate air quality and degrade visibility.
Olga Garmash, Matti P. Rissanen, Iida Pullinen, Sebastian Schmitt, Oskari Kausiala, Ralf Tillmann, Defeng Zhao, Carl Percival, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Priestley, Åsa M. Hallquist, Einhard Kleist, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Mattias Hallquist, Torsten Berndt, Gordon McFiggans, Jürgen Wildt, Thomas F. Mentel, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 515–537,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) facilitate aerosol formation in the atmosphere. Using NO3− chemical ionization mass spectrometry we investigated HOM composition and yield in oxidation of aromatic compounds at different reactant concentrations, in the presence of NOx and seed aerosol. Higher OH concentrations increased HOM yield, suggesting multiple oxidation steps, and affected HOM composition, potentially explaining in part discrepancies in published secondary organic aerosol yields.
Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Julia Hammes, Christian Mark Salvador, Thomas F. Mentel, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15073–15086,Short summary
The role of anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs) for SOA formation needs to be scrutinised. The aromatic 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) was shown to form highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) in NOx-free environments, possibly contributing to new particle formation (NPF). However, formation of HOMs and particles was suppressed in the presence of NOx, while the formation of organonitrates (ONs) was increased. Thus, aromatic AVOCs may not enhance NPF in urban air masses.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Yingruo Li, Ziqiang Tan, Chunxiang Ye, Junxia Wang, Yanwen Wang, Yi Zhu, Pengfei Liang, Xi Chen, Yanhua Fang, Yiqun Han, Qi Wang, Di He, Yao Wang, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13841–13857,Short summary
Vehicle emissions are a major source of Beijing's pollution. Various vehicle emission control policies have been implemented at great cost, but there is a lack of appropriate methods to evaluate the effectiveness of such policies. Here we developed a new method to evaluate the effectiveness of vehicle emission control policies during APEC. Our findings are instructive for air pollution control policy making.
Julia Hammes, Anna Lutz, Thomas Mentel, Cameron Faxon, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13037–13052,Short summary
Identifying the chemical pathways of condensable products such as carboxylic acids is essential for predicting SOA formation. This identification is inherently difficult, as such products reside in both the gas and particulate phases. We measured acids, produced from atmospheric oxidation of limonene, in both phases and scrutinised the mechanistic understanding of their formation. The mechanisms explain nearly 75 % of the gas-phase signal at the lowest concentration (8.4 ppb, 23 % acid yield).
Yanhua Fang, Chunxiang Ye, Junxia Wang, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Weili Lin, Fanfan Xu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12295–12307,Short summary
Year-long observations of PM2.5, gaseous pollutants, and meteorological parameters in Beijing were analysed to investigate sulfate formation. RH and O3 concentrations above thresholds of 45 % and 35 ppb, respectively, greatly accelerated sulfate formation. Ambient changes in RH and O3 contributed to variations in sulfate formation among different seasons and pollution levels. A shift from gas-phase to multiphase SO2 oxidation contributed to fast sulfate formation under polluted conditions.
Michael Rolletter, Martin Kaminski, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Xin Li, Anna Lutz, Sascha Nehr, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11635–11649,Short summary
Here we present a study of the photooxidation of alpha-pinene, the most abundant monoterpene, by hydroxyl radicals (OH) conducted in the simulation chamber SAPHIR under low NOx and atmospheric alpha-pinene concentrations. Yields of the main degradation products acetone, formaldehyde, and pinonaldehyde were determined and the HOx (OH + HO2) radical budget was investigated. Measurements were used to test current atmospheric models and a theory-based mechanism.
Lia Chatzidiakou, Anika Krause, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Andrea Di Antonio, Mike Kellaway, Yiqun Han, Freya A. Squires, Teng Wang, Hanbin Zhang, Qi Wang, Yunfei Fan, Shiyi Chen, Min Hu, Jennifer K. Quint, Benjamin Barratt, Frank J. Kelly, Tong Zhu, and Roderic L. Jones
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4643–4657,Short summary
This study validates the performance of a personal air quality monitor that integrates miniaturised sensors that measure physical and chemical parameters. Overall, the air pollution sensors showed excellent agreement with standard instrumentation in outdoor, indoor and commuting environments across seasons and different geographical settings. Hence, novel sensing technologies like the ones demonstrated here can revolutionise health studies by providing highly resolved reliable exposure metrics.
Jianjun Li, Gehui Wang, Qi Zhang, Jin Li, Can Wu, Wenqing Jiang, Tong Zhu, and Limin Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10481–10496,Short summary
In this study, we investigated molecular compositions of organic aerosols (OAs) in summertime PM2.5 at a rural site in the North China Plain. We found that regional emission from field biomass burning (BB) significantly affects the concentration and molecular distribution of aliphatic lipids, sugars, and terpene-derived SOA, but has limited influence on PAHs, hopenes, and phthalates. The contribution of BB to OA increased by more than 50 % during the period influenced by regional open-field BB.
Wangshu Tan, Gang Zhao, Yingli Yu, Chengcai Li, Jian Li, Ling Kang, Tong Zhu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3825–3839,Short summary
A new method to retrieve CCN number concentrations using multiwavelength Raman lidars is proposed. The method implements hygroscopic enhancements of backscatter and extinction with relative humidity to represent particle hygroscopicity. The retrieved CCN number concentrations are in good agreement with theoretical calculated values. Sensitivity tests indicate that retrieval error in CCN arises mostly from uncertainties in extinction coefficients and RH profiles.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Hendrik Fuchs, Birger Bohn, Frank Holland, Yuhan Liu, Franz Rohrer, Min Shao, Kang Sun, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Yinsong Zhang, Qi Zou, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7129–7150,Short summary
Atmospheric OH, HO2, and RO2 radicals; OH reactivity; and trace gases measured in the Pearl River Delta in autumn 2014 are used for radical budget analyses. The RO2 budget suggests that unexplained OH reactivity is due to unmeasured volatile organic compounds. The OH budget points to a missing OH source and that of RO2 to a missing RO2 sink at low NO. This could indicate a common, unknown process that converts RO2 to OH without the involvement of NO, which would reduce ozone production by 30 %.
Zhenying Xu, Mingxu Liu, Minsi Zhang, Yu Song, Shuxiao Wang, Lin Zhang, Tingting Xu, Tiantian Wang, Caiqing Yan, Tian Zhou, Yele Sun, Yuepeng Pan, Min Hu, Mei Zheng, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5605–5613,
Hao He, Xinrong Ren, Sarah E. Benish, Zhanqing Li, Fei Wang, Yuying Wang, Timothy P. Canty, Xiaobo Dong, Feng Lv, Yongtao Hu, Tong Zhu, and Russell R. Dickerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We conducted aircraft measurements of air pollution in the North China Plain. Concentrations of air pollutants higher than the air quality standards were observed. Our modeling study indicates that the rate of ozone (one major air pollutant) production is determined by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is confirmed by satellite observations. Currently, VOCs are not well regulated in China, so this study suggests the future direction of control measures to improve air quality in China.
Sascha R. Albrecht, Anna Novelli, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Sungah Kang, Yare Baker, Thomas Mentel, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 891–902,Short summary
Within this study we demonstrate reliable measurement of hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals via chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. HO2 is detected as an ion cluster with bromide ions, which allows a selective detection. This direct and sensitive measurement provides reliable data of HO2 radical concentrations in the atmosphere as demonstrated in the first application in simulation chamber experiments.
Mingxu Liu, Xin Huang, Yu Song, Tingting Xu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Lin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xuejun Liu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17933–17943,
Yingjie Zhang, Wei Du, Yuying Wang, Qingqing Wang, Haofei Wang, Haitao Zheng, Fang Zhang, Hongrong Shi, Yuxuan Bian, Yongxiang Han, Pingqing Fu, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Tong Zhu, Pucai Wang, Zhanqing Li, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14637–14651,Short summary
We have a comprehensive characterization of aerosol chemistry and particle growth events at a downwind site of a highly polluted city in the North China Plain. Aerosol particles at the urban downwind site were highly aged and mainly from secondary formation. New particle growth events were also frequently observed on both clean and polluted days. While both sulfate and SOA played important roles in particle growth during clean periods, SOA was more important than sulfate during polluted events.
Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Thorsten Hohaus, Ralf Tillmann, Iulia Gensch, Markus Müller, Philipp Eichler, Kang-Ming Xu, Patrick Schlag, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Zhujun Yu, Robert Wegener, Martin Kaminski, Rupert Holzinger, Armin Wisthaler, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12969–12989,Short summary
Defining the fundamental parameters that distribute organic molecules between the gas and particle phases is essential to understand their impact on the atmosphere. In this work, gas to particle partitioning of major biogenic oxidation products from monoterpenes and real plant emissions was investigated. While measurement results and theoretical calculation for most semi-volatile compounds are in good agreement, significant deviations are found for intermediate volatile organic compounds.
Zhaofeng Tan, Franz Rohrer, Keding Lu, Xuefei Ma, Birger Bohn, Sebastian Broch, Huabin Dong, Hendrik Fuchs, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Ying Liu, Yuhan Liu, Anna Novelli, Min Shao, Haichao Wang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12391–12411,Short summary
We present the first wintertime OH, HO2, and RO2 measurements in Beijing, China. OH concentrations are nearly 2-fold larger than those observed in foreign cities during wintertime. The high OH and large OH reactivities indicate photochemical processes can be effective even during wintertime. A box model largely underestimated HO2 and RO2 concentrations during pollution episodes correlated with high NOx, indicating a deficit current chemistry in the high NOx regime.
Hongyu Guo, Rene Otjes, Patrick Schlag, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Athanasios Nenes, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12241–12256,Short summary
Reduction in ammonia has been proposed as a way to lower fine particle mass and improve air quality, but gas-phase ammonia is linked to agricultural productivity. We assess the feasibility of ammonia control at a variety of locations through an aerosol thermodynamic analysis. We show that aerosol response to ammonia control is highly nonlinear and only becomes effective when ambient particle pH drops below approximately 3. Particle pH is a relevant aerosol air quality parameter.
Anna Novelli, Martin Kaminski, Michael Rolletter, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Xin Li, Anna Lutz, Sascha Nehr, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Frank Holland, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11409–11422,Short summary
The impact of photooxidation of 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO) on the concentration of radical species was studied in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR. MBO is a volatile organic compound mainly emitted by ponderosa and lodgepole pines which are very abundant in forests in the central-west USA. A very good agreement between measured and modelled radical concentrations and products from the oxidation of MBO was observed in an environment with NO of ~ 200 pptv.
Eleni Karnezi, Benjamin N. Murphy, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Florian Rubach, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Thomas F. Mentel, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10759–10772,Short summary
Different parameterizations of the organic aerosol (OA) formation and evolution are evaluated using ground and airborne measurements collected in the 2012 PEGASOS field campaign in the Po Valley (Italy). Total OA concentration and O : C ratios were reproduced within experimental error by a number of schemes. Anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA) contributed 15–25 % of the total OA, 20–35 % of SOA from intermediate volatility compounds oxidation, and 15–45 % of biogenic SOA depending on the scheme.
Xiangyu Pei, Mattias Hallquist, Axel C. Eriksson, Joakim Pagels, Neil M. Donahue, Thomas Mentel, Birgitta Svenningsson, William Brune, and Ravi Kant Pathak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9845–9860,Short summary
The findings in this study show that morphological transformation of soot occurs via two key complementary and sequential processes, i.e., void filling in the particle and its diameter growth. To quantify the state of morphological transformation, i.e., the utilization of material for filling and growth during the condensation processes, a framework was developed which can further be utilized to quantify the effect of condensed material on the optical and hygroscopic properties of soot.
Florian Berkes, Norbert Houben, Ulrich Bundke, Harald Franke, Hans-Werner Pätz, Franz Rohrer, Andreas Wahner, and Andreas Petzold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3737–3757,Short summary
The need for in situ nitrogen oxide measurements on a global scale is crucial to improve the chemistry in global chemistry models and evaluate satellite retrievals. Here we present the characterization of the new IAGOS NOx instrument installed on passenger aircraft, which will provide statistical robust measurements from the surface up to 13 km.
Hendrik Fuchs, Sascha Albrecht, Ismail–Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Martin Breitenlechner, Hans-Peter Dorn, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Martin Kaminski, Frank N. Keutsch, Anna Novelli, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Luc Vereecken, Robert Wegener, Alexander Zaytsev, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8001–8016,Short summary
The photooxidation of methyl vinyl ketone MVK, one of the most important products of isoprene that is emitted by plants, was investigated in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR for conditions found in forested areas. The comparison of measured trace gas time series with model calculations shows a gap in the understanding of radical chemistry in the MVK oxidation scheme. The possibility of unimolecular isomerization reactions were investigated by means of quantum-chemical calculations.
Qianqian Huang, Xuhui Cai, Jian Wang, Yu Song, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7573–7593,Short summary
Air stagnation index is a vital meteorological measure of the atmosphere's ability to dilute air pollutants. We propose a Boundary-layer air Stagnation Index (BSI) based on daily maximal ventilation, real latent instability and precipitation. The BSI is positively correlated with API during 2000–2012, tracks the day-by-day variation of PM2.5 concentration during January 2013 in Beijing well, and successfully represents the improved air quality during November and December in 2017.
Ting Yu, Defeng Zhao, Xiaojuan Song, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6679–6689,Short summary
The reaction of SO2 with NO2 on particles is proposed to be one major pathway of sulfate formation in the polluted atmosphere. We found that in the reaction of SO2 with NO2 on CaCO3 particles, presence of O2 enhanced the uptake rate of SO2 by 2–3 orders of magnitude compared with the reaction of SO2 directly with NO2. O2 was the main oxidant of SO2 and NO2 was the initializer of chain reactions. The multiphase oxidation of SO2 by NO2/O2 can be an important source of sulfate in the atmosphere.
Yiqiu Ma, Yubo Cheng, Xinghua Qiu, Gang Cao, Yanhua Fang, Junxia Wang, Tong Zhu, Jianzhen Yu, and Di Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5607–5617,Short summary
Water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) are a potential toxic component of PM2.5 for their redox activity. In this study, we measured HULISWS and associated redox activity in PM2.5 sampled during a 1-year period in Beijing and investigated their sources. We found biomass burning and secondary aerosol formation were the major contributors (> 59 %) to both HULISWS and redox activity, and the combustion-related primary sources accounted for > 70 % of HULISWS and redox activity.
Paul Herenz, Heike Wex, Silvia Henning, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, Florian Rubach, Anja Roth, Stephan Borrmann, Heiko Bozem, Hannes Schulz, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4477–4496,Short summary
The Arctic climate is changing much faster than other regions on Earth. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the processes that are liable for this phenomena and to document the current situation in the Arctic. Therefore, we measured the number and also the size of aerosol particles. It turned out that we captured the transition from the Arctic spring to the Arctic summer and that the according air masses show differences in particle properties. Also, the particles have a low water receptivity.
Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Ralf Tillmann, Thorsten Hohaus, Markus Müller, Philipp Eichler, Kang-Ming Xu, Patrick Schlag, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Robert Wegener, Martin Kaminski, Rupert Holzinger, Armin Wisthaler, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1481–1500,Short summary
This manuscript presents an intercomparison of state-of-the-art online and in situ particle sampling techniques connected to proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). Collection and vaporization of aerosol combined with soft ionization mass spectrometry offers the advantage of detailed chemical characterization of SOA species. The benefits of these techniques are highlighted through their consistency in providing the chemical composition of biogenic SOA.
Defeng Zhao, Xiaojuan Song, Tong Zhu, Zefeng Zhang, Yingjun Liu, and Jing Shang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2481–2493,Short summary
The oxidation of SO2 directly by NO2 on solid/liquid particles is proposed to be a major pathway of particle sulfate formation in the polluted atmosphere. We found that the reaction of SO2 and NO2 on CaCO3 particles produced Ca(NO3)2 aqueous droplets, providing a site for the multiphase oxidation of SO2. The direct multiphase oxidation of SO2 by NO2 led to a reactive uptake coefficient of SO2 on the order of 10-8, which is unlikely to be an important source of sulfate in the ambient atmosphere.
Defeng Zhao, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Mingjin Wang, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Ralf Tillmann, Zhaofeng Tan, Anna Novelli, Hendrik Fuchs, Iida Pullinen, Robert Wegener, Franz Rohrer, Jürgen Wildt, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1611–1628,Short summary
Air pollutants emitted by human activities such as NOx and SO2 can influence the abundance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We found that NOx suppressed new particle formation and SOA mass formation. When both SO2 and NOx are present, the suppressing effect of NOx on SOA mass formation was counteracted by SO2. High NOx changed SOA chemical composition, forming more organic nitrate, because NOx changed radical chemistry during VOC oxidation.
Fengcheng Wu, Pinhua Xie, Ang Li, Fusheng Mou, Hao Chen, Yi Zhu, Tong Zhu, Jianguo Liu, and Wenqing Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1535–1554,Short summary
Investigating the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants, emissions, and pollution transport is necessary to better understand the effect of various sources on air quality. We report on mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy (mobile DOAS) observations of precursors SO2 and NO2 vertical columns in NCP in the summer of 2013 (from 11 June to 7 July) in this study.
Pengfei Liang, Tong Zhu, Yanhua Fang, Yingruo Li, Yiqun Han, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, and Junxia Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13921–13940,Short summary
The generalized linear regression model (GLM), even based only on meteorological parameters, could be satisfactory to estimate the contribution of meteorological conditions in reducing air pollution and hence the contribution of control strategies in reducing air pollution. Using the GLM, we found that the meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies contributed 30 % and 28 % to the reduction of the PM2.5 concentration during APEC 2014 and 38 % and 25 % during Parade 2015.
Hendrik Fuchs, Anna Novelli, Michael Rolletter, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Stephan Kessel, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams, Vincent Michoud, Sebastien Dusanter, Nadine Locoge, Nora Zannoni, Valerie Gros, Francois Truong, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Danny R. Cryer, Charlotte A. Brumby, Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Paul W. Seakins, Dwayne E. Heard, Coralie Schoemaecker, Marion Blocquet, Sebastien Coudert, Sebastien Batut, Christa Fittschen, Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, Cheryl Ernest, Hartwig Harder, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Thomas Elste, Dagmar Kubistin, Stefanie Andres, Birger Bohn, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Qi Zou, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4023–4053,Short summary
Hydroxyl radical reactivity (k(OH)) is closely related to processes that lead to the formation of oxidised, secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosol. In order to compare the performances of instruments measuring k(OH), experiments were conducted in the simulation chamber SAPHIR. Chemical conditions were chosen either to be representative of the atmosphere or to test potential limitations of instruments. Overall, the results show that instruments are capable of measuring k(OH).
Florian Berkes, Patrick Neis, Martin G. Schultz, Ulrich Bundke, Susanne Rohs, Herman G. J. Smit, Andreas Wahner, Paul Konopka, Damien Boulanger, Philippe Nédélec, Valerie Thouret, and Andreas Petzold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12495–12508,Short summary
This study highlights the importance of independent global measurements with high and long-term accuracy to quantify long-term changes, especially in the UTLS region, and to help identify inconsistencies between different data sets of observations and models. Here we investigated temperature trends over different regions within a climate-sensitive area of the atmosphere and demonstrated the value of the IAGOS temperature observations as an anchor point for the evaluation of reanalyses.
Mingjin Tang, Xin Huang, Keding Lu, Maofa Ge, Yongjie Li, Peng Cheng, Tong Zhu, Aijun Ding, Yuanhang Zhang, Sasho Gligorovski, Wei Song, Xiang Ding, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11727–11777,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive and critical review of laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake of OH, NO3, O3, and their directly related species by mineral dust particles. The atmospheric importance of heterogeneous uptake as sinks for these species is also assessed. In addition, we have outlined major open questions and challenges in this field and discussed research strategies to address them.
Cheng Wu, Iida Pullinen, Stefanie Andres, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Einhard Kleist, Andreas Wahner, Jürgen Wildt, and Thomas F. Mentel
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds are important for atmospheric chemistry. We showed by 13CO2 labelling experiments that biosynthesis is not restricted to the presence of light. In particular sesquiterpenes exhibit substantial de novo emissions in darkness with the carbon being delivered from alternative carbon sources. Our findings are of importance for future emissions under conditions of climate change as the response of de novo emissions to stresses differs from that of pool emissions.
Qianqian Huang, Xuhui Cai, Yu Song, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7793–7805,Short summary
Air stagnation is an important meteorological measure of unfavorable air conditions, and previous studies have found that stagnation events are usually related to air pollution episodes. China is currently experiencing heavy air pollution, but to our knowledge, little is known about air stagnation in the country. In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of air stagnation climatology in China based on sounding and surface observations across the country.
Martin Kaminski, Hendrik Fuchs, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Theo Brauers, Hans-Peter Dorn, Rolf Häseler, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Xin Li, Anna Lutz, Sascha Nehr, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Luc Vereecken, Robert Wegener, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6631–6650,Short summary
Monoterpenes emitted by trees are among the volatile organic compounds with the highest global emission rates. The atmospheric degradation of the monoterpene β-pinene was investigated in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich under low NOx and atmospheric β-pinene concentrations. While the budget of OH was balanced, both OH and HO2 concentrations were underestimated in the simulation results. These observations suggest the existence of unaccounted sources of HO2.
Xu Yue, Nadine Unger, Kandice Harper, Xiangao Xia, Hong Liao, Tong Zhu, Jingfeng Xiao, Zhaozhong Feng, and Jing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6073–6089,Short summary
While it is widely recognized that air pollutants adversely affect human health and climate change, their impacts on the regional carbon balance are less well understood. We apply an Earth system model to quantify the combined effects of ozone and aerosol particles on net primary production in China. Ozone vegetation damage dominates over the aerosol effects, leading to a substantial net suppression of land carbon uptake in the present and future worlds.
Huan Yao, Yu Song, Mingxu Liu, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Douglas Lowe, Gordon McFiggans, Tingting Xu, Pin Du, Jianfeng Li, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Chun Zhao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5205–5219,
Yuxuan Zhang, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Kebin He, Alfred Wiedensohler, Qiang Zhang, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The light absorption of black carbon (BC) strongly depends on their mixing state. By now, the BC mixing state in the atmosphere is still unclear. In this work, we have investigated the comprehensive characterization of BC mixing state at a polluted regional background site of the North China Plain (NCP) based on in site measurements. we found that BC aerosols of the NCP were fully aged, suggesting a strong optical and climate effect of BC on the regional scale in northern China.
Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Herrmann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, and Rahul A. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2103–2162,Short summary
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3 is an important interaction between anthropogenic and natural emissions. This review results from a June 2015 workshop and includes the recent literature on kinetics, mechanisms, organic aerosol yields, and heterogeneous chemistry; advances in analytical instrumentation; the current state NO3-BVOC chemistry in atmospheric models; and critical needs for future research in modeling, field observations, and laboratory studies.
Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Keding Lu, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Birger Bohn, Sebastian Broch, Huabin Dong, Sebastian Gomm, Rolf Häseler, Lingyan He, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Ying Liu, Sihua Lu, Franz Rohrer, Min Shao, Baolin Wang, Ming Wang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Yinsong Zhang, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 663–690,Short summary
In this study, we performed accurate OH measurements as well as selective HO2 and RO2 measurements at a rural site in North China Plain with state-of-the-art instruments newly developed. We confirmed the previous discovery on the enhancement of the OH in low NOx with which little O3 production was associated, and we found a missing RO2 source in high NOx which promoted higher O3 production. Our results are of vital importance for ozone abatement strategies currently under discussion for China.
Hendrik Fuchs, Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Birger Bohn, Sebastian Broch, Steven S. Brown, Huabin Dong, Sebastian Gomm, Rolf Häseler, Lingyan He, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Ying Liu, Sihua Lu, Kyung-Eun Min, Franz Rohrer, Min Shao, Baolin Wang, Ming Wang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Yinson Zhang, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 645–661,Short summary
OH reactivity was measured during a 1-month long campaign at a rural site in the North China Plain in 2014. OH reactivity measurements are compared to calculations using OH reactant measurements. Good agreement is found indicating that all important OH reactants were measured. In addition, the chemical OH budget is analyzed. In contrast to previous campaigns in China in 2006, no significant imbalance between OH production and destruction is found.
Yingruo Li, Chunxiang Ye, Jun Liu, Yi Zhu, Junxia Wang, Ziqiang Tan, Weili Lin, Limin Zeng, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14265–14283,Short summary
We developed the surface flux intensity calculation method based on 2-year continuous ground measurement at a cross-boundary site between Beijing and the NCP to investigate the surface regional transport. The long-term and multispecies observation demonstrated the regional transport influence of the megacity Beijing and the NCP on Yufa. Our study has a direct implication in air quality control measures implemented in Beijing and its surrounding areas.
Yi Zhu, Jiping Zhang, Junxia Wang, Wenyuan Chen, Yiqun Han, Chunxiang Ye, Yingruo Li, Jun Liu, Limin Zeng, Yusheng Wu, Xinfeng Wang, Wenxing Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12551–12565,Short summary
With five repeated experiments using a mobile laboratory, we obtained the spatial distribution of major air pollutants over the surface of the North China Plain (NCP). All the pollutants were at high levels, with pollutant peak values in nearby major cities and along transport routes. With simulated wind fields, we identified the prevalent transport routes of air pollutants on different parts of the NCP, reflecting the transport of air pollution between megacities and surrounding regions.
Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Karsten Baumann, Lina Hacker, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Allen H. Goldstein, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580,Short summary
IEPOX-SOA is biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol under anthropogenic influence, which has been shown to comprise a substantial fraction of OA globally. We investigated the lifetime of ambient IEPOX-SOA in the SE US and Amazonia, with an oxidation flow reactor and thermodenuder coupled with MS-based instrumentation. The low volatility and long lifetime of IEPOX-SOA against OH radicals' oxidation (> 2 weeks) was observed, which can help to constrain OA impact on air quality and climate.
Mehrnaz Sarrafzadeh, Jürgen Wildt, Iida Pullinen, Monika Springer, Einhard Kleist, Ralf Tillmann, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Cheng Wu, Thomas F. Mentel, Defeng Zhao, Donald R. Hastie, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11237–11248,Short summary
We investigated NOx impacts on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass from b-pinene and we could reveal two different mechanisms of impacts. One of them was the impact of NOx on OH that could explain increasing SOA yield with increasing NOx at low NOx conditions. The other was the suppression of new particle formation limiting the condensational sink for the SOA precursors. This effect could explain a substantial fraction of the decrease of SOA yield observed at high NOx.
B. Quennehen, J.-C. Raut, K. S. Law, N. Daskalakis, G. Ancellet, C. Clerbaux, S.-W. Kim, M. T. Lund, G. Myhre, D. J. L. Olivié, S. Safieddine, R. B. Skeie, J. L. Thomas, S. Tsyro, A. Bazureau, N. Bellouin, M. Hu, M. Kanakidou, Z. Klimont, K. Kupiainen, S. Myriokefalitakis, J. Quaas, S. T. Rumbold, M. Schulz, R. Cherian, A. Shimizu, J. Wang, S.-C. Yoon, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10765–10792,Short summary
This paper evaluates the ability of six global models and one regional model in reproducing short-lived pollutants (defined here as ozone and its precursors, aerosols and black carbon) concentrations over Asia using satellite, ground-based and airborne observations. Key findings are that models homogeneously reproduce the trace gas observations although nitrous oxides are underestimated, whereas the aerosol distributions are heterogeneously reproduced, implicating important uncertainties.
Patrick Schlag, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Marcus Johannes Blom, Francesco Canonaco, Jeroen Sebastiaan Henzing, Marcel Moerman, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, and Rupert Holzinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8831–8847,Short summary
This work provides chemical composition data of atmospheric aerosols acquired during 1 year in the rural site of Cabauw, the Netherlands. In some periods, we found unexpected high particle mass concentrations exceeding the WHO limits. Using these composition data, we found that reducing ammonia emissions in this region would largely reduce the main aerosol component ammonium nitrate, whereas the local mitigation of the organics turned out to be difficult due to the lack of a designated source.
Ziqiang Tan, Yanwen Wang, Chunxiang Ye, Yi Zhu, Yingruo Li, Pengfei Liang, Qi Wang, Yiqun Han, Yanhua Fang, Junxia Wang, Lei Meng, Yao Wang, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We used mobile research platform to evaluate the effectiveness of the strictest vehicle emission control policies ever applied in China during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum, Beijing, China 2014. We applied the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) method to decompose on-road measured concentrations of major air pollutants, and used high frequency signals of the concentrations to represent the "instantaneous emission" from vehicles.
Bernadette Rosati, Martin Gysel, Florian Rubach, Thomas F. Mentel, Brigitta Goger, Laurent Poulain, Patrick Schlag, Pasi Miettinen, Aki Pajunoja, Annele Virtanen, Henk Klein Baltink, J. S. Bas Henzing, Johannes Größ, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Alfred Wiedensohler, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Ernest Weingartner, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7295–7315,Short summary
This study presents PEGASOS project data from field campaigns in the Po Valley, Italy and the Netherlands. Vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition were investigated with airborne measurements on board a Zeppelin NT airship. A special focus was on the evolution of different mixing layers within the PBL as a function of daytime. A closure study showed that variations in aerosol hygroscopicity can well be explained by the variations in chemical composition.
Simon Schallhart, Pekka Rantala, Eiko Nemitz, Ditte Taipale, Ralf Tillmann, Thomas F. Mentel, Benjamin Loubet, Giacomo Gerosa, Angelo Finco, Janne Rinne, and Taina M. Ruuskanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7171–7194,Short summary
We present ecosystem exchange fluxes from a mixed oak–hornbeam forest in the Po Valley, Italy. Detectable fluxes were observed for 29 compounds, dominated by isoprene, which comprised over 60 % of the upward flux. Methanol seemed to be deposited to dew, as the deposition happened in the early morning. We estimated that up to 30 % of the upward flux of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein originated from atmospheric oxidation of isoprene.
Yuxuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Kebin He
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1833–1843,Short summary
We develop a novel method in this work for in situ measurements of the morphology and effective density of ambient In-BC cores using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer and a single-particle soot photometer. We find that In-BC cores hardly transform the morphology of BC into a void-free sphere. Taking the morphology and density of ambient In-BC cores into account, our work provides a new insight into the enhancement of light absorption for In-BC particles in the atmosphere.
Bernadette Rosati, Erik Herrmann, Silvia Bucci, Federico Fierli, Francesco Cairo, Martin Gysel, Ralf Tillmann, Johannes Größ, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Luca Di Liberto, Guido Di Donfrancesco, Alfred Wiedensohler, Ernest Weingartner, Annele Virtanen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4539–4554,Short summary
We present vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties, which were explored within the planetary boundary layer in a case study in 2012 in the Po Valley region. A comparison of in situ measurements recorded aboard a Zeppelin NT and ground-based remote-sensing data was performed yielding good agreement. Additionally, the role of ambient relative humidity for the aerosol particles' optical properties was investigated.
Hendrik Fuchs, Zhaofeng Tan, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Sebastian Broch, Hans-Peter Dorn, Frank Holland, Christopher Künstler, Sebastian Gomm, Franz Rohrer, Stephanie Schrade, Ralf Tillmann, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1431–1447,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical is the key reactant that controls the chemical transformation of pollutants in the atmosphere. Observations of nighttime radicals concentrations were larger than predicted by models in field campaigns in forested and urban environments. Here, we investigated, if measurements could have been affected by artifacts. No significant interferences were found for atmospheric concentrations of reactants in ozonolysis experiments, but small artificats from nitrate radicals.
T. Hohaus, U. Kuhn, S. Andres, M. Kaminski, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, R. Wegener, Z. Yu, and A. Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1247–1259,Short summary
As an extension of the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR, an environmentally-controlled dynamic (flow-through) plant chamber under SAPHIR (SAPHIR-PLUS) was developed. This facility allows for feeding a natural blend of biogenic trace gases into SAPHIR. PLUS is utilized to characterize the atmospheric chemistry of natural trace gas mixtures at close to ambient concentration levels. In this study, the results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail.
Andrea Ghirardo, Junfei Xie, Xunhua Zheng, Yuesi Wang, Rüdiger Grote, Katja Block, Jürgen Wildt, Thomas Mentel, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Mattias Hallquist, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, and Jörg-Peter Schnitzler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2901–2920,Short summary
Trees can impact urban air quality. Large emissions of plant volatiles are emitted in Beijing as a stress response to the urban polluted environment, but their impacts on secondary particulate matter remain relatively low compared to those originated from anthropogenic activities. The present study highlights the importance of including stress-induced compounds when studying plant volatile emissions.
Yaning Kang, Mingxu Liu, Yu Song, Xin Huang, Huan Yao, Xuhui Cai, Hongsheng Zhang, Ling Kang, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoyuan Yan, Hong He, Qiang Zhang, Min Shao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2043–2058,Short summary
The multi-year (1980–2012) comprehensive ammonia emissions inventories were compiled for China on 1 km × 1 km grid. Various realistic parameters (ambient temperature, wind speed, soil acidity, synthetic fertilizer types, etc.) were considered in these inventories to synthetically refine the emission factors of ammonia volatilization according to local agricultural practice. This paper shows the interannual trend and spatial distribution of ammonia emissions in details over recent decades.
M. Dal Maso, L. Liao, J. Wildt, A. Kiendler-Scharr, E. Kleist, R. Tillmann, M. Sipilä, J. Hakala, K. Lehtipalo, M. Ehn, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Kulmala, D. Worsnop, and T. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1955–1970,Short summary
In this paper, we present the first direct laboratory observations of nanoparticle formation from sulfuric acid and realistic BVOC precursor vapour mixtures performed at atmospherically relevant concentration levels. We found that the formation rate was proportional to the product of sulphuric acid and biogenic VOC emission strength, and that the formation rates were consistent with a mechanism in which nucleating BVOC oxidation products are rapidly formed and activate with sulfuric acid.
D. F. Zhao, A. Buchholz, B. Kortner, P. Schlag, F. Rubach, H. Fuchs, A. Kiendler-Scharr, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, Å. K. Watne, M. Hallquist, J. M. Flores, Y. Rudich, K. Kristensen, A. M. K. Hansen, M. Glasius, I. Kourtchev, M. Kalberer, and Th. F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1105–1121,Short summary
This study investigated the cloud droplet activation behavior and hygroscopic growth of mixed anthropogenic and biogenic SOA (ABSOA) compared to pure biogenic SOA (BSOA) and pure anthropogenic SOA (ASOA). Cloud droplet activation behaviors of different types of SOA were similar. In contrast, the hygroscopicity of ASOA was higher than BSOA and ABSOA. ASOA components enhanced the hygroscopicity of the ABSOA. Yet this enhancement cannot be described by a linear mixing of pure SOA systems.
P. Roldin, L. Liao, D. Mogensen, M. Dal Maso, A. Rusanen, V.-M. Kerminen, T. F. Mentel, J. Wildt, E. Kleist, A. Kiendler-Scharr, R. Tillmann, M. Ehn, M. Kulmala, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10777–10798,Short summary
We used the ADCHAM model to study new particle formation events in the JPAC chamber. The model results show that the new particles may be formed by a kinetic type of nucleation involving both sulphuric acid and organic compounds formed from OH oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The observed particle growth may either be controlled by the condensation of semi- and low-volatililty organic compounds or by the formation of low-volatility compounds (oligomers) at the particle surface.
A. Stohl, B. Aamaas, M. Amann, L. H. Baker, N. Bellouin, T. K. Berntsen, O. Boucher, R. Cherian, W. Collins, N. Daskalakis, M. Dusinska, S. Eckhardt, J. S. Fuglestvedt, M. Harju, C. Heyes, Ø. Hodnebrog, J. Hao, U. Im, M. Kanakidou, Z. Klimont, K. Kupiainen, K. S. Law, M. T. Lund, R. Maas, C. R. MacIntosh, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, D. Olivié, J. Quaas, B. Quennehen, J.-C. Raut, S. T. Rumbold, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Ø. Seland, K. P. Shine, R. B. Skeie, S. Wang, K. E. Yttri, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10529–10566,Short summary
This paper presents a summary of the findings of the ECLIPSE EU project. The project has investigated the climate and air quality impacts of short-lived climate pollutants (especially methane, ozone, aerosols) and has designed a global mitigation strategy that maximizes co-benefits between air quality and climate policy. Transient climate model simulations allowed quantifying the impacts on temperature (e.g., reduction in global warming by 0.22K for the decade 2041-2050) and precipitation.
F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, M. Ehn, F. Rubach, E. Kleist, J. Wildt, Th. F. Mentel, A. J. Carrasquillo, K. E. Daumit, J. F. Hunter, J. H. Kroll, D. R. Worsnop, and J. A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7765–7776,Short summary
We measured a large suite organic compounds using a recently developed Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a (HR-ToF-CIMS). The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We find that approximately 50% of the detected particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4, or more, orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured products.
T. F. Mentel, M. Springer, M. Ehn, E. Kleist, I. Pullinen, T. Kurtén, M. Rissanen, A. Wahner, and J. Wildt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6745–6765,Short summary
We studied a series of cycloalkenes and methyl-substituted alkenes in order to elucidate the structural pre-requisites and chemical pathways to the recently discovered class of highly oxidized molecules ELVOC (Ehn et al., Nature, 2014). ELVOC may totally change the view on (parts of) the mechanism of SOA formation. We present results which support recent observations of H shifts from C-H to peroxy radicals, highlighting the pivotal role of peroxyradicals in organic atmospheric chemistry.
K. F. Ho, R.-J. Huang, K. Kawamura, E. Tachibana, S. C. Lee, S. S. H. Ho, T. Zhu, and L. Tian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3111–3123,Short summary
The objective of this study is to identify the influence of traffic emissions and regional transport to the atmosphere in Beijing during the CAREBeijing-2007 in summer. This study demonstrates that even when primary exhaust was controlled by traffic restrictions, the contribution of secondary organic species formed from photochemical processes was critical with long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants.
Y. Liu, B. Yuan, X. Li, M. Shao, S. Lu, Y. Li, C.-C. Chang, Z. Wang, W. Hu, X. Huang, L. He, L. Zeng, M. Hu, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3045–3062,
J. Kaiser, G. M. Wolfe, B. Bohn, S. Broch, H. Fuchs, L. N. Ganzeveld, S. Gomm, R. Häseler, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, J. Jäger, X. Li, I. Lohse, K. Lu, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Rohrer, R. Wegener, R. Wolf, T. F. Mentel, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. Wahner, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1289–1298,Short summary
Using measurements acquired from a Zeppelin airship during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign, we show that VOC oxidation alone cannot account for the formaldehyde concentrations observed in the morning over rural Italy. Vertical profiles suggest a ground-level source of HCHO. Incorporating this additional HCHO source into a photochemical model increases calculated O3 production by as much as 12%.
D. F. Zhao, M. Kaminski, P. Schlag, H. Fuchs, I.-H. Acir, B. Bohn, R. Häseler, A. Kiendler-Scharr, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, M. J. Wang, R. Wegener, J. Wildt, A. Wahner, and Th. F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 991–1012,
C. Wu, I. Pullinen, S. Andres, G. Carriero, S. Fares, H. Goldbach, L. Hacker, T. Kasal, A. Kiendler-Scharr, E. Kleist, E. Paoletti, A. Wahner, J. Wildt, and Th. F. Mentel
Biogeosciences, 12, 177–191,Short summary
Impacts of soil moisture on de novo monoterpene emissions from several tree species were studied. Mild drought slightly increased MT emissions, but with further progressing drought the emissions decreased to almost zero. Increases of MT emissions were explainable by increases of leaf temperature due to lowered transpirational cooling. The decrease of emissions observed when soil moisture fell below certain thresholds was parameterized, allowing considering impacts of soil moisture in models.
R. Bergström, M. Hallquist, D. Simpson, J. Wildt, and T. F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13643–13660,
H. G. J. Smit, S. Rohs, P. Neis, D. Boulanger, M. Krämer, A. Wahner, and A. Petzold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13241–13255,Short summary
Long-term water vapour measurements from the MOZAIC programme are a unique source for upper troposphere humidity data. However, due to an error in the calibration procedure, RH data from MOZAIC were biased towards higher values for the period starting in year 2000. Here we report the procedures followed to reanalyse the calibrations and to reprocess the entire MOZAIC RH data. This study serves as the reference publication for the reanalysed MOZAIC RH data base for the period 1994 to 2009.
X. Li, F. Rohrer, T. Brauers, A. Hofzumahaus, K. Lu, M. Shao, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12291–12305,
C. Fountoukis, A. G. Megaritis, K. Skyllakou, P. E. Charalampidis, C. Pilinis, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Crippa, F. Canonaco, C. Mohr, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. D. Allan, L. Poulain, T. Petäjä, P. Tiitta, S. Carbone, A. Kiendler-Scharr, E. Nemitz, C. O'Dowd, E. Swietlicki, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9061–9076,
H. Fuchs, I.-H. Acir, B. Bohn, T. Brauers, H.-P. Dorn, R. Häseler, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, M. Kaminski, X. Li, K. Lu, A. Lutz, S. Nehr, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, R. Wegener, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7895–7908,
S. Nehr, B. Bohn, H.-P. Dorn, H. Fuchs, R. Häseler, A. Hofzumahaus, X. Li, F. Rohrer, R. Tillmann, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6941–6952,
M. Crippa, F. Canonaco, V. A. Lanz, M. Äijälä, J. D. Allan, S. Carbone, G. Capes, D. Ceburnis, M. Dall'Osto, D. A. Day, P. F. DeCarlo, M. Ehn, A. Eriksson, E. Freney, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, R. Hillamo, J. L. Jimenez, H. Junninen, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A.-M. Kortelainen, M. Kulmala, A. Laaksonen, A. A. Mensah, C. Mohr, E. Nemitz, C. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, S. N. Pandis, T. Petäjä, L. Poulain, S. Saarikoski, K. Sellegri, E. Swietlicki, P. Tiitta, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6159–6176,
J. M. Flores, D. F. Zhao, L. Segev, P. Schlag, A. Kiendler-Scharr, H. Fuchs, Å. K. Watne, N. Bluvshtein, Th. F. Mentel, M. Hallquist, and Y. Rudich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5793–5806,
K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, T. Brauers, A. Oebel, R. Dlugi, M. Hu, X. Li, S. R. Lou, M. Shao, T. Zhu, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4979–4999,
F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, M. Ehn, F. Rubach, E. Kleist, J. Wildt, Th. F. Mentel, A. Lutz, M. Hallquist, D. Worsnop, and J. A. Thornton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 983–1001,
J. Wildt, T. F. Mentel, A. Kiendler-Scharr, T. Hoffmann, S. Andres, M. Ehn, E. Kleist, P. Müsgen, F. Rohrer, Y. Rudich, M. Springer, R. Tillmann, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2789–2804,
W. Zhang, T. Zhu, W. Yang, Z. Bai, Y. L. Sun, Y. Xu, B. Yin, and X. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 301–316,
M. Paglione, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. A. Mensah, E. Finessi, L. Giulianelli, S. Sandrini, M. C. Facchini, S. Fuzzi, P. Schlag, A. Piazzalunga, E. Tagliavini, J. S. Henzing, and S. Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 25–45,
R. M. Varma, S. M. Ball, T. Brauers, H.-P. Dorn, U. Heitmann, R. L. Jones, U. Platt, D. Pöhler, A. A. Ruth, A. J. L. Shillings, J. Thieser, A. Wahner, and D. S. Venables
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3115–3130,
C.-C. Chang, M. Shao, C. C. K. Chou, S.-C. Liu, J.-L. Wang, K.-Z. Lee, C.-H. Lai, T. Zhu, and P.-H. Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Th. F. Mentel, E. Kleist, S. Andres, M. Dal Maso, T. Hohaus, A. Kiendler-Scharr, Y. Rudich, M. Springer, R. Tillmann, R. Uerlings, A. Wahner, and J. Wildt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8755–8770,
Y. P. Li, H. Elbern, K. D. Lu, E. Friese, A. Kiendler-Scharr, Th. F. Mentel, X. S. Wang, A. Wahner, and Y. H. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6289–6304,
H.-P. Dorn, R. L. Apodaca, S. M. Ball, T. Brauers, S. S. Brown, J. N. Crowley, W. P. Dubé, H. Fuchs, R. Häseler, U. Heitmann, R. L. Jones, A. Kiendler-Scharr, I. Labazan, J. M. Langridge, J. Meinen, T. F. Mentel, U. Platt, D. Pöhler, F. Rohrer, A. A. Ruth, E. Schlosser, G. Schuster, A. J. L. Shillings, W. R. Simpson, J. Thieser, R. Tillmann, R. Varma, D. S. Venables, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1111–1140,
E. U. Emanuelsson, M. Hallquist, K. Kristensen, M. Glasius, B. Bohn, H. Fuchs, B. Kammer, A. Kiendler-Scharr, S. Nehr, F. Rubach, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, H.-C. Wu, and Th. F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2837–2855,
E. Kleist, T. F. Mentel, S. Andres, A. Bohne, A. Folkers, A. Kiendler-Scharr, Y. Rudich, M. Springer, R. Tillmann, and J. Wildt
Biogeosciences, 9, 5111–5123,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Nighttime chemistry of biomass burning emissions in urban areas: A dual mobile chamber studyFormation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols derived from urban-lifestyle sources: vehicle exhaust and cooking emissionsMass spectral characterization of secondary organic aerosol from urban cooking and vehicular sourcesAn organic crystalline state in ageing atmospheric aerosol proxies: spatially resolved structural changes in levitated fatty acid particlesPhotolytically induced changes in composition and volatility of biogenic secondary organic aerosol from nitrate radical oxidation during night-to-day transitionThe driving factors of new particle formation and growth in the polluted boundary layerExploring the composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosols in mixed anthropogenic and biogenic precursor systemsAcidity and the multiphase chemistry of atmospheric aqueous particles and cloudsChemical composition, optical properties, and oxidative potential of water- and methanol-soluble organic compounds emitted from the combustion of biomass materials and coalPhotodegradation of atmospheric chromophores: changes in oxidation state and photochemical reactivityTemperature and volatile organic compound concentrations as controlling factors for chemical composition of α-pinene-derived secondary organic aerosolTracer-based source apportioning of atmospheric organic carbon and the influence of anthropogenic emissions on secondary organic aerosol formation in Hong KongAqueous-phase reactive species formed by fine particulate matter from remote forests and polluted urban airCharacterization of primary and aged wood burning and coal combustion organic aerosols in an environmental chamber and its implications for atmospheric aerosolsRevisiting the reaction of dicarbonyls in aerosol proxy solutions containing ammonia: the case of butenedialTechnical Note: Classical and statistical thermodynamic treatment of adsorption and desorption kinetics and ratesImportance of secondary organic aerosol formation of α-pinene, limonene, and m-cresol comparing day- and nighttime radical chemistrySource apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing with radiocarbon and organic tracers: insight into the differences between urban and rural sitesSO2 and NH3 emissions enhance organosulfur compounds and fine particle formation from the photooxidation of a typical aromatic hydrocarbonOn the similarities and differences between the products of oxidation of hydrocarbons under simulated atmospheric conditions and cool flamesEnhanced secondary organic aerosol formation from the photo-oxidation of mixed anthropogenic volatile organic compoundsFormation kinetics and mechanisms of ozone and secondary organic aerosols from photochemical oxidation of different aromatic hydrocarbons: dependence on NOx and organic substituentsIncreased primary and secondary H2SO4 showing the opposing roles in secondary organic aerosol formation from ethyl methacrylate ozonolysisWater uptake of subpollen aerosol particles: hygroscopic growth, cloud condensation nuclei activation, and liquid–liquid phase separationLaboratory study of the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets – Part II: Influence of electric chargesHeterogeneous interactions between SO2 and organic peroxides in submicron aerosolTemperature and acidity dependence of secondary organic aerosol formation from α-pinene ozonolysis with a compact chamber systemProduction of HONO from NO2 uptake on illuminated TiO2 aerosol particles and following the illumination of mixed TiO2∕ammonium nitrate particlesCharacterization of secondary organic aerosol from heated-cooking-oil emissions: evolution in composition and volatilityMeasurement report: Diurnal and temporal variations of sugar compounds in suburban aerosols from the northern vicinity of Beijing, China – an influence of biogenic and anthropogenic sourcesPre-deliquescent water uptake in deposited nanoparticles observed with in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopyTechnical note: Emission factors, chemical composition, and morphology of particles emitted from Euro 5 diesel and gasoline light-duty vehicles during transient cyclesMeasurement report: Distinct emissions and volatility distribution of intermediate-volatility organic compounds from on-road Chinese gasoline vehicles: implication of high secondary organic aerosol formation potentialEmissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from domestic fuels used in Delhi, IndiaEffects of liquid–liquid phase separation and relative humidity on the heterogeneous OH oxidation of inorganic–organic aerosols: insights from methylglutaric acid and ammonium sulfate particlesMeasurement report: Sulfuric acid nucleation and experimental conditions in a photolytic flow reactorOzonolysis of fatty acid monolayers at the air–water interface: organic films may persist at the surface of atmospheric aerosolsQuantification of the role of stabilized Criegee intermediates in the formation of aerosols in limonene ozonolysisPhotochemical degradation of iron(III) citrate/citric acid aerosol quantified with the combination of three complementary experimental techniques and a kinetic process modelThe production and hydrolysis of organic nitrates from OH radical oxidation of β-ocimeneEmission factors for PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from illegal burning of different types of municipal waste in householdsKinetic modeling of formation and evaporation of secondary organic aerosol from NO3 oxidation of pure and mixed monoterpenesDirect contribution of ammonia to α-pinene secondary organic aerosol formationHygroscopic behavior of aerosols generated from solutions of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid, its sodium salts, and its mixtures with NaClChemical composition, structures, and light absorption of N-containing aromatic compounds emitted from burning wood and charcoal in household cookstovesChemical composition and light absorption of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from crop residue burning: influence of combustion efficiencyOn mineral dust aerosol hygroscopicityDistinct chemical and mineralogical composition of Icelandic dust compared to northern African and Asian dustSecondary organic aerosol yields from the oxidation of benzyl alcoholThe Aarhus Chamber Campaign on Highly Oxygenated Organic Molecules and Aerosols (ACCHA): particle formation, organic acids, and dimer esters from α-pinene ozonolysis at different temperatures
Spiro D. Jorga, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, John K. Kodros, Christina Vasilakopoulou, Manuela Cirtog, Axel Fouqueau, Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault, Athanasios Nenes, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15337–15349,Short summary
We test the hypothesis that significant secondary organic aerosol production can take place even during winter nights through the oxidation of the emitted organic vapors by the nitrate radicals produced during the reaction of ozone and nitrogen oxides. Our experiments, using as a starting point the ambient air of an urban area with high biomass burning activity, demonstrate that, even with sunlight, there is 20 %–70 % additional organic aerosol formed in a few hours.
Zirui Zhang, Wenfei Zhu, Min Hu, Kefan Liu, Hui Wang, Rongzhi Tang, Ruizhe Shen, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Hongming Xu, Shijin Shuai, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Jiayun Li, Yuesi Wang, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15221–15237,Short summary
We comprehensively investigated the mass growth potential, oxidation degree, formation pathway, and mass spectra features of typical urban-lifestyle secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) including vehicle SOAs and cooking SOAs. The mass spectra we acquired could provide necessary references to estimate the mass fractions of vehicle and cooking SOAs in the atmosphere, which would greatly decrease the uncertainty in air quality evaluation and health risk assessment in urban areas.
Wenfei Zhu, Song Guo, Zirui Zhang, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Zheng Chen, Ruizhe Shen, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Kefan Liu, Rongzhi Tang, Yi Liu, Shengrong Lou, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Shijin Shuai, Hongming Xu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Min Hu, Francesco Canonaco, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15065–15079,Short summary
The experiments of primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from urban lifestyle sources (cooking and vehicles) were conducted. The mass spectral features of primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA were characterized by using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. This work, for the first time, establishes the vehicle and cooking SOA source profiles and can be further used as source constraints in the OA source apportionment in the ambient atmosphere.
Adam Milsom, Adam M. Squires, Jacob A. Boswell, Nicholas J. Terrill, Andrew D. Ward, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15003–15021,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols can be solid, semi-solid or liquid. This phase state may impact key aerosol processes such as oxidation and water uptake, affecting cloud droplet formation and urban air pollution. We have observed a solid crystalline organic phase in a levitated proxy for cooking emissions, oleic acid. Spatially resolved structural changes were followed during ageing by X-ray scattering, revealing phase gradients, aggregate products and a markedly reduced ozonolysis reaction rate.
Cheng Wu, David M. Bell, Emelie L. Graham, Sophie Haslett, Ilona Riipinen, Urs Baltensperger, Amelie Bertrand, Stamatios Giannoukos, Janne Schoonbaert, Imad El Haddad, Andre S. H. Prevot, Wei Huang, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14907–14925,Short summary
Night-time reactions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and nitrate radicals can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (BSOANO3). Here, we study the impacts of light exposure on the BSOANO3 from three biogenic precursors. Our results suggest that photolysis causes photodegradation of a substantial fraction of BSOANO3, changes the chemical composition and bulk volatility, and might be a potentially important loss pathway of BSOANO3 during the night-to-day transition.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14275–14291,Short summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid–base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span 4 orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in ambient conditions. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, Mao Du, Thomas J. Bannan, Carl J. Percival, Spyros N. Pandis, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14251–14273,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from mixtures of volatile precursors can be affected by the molecular interactions of the products. Composition and volatility measurements of SOA formed from mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors reveal processes that can increase or decrease the SOA volatility. The unique products of the mixture were more oxygenated and less volatile than those from either precursor. Analytical context is provided to explore the SOA volatility in mixtures.
Andreas Tilgner, Thomas Schaefer, Becky Alexander, Mary Barth, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Athanasios Nenes, Havala O. T. Pye, Hartmut Herrmann, and V. Faye McNeill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13483–13536,Short summary
Feedbacks of acidity and atmospheric multiphase chemistry in deliquesced particles and clouds are crucial for the tropospheric composition, depositions, climate, and human health. This review synthesizes the current scientific knowledge on these feedbacks using both inorganic and organic aqueous-phase chemistry. Finally, this review outlines atmospheric implications and highlights the need for future investigations with respect to reducing emissions of key acid precursors in a changing world.
Tao Cao, Meiju Li, Chunlin Zou, Xingjun Fan, Jianzhong Song, Wanglu Jia, Chiling Yu, Zhiqiang Yu, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13187–13205,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) fractions derived from biomass burning and coal combustion including water- and methanol-soluble organic carbon were comprehensively characterized for their optical and chemical properties, as well as oxidative potential. Moreover, the key components or functional groups that were responsible for the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation capacity of BrC were also discussed. These findings are useful for estimation of their environmental, climate, and health impacts.
Zhen Mu, Qingcai Chen, Lixin Zhang, Dongjie Guan, and Hao Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11581–11591,Short summary
Sunlight affects the life and chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols and thus alters air quality. This study demonstrated that the photo-aging process not only changed the chemical compositions of chromophoric aerosols but also changed the roles of the chromophoric organic matter in the photo-aging process of aerosol. This study adds to our understanding of how sunlight affects chromophoric aerosol aging.
Louise N. Jensen, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Kasper Kristensen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Bernadette Rosati, Ricky Teiwes, Marianne Glasius, Henrik B. Pedersen, Mikael Ehn, and Merete Bilde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11545–11562,Short summary
This work targets the chemical composition of α-pinene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the temperature range from -15 to 20°C. Experiments were conducted in an atmospheric simulation chamber. Positive matrix factorization analysis of data obtained by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer shows that the elemental aerosol composition is controlled by the initial α-pinene concentration and temperature during SOA formation.
Yubo Cheng, Yiqiu Ma, and Di Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10589–10608,Short summary
We conducted chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Hong Kong. Secondary formation was the leading contributor to organic carbon (OC) throughout the year. NOx processing played a key role in both daytime and nighttime secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production, and monoterpene SOA was the most abundant. Sulfate was positively related to total and secondary sulfate-related OC, and particle acidity was significantly correlated with SOC from aging of biomass burning.
Haijie Tong, Fobang Liu, Alexander Filippi, Jake Wilson, Andrea M. Arangio, Yun Zhang, Siyao Yue, Steven Lelieveld, Fangxia Shen, Helmi-Marja K. Keskinen, Jing Li, Haoxuan Chen, Ting Zhang, Thorsten Hoffmann, Pingqing Fu, William H. Brune, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Maosheng Yao, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10439–10455,Short summary
We measured radical yields of aqueous PM2.5 extracts and found lower yields at higher concentrations of PM2.5. Abundances of water-soluble transition metals and aromatics in PM2.5 were positively correlated with the relative fraction of •OH but negatively correlated with the relative fraction of C-centered radicals among detected radicals. Composition-dependent reactive species yields may explain differences in the reactivity and health effects of PM2.5 in clean versus polluted air.
Amir Yazdani, Nikunj Dudani, Satoshi Takahama, Amelie Bertrand, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10273–10293,Short summary
Functional group compositions of primary and aged aerosols from wood burning and coal combustion sources from chamber experiments are interpreted through compounds present in the fuels and known gas-phase oxidation products. Infrared spectra of aged wood burning in the chamber and ambient biomass burning samples reveal striking similarities, and a new method for identifying burning-impacted samples in monitoring network measurements is presented.
Jack C. Hensley, Adam W. Birdsall, Gregory Valtierra, Joshua L. Cox, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8809–8821,Short summary
We measured reactions of butenedial, an atmospheric dicarbonyl, in aqueous mixtures that mimic the conditions of aerosol particles. Major reaction products and rates were determined to assess their atmospheric relevance and to compare against other well-studied dicarbonyls. We suggest that the structure of the carbon backbone, not just the dominant functional group, plays a major role in dicarbonyl reactivity, influencing the fate and ability of dicarbonyls to produce brown carbon.
Daniel A. Knopf and Markus Ammann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Adsorption on and desorption of gas molecules from solid or liquid surfaces or interfaces represent the initial interaction of gas-to-condensed phase processes that can define the physicochemical evolution of the condensed phase. We apply a thermodynamic and microscopic treatment of these multiphase processes to evaluate how adsorption and desorption rates and surface accommodation depend on the choice adsorption model and standard states with implications for desorption energy and lifetime.
Anke Mutzel, Yanli Zhang, Olaf Böge, Maria Rodigast, Agata Kolodziejczyk, Xinming Wang, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8479–8498,Short summary
This study investigates secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and particle growth from α-pinene, limonene, and m-cresol oxidation through NO3 and OH radicals and the effect of relative humidity. The formed SOA is comprehensively characterized with respect to the content of OC / EC, WSOC, SOA-bound peroxides, and SOA marker compounds. The findings present new insights and implications of nighttime chemistry, which can form SOA more efficiently than OH radical reaction during daytime.
Siqi Hou, Di Liu, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Xuefang Wu, Deepchandra Srivastava, Pingqing Fu, Linjie Li, Yele Sun, Athanasia Vlachou, Vaios Moschos, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, André S. H. Prévôt, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8273–8292,Short summary
This study provides a newly developed method which combines radiocarbon (14C) with organic tracers to enable source apportionment of primary and secondary fossil vs. non-fossil sources of carbonaceous aerosols at an urban and a rural site of Beijing. The source apportionment results were compared with those by chemical mass balance and AMS/ACSM-PMF methods. Correlations of WINSOC and WSOC with different sources of OC were also performed to elucidate the formation mechanisms of SOC.
Zhaomin Yang, Li Xu, Narcisse T. Tsona, Jianlong Li, Xin Luo, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7963–7981,Short summary
The promotion effects of SO2 and NH3 on particle and organosulfur compound formation from 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (TMB) photooxidation were observed for the first time. The enhanced organosulfur compounds included hitherto unidentified aromatic sulfonates and organosulfates (OSs). OSs were produced via acid-driven heterogeneous chemistry of hydroperoxides. The production of organosulfur compounds might provide a new pathway for the fate of TMB in regions with considerable SO2 emissions.
Roland Benoit, Nesrine Belhadj, Maxence Lailliau, and Philippe Dagaut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7845–7862,Short summary
This study compares different modes of limonene oxidation (ozonolysis, photooxidation, and cool flame) on the basis of review articles and experimental results. Although the oxidation conditions are totally different, the results obtained present great similarities in the nature of the products but also specificities related to autooxidation such as the presence of keto-hydroperoxides.
Junling Li, Hong Li, Kun Li, Yan Chen, Hao Zhang, Xin Zhang, Zhenhai Wu, Yongchun Liu, Xuezhong Wang, Weigang Wang, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7773–7789,Short summary
SOA formation from the mixed anthropogenic volatile organic compounds was enhanced compared to the predicted SOA mass concentration based on the SOA yield of single species; interaction occurred between intermediate products from the two precursors. Interactions between the intermediate products from the mixtures and the effect on SOA formation give us a further understanding of the SOA formed in the atmosphere.
Hao Luo, Jiangyao Chen, Guiying Li, and Taicheng An
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7567–7578,Short summary
The formation kinetics and mechanism of O3 and SOA from different AHs are still unclear. Thus the photochemical oxidation mechanism of nine AHs with NO2 is studied. Increased formation rate and yield of O3 and SOA are observed via promoting AH content. Raising the number of AH substituents enhances O3 formation but decreases SOA yield, which is promoted by increasing the methyl group number of AHs. Results help show conversion of AHs to secondary pollutants in the real atmospheric environment.
Peng Zhang, Tianzeng Chen, Jun Liu, Guangyan Xu, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, Wanqi Sun, and Hong He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7099–7112,Short summary
This work highlights the opposing effects of primary and secondary H2SO4 on both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and constitutes. Our findings revealed that a substantial increase in secondary H2SO4 particles promoted the SOA formation of ethyl methacrylate with increasing SO2 in the absence of seed particles. However, increased primary H2SO4 with seed acidity enhanced ethyl methacrylate uptake but reduced its SOA formation in the presence of seed particles.
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Mira L. Pöhlker, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Sergey S. Vlasenko, Ovid O. Krüger, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Christopher Pöhlker, Olga A. Ivanova, Alexey A. Kiselev, Leslie A. Kremper, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6999–7022,Short summary
Subpollen particles are a relatively new subset of atmospheric aerosol particles. When pollen grains rupture, they release cytoplasmic fragments known as subpollen particles (SPPs). We found that SPPs, containing a broad spectrum of biopolymers and hydrocarbons, exhibit abnormally high water uptake. This effect may influence the life cycle of SPPs and the related direct and indirect impacts on radiation budget as well as reinforce their allergic potential.
Alexis Dépée, Pascal Lemaitre, Thomas Gelain, Marie Monier, and Andrea Flossmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6963–6984,Short summary
The present article describes a new In-Cloud Aerosol Scavenging Experiment (In-CASE) that has been conceived to measure the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets. The present article focuses on the influence of electrostatic effects on the collection efficiency.
Shunyao Wang, Tengyu Liu, Jinmyung Jang, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6647–6661,Short summary
Discrepancies between atmospheric modeling and field observations, especially in highly polluted cities, have highlighted the lack of understanding of sulfate formation mechanisms and kinetics. Here, we directly quantify the reactive uptake coefficient of SO2 onto organic peroxides and study the important governing factors. The SO2 uptake rate was observed to depend on RH, peroxide amount and reactivity, pH, and ionic strength, which provides a framework to better predict sulfate formation.
Yange Deng, Satoshi Inomata, Kei Sato, Sathiyamurthi Ramasamy, Yu Morino, Shinichi Enami, and Hiroshi Tanimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5983–6003,Short summary
The temperature and acidity dependence of yields and chemical compositions of the α-pinene ozonolysis SOA were systematically investigated using a newly developed compact chamber system. Increases in SOA yields were observed with the decrease in temperature and under acidic seed conditions. The differences in chemical compositions between acidic and neutral seed conditions were characterized and explained from the viewpoints of acid-catalyzed reactions. Some organosulfates were newly detected.
Joanna E. Dyson, Graham A. Boustead, Lauren T. Fleming, Mark Blitz, Daniel Stone, Stephen R. Arnold, Lisa K. Whalley, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5755–5775,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) dominates the removal of atmospheric pollutants, with nitrous acid (HONO) recognised as a major OH source. For remote regions HONO production through the action of sunlight on aerosol surfaces can provide a source of nitrogen oxides. In this study, HONO production rates at illuminated aerosol surfaces are measured under atmospheric conditions, a model consistent with the data is developed and aerosol production of HONO in the atmosphere is shown to be significant.
Manpreet Takhar, Yunchun Li, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5137–5149,Short summary
Our study highlights the importance of molecular composition in constraining the chemical properties of cooking SOA as well as understanding the contribution of aldehydes in formation of SOA from cooking emissions. We show that fragmentation reactions are key in atmospheric processing of cooking SOA, and aldehydes emitted from cooking emissions contribute substantially to SOA formation. Our study provides a framework to better predict SOA formation in and downwind of urban atmospheres.
Santosh Kumar Verma, Kimitaka Kawamura, Fei Yang, Pingqing Fu, Yugo Kanaya, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4959–4978,Short summary
We studied aerosol samples collected in autumn 2007 with day and night intervals in a rural site of Mangshan, north of Beijing, for sugar compounds (SCs) that are abundant organic aerosol components and can influence the air quality and climate. We found higher concentrations of biomass burning (BB) products at nighttime than daytime, whereas pollen tracers and other SCs showed an opposite diurnal trend, because this site is meteorologically characterized by a mountain/valley breeze.
Jack J. Lin, Kamal Raj R, Stella Wang, Esko Kokkonen, Mikko-Heikki Mikkelä, Samuli Urpelainen, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4709–4727,Short summary
We used surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study laboratory-generated nanoparticles of atmospheric interest at 0–16 % relative humidity. XPS gives direct information about changes in the chemical state from the binding energies of probed elements. Our results indicate water adsorption and associated chemical changes at the particle surfaces well below deliquescence, with distinct features for different particle components and implications for atmospheric chemistry.
Evangelia Kostenidou, Alvaro Martinez-Valiente, Badr R'Mili, Baptiste Marques, Brice Temime-Roussel, Amandine Durand, Michel André, Yao Liu, Cédric Louis, Boris Vansevenant, Daniel Ferry, Carine Laffon, Philippe Parent, and Barbara D'Anna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4779–4796,Short summary
Passenger vehicle emissions can be a significant source of particulate matter in urban areas. In this study the particle-phase emissions of seven Euro 5 passenger vehicles were characterized. Changes in engine technologies and after-treatment devices can alter the chemical composition and the size of the emitted particulate matter. The condition of the diesel particle filter (DPF) plays an important role in the emitted pollutants.
Rongzhi Tang, Quanyang Lu, Song Guo, Hui Wang, Kai Song, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kefan Liu, Ruizhe Shen, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Spiro D. Jorga, Zhou Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Shijin Shuai, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2569–2583,Short summary
We performed chassis dynamometer experiments to investigate the emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from an on-road Chinese gasoline vehicle. High IVOC emission factors (EFs) and distinct volatility distribution were recognized. Our results indicate that vehicular IVOCs contribute significantly to SOA, implying the importance of reducing IVOCs when making air pollution control policies in urban areas of China.
Gareth J. Stewart, Beth S. Nelson, W. Joe F. Acton, Adam R. Vaughan, Naomi J. Farren, James R. Hopkins, Martyn W. Ward, Stefan J. Swift, Rahul Arya, Arnab Mondal, Ritu Jangirh, Sakshi Ahlawat, Lokesh Yadav, Sudhir K. Sharma, Siti S. M. Yunus, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Eiko Nemitz, Neil Mullinger, Ranu Gadi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Nidhi Tripathi, Andrew R. Rickard, James D. Lee, Tuhin K. Mandal, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2407–2426,Short summary
Biomass burning releases many lower-molecular-weight organic species which are difficult to analyse but important for the formation of organic aerosol. This study examined a new high-resolution technique to better characterise these difficult-to-analyse organic components. Some burning sources analysed in this study, such as cow dung cake and municipal solid waste, released extremely complex mixtures containing many thousands of different lower-volatility organic compounds.
Hoi Ki Lam, Rongshuang Xu, Jack Choczynski, James F. Davies, Dongwan Ham, Mijung Song, Andreas Zuend, Wentao Li, Ying-Lung Steve Tse, and Man Nin Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2053–2066,Short summary
This work demonstrates that organic compounds present at or near the surface of aerosols can be subjected to oxidation initiated by gas-phase oxidants, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH). The heterogeneous reactivity is sensitive to their surface concentrations, which are determined by the phase separation behavior. This results of this work emphasize the effects of phase separation and potentially distinct aerosol morphologies on the chemical transformation of atmospheric aerosols.
David R. Hanson, Seakh Menheer, Michael Wentzel, and Joan Kunz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1987–2001,Short summary
We report experimental measurements of particle formation in a flow reactor that extend the results from this experiment to a total of more than 270 runs over a time period of ~3 years. This has allowed us to detect a general increase in the cleanliness of the system and improve our knowledge of its chemistry. In-house simulations allowed us to construct phenomenological free energies of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia that are appropriate for application to the atmosphere.
Benjamin Woden, Maximilian W. A. Skoda, Adam Milsom, Curtis Gubb, Armando Maestro, James Tellam, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1325–1340,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols contain a large amount of organic compounds, whose oxidation affects their physical properties through a process known as ageing. We have simulated atmospheric ageing experimentally to elucidate the nature and behaviour of residual surface films. Our results show an increasing amount of residue at near-zero temperatures, demonstrating that an inert product film may build up during droplet ageing, even if only ordinarily short-lived reactive species are initially emitted.
Yiwei Gong and Zhongming Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 813–829,Short summary
Stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs) are important factors in estimating aerosol formation in the atmosphere. Here the results show that SCIs account for more than 60 % of aerosol formation in limonene ozonolysis and water is an uncertainty in SCI performances. The aerosol formation potential of SCIs under high-humidity conditions is double that under dry and low-humidity conditions, suggesting SCI reactions are still important in contributing to aerosols at high relative humidity.
Jing Dou, Peter A. Alpert, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Beiping Luo, Frederic Schneider, Jacinta Xto, Thomas Huthwelker, Camelia N. Borca, Katja D. Henzler, Jörg Raabe, Benjamin Watts, Hartmut Herrmann, Thomas Peter, Markus Ammann, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 315–338,Short summary
Photochemistry of iron(III) complexes plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in the lower troposphere. Ensuing radical chemistry leads to decarboxylation, and the production of peroxides, and oxygenated volatile compounds, resulting in particle mass loss due to release of the volatile products to the gas phase. We investigated kinetic transport limitations due to high particle viscosity under low relative humidity conditions. For quantification a numerical model was developed.
Ana C. Morales, Thilina Jayarathne, Jonathan H. Slade, Alexander Laskin, and Paul B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 129–145,Short summary
Organic nitrates formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds impact both ozone and particulate matter as they remove nitrogen oxides, but they represent important aerosol precursors. We conducted a series of reaction chamber experiments that quantified the total organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol yield from the OH-radical-initiated oxidation of ocimene, and also measured their hydrolysis lifetimes in the aqueous phase, as a function of pH.
András Hoffer, Beatrix Jancsek-Turóczi, Ádám Tóth, Gyula Kiss, Anca Naghiu, Erika Andrea Levei, Luminita Marmureanu, Attila Machon, and András Gelencsér
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16135–16144,Short summary
Emission factors for PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported for the first time ever for the indoor combustion of 12 common types of municipal solid waste that are frequently burned in households worldwide. We have found that waste burning emits up to 40 times more PM10 and 800 times more PAHs than the combustion of dry firewood. Our finding highlights the need for coordinated actions against illegal waste combustion and the extreme health hazard associated with it.
Thomas Berkemeier, Masayuki Takeuchi, Gamze Eris, and Nga L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15513–15535,Short summary
This paper presents how environmental chamber data of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be interpreted using kinetic modeling techniques. Utilizing pure and mixed precursor experiments, we show that SOA formation and evaporation can be understood by explicitly treating gas-phase chemistry, gas–particle partitioning, and, notably, particle-phase oligomerization, but some of the non-linear, non-equilibrium effects must be accredited to diffusion limitations in the particle phase.
Liqing Hao, Eetu Kari, Ari Leskinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14393–14405,Short summary
Our work presents the observational results of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the presence of ammonia. The particle-phase ammonium was continuously produced even after SOA formation had ceased. The gas-phase organic acids were observed to contribute to the formed particle-phase ammonium salts. This study suggests that the presence of ammonia may change the mass and chemical composition of large-size SOA particles and can potentially alter the aerosol impact on climate change.
Li Wu, Clara Becote, Sophie Sobanska, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Emilie Perraudin, Eric Villenave, Young-Chul Song, and Chul-Un Ro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14103–14122,Short summary
MBTCA (3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid), a second-generation product of monoterpenes, is one of the most relevant tracer compounds for biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Laboratory-generated, micrometer-sized, pure-MBTCA, mono-/di-/trisodium MBTCA salts and MBTCA–NaCl mixture aerosol particles were examined systematically to observe their hygroscopic behavior, and it was also observed that the monosodium MBTCA salt aerosols were formed through a reaction between MBTCA and NaCl.
Mingjie Xie, Zhenzhen Zhao, Amara L. Holder, Michael D. Hays, Xi Chen, Guofeng Shen, James J. Jetter, Wyatt M. Champion, and Qin'geng Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14077–14090,Short summary
This study investigated the composition, structures, and light absorption of N-containing aromatic compounds (NACs) in PM2.5 emitted from burning red oak and charcoal in a variety of cookstoves. The results suggest that the identified NACs might have substantial fractions remaining in the gas phase. In comparison to other sources, cookstove emissions from red oak or charcoal fuels did not exhibit unique NAC structural features but had distinct NAC composition.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Nan Xu, Yanhong Qin, Zhijun Wu, Liwu Zeng, Xiaofeng Huang, and Lingyan He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13721–13734,Short summary
Field straw residue burning is a widespread type of biomass burning in Asia, while its emissions are poorly understood. In this study, we designed lab-controlled experiments to comprehensively investigate the emission factors, chemical compositions and light absorption properties of both water-soluble and water-insoluble carbonaceous aerosols emitted from straw burning. The results clearly highlight the significant influences of burning conditions and combustion efficiency on the emissions.
Lanxiadi Chen, Chao Peng, Wenjun Gu, Hanjing Fu, Xing Jian, Huanhuan Zhang, Guohua Zhang, Jianxi Zhu, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13611–13626,Short summary
We investigated hygroscopic properties of a number of mineral dust particles in a quantitative manner, via measuring the sample mass at different relative humidities. The robust and comprehensive data obtained would significantly improve our knowledge of hygroscopicity of mineral dust and its impacts on atmospheric chemistry and climate.
Clarissa Baldo, Paola Formenti, Sophie Nowak, Servanne Chevaillier, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Claudia Di Biagio, Jean-Francois Doussin, Konstantin Ignatyev, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, A. Robert MacKenzie, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13521–13539,Short summary
We showed that Icelandic dust has a fundamentally different chemical and mineralogical composition from low-latitude dust. In particular, magnetite is as high as 1 %–2 % of the total dust mass. Our results suggest that Icelandic dust may have an important impact on the radiation balance in the subpolar and polar regions.
Sophia M. Charan, Reina S. Buenconsejo, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13167–13190,Short summary
In urban areas, the emissions from volatile chemical products may be responsible for the formation of as much particulate matter as motor vehicles. Since exposure to particulate matter is a public health crisis, understanding its formation is critical. In this work, we investigate the secondary organic aerosol formation potential of benzyl alcohol, an important compound that is representative of some of these new emission sources, and find that more particulate matter forms than is expected.
Kasper Kristensen, Louise N. Jensen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Sigurd Christiansen, Bernadette Rosati, Jonas Elm, Ricky Teiwes, Henrik B. Pedersen, Marianne Glasius, Mikael Ehn, and Merete Bilde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12549–12567,Short summary
Atmospheric particles are important in relation to human health and the global climate. As the global temperature changes, so may the atmospheric chemistry controlling the formation of particles from reactions of naturally emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the current work, we show how temperatures influence the formation and chemical composition of atmospheric particles from α-pinene: a biogenic VOC largely emitted in high-latitude environments such as the boreal forests.
Bilde, M. and Svenningsson, B.: CCN activation of slightly soluble organics: the importance of small amounts of inorganic salt and particle phase, Tellus B, 56, 128–134, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2004.00090.x, 2004.
Broekhuizen, K. E., Thornberry, T., Kumar, P. P., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Formation of cloud condensation nuclei by oxidative processing: Unsaturated fatty acids, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D24206, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004jd005298, 2004.
Cakmur, R. V., Miller, R. L., Perlwitz, J., Geogdzhayev, I. V., Ginoux, P., Koch, D., Kohfeld, K. E., Tegen, I., and Zender, C. S.: Constraining the magnitude of the global dust cycle by minimizing the difference between a model and observations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 111, D06207, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005jd005791, 2006.
Charbouillot, T., Gorini, S., Voyard, G., Parazols, M., Brigante, M., Deguillaume, L., Delort, A. M., and Mailhot, G.: Mechanism of carboxylic acid photooxidation in atmospheric aqueous phase: Formation, fate and reactivity, Atmos. Environ., 56, 1–8, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.03.079, 2012.
Chebbi, A. and Carlier, P.: Carboxylic acids in the troposphere, occurrence, sources, and sinks: A review, Atmos. Environ., 30, 4233–4249, 1996.
Chumpitaz, L. D. A., Coutinho, L. F., and Meirelles, A. J. A.: Surface tension of fatty acids and triglycerides, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 76, 379–382, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-999-0245-6, 1999.
Cruz, C. N. and Pandis, S. N.: A study of the ability of pure secondary organic aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei, Atmos. Environ., 31, 2205–2214, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1352-2310(97)00054-x, 1997.
Dalirian, M., Ylisirniö, A., Buchholz, A., Schlesinger, D., Ström, J., Virtanen, A., and Riipinen, I.: Cloud droplet activation of black carbon particles coated with organic compounds of varying solubility, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-1084, in review, 2017.
DeCarlo, P. F., Kimmel, J. R., Trimborn, A., Northway, M. J., Jayne, J. T., Aiken, A. C., Gonin, M., Fuhrer, K., Horvath, T., Docherty, K. S., Worsnop, D. R., and Jimenez, J. L.: Field-deployable, high-resolution, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, Anal. Chem., 78, 8281–8289, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac061249n, 2006.
Falkovich, A. H., Schkolnik, G., Ganor, E., and Rudich, Y.: Adsorption of organic compounds pertinent to urban environments onto mineral dust particles, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D02208, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003jd003919, 2004.
Gantt, B., Xu, J., Meskhidze, N., Zhang, Y., Nenes, A., Ghan, S. J., Liu, X., Easter, R., and Zaveri, R.: Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol – Part 2: Effects on cloud properties and radiative forcing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6555–6563, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-6555-2012, 2012.
Garimella, S., Huang, Y.-W., Seewald, J. S., and Cziczo, D. J.: Cloud condensation nucleus activity comparison of dry- and wet-generated mineral dust aerosol: the significance of soluble material, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6003–6019, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-6003-2014, 2014.
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Organic coatings modify hygroscopicity and CCN activation of mineral dust perticles. Small amounts of oleic acid coating (volume fraction (vf) ≤ 4.1 %) decreased the CCN activity of CaCO3 particles, while more oleic acid coating (vf ≥ 14.8 %) increased the CCN activity of CaCO3 particles, while malonic acid coating (vf = 0.4−42 %) even in smallest amounts increased the CCN activity of CaCO3 particles. Our laboratory results should also hold under conditions of the atmosphere.
Organic coatings modify hygroscopicity and CCN activation of mineral dust perticles. Small...