Articles | Volume 16, issue 12
Research article 23 Jun 2016
Research article | 23 Jun 2016
Spectral optical layer properties of cirrus from collocated airborne measurements and simulations
Fanny Finger et al.
Marcus Klingebiel, André Ehrlich, Fanny Finger, Timo Röschenthaler, Suad Jakirlić, Matthias Voigt, Stefan Müller, Rolf Maser, Manfred Wendisch, Peter Hoor, Peter Spichtinger, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3485–3498,Short summary
Microphysical and radiation measurements were collected with the unique AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle (AIRTOSS) – Learjet tandem platform. It is a combination of a Learjet 35A research aircraft and an instrumented aerodynamic bird, which can be detached from and retracted back to the aircraft during flight. AIRTOSS and Learjet are equipped with radiative, cloud microphysical, trace gas, and meteorological instruments to study cirrus clouds.
Anna Elizabeth Luebke, André Ehrlich, Michael Schäfer, Kevin Wolf, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
A combination of aircraft and satellite observations are used to show how the characteristics of tropical shallow clouds interact with incoming and outgoing energy. A complete depiction of these clouds is challenging to obtain, but such data is useful for understanding how models can correctly represent them. The amount of cloud is found to be the most important factor, while other cloud characteristics become increasingly impactful when more cloud is present.
Christoph Mahnke, Ralf Weigel, Francesco Cairo, Jean-Paul Vernier, Armin Afchine, Martina Krämer, Valentin Mitev, Renaud Matthey, Silvia Viciani, Francesco D'Amato, Felix Ploeger, Terry Deshler, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15259–15282,Short summary
In 2017, in situ aerosol measurements were conducted aboard the M55 Geophysica in the Asian monsoon region. The vertical particle mixing ratio profiles show a distinct layer (15–18.5 km), the Asian tropopause aerosol layer (ATAL). The backscatter ratio (BR) was calculated based on the aerosol size distributions and compared with the BRs detected by a backscatter probe and a lidar aboard M55, and by the CALIOP lidar. All four methods show enhanced BRs in the ATAL altitude range (max. at 17.5 km).
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ovid O. Krüger, Barbara Ervens, Bruna A. Holanda, Manfred Wendisch, Trismono Krisna, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christiane Voigt, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14079–14088,Short summary
Quantifying the precipitation within clouds is crucial for our understanding of the Earth's hydrological cycle. Using in situ measurements of cloud and rain properties over the Amazon Basin and Atlantic Ocean, we show here a linear relationship between the effective radius (re) and precipitation water content near the tops of convective clouds for different pollution states and temperature levels. Our results emphasize the role of re to determine both initiation and amount of precipitation.
Andreas Hünig, Oliver Appel, Antonis Dragoneas, Sergej Molleker, Hans-Christian Clemen, Frank Helleis, Thomas Klimach, Franziska Köllner, Thomas Böttger, Frank Drewnick, Johannes Schneider, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We have serially combined the two well-established methods for in situ real-time measurement of fine particle chemical composition, the single particle laser ablation method and the flash evaporation with electron impact ionization method, into a novel instrument. Here we present the design, instrument characteristics, as derived from laboratory and field measurements, and results from the first field deployment during the 2017 StratoClim aircraft campaign.
Ralf Weigel, Christoph Mahnke, Manuel Baumgartner, Martina Krämer, Peter Spichtinger, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, Christian Rolf, Silvia Viciani, Francesco D'Amato, Holger Tost, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13455–13481,Short summary
In July and August 2017, the StratoClim mission took place in Nepal with eight flights of the M-55 Geophysica at up to 20 km in the Asian monsoon anticyclone. New particle formation (NPF) next to cloud ice was detected in situ by abundant nucleation-mode aerosols (> 6 nm) along with ice particles (> 3 µm). NPF was observed mainly below the tropopause, down to 15 % being non-volatile residues. Observed intra-cloud NPF indicates its importance for the composition in the tropical tropopause layer.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Ralf Weigel, Christoph Mahnke, Manuel Baumgartner, Antonis Dragoneas, Bärbel Vogel, Felix Ploeger, Silvia Viciani, Francesco D'Amato, Silvia Bucci, Bernard Legras, Beiping Luo, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11689–11722,Short summary
In July and August 2017, eight StratoClim mission flights of the Geophysica reached up to 20 km in the Asian monsoon anticyclone. New particle formation (NPF) was identified in situ by abundant nucleation-mode aerosols (6–15 nm in diameter) with mixing ratios of up to 50 000 mg−1. NPF occurred most frequently at 12–16 km with fractions of non-volatile residues of down to 15 %. Abundance and productivity of observed NPF indicate its ability to promote the Asian tropopause aerosol layer.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Klausner, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, Jose L. Gomez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John Phillip Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in-situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Heike Konow, Florian Ewald, Geet George, Marek Jacob, Marcus Klingebiel, Tobias Kölling, Anna E. Luebke, Theresa Mieslinger, Veronika Pörtge, Jule Radtke, Michael Schäfer, Hauke Schulz, Raphaela Vogel, Martin Wirth, Sandrine Bony, Susanne Crewell, André Ehrlich, Linda Forster, Andreas Giez, Felix Gödde, Silke Groß, Manuel Gutleben, Martin Hagen, Lutz Hirsch, Friedhelm Jansen, Theresa Lang, Bernhard Mayer, Mario Mech, Marc Prange, Sabrina Schnitt, Jessica Vial, Andreas Walbröl, Manfred Wendisch, Kevin Wolf, Tobias Zinner, Martin Zöger, Felix Ament, and Bjorn Stevens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
The German research aircraft HALO took part in the research campaign EUREC4A in January and February 2020. The focus area was the tropical Atlantic east of the island of Barbados. We describe the characteristics of the 15 research flights, provide auxiliary information, derive a combined cloud mask products from all instruments that observe clouds on board the aircraft, and provide code examples that help new users of the data to get started.
Stefan Niebler, Annette Miltenberger, Bertil Schmidt, and Peter Spichtinger
Weather Clim. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for WCDShort summary
We use machine learning to create a network that detects and classifies four types of synoptic scale weather fronts from ERA5 atmospheric reanalysis data. Our work can be used to reduce the amount of manual work previously needed for this task. Additionally our results show that multiple sources of training data are necessary to perform well on different regions, implying differences within those regions. Qualitative evaluation shows that the results are physically plausible.
Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Megan D. Willis, Hannes Schulz, Daniel Kunkel, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Julia Burkart, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6509–6539,Short summary
We present in situ observations of vertically resolved particle chemical composition in the summertime Arctic lower troposphere. Our analysis demonstrates the strong vertical contrast between particle properties within the boundary layer and aloft. Emissions from vegetation fires and anthropogenic sources in northern Canada, Europe, and East Asia influenced particle composition in the free troposphere. Organics detected in Arctic aerosol particles can partly be identified as dicarboxylic acids.
Ulrike Egerer, André Ehrlich, Matthias Gottschalk, Hannes Griesche, Roel A. J. Neggers, Holger Siebert, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6347–6364,Short summary
This paper describes a case study of a three-day period with a persistent humidity inversion above a mixed-phase cloud layer in the Arctic. It is based on measurements with a tethered balloon, complemented with results from a dedicated high-resolution large-eddy simulation. Both methods show that the humidity layer acts to provide moisture to the cloud layer through downward turbulent transport. This supply of additional moisture can contribute to the persistence of Arctic clouds.
Johannes Stapf, André Ehrlich, Christof Lüpkes, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Airborne observations of the surface radiative energy budget in the marginal sea ice zone (the region between open ocean and closed sea ice) are presented. Atmospheric thermodynamic profiles and surface properties change on small spatial scales in this area and influence the impact of clouds on the radiative energy budget. The radiation budget over sea ice is compared to available studies in the Arctic and the influence of cold air outbreaks and warm air intrusions is illustrated.
Manuel Baumgartner, Christian Rolf, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Julia Schneider, Tobias Schorr, Ottmar Möhler, Peter Spichtinger, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
An important mechanism for the appearance of ice particles in the upper troposphere at low temperatures is homogeneous nucleation. This process is commonly described by the “Koop-line”, predicting the humidity at the freezing. However, laboratory measurements suggest that the freezing humidities are above the Koop-line, motivating the present study to investigate the influence of different physical parameterizations on the homogeneous freezing with the help of a detailed numerical model.
Ramon Campos Braga, Barbara Ervens, Daniel Rosenfeld, Meinrat O. Andreae, Jan-David Förster, Daniel Fütterer, Lianet Hernández Pardo, Bruna A. Holanda, Tina Jurkat, Ovid O. Krüger, Oliver Lauer, Luiz A. T. Machado, Christopher Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Interactions of aerosol particles with clouds represent a large uncertainty in estimates of climate change. Properties of aerosol particles control their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Using aerosol measurements in the Amazon, we performed model studies to compare predicted and measured cloud droplet number concentrations at cloud bases. Our results confirm previous estimates of particle hygroscopicity in this region.
Sebastian O'Shea, Jonathan Crosier, James Dorsey, Louis Gallagher, Waldemar Schledewitz, Keith Bower, Oliver Schlenczek, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, Christopher Westbrook, and Zbigniew Ulanowski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1917–1939,Short summary
The number, shape, and size of ice crystals in clouds are important properties that influence the Earth's radiation budget, cloud evolution, and precipitation formation. This work suggests that one of the most widely used methods for in situ measurements of these properties has significant uncertainties and biases. We suggest methods that dramatically improve these measurements, which can be applied to past and future datasets from these instruments.
Miklós Szakáll, Michael Debertshäuser, Christian Philipp Lackner, Amelie Mayer, Oliver Eppers, Karoline Diehl, Alexander Theis, Subir Kumar Mitra, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3289–3316,Short summary
The freezing of cloud drops is promoted by ice-nucleating particles immersed in the drops. This process is essential to understand ice and subsequent precipitation formation in clouds. We investigated the efficiency of several particle types to trigger immersion freezing with two single-drop levitation techniques: a wind tunnel and an acoustic levitator. The evaluation accounted for different conditions during our two series of experiments, which is also applicable to future comparison studies.
Evelyn Jäkel, Tim Carlsen, André Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Michael Schäfer, Sophie Rosenburg, Konstantina Nakoudi, Marco Zanatta, Gerit Birnbaum, Veit Helm, Andreas Herber, Larysa Istomina, Linlu Mei, and Anika Rohde
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Different approaches to retrieve the optical-equivalent snow grain size using satellite, airborne, and ground-based observations were evaluated and compared to modeled data. The study is focused on low Sun and partly rough surface conditions encountered North of Greenland in March/April 2018. We proposed an adjusted airborne retrieval method to reduce the retrieval uncertainty.
Johannes Schneider, Ralf Weigel, Thomas Klimach, Antonis Dragoneas, Oliver Appel, Andreas Hünig, Sergej Molleker, Franziska Köllner, Hans-Christian Clemen, Oliver Eppers, Peter Hoppe, Peter Hoor, Christoph Mahnke, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Andreas Zahn, Florian Obersteiner, Fabrizio Ravegnani, Alexey Ulanovsky, Hans Schlager, Monika Scheibe, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Martin Zöger, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 989–1013,Short summary
During five aircraft missions, we detected aerosol particles containing meteoric material in the lower stratosphere. The stratospheric measurements span a latitude range from 15 to 68° N, and we find that at potential temperature levels of more than 40 K above the tropopause; particles containing meteoric material occur at similar abundance fractions across latitudes and seasons. We conclude that meteoric material is efficiently distributed between high and low latitudes by isentropic mixing.
Manuel Baumgartner, Ralf Weigel, Allan H. Harvey, Felix Plöger, Ulrich Achatz, and Peter Spichtinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15585–15616,Short summary
The potential temperature is routinely used in atmospheric science. We review its derivation and suggest a new potential temperature, based on a temperature-dependent parameterization of the dry air's specific heat capacity. Moreover, we compare the new potential temperature to the common one and discuss the differences which become more important at higher altitudes. Finally, we indicate some consequences of using the new potential temperature in typical applications.
Johannes Quaas, Antti Arola, Brian Cairns, Matthew Christensen, Hartwig Deneke, Annica M. L. Ekman, Graham Feingold, Ann Fridlind, Edward Gryspeerdt, Otto Hasekamp, Zhanqing Li, Antti Lipponen, Po-Lun Ma, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Athanasios Nenes, Joyce E. Penner, Daniel Rosenfeld, Roland Schrödner, Kenneth Sinclair, Odran Sourdeval, Philip Stier, Matthias Tesche, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15079–15099,Short summary
Anthropogenic pollution particles – aerosols – serve as cloud condensation nuclei and thus increase cloud droplet concentration and the clouds' reflection of sunlight (a cooling effect on climate). This Twomey effect is poorly constrained by models and requires satellite data for better quantification. The review summarizes the challenges in properly doing so and outlines avenues for progress towards a better use of aerosol retrievals and better retrievals of droplet concentrations.
Maximilian Weitzel, Subir K. Mitra, Miklós Szakáll, Jacob P. Fugal, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14889–14901,Short summary
The properties of ice crystals smaller than 150 µm in diameter were investigated in a cold-room laboratory using digital holography and microscopy. Automated image processing has been used to determine the track of falling ice crystals, and collected crystals were melted and scanned under a microscope to infer particle mass. A parameterization relating particle size and mass was determined which describes ice crystals in this size range more accurately than existing relationships.
Tim Carlsen, Gerit Birnbaum, André Ehrlich, Veit Helm, Evelyn Jäkel, Michael Schäfer, and Manfred Wendisch
The Cryosphere, 14, 3959–3978,Short summary
The angular reflection of solar radiation by snow surfaces is particularly anisotropic and highly variable. We measured the angular reflection from an aircraft using a digital camera in Antarctica in 2013/14 and studied its variability: the anisotropy increases with a lower Sun but decreases for rougher surfaces and larger snow grains. The applied methodology allows for a direct comparison with satellite observations, which generally underestimated the anisotropy measured within this study.
Hans-Christian Clemen, Johannes Schneider, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Franziska Köllner, Andreas Hünig, Florian Rubach, Stephan Mertes, Heike Wex, Frank Stratmann, André Welti, Rebecca Kohl, Fabian Frank, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5923–5953,Short summary
We improved the efficiency of a single-particle mass spectrometer with a newly developed aerodynamic lens system, delayed ion extraction, and better electric shielding. The new components result in significantly improved particle analysis and sample statistics. This is particularly important for measurements of low-number-density particles, such as ice-nucleating particles, and for aircraft-based measurements at high altitudes or where high temporal and spatial resolution is required.
Jan Kretzschmar, Johannes Stapf, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Wendisch, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13145–13165,Short summary
This study compares simulations with the ICON model at the kilometer scale to airborne radiation and cloud microphysics observations that have been derived during the ACLOUD aircraft campaign around Svalbard, Norway, in May/June 2017. We find an overestimated surface warming effect of clouds compared to the observations in our setup. This bias was reduced by considering subgrid-scale vertical motion in the activation of cloud condensation nuclei in the two-moment microphysical scheme used.
Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, David Fahey, Eric Jensen, Sergey Khaykin, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Laura L. Pan, Martin Riese, Andrew Rollins, Fred Stroh, Troy Thornberry, Veronika Wolf, Sarah Woods, Peter Spichtinger, Johannes Quaas, and Odran Sourdeval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12569–12608,Short summary
To improve the representations of cirrus clouds in climate predictions, extended knowledge of their properties and geographical distribution is required. This study presents extensive airborne in situ and satellite remote sensing climatologies of cirrus and humidity, which serve as a guide to cirrus clouds. Further, exemplary radiative characteristics of cirrus types and also in situ observations of tropical tropopause layer cirrus and humidity in the Asian monsoon anticyclone are shown.
Li Li, Zhengqiang Li, Wenyuan Chang, Yang Ou, Philippe Goloub, Chengzhe Li, Kaitao Li, Qiaoyun Hu, Jianping Wang, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10845–10864,Short summary
Dust Aerosol Observation-Kashi (DAO-K) campaign was conducted near the Taklimakan Desert in April 2019 to obtain comprehensive aerosol, atmosphere, and surface parameters. Estimations of aerosol solar radiative forcing by a radiative transfer (RT) model were improved based on the measured aerosol parameters, additionally considering atmospheric profiles and diurnal variations of surface albedo. RT simulations agree well with simultaneous irradiance observations, even in dust-polluted conditions.
Johannes Stapf, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Christof Lüpkes, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9895–9914,
Andreas Petzold, Patrick Neis, Mihal Rütimann, Susanne Rohs, Florian Berkes, Herman G. J. Smit, Martina Krämer, Nicole Spelten, Peter Spichtinger, Philippe Nédélec, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8157–8179,Short summary
The first analysis of 15 years of global-scale water vapour and relative humidity observations by passenger aircraft in the MOZAIC and IAGOS programmes resolves detailed features of water vapour and ice-supersaturated air in the mid-latitude tropopause. Key results provide in-depth insight into seasonal and regional variability and chemical signatures of ice-supersaturated air masses, including trend analyses, and show a close link to cirrus clouds and their highly important effects on climate.
Tobias Donth, Evelyn Jäkel, André Ehrlich, Bernd Heinold, Jacob Schacht, Andreas Herber, Marco Zanatta, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8139–8156,Short summary
Solar radiative effects of Arctic black carbon (BC) particles (suspended in the atmosphere and in the surface snowpack) were quantified under cloudless and cloudy conditions. An atmospheric and a snow radiative transfer model were coupled to account for radiative interactions between both compartments. It was found that (i) the warming effect of BC in the snowpack overcompensates for the atmospheric BC cooling effect, and (ii) clouds tend to reduce the atmospheric BC cooling and snow BC warming.
Sergej Molleker, Frank Helleis, Thomas Klimach, Oliver Appel, Hans-Christian Clemen, Antonis Dragoneas, Christian Gurk, Andreas Hünig, Franziska Köllner, Florian Rubach, Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3651–3660,Short summary
A novel constant-pressure-inlet design for use in airborne aerosol particle mass spectrometry – an aerodynamic lens focuses aerosol particles into a vacuum chamber – is presented. The pressure of a few hectopascals at the lens is precisely controlled over a large flight altitude range up to 21 km. The constant pressure is achieved by changing the inner diameter of a properly scaled flexible O-ring acting as a critical orifice. Particle transmission at various inlet pressures is characterized.
Elena Ruiz-Donoso, André Ehrlich, Michael Schäfer, Evelyn Jäkel, Vera Schemann, Susanne Crewell, Mario Mech, Birte Solveig Kulla, Leif-Leonard Kliesch, Roland Neuber, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5487–5511,Short summary
Mixed-phase clouds, formed of water droplets and ice crystals, appear frequently in Arctic regions. Characterizing the distribution of liquid water and ice inside the cloud appropriately is important because it influences the cloud's impact on the surface temperature. In this study, we combined images of the cloud top with measurements inside the cloud to analyze in detail the 3D spatial distribution of liquid and ice in two mixed-phase clouds occurring under different meteorological scenarios.
Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Jeannine Ditas, Florian Ditas, Christiane Schulz, Marco Aurélio Franco, Qiaoqiao Wang, Tobias Donth, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Joel Brito, Yafang Cheng, Maximilian Dollner, Johannes W. Kaiser, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Ovid O. Krüger, Daniel Fütterer, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Luiz A. T. Machado, Jing Ming, Fernando G. Morais, Hauke Paulsen, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Johannes Schneider, Hang Su, Bernadett Weinzierl, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4757–4785,Short summary
Biomass burning smoke from African savanna and grassland is transported across the South Atlantic Ocean in defined layers within the free troposphere. The combination of in situ aircraft and ground-based measurements aided by satellite observations showed that these layers are transported into the Amazon Basin during the early dry season. The influx of aged smoke, enriched in black carbon and cloud condensation nuclei, has important implications for the Amazonian aerosol and cloud cycling.
Siddika Celik, Frank Drewnick, Friederike Fachinger, James Brooks, Eoghan Darbyshire, Hugh Coe, Jean-Daniel Paris, Philipp G. Eger, Jan Schuladen, Ivan Tadic, Nils Friedrich, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Hottmann, Horst Fischer, John N. Crowley, Hartwig Harder, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4713–4734,Short summary
Analysis of 252 ship emission plumes in the Mediterranean Sea and around the Arabian Peninsula examined particulate- and gas-phase characteristics. By identifying the corresponding ships, source features and plume age were determined. Emission factors (amount of pollutant per kilogram of fuel burned) were calculated and investigated for dependencies on source characteristics, atmospheric conditions, and transport time, providing insight into the most relevant influences on ship emissions.
Gary Lloyd, Thomas Choularton, Keith Bower, Jonathan Crosier, Martin Gallagher, Michael Flynn, James Dorsey, Dantong Liu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Oliver Schlenczek, Jacob Fugal, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, Paul Field, and Alan Blyth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3895–3904,Short summary
Measurements of liquid and ice cloud particles were made using an aircraft to penetrate fresh growing convective clouds in the tropical Atlantic. We found small ice particles at surprisingly high temperatures just below freezing. At colder temperatures secondary ice processes rapidly generated high concentrations of ice crystals.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Jennifer M. Comstock, Ralf Weigel, Martina Krämer, Christoph Mahnke, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Charles N. Long, Manfred Wendisch, Luiz A. T. Machado, Beat Schmid, Trismono Krisna, Mikhail Pekour, John Hubbe, Andreas Giez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Martin Zoeger, Mira L. Pöhlker, Hans Schlager, Micael A. Cecchini, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Suzane S. de Sá, Jiwen Fan, Jason Tomlinson, Stephen Springston, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, Christopher Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Andreas Minikin, Armin Afchine, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 661–684,Short summary
In 2014, the US DOE G1 aircraft and the German HALO aircraft overflew the Amazon basin to study how aerosols influence cloud cycles under a clean condition and around a tropical megacity. This paper describes how to meaningfully compare similar measurements from two research aircraft and identify the potential measurement issue. We also discuss the uncertainty range for each measurement for further usage in model evaluation and satellite data validation.
Pascal Polonik, Christoph Knote, Tobias Zinner, Florian Ewald, Tobias Kölling, Bernhard Mayer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Mahnke, Sergej Molleker, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Christiane Voigt, Ralf Weigel, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1591–1605,Short summary
A realistic representation of cloud–aerosol interactions is central to accurate climate projections. Here we combine observations collected during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign with chemistry-transport simulations to evaluate the model’s ability to represent the indirect effects of biomass burning aerosol on cloud microphysics. We find an upper limit for the model sensitivity on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations well below the levels reached during the burning season in the Amazon Basin.
Sophie L. Haslett, Jonathan W. Taylor, Mathew Evans, Eleanor Morris, Bernhard Vogel, Alima Dajuma, Joel Brito, Anneke M. Batenburg, Stephan Borrmann, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Cyrielle Denjean, Thierry Bourrianne, Peter Knippertz, Régis Dupuy, Alfons Schwarzenböck, Daniel Sauer, Cyrille Flamant, James Dorsey, Ian Crawford, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15217–15234,Short summary
Three aircraft datasets from the DACCIWA campaign in summer 2016 are used here to show there is a background mass of pollution present in the lower atmosphere in southern West Africa. We suggest that this likely comes from biomass burning in central and southern Africa, which has been carried into the region over the Atlantic Ocean. This would have a negative health impact on populations living near the coast and may alter the impact of growing city emissions on cloud formation and the monsoon.
Manuel Baumgartner, Max Sagebaum, Nicolas R. Gauger, Peter Spichtinger, and André Brinkmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5197–5212,Short summary
Numerical models in atmospheric sciences need to include physical processes through parameterizations, which are not explicitly resolved, e.g., the formation of clouds. As a consequence, the parameterizations contain uncertain parameters. We suggest using the technique of algorithmic differentiation (AD) to identify the most uncertain parameters within parameterizations. In this study, we illustrate AD by analyzing a scheme for liquid clouds incorporated into a parcel model framework.
André Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Christof Lüpkes, Matthias Buschmann, Heiko Bozem, Dmitri Chechin, Hans-Christian Clemen, Régis Dupuy, Olliver Eppers, Jörg Hartmann, Andreas Herber, Evelyn Jäkel, Emma Järvinen, Olivier Jourdan, Udo Kästner, Leif-Leonard Kliesch, Franziska Köllner, Mario Mech, Stephan Mertes, Roland Neuber, Elena Ruiz-Donoso, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Johannes Stapf, and Marco Zanatta
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1853–1881,Short summary
During the Arctic CLoud Observations Using airborne measurements during polar Day (ACLOUD) campaign, two research aircraft (Polar 5 and 6) jointly performed 22 research flights over the transition zone between open ocean and closed sea ice. The data set combines remote sensing and in situ measurement of cloud, aerosol, and trace gas properties, as well as turbulent and radiative fluxes, which will be used to study Arctic boundary layer and mid-level clouds and their role in Arctic amplification.
Jacob Schacht, Bernd Heinold, Johannes Quaas, John Backman, Ribu Cherian, Andre Ehrlich, Andreas Herber, Wan Ting Katty Huang, Yutaka Kondo, Andreas Massling, P. R. Sinha, Bernadett Weinzierl, Marco Zanatta, and Ina Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11159–11183,Short summary
The Arctic is warming faster than the rest of Earth. Black carbon (BC) aerosol contributes to this Arctic amplification by direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects while distributed in air or deposited on snow and ice. The aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM is used to estimate direct aerosol radiative effect (DRE). Airborne and near-surface BC measurements are used to evaluate the model and give an uncertainty range for the burden and DRE of Arctic BC caused by different emission inventories.
Ulrike Egerer, Matthias Gottschalk, Holger Siebert, André Ehrlich, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4019–4038,Short summary
In this study, we introduce the new tethered balloon system BELUGA, which includes different modular instrument packages for measuring turbulence and radiation in the atmospheric boundary layer. BELUGA was deployed in an Arctic field campaign in 2017, providing details of boundary layer processes in combination with low-level clouds. Those processes are still not fully understood and in situ measurements in the Arctic improve our understanding of the Arctic response in terms of global warming.
Evelyn Jäkel, Johannes Stapf, Manfred Wendisch, Marcel Nicolaus, Wolfgang Dorn, and Annette Rinke
The Cryosphere, 13, 1695–1708,Short summary
The sea ice surface albedo parameterization of a coupled regional climate model was validated against aircraft measurements performed in May–June 2017 north of Svalbard. The albedo parameterization was run offline from the model using the measured parameters surface temperature and snow depth to calculate the surface albedo and the individual fractions of the ice surface subtypes. An adjustment of the variables and additionally accounting for cloud cover reduced the root-mean-squared error.
Sebastian J. O'Shea, Jonathan Crosier, James Dorsey, Waldemar Schledewitz, Ian Crawford, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, and Aaron Bansemer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3067–3079,Short summary
Optical array probe measurements of clouds are widely used to inform and validate numerical weather and climate models. In this paper, we discuss artefacts which may bias data from these instruments. Using laboratory and synthetic datasets, we demonstrate how greyscale analysis can be used to filter data, constraining the sample volume and improving data quality particularly at small sizes where their measurements are considered unreliable.
Kevin Wolf, André Ehrlich, Marek Jacob, Susanne Crewell, Martin Wirth, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1635–1658,Short summary
Using passive spectral solar radiation and active lidar, radar, and microwave measurements with HALO during NARVAL-II, the cloud droplet number concentration of shallow trade wind cumulus is estimated. With stepwise inclusion of the different instruments into the retrieval, the benefits of the synergetic approach based on artificial measurements and two cloud cases are demonstrated. Significant improvement with the synergetic method compared to the solar-radiation-only method is reported.
Tobias Zinner, Ulrich Schwarz, Tobias Kölling, Florian Ewald, Evelyn Jäkel, Bernhard Mayer, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1167–1181,
Erlend M. Knudsen, Bernd Heinold, Sandro Dahlke, Heiko Bozem, Susanne Crewell, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Georg Heygster, Daniel Kunkel, Marion Maturilli, Mario Mech, Carolina Viceto, Annette Rinke, Holger Schmithüsen, André Ehrlich, Andreas Macke, Christof Lüpkes, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17995–18022,Short summary
The paper describes the synoptic development during the ACLOUD/PASCAL airborne and ship-based field campaign near Svalbard in spring 2017. This development is presented using near-surface and upperair meteorological observations, satellite, and model data. We first present time series of these data, from which we identify and characterize three key periods. Finally, we put our observations in historical and regional contexts and compare our findings to other Arctic field campaigns.
Michael Weger, Bernd Heinold, Christa Engler, Ulrich Schumann, Axel Seifert, Romy Fößig, Christiane Voigt, Holger Baars, Ulrich Blahak, Stephan Borrmann, Corinna Hoose, Stefan Kaufmann, Martina Krämer, Patric Seifert, Fabian Senf, Johannes Schneider, and Ina Tegen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17545–17572,Short summary
The impact of desert dust on cloud formation is investigated for a major Saharan dust event over Europe by interactive regional dust modeling. Dust particles are very efficient ice-nucleating particles promoting the formation of ice crystals in clouds. The simulations show that the observed extensive cirrus development was likely related to the above-average dust load. The interactive dust–cloud feedback in the model significantly improves the agreement with aircraft and satellite observations.
Emma Järvinen, Olivier Jourdan, David Neubauer, Bin Yao, Chao Liu, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrike Lohmann, Manfred Wendisch, Greg M. McFarquhar, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15767–15781,Short summary
Using light diffraction it is possible to detect microscopic features within ice particles that have not yet been fully characterized. Here, this technique was applied in airborne measurements, where it was found that majority of atmospheric ice particles have features that significantly change the way ice particles interact with solar light. The microscopic features make ice-containing clouds more reflective than previously thought, which could have consequences for predicting our climate.
Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Oliver Appel, Anja Costa, Suzane S. de Sá, Volker Dreiling, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Scot T. Martin, Stephan Mertes, Mira L. Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Bernadett Weinzierl, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Luiz A. T. Machado, Ulrich Pöschl, Manfred Wendisch, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14979–15001,Short summary
Aerosol chemical composition measurements in the tropical upper troposphere over the Amazon region show that 78 % of the aerosol in the upper troposphere consists of organic matter. Up to 20 % of the organic aerosol can be attributed to isoprene epoxydiol secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA). Furthermore, organic nitrates were identified, suggesting a connection to the IEPOX-SOA formation.
Michael Schäfer, Katharina Loewe, André Ehrlich, Corinna Hoose, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13115–13133,Short summary
Airborne observed horizontal fields of cloud optical thickness are compared with semi-idealized large eddy simulations of Arctic stratus. The comparison focuses on horizontal cloud inhomogeneities and directional features of the small-scale cloud structures. Using inhomogeneity parameters and autocorrelation analysis it is investigated, if the observed small-scale cloud inhomogeneities can be represented by the model. Forcings for cloud inhomogeneities are investigated in a sensitivity study.
Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Marloes Penning de Vries, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Samara Carbone, David Walter, Nicole Bobrowski, Joel Brito, Xuguang Chi, Alexandra Gutmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Luiz A. T. Machado, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Julian Rüdiger, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Qiaoqiao Wang, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10391–10405,Short summary
This study uses satellite observations to track volcanic emissions in eastern Congo and their subsequent transport across the Atlantic Ocean into the Amazon Basin. Aircraft and ground-based observations are used to characterize the influence of volcanogenic aerosol on the chemical and microphysical properties of Amazonian aerosols. Further, this work is an illustrative example of the conditions and dynamics driving the transatlantic transport of African emissions to South America.
Aurélien Chauvigné, Olivier Jourdan, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Christophe Gourbeyre, Jean François Gayet, Christiane Voigt, Hans Schlager, Stefan Kaufmann, Stephan Borrmann, Sergej Molleker, Andreas Minikin, Tina Jurkat, and Ulrich Schumann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9803–9822,Short summary
This paper demonstrates a new form of statistical analysis of contrail to cirrus evolution. The authors show well-separated analyses of the different stages of the contrail's evolution, which allows us to study their optical, microphysical, and chemical properties. These results could be used to develop representative parameterizations of the scattering and geometrical properties of the ice crystals’ shapes and sizes, observed in the visible wavelength range.
Daniel J. Miller, Zhibo Zhang, Steven Platnick, Andrew S. Ackerman, Frank Werner, Celine Cornet, and Kirk Knobelspiesse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3689–3715,Short summary
Prior satellite comparisons of bispectral and polarimetric cloud droplet size retrievals exhibited systematic biases. However, similar airborne instrument retrievals have been found to be quite similar to one another. This study explains this discrepancy in terms of differing sensitivity to vertical profile, as well as spatial and angular resolution. This is accomplished by using a satellite retrieval simulator – an LES cloud model coupled to radiative transfer and cloud retrieval algorithms.
Luiz A. T. Machado, Alan J. P. Calheiros, Thiago Biscaro, Scott Giangrande, Maria A. F. Silva Dias, Micael A. Cecchini, Rachel Albrecht, Meinrat O. Andreae, Wagner F. Araujo, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Casey Burleyson, Cristiano W. Eichholz, Jiwen Fan, Zhe Feng, Gilberto F. Fisch, Michael P. Jensen, Scot T. Martin, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Jean-François Ribaud, Daniel Rosenfeld, Jaci M. B. Saraiva, Courtney Schumacher, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6461–6482,Short summary
This overview discuss the main precipitation processes and their sensitivities to environmental conditions in the Central Amazon Basin. It presents a review of the knowledge acquired about cloud processes and rainfall formation in Amazonas. In addition, this study provides a characterization of the seasonal variation and rainfall sensitivities to topography, surface cover, and aerosol concentration. Airplane measurements were evaluated to characterize and contrast cloud microphysical properties.
Paul Herenz, Heike Wex, Silvia Henning, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, Florian Rubach, Anja Roth, Stephan Borrmann, Heiko Bozem, Hannes Schulz, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4477–4496,Short summary
The Arctic climate is changing much faster than other regions on Earth. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the processes that are liable for this phenomena and to document the current situation in the Arctic. Therefore, we measured the number and also the size of aerosol particles. It turned out that we captured the transition from the Arctic spring to the Arctic summer and that the according air masses show differences in particle properties. Also, the particles have a low water receptivity.
Trismono C. Krisna, Manfred Wendisch, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Frank Werner, Ralf Weigel, Stephan Borrmann, Christoph Mahnke, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christiane Voigt, and Luiz A. T. Machado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4439–4462,Short summary
The optical thickness and particle effective radius of a cirrus above liquid water clouds and a DCC topped by an anvil cirrus are retrieved based on SMART and MODIS radiance measurements. For the cirrus, retrieved particle effective radius are validated with corresponding in situ data using a vertical weighting method. This approach allows to assess the measurements, retrieval algorithms, and derived cloud products.
Manuel Baumgartner and Peter Spichtinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2525–2546,Short summary
Ice crystals are surrounded by liquid cloud droplets in mixed-phase clouds. The coexistence of ice and water is thermodynamically not stable and the particles will influence their respective growth by condensation. This effect is known as the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process. In current models, the local interactions of the particles are neglected and they can only interact indirectly. This work proposes an approach to include local interactions and discusses some implications.
Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel Albrecht, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Micael A. Cecchini, Anja Costa, Maximilian Dollner, Daniel Fütterer, Emma Järvinen, Tina Jurkat, Thomas Klimach, Tobias Konemann, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Trismono Krisna, Luiz A. T. Machado, Stephan Mertes, Andreas Minikin, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Antonio Spanu, Vinicius B. Sperling, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Jian Wang, Bernadett Weinzierl, Manfred Wendisch, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 921–961,Short summary
We made airborne measurements of aerosol particle concentrations and properties over the Amazon Basin. We found extremely high concentrations of very small particles in the region between 8 and 14 km altitude all across the basin, which had been recently formed by gas-to-particle conversion at these altitudes. This makes the upper troposphere a very important source region of atmospheric particles with significant implications for the Earth's climate system.
Joel Brito, Evelyn Freney, Pamela Dominutti, Agnes Borbon, Sophie L. Haslett, Anneke M. Batenburg, Aurelie Colomb, Regis Dupuy, Cyrielle Denjean, Frederic Burnet, Thierry Bourriane, Adrien Deroubaix, Karine Sellegri, Stephan Borrmann, Hugh Coe, Cyrille Flamant, Peter Knippertz, and Alfons Schwarzenboeck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 757–772,Short summary
This work focuses on sources of submicron aerosol particles over southern West Africa (SWA). Results have shown that isoprene, a gas-phase compound of biogenic origin, is responsible for roughly 25 % of the organic aerosol (OA) loading, under most background or urban plumes alike. This fraction represents a lower estimate from the biogenic contribution in this fairly polluted region. This work sheds light upon the role of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on the pollution burden over SWA.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Manfred Wendisch, Anja Costa, Martina Krämer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Mahnke, Scot T. Martin, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Lianet H. Pardo, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14727–14746,Short summary
This study introduces and explores the concept of gamma phase space. This space is able to represent all possible variations in the cloud droplet size distributions (DSDs). The methodology was applied to recent in situ aircraft measurements over the Amazon. It is shown that the phase space is able to represent several processes occurring in the clouds in a simple manner. The consequences for cloud studies, modeling, and the representation of the transition from warm to mixed phase are discussed.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ralf Weigel, Tina Jurkat, Meinrat O. Andreae, Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, Christiane Voigt, Christoph Mahnke, Stephan Borrmann, Rachel I. Albrecht, Sergej Molleker, Daniel A. Vila, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Lucas Grulich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14433–14456,
Tim Carlsen, Gerit Birnbaum, André Ehrlich, Johannes Freitag, Georg Heygster, Larysa Istomina, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Anaïs Orsi, Michael Schäfer, and Manfred Wendisch
The Cryosphere, 11, 2727–2741,Short summary
The optical size of snow grains (ropt) affects the reflectivity of snow surfaces and thus the local surface energy budget in particular in polar regions. The temporal evolution of ropt retrieved from ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne remote sensing could reproduce optical in situ measurements for a 2-month period in central Antarctica (2013/14). The presented validation study provided a unique testbed for retrievals of ropt under Antarctic conditions where in situ data are scarce.
Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Megan D. Willis, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Heiko Bozem, Daniel Kunkel, Peter Hoor, Julia Burkart, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13747–13766,Short summary
We conducted aircraft-based single particle chemical composition measurements in the Canadian high Arctic during summer. Our results provide evidence for a marine-biogenic influence on secondary formation of particulate trimethylamine in the Arctic boundary layer. Understanding emission sources and further processes controlling aerosol number concentration and chemical composition in the pristine Arctic summer is crucial for modeling future climate in the area.
Katharina Schütze, James Charles Wilson, Stephan Weinbruch, Nathalie Benker, Martin Ebert, Gebhard Günther, Ralf Weigel, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12475–12493,Short summary
Stratospheric particles were collected in the polar stratosphere in winter 1999/2000. Besides the well-studied volatile particles from that region, the main findings of this study are stable carbonaceous particles in the sub-micrometer size range. In addition to carbon, many particles show the elements Si, Fe, Cr and Ni to a minor amount. Based on exclusion, carbonaceous material from IDPs and residues from meteoric ablation and fragmentation remain as the most probable sources.
Anja Costa, Jessica Meyer, Armin Afchine, Anna Luebke, Gebhard Günther, James R. Dorsey, Martin W. Gallagher, Andre Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Darrel Baumgardner, Heike Wex, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12219–12238,Short summary
The paper presents 38 h of in situ cloud spectrometer observations of microphysical cloud properties in the Arctic, midlatitudes and tropics. The clouds are classified via particle concentrations, size distributions, and – as a novelty – small particle aspherical fractions. Cloud-type profiles are given for different temperatures and locations. The results confine regions where different cloud transformation processes occurred and emphasise the importance of small particle shape detection.
Qing Mu, Gerhard Lammel, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Ying Chen, Petra Přibylová, Monique Teich, Yuxuan Zhang, Guangjie Zheng, Dominik van Pinxteren, Qiang Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Manabu Shiraiwa, Peter Spichtinger, Hang Su, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12253–12267,Short summary
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hazardous pollutants with the largest emissions in East Asia. The regional WRF-Chem-PAH model has been developed to reflect the state-of-the-art understanding of current PAHs studies with several new or updated features. It is able to reasonably well simulate the concentration levels and particulate mass fractions of PAHs near the sources and at a remote outflow region of East Asia, in high spatial and temporal resolutions.
Marcus Klingebiel, André Ehrlich, Fanny Finger, Timo Röschenthaler, Suad Jakirlić, Matthias Voigt, Stefan Müller, Rolf Maser, Manfred Wendisch, Peter Hoor, Peter Spichtinger, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3485–3498,Short summary
Microphysical and radiation measurements were collected with the unique AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle (AIRTOSS) – Learjet tandem platform. It is a combination of a Learjet 35A research aircraft and an instrumented aerodynamic bird, which can be detached from and retracted back to the aircraft during flight. AIRTOSS and Learjet are equipped with radiative, cloud microphysical, trace gas, and meteorological instruments to study cirrus clouds.
André Ehrlich, Eike Bierwirth, Larysa Istomina, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3215–3230,Short summary
In the Arctic, uncertainties in passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size. Therefore, a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives liquid water cloud and snow surface parameters, including cloud optical thickness, droplet effective radius, and effective snow grain size. Airborne measurements were used to test the retrieval procedure.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat, Christoph Mahnke, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Christiane Voigt, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10037–10050,Short summary
We study the effects of aerosol particles and updraft speed on the warm phase of Amazonian clouds. We expand the sensitivity analysis usually found in the literature by concomitantly considering cloud evolution and the effects on droplet size distribution (DSD) shape. The quantitative results show that particle concentration is the primary driver for the vertical profiles of effective diameter and droplet concentration in the warm phase of Amazonian convective clouds.
Alexander Jost, Miklós Szakáll, Karoline Diehl, Subir K. Mitra, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9717–9732,Short summary
During riming of graupel and hail, soluble chemical trace constituents contained in the liquid droplets could be retained while freezing onto the glaciated particle, or released back to the air potentially at other altitudes as retained. Quantification of retention constitutes a major uncertainty in numerical models for atmospheric chemistry and improvements hinge upon experimental determination of retention for carboxylic acids, aldehydes, SO2, H2O2, NH2, and others, as presented in this paper.
Evelyn Jäkel, Manfred Wendisch, Trismono C. Krisna, Florian Ewald, Tobias Kölling, Tina Jurkat, Christiane Voigt, Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Armin Afchine, Anja Costa, Martina Krämer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Tianle Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9049–9066,Short summary
Vertical profiles of the cloud particle phase state in tropical deep convective clouds (DCCs) were investigated using airborne imaging spectrometer measurements during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign, which was conducted over the Brazilian rainforest in September 2014. A phase discrimination retrieval was applied to observations of clouds formed in different aerosol conditions. The profiles were compared to in situ and satellite measurements.
Elisa Johanna Spreitzer, Manuel Patrik Marschalik, and Peter Spichtinger
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 24, 307–328,Short summary
We developed a simple analytical model for describing subvisible cirrus clouds qualitatively. Using theory of dynamical systems we found two different states for the long-term behaviour of subvisible cirrus clouds, i.e. an attractor case (stable equilibrium point) and a limit cycle scenario. The transition between the states constitutes a Hopf bifurcation and is determined by environmental conditions such as vertical updraughts and temperature.
Thomas Berkemeier, Markus Ammann, Ulrich K. Krieger, Thomas Peter, Peter Spichtinger, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Andrew J. Huisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8021–8029,Short summary
Kinetic process models are efficient tools used to unravel the mechanisms governing chemical and physical transformation in multiphase atmospheric chemistry. However, determination of kinetic parameters such as reaction rate or diffusion coefficients from multiple data sets is often difficult or ambiguous. This study presents a novel optimization algorithm and framework to determine these parameters in an automated fashion and to gain information about parameter uncertainty and uniqueness.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ralf Weigel, Tina Jurkat, Meinrat O. Andreae, Manfred Wendisch, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Christiane Voigt, Christoph Mahnke, Stephan Borrmann, Rachel I. Albrecht, Sergej Molleker, Daniel A. Vila, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7365–7386,
Johannes R. W. Fachinger, Stéphane J. Gallavardin, Frank Helleis, Friederike Fachinger, Frank Drewnick, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1623–1637,Short summary
The design of an ion trap aerosol mass spectrometer was improved, allowing for the instrument's first field deployment. Detection limits were found to be sufficiently low for ambient measurements. Via MS-MS measurements the instrument is capable of differentiating ion fragments of different elemental compositions, but also fragments which only differ in their molecular structures. This could allow for e.g. the differentiation between sugars and carboxylic acids by MS–MS studies on m/z 60 and 73.
Kevin Wolf, André Ehrlich, Tilman Hüneke, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Frank Werner, Martin Wirth, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4283–4303,Short summary
The potential of airborne radiance measurements in the sideward and nadir directions for cirrus remote sensing is investigated. Therefore radiative transfer simulations were used and the sensitivity of upward radiance with respect to optical thickness, effective radius, surface albedo, wavelength and viewing angle was studied. It was shown that sideward observations lead to more accurate retrieval results. Investigating a case study of ML-CIRRUS, these findings are confirmed.
Michael Schäfer, Eike Bierwirth, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Frank Werner, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2359–2372,Short summary
Cloud optical thickness fields, retrieved from solar spectral radiance measurements, are used to investigate the directional structure of horizontal cloud inhomogeneities with scalar one-dimensional inhomogeneity parameters, two-dimensional auto-correlation functions, and two-dimensional Fourier analysis. The investigations reveal that it is not sufficient to quantify horizontal cloud inhomogeneities by one-dimensional inhomogeneity parameters; two-dimensional parameters are necessary.
Ulrich Schumann, Christoph Kiemle, Hans Schlager, Ralf Weigel, Stephan Borrmann, Francesco D'Amato, Martina Krämer, Renaud Matthey, Alain Protat, Christiane Voigt, and C. Michael Volk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2311–2346,Short summary
A long-lived (1 h) contrail and overshooting convection were observed in the tropics, near Darwin, Australia. The data are used to study the contrail life cycle at low temperatures and cirrus from deep overturning convection in the lower tropical stratosphere. Airborne in situ, lidar, profiler, radar, and satellite data, as well as a photo, are used to distinguish contrail cirrus from convective cirrus and to study the origin of the observed ice and aerosol, up to 2.3 km above the tropopause.
Johannes Schneider, Stephan Mertes, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1571–1593,Short summary
We analyzed the composition of cloud droplet residuals and of aerosol particles sampled on a mountaintop site. The data show that about 85 % of the submicron aerosol mass partitions into the cloud phase, and that the uptake of soluble compounds (nitric acid, ammonia, and organic gases) from the gas phase into the cloud droplets is very effective. This will lead to a redistribution of these compounds among the aerosol particles and thereby to a more uniform aerosol after cloud evaporation.
Susan Schmidt, Johannes Schneider, Thomas Klimach, Stephan Mertes, Ludwig Paul Schenk, Piotr Kupiszewski, Joachim Curtius, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 575–594,Short summary
Ice formation in clouds is an important process in the formation of precipitation, especially at midlatitudes, but the exact properties of the aerosol particles that initiate freezing is not fully understood. We analysed residual particles from ice crystals sampled from mixed phase clouds. The results show that the residues contain a larger relative amount of soil dust and minerals, but also particles from industrial emissions and lead-containing particles, than the out-of-cloud aerosol.
Caroline Struckmeier, Frank Drewnick, Friederike Fachinger, Gian Paolo Gobbi, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15277–15299,Short summary
The characteristics of ambient aerosol during two seasons (spring/autumn) and at two locations (suburban/urban) in Rome were investigated. We distinguished regionally advected and locally produced organic aerosols, including from cooking, traffic and biomass burning, but also from locally emitted cigarette smoke, for which we propose a new marker peak for identification in aerosol mass spectra. The impact of Saharan dust advection events on local aerosol concentration was studied.
Frank Werner, Galina Wind, Zhibo Zhang, Steven Platnick, Larry Di Girolamo, Guangyu Zhao, Nandana Amarasinghe, and Kerry Meyer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5869–5894,Short summary
A research–level retrieval algorithm for cloud optical and microphysical properties is developed for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra satellite. This yields reliable estimates of important cloud variables at a horizontal resolution of 30 m. Comparisons of the ASTER retrieval results with the operational cloud products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) show a high agreement for 48 example cloud fields.
Gavin J. Phillips, Jim Thieser, Mingjin Tang, Nicolas Sobanski, Gerhard Schuster, Johannes Fachinger, Frank Drewnick, Stephan Borrmann, Heinz Bingemer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13231–13249,Short summary
We use trace gas measurements (N2O5, ClNO2, NO3) and particle properties (surface area, nitrate content etc.) to derive uptake coefficients (the probability of removal from the gas-phase on a per-collision basis) for the interaction of N2O5 with ambient aerosol and also the efficiency of formation of ClNO2. The uptake coefficients show high variability but are reasonably well captured by parameterisations based on laboratory measurements.
Ralf Weigel, Peter Spichtinger, Christoph Mahnke, Marcus Klingebiel, Armin Afchine, Andreas Petzold, Martina Krämer, Anja Costa, Sergej Molleker, Philipp Reutter, Miklós Szakáll, Max Port, Lucas Grulich, Tina Jurkat, Andreas Minikin, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5135–5162,Short summary
The subject of our study concerns measurements with optical array probes (OAPs) on fast-flying aircraft such as the G550 (HALO or HIAPER). At up to Mach 0.7 the effect of air compression upstream of underwing-mounted instruments and particles' inertia need consideration for determining ambient particle concentrations. Compared to conventional practices the introduced correction procedure eliminates ambiguities and exhibits consistency over flight speeds between 50 and 250 m s−.
Valery Shcherbakov, Olivier Jourdan, Christiane Voigt, Jean-Francois Gayet, Aurélien Chauvigne, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andreas Minikin, Marcus Klingebiel, Ralf Weigel, Stephan Borrmann, Tina Jurkat, Stefan Kaufmann, Romy Schlage, Christophe Gourbeyre, Guy Febvre, Tatyana Lapyonok, Wiebke Frey, Sergej Molleker, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11883–11897,
Wolfgang Woiwode, Michael Höpfner, Lei Bi, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, Hermann Oelhaf, Sergej Molleker, Stephan Borrmann, Marcus Klingebiel, Gennady Belyaev, Andreas Ebersoldt, Sabine Griessbach, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Thomas Gulde, Martina Krämer, Guido Maucher, Christof Piesch, Christian Rolf, Christian Sartorius, Reinhold Spang, and Johannes Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9505–9532,Short summary
The analysis of spectral signatures of a polar stratospheric cloud in airborne infrared remote sensing observations in the Arctic in combination with further collocated measurements supports the view that the observed cloud consisted of highly aspherical nitric acid trihydrate particles. A characteristic "shoulder-like" spectral signature may be exploited for identification of large, highly aspherical nitric acid trihydrate particles involved in denitrification of the polar winter stratosphere.
Martin Ebert, Ralf Weigel, Konrad Kandler, Gebhard Günther, Sergej Molleker, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Bärbel Vogel, Stephan Weinbruch, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8405–8421,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosol particles were collected within the arctic vortex in late winter. The chemical composition of refractory particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. More than 750 refractory particles with diameters above 500 nm were found consisting of silicates, Fe- and Ca-rich particles and metal mixtures. The detection of refractory particles in the late winter polar stratosphere has strong implications for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds and ozone depletion.
S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. A. T. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Fan, G. Fisch, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. L. Jimenez, U. Pöschl, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785–4797,Short summary
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Anna Luebke, Armin Afchine, Nicole Spelten, Anja Costa, Jessica Meyer, Martin Zöger, Jessica Smith, Robert L. Herman, Bernhard Buchholz, Volker Ebert, Darrel Baumgardner, Stephan Borrmann, Marcus Klingebiel, and Linnea Avallone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3463–3483,Short summary
A guide to cirrus clouds is compiled from extensive model simulations and aircraft observations. Two types of cirrus are found: rather thin in situ cirrus that form directly as ice and thicker liquid origin cirrus consisting of uplifted frozen liquid drops. Over Europe, thinner in situ and liquid origin cirrus occur often together with frontal systems, while over the US and the Tropics, thick liquid origin cirrus formed in large convective systems are detected more frequently.
A. Roth, J. Schneider, T. Klimach, S. Mertes, D. van Pinxteren, H. Herrmann, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 505–524,Short summary
This paper reports on single-particle measurements of ambient aerosol particles and cloud residues sampled from orographic clouds on a mountain site in central Germany. The results show that soot particles can get efficiently activated in cloud droplets when they are mixed with or coated by sulfate and nitrate. Cloud processing leads to addition of nitrate and sulfate to the particles, thereby increasing the hygroscopicity of these particles when they remain in the air after cloud evaporation.
E. Jäkel, B. Mey, R. Levy, X. Gu, T. Yu, Z. Li, D. Althausen, B. Heese, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5237–5249,
B. Wehner, F. Werner, F. Ditas, R. A. Shaw, M. Kulmala, and H. Siebert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11701–11711,Short summary
During the CARRIBA campaign on Barbados, 91 cases with increased aerosol particle number concentrations near clouds were detected from helicopter-borne measurements. Most of these cases are correlated with enhanced irradiance in the ultraviolet range. The events have a mean length of 100m, corresponding to a lifetime of 300s, meaning a growth of several nm/h. Such high values cannot be explained by sulfuric acid alone; thus extremely low volatility organic compounds are probably involved here.
D. Chang, Y. Cheng, P. Reutter, J. Trentmann, S. M. Burrows, P. Spichtinger, S. Nordmann, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, and H. Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10325–10348,
F. Drewnick, J.-M. Diesch, P. Faber, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3811–3830,
A. Ehrlich and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3671–3684,
M. Beekmann, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Drewnick, J. Sciare, S. N. Pandis, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Crippa, F. Freutel, L. Poulain, V. Ghersi, E. Rodriguez, S. Beirle, P. Zotter, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Bressi, C. Fountoukis, H. Petetin, S. Szidat, J. Schneider, A. Rosso, I. El Haddad, A. Megaritis, Q. J. Zhang, V. Michoud, J. G. Slowik, S. Moukhtar, P. Kolmonen, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, A. Borbon, V. Gros, N. Marchand, J. L. Jaffrezo, A. Schwarzenboeck, A. Colomb, A. Wiedensohler, S. Borrmann, M. Lawrence, A. Baklanov, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9577–9591,Short summary
A detailed characterization of air quality in the Paris (France) agglomeration, a megacity, during two summer and winter intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations, revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported into the megacity from upwind regions. Unexpectedly, a major part of organic PM is of modern origin (woodburning and cooking activities, secondary formation from biogenic VOC).
M. Schäfer, E. Bierwirth, A. Ehrlich, E. Jäkel, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8147–8163,
S. Schmidt, J. Schneider, T. Klimach, S. Mertes, L. P. Schenk, J. Curtius, P. Kupiszewski, E. Hammer, P. Vochezer, G. Lloyd, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, S. Weinbruch, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
M. Klingebiel, A. de Lozar, S. Molleker, R. Weigel, A. Roth, L. Schmidt, J. Meyer, A. Ehrlich, R. Neuber, M. Wendisch, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 617–631,
W. Frey, S. Borrmann, F. Fierli, R. Weigel, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, F. Ravegnani, N. M. Sitnikov, A. Ulanovsky, and F. Cairo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13223–13240,Short summary
This study presents in situ cloud microphysical observations obtained during a double flight in a Hector thunderstorm during the SCOUT-O3 campaign from Darwin, Northern Australia, in 2005. The measurements show a change of the micophysics with the storm's evolution. The clouds in the dissipating stage possess a high potential for affecting the humidity in the tropical tropopause layer.
K. Diehl, M. Debertshäuser, O. Eppers, H. Schmithüsen, S. K. Mitra, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12343–12355,
W. Woiwode, J.-U. Grooß, H. Oelhaf, S. Molleker, S. Borrmann, A. Ebersoldt, W. Frey, T. Gulde, S. Khaykin, G. Maucher, C. Piesch, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11525–11544,
S. Molleker, S. Borrmann, H. Schlager, B. Luo, W. Frey, M. Klingebiel, R. Weigel, M. Ebert, V. Mitev, R. Matthey, W. Woiwode, H. Oelhaf, A. Dörnbrack, G. Stratmann, J.-U. Grooß, G. Günther, B. Vogel, R. Müller, M. Krämer, J. Meyer, and F. Cairo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10785–10801,
A. Cirisan, B. P. Luo, I. Engel, F. G. Wienhold, M. Sprenger, U. K. Krieger, U. Weers, G. Romanens, G. Levrat, P. Jeannet, D. Ruffieux, R. Philipona, B. Calpini, P. Spichtinger, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7341–7365,
H. Joos, P. Spichtinger, P. Reutter, and F. Fusina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6835–6852,
C. Fricke, A. Ehrlich, E. Jäkel, B. Bohn, M. Wirth, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1943–1958,
F. Freutel, F. Drewnick, J. Schneider, T. Klimach, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3131–3145,
P. Spichtinger and M. Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9801–9818,
M. von Hobe, S. Bekki, S. Borrmann, F. Cairo, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ebersoldt, M. Ebert, C. Emde, I. Engel, M. Ern, W. Frey, S. Genco, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, G. Günther, E. Hösen, L. Hoffmann, V. Homonnai, C. R. Hoyle, I. S. A. Isaksen, D. R. Jackson, I. M. Jánosi, R. L. Jones, K. Kandler, C. Kalicinsky, A. Keil, S. M. Khaykin, F. Khosrawi, R. Kivi, J. Kuttippurath, J. C. Laube, F. Lefèvre, R. Lehmann, S. Ludmann, B. P. Luo, M. Marchand, J. Meyer, V. Mitev, S. Molleker, R. Müller, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, Y. Orsolini, T. Peter, K. Pfeilsticker, C. Piesch, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, F. D. Pope, F. Ravegnani, M. Rex, M. Riese, T. Röckmann, B. Rognerud, A. Roiger, C. Rolf, M. L. Santee, M. Scheibe, C. Schiller, H. Schlager, M. Siciliani de Cumis, N. Sitnikov, O. A. Søvde, R. Spang, N. Spelten, F. Stordal, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, A. Ulanovski, J. Ungermann, S. Viciani, C. M. Volk, M. vom Scheidt, P. von der Gathen, K. Walker, T. Wegner, R. Weigel, S. Weinbruch, G. Wetzel, F. G. Wienhold, I. Wohltmann, W. Woiwode, I. A. K. Young, V. Yushkov, B. Zobrist, and F. Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9233–9268,
E. Kienast-Sjögren, P. Spichtinger, and K. Gierens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9021–9037,
M. Schäfer, E. Bierwirth, A. Ehrlich, F. Heyner, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1855–1868,
E. Bierwirth, A. Ehrlich, M. Wendisch, J.-F. Gayet, C. Gourbeyre, R. Dupuy, A. Herber, R. Neuber, and A. Lampert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1189–1200,
E. Jäkel, M. Wendisch, and B. Mayer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 527–537,
E. Jäkel, J. Walter, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 539–547,
F. Freutel, J. Schneider, F. Drewnick, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, R. Sarda-Estève, J. F. Burkhart, S. Eckhardt, A. Stohl, V. Gros, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J. F. Doussin, A. Borbon, M. Haeffelin, Y. Morille, M. Beekmann, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 933–959,
M. Crippa, P. F. DeCarlo, J. G. Slowik, C. Mohr, M. F. Heringa, R. Chirico, L. Poulain, F. Freutel, J. Sciare, J. Cozic, C. F. Di Marco, M. Elsasser, J. B. Nicolas, N. Marchand, E. Abidi, A. Wiedensohler, F. Drewnick, J. Schneider, S. Borrmann, E. Nemitz, R. Zimmermann, J.-L. Jaffrezo, A. S. H. Prévôt, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 961–981,
Related subject area
Subject: Radiation | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Fifty-six years of surface solar radiation and sunshine duration over São Paulo, Brazil: 1961–2016Changes in the surface broadband shortwave radiation budget during the 2017 eclipseReassessment of shortwave surface cloud radiative forcing in the Arctic: consideration of surface-albedo–cloud interactionsDeposition of brown carbon onto snow: changes in snow optical and radiative propertiesSolar UV radiation measurements in Marambio, Antarctica, during years 2017–2019A revisiting of the parametrization of downward longwave radiation in summer over the Tibetan Plateau based on high-temporal-resolution measurementsTrends in surface radiation and cloud radiative effect at four Swiss sites for the 1996–2015 periodCan downwelling far-infrared radiances over Antarctica be estimated from mid-infrared information?Measurements of spectral irradiance during the solar eclipse of 21 August 2017: reassessment of the effect of solar limb darkening and of changes in total ozoneUV measurements at Marambio and Ushuaia during 2000–2010On the suitability of current atmospheric reanalyses for regional warming studies over ChinaA long-term time series of global and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation in the Mediterranean: interannual variability and cloud effectsLong-term series and trends in surface solar radiation in Athens, GreeceReconstruction and analysis of erythemal UV radiation time series from Hradec Králové (Czech Republic) over the past 50 yearsTrends in erythemal doses at the Polish Polar Station, Hornsund, Svalbard based on the homogenized measurements (1996–2016) and reconstructed data (1983–1995)Effects of vernal equinox solar eclipse on temperature and wind direction in SwitzerlandSky radiance at a coastline and effects of land and ocean reflectivitiesImpact of aerosols and clouds on decadal trends in all-sky solar radiation over the Netherlands (1966–2015)Contributions of surface solar radiation and precipitation to the spatiotemporal patterns of surface and air warming in China from 1960 to 2003Multiresolution analysis of the spatiotemporal variability in global radiation observed by a dense network of 99 pyranometersValidation of satellite-based noontime UVI with NDACC ground-based instruments: influence of topography, environment and satellite overpass timeIs global dimming and brightening in Japan limited to urban areas?The climatology of planetary boundary layer height in China derived from radiosonde and reanalysis dataDetection of dimming/brightening in Italy from homogenized all-sky and clear-sky surface solar radiation records and underlying causes (1959–2013)Comparison of land–atmosphere interaction at different surface types in the mid- to lower reaches of the Yangtze River valleyLocal short-term variability in solar irradianceThe contrasting roles of water and dust in controlling daily variations in radiative heating of the summertime Saharan heat lowGlobal dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?Short- and long-term variability of spectral solar UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece: effects of changes in aerosols, total ozone and cloudsOn the progress of the 2015–2016 El Niño eventRole of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming in the cold season over east AsiaAssessment of long-term WRF–CMAQ simulations for understanding direct aerosol effects on radiation "brightening" in the United StatesComparison of OMI UV observations with ground-based measurements at high northern latitudesCharacterisation of J(O1D) at Cape Grim 2000–2005On the scaling of the solar incident fluxAnalysis of actinic flux profiles measured from an ozonesonde balloonRelations between erythemal UV dose, global solar radiation, total ozone column and aerosol optical depth at Uccle, BelgiumSolar irradiance in the heterogeneous albedo environment of the Arctic coast: measurements and a 3-D model studyAssessment of the effect of air pollution controls on trends in shortwave radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from multiple observation networksNear-surface meteorology during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS): evaluation of reanalyses and global climate modelsHigh levels of ultraviolet radiation observed by ground-based instruments below the 2011 Arctic ozone holeSpectral albedo of seasonal snow during intensive melt period at Sodankylä, beyond the Arctic CircleExperimental and modeled UV erythemal irradiance under overcast conditions: the role of cloud optical depthAtmospheric impacts on climatic variability of surface incident solar radiationDecadal variations in estimated surface solar radiation over Switzerland since the late 19th centuryUncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.Trends of solar ultraviolet irradiance at Barrow, Alaska, and the effect of measurement uncertainties on trend detectionThe influence of solar variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation on lower atmospheric temperatures and sea level pressureAnalysis on the impact of aerosol optical depth on surface solar radiation in the Shanghai megacity, ChinaThe Smithsonian solar constant data revisited: no evidence for a strong effect of solar activity in ground-based insolation data
Marcia Akemi Yamasoe, Nilton Manuel Évora Rosário, Samantha Novaes Santos Martins Almeida, and Martin Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6593–6603,Short summary
Spatio-temporal disparity to assess global dimming and brightening phenomena has been a critical topic. For instance, few studies addressed surface solar irradiation (SSR) long-term trend in South America. In this study, SSR, sunshine duration (SD) and the diurnal temperature range (DTR) are analysed for São Paulo, Brazil. We found a dimming phase, identified by SSR, SD and DTR, extending till 1983. Then, while SSR is still declining, consistent with cloud increasing, SD and DTR are increasing.
Guoyong Wen, Alexander Marshak, Si-Chee Tsay, Jay Herman, Ukkyo Jeong, Nader Abuhassan, Robert Swap, and Dong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10477–10491,Short summary
We combine the ground-based observations and radiative transfer model to quantify the impact of the 2017 solar eclipse on surface shortwave irradiation reduction. We find that the eclipse caused local reductions of time-averaged surface flux of about 379 W m-2 (50 %) and 329 W m-2 (46 %) during the ~ 3 h course of the eclipse at the Casper and Columbia sites, respectively. We estimate that the Moon’s shadow caused a reduction of approximately 7 %–8 % in global average surface broadband SW radiation.
Johannes Stapf, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Christof Lüpkes, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9895–9914,
Nicholas D. Beres, Deep Sengupta, Vera Samburova, Andrey Y. Khlystov, and Hans Moosmüller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6095–6114,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) aerosol can be produced by the smoldering combustion of peat, a wildland fuel common at high latitude, often adjacent to the cryosphere. However, little is known about how BrC deposition onto snow changes snow optical and radiative properties. Here, we artificially deposited BrC onto natural snow surfaces, monitored changes of the spectral surface albedo, characterized optical properties of deposited aerosol, and compared to modeled values of albedo and radiative forcing.
Margit Aun, Kaisa Lakkala, Ricardo Sanchez, Eija Asmi, Fernando Nollas, Outi Meinander, Larisa Sogacheva, Veerle De Bock, Antti Arola, Gerrit de Leeuw, Veijo Aaltonen, David Bolsée, Klara Cizkova, Alexander Mangold, Ladislav Metelka, Erko Jakobson, Tove Svendby, Didier Gillotay, and Bert Van Opstal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6037–6054,Short summary
In 2017, new measurements of UV radiation started in Marambio, Antarctica, by the Finnish Meteorological Institute in collaboration with the Argentinian Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. The paper presents the results of UV irradiance measurements from March 2017 to March 2019, and it compares them with those from 2000–2008 and also with UV measurements at other Antarctic stations. In 2017/2018, below average UV radiation levels were recorded due to favourable ozone and cloud conditions.
Mengqi Liu, Xiangdong Zheng, Jinqiang Zhang, and Xiangao Xia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4415–4426,Short summary
This study uses 1 min radiation and lidar measurements at three stations over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) to parametrize downward longwave radiation (DLR) during summer months. Clear-sky DLR can be estimated from the best parametrization with a RMSE of 3.8 W m-2 and R2 > 0.98. Additionally cloud base height under overcast conditions is shown to play an important role in cloudy DLR parametrization, which is considered in the locally calibrated parametrization over the TP for the first time.
Stephan Nyeki, Stefan Wacker, Christine Aebi, Julian Gröbner, Giovanni Martucci, and Laurent Vuilleumier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13227–13241,Short summary
The trends of meteorological parameters and surface downward shortwave radiation (DSR) and downward longwave radiation (DLR) were analysed at four stations (between 370 and 3580 m a. s. l.) in Switzerland for the 1996–2015 period. Trends in DSR and DLR were positive during cloudy as well as clear conditions. The trend due to the influence of clouds decreased in magnitude, which implies a reduction in cloud cover and/or a change towards a different cloud type over the four Swiss sites.
Christophe Bellisario, Helen E. Brindley, Simon F. B. Tett, Rolando Rizzi, Gianluca Di Natale, Luca Palchetti, and Giovanni Bianchini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7927–7937,Short summary
We explore the possibility of inferring far-infrared downwelling radiances from mid-infrared observations to better constrain radiation schemes in climate models. Our results imply that while it is feasible to use this type of approach, the quality of the extension will be strongly dependent on the noise characteristics of the observations and on the accurate characterisation of the atmospheric state.
Germar Bernhard and Boyan Petkov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4703–4719,Short summary
Solar radiation at ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths was measured during the total solar eclipse of 21 August 2017. Data were used to study the wavelength-dependent changes of solar radiation at Earth’s surface and to validate parameterizations of solar limb darkening (LD), which describes the change in the Sun’s brightness between its center and its edge. The study highlights the importance of the LD effect when calculating total ozone and aerosol optical depth during an eclipse.
Kaisa Lakkala, Alberto Redondas, Outi Meinander, Laura Thölix, Britta Hamari, Antonio Fernando Almansa, Virgilio Carreno, Rosa Delia García, Carlos Torres, Guillermo Deferrari, Hector Ochoa, Germar Bernhard, Ricardo Sanchez, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16019–16031,Short summary
Solar UV irradiances were measured at Ushuaia (54° S) and Marambio (64° S) during 2000–2013. The measurements were part of the Antarctic NILU-UV network, which was maintained as a cooperation between Spain, Argentina and Finland. The time series of the network were analysed for the first time in this study. At both stations maximum UV indices and daily doses were measured when spring-time ozone loss episodes occurred. The maximum UV index was 13 and 12 in Ushuaia and Marambio, respectively.
Chunlüe Zhou, Yanyi He, and Kaicun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8113–8136,
Pamela Trisolino, Alcide di Sarra, Fabrizio Anello, Carlo Bommarito, Tatiana Di Iorio, Daniela Meloni, Francesco Monteleone, Giandomenico Pace, Salvatore Piacentino, and Damiano Sferlazzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7985–8000,Short summary
The long-term (2002–2016) variability of global and diffuse PAR over the central Mediterranean is investigated based on measurements from Lampedusa. PAR modulates biological processes and this study provides useful insight into its variability. Seasonal and interannual variability of global and diffuse PAR is characterized and the effects of clouds are quantified. The analysis suggests that 77 % of the global PAR interannual variability may be ascribed to clouds.
Stelios Kazadzis, Dimitra Founda, Basil E. Psiloglou, Harry Kambezidis, Nickolaos Mihalopoulos, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Charikleia Meleti, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Fragiskos Pierros, and Pierre Nabat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2395–2411,Short summary
The National Observatory of Athens has been collecting solar radiation, sunshine duration, and cloud and visibility data/observations since the beginning of the 20th century. In this work we present surface solar radiation data since 1953 and reconstructed data since 1900. We have attempted to show and discuss the long-term changes in solar surface radiation over Athens, Greece, using these unique datasets.
Klára Čížková, Kamil Láska, Ladislav Metelka, and Martin Staněk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1805–1818,Short summary
In order to broaden the knowledge of long-term UV radiation variability, we have reconstructed and analyzed a 50-year-long UV radiation time series from Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. The UV radiation intensities increased greatly following the decline of ozone amounts in the 1980s and 1990s. High UV radiation doses were observed in days with low ozone amounts, clear or partly cloudy skies, or snow cover.
Janusz W. Krzyścin and Piotr S. Sobolewski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1–11,Short summary
Maintaining homogeneity of long-term UV time series taken from various instruments and thus trend estimation are challenging tasks, especially for remote Arctic sites. Highlights: method of the UV data homogenization is proposed to be used at any remote site. Past UV data built from satellite total O3 and ground-based sunshine duration. Yearly UV doses trendless in the southern Svalbard for 34-year period since 1983. Long-term cloud effects on UV more important than the ozone effects there.
Werner Eugster, Carmen Emmel, Sebastian Wolf, Nina Buchmann, Joseph P. McFadden, and Charles David Whiteman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14887–14904,Short summary
The effects of penumbral shading of the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 on near-surface meteorology across Switzerland (occultation 65.8–70.1 %) was investigated. Temperature effects at 184 weather stations are compared with temperature drops reported in the literature since 1834. A special focus is, however, put on wind direction effects observed at six flux sites (with 20 Hz data) and 165 meteorological stations (with 10 min resolution data). Results show the importance of local topography.
Axel Kreuter, Mario Blumthaler, Martin Tiefengraber, Richard Kift, and Ann R. Webb
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14353–14364,Short summary
We have done measurements of the sky's brightness at the Italian coast and show the influence of the underlying surface: looking towards the land, the sky can be up to 50 % brighter than opposite viewing directions towards the ocean as a result of higher land reflectivity. At low solar elevations, the specular reflection from the ocean, or sun glint, increases the zenith brightness. Understanding these effects requires a 3-D model and is important when retrieving, e.g., aerosol properties.
Reinout Boers, Theo Brandsma, and A. Pier Siebesma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8081–8100,Short summary
In the Netherlands 9 W m−2 more solar radiation falls on the surface today than 50 years ago. Often this increase, which has also been detected in surrounding western Europe, has been attributed to decreasing air pollution due to improved regulatory practices. However, over the Netherlands clouds play an important but ambiguous role. Cloud cover has increased but have become optically thinner as well. Here, the impact of clouds on radiation is in fact more important than that of air pollution.
Jizeng Du, Kaicun Wang, Jiankai Wang, and Qian Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4931–4944,
Bomidi Lakshmi Madhavan, Hartwig Deneke, Jonas Witthuhn, and Andreas Macke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3317–3338,Short summary
A method has been introduced to assess the representativeness of the time series of a point measurement compared to results for a larger area centered around the measurement location. This method allows one to determine the optimal accuracy that can be achieved for the validation of satellite products for a given pixel footprint, or the evaluation of an atmospheric model with a given grid-cell resolution.
Colette Brogniez, Frédérique Auriol, Christine Deroo, Antti Arola, Jukka Kujanpää, Béatrice Sauvage, Niilo Kalakoski, Mikko Riku Aleksi Pitkänen, Maxime Catalfamo, Jean-Marc Metzger, Guy Tournois, and Pierre Da Conceicao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15049–15074,Short summary
The atmospheric ozone layer is changing, thus the UV radiation at the surface is changing. Due to both beneficial and adverse effects of UV on the biosphere, monitoring of UV is essential. Satellite sensors provide estimates of UV at the surface with a global coverage. Validation of satellite-sensor UV is therefore needed and this can be done by comparison with ground-based measurements. The present validation in three sites (midlatitude, tropical) shows that OMI and GOME-2 provide reliable UV.
Katsumasa Tanaka, Atsumu Ohmura, Doris Folini, Martin Wild, and Nozomu Ohkawara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13969–14001,Short summary
Surface solar radiation observed in Japan generally shows a strong decline until the end of the 1980s and then a recovery up until around 2000. A substantial number of measurement stations are located close to populated areas and are speculated to have been influenced by air pollution. However, data obtained at 14 meteorological observatories suggest that the large decadal variations in surface solar radiation occur on a large scale and not limited to urban areas.
Jianping Guo, Yucong Miao, Yong Zhang, Huan Liu, Zhanqing Li, Wanchun Zhang, Jing He, Mengyun Lou, Yan Yan, Lingen Bian, and Panmao Zhai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13309–13319,Short summary
The large-scale PBL climatology from sounding observations is still lacking in China. This work investigated the BLH characterization at diurnal, monthly and seasonal timescales throughout China, showing large geographic and meteorological dependences. BLH is, on average, negatively (positively) associated with the surface pressure and lower tropospheric stability (wind speed and temperature). Cloud tends to suppress the development of the PBL, which has implications for air quality forecasts.
Veronica Manara, Michele Brunetti, Angela Celozzi, Maurizio Maugeri, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, and Martin Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11145–11161,Short summary
This paper presents the temporal evolution of solar radiation over Italy for the 1959–2013 period and discusses possible reasons for differences between all-sky and clear-sky conditions in order to understand which part of the solar radiation variability depends on aerosols or clouds. The results give evidence of a relevant influence of both anthropogenic and natural aerosols on solar radiation long-term variability.
Weidong Guo, Xueqian Wang, Jianning Sun, Aijun Ding, and Jun Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9875–9890,Short summary
Basic characteristics of land–atmosphere interactions at four neighboring sites with different underlying surfaces in southern China, a typical monsoon region, are analyzed systematically. Despite the same climate background, the differences in land surface characteristics like albedo and aerodynamic roughness length due to land use/cover change exert distinct influences on the surface radiative budget and energy allocation and result in differences of near-surface micrometeorological elements.
Gerald M. Lohmann, Adam H. Monahan, and Detlev Heinemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6365–6379,Short summary
Increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) power systems call for the characterization of irradiance variability with very high spatiotemporal resolution. We use 1 Hz irradiance data recorded by as many as 99 pyranometers and show mixed sky conditions to differ substantially from clear and overcast skies. For example, the probabilities of strong fluctuations and their respective spatial autocorrelation structures are appreciably distinct under mixed conditions.
John H. Marsham, Douglas J. Parker, Martin C. Todd, Jamie R. Banks, Helen E. Brindley, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Alexander J. Roberts, and Claire L. Ryder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3563–3575,Short summary
The roles of water, clouds and airborne dust in controlling the heating of the Sahara are uncertain, which has major implications for the West African monsoon. Observations from the Fennec project, with satellite data, show that total atmospheric water content provides a far stronger control on total radiative heating than dust does, but dust provides the stronger control on surface heating. Therefore major heating errors in global models are likely due to known errors in water transport.
Adel Imamovic, Katsumasa Tanaka, Doris Folini, and Martin Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2719–2725,Short summary
Systematic measurements of surface solar radiation revealed a worldwide decrease from the 1960s to the mid-1980s. The role of urbanization for this so called global dimming is still under debate. We developed a set of population-data based urbanization indicators and found no correlation between urbanization and global dimming for Europe and Japan, while an urbanization impact can't be precluded for Asia. It is thus called into question whether the global dimming was mainly a local phenomenon.
Ilias Fountoulakis, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Konstantinos Fragkos, Charickleia Meleti, Kleareti Tourpali, and Melina Maria Zempila
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2493–2505,Short summary
Short- and long-term variability of spectral UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece, is discussed in association with changes in total ozone column, aerosols and cloudiness. The UV data set from two Brewer spectrophotometers is used for the analysis. For the entire period 1994–2014, positive, statistically significant increases of UV irradiance were found, mainly attributable to changes in aerosols. UV irradiance is mainly increased from 1994 to 2006 and remains relatively stable thereafter.
Costas A. Varotsos, Chris G. Tzanis, and Nicholas V. Sarlis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2007–2011,Short summary
It has been recently reported that the current 2015–2016 El Niño could become "one of the strongest on record". To further explore this claim, we performed a new analysis that allows the detection of precursory signals of the strong El Niño events by using a recently developed non-linear dynamics tool. The analysis of the SOI time series shows that the 2015–2016 El Niño would be rather a "moderate to strong" or even a "strong” event and not "one of the strongest on record", as that of 1997–1998.
X. Guan, J. Huang, R. Guo, H. Yu, P. Lin, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13777–13786,Short summary
Dynamical adjustment methodology has been applied to the raw surface air temperature and has successfully identified and separated the contribution of dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT). It found that regional anthropogenic radiative forcing caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities.
C.-M. Gan, J. Pleim, R. Mathur, C. Hogrefe, C. N. Long, J. Xing, D. Wong, R. Gilliam, and C. Wei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12193–12209,Short summary
This study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act especially on trends in solar radiation. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth, aerosol concentration, and radiation demonstrate that the coupled WRF-CMAQ model is capable of replicating the trends well even though it tends to underestimate the AOD.
G. Bernhard, A. Arola, A. Dahlback, V. Fioletov, A. Heikkilä, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, T. Svendby, and J. Tamminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7391–7412,Short summary
Surface erythemal UV data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are validated for high northern latitudes (Arctic and Scandinavia) using ground-based measurements. The bias in OMI data caused by incorrect assumptions of the surface albedo are quantified and the mechanism that causes this bias is discussed. Methods to improve the accuracy of OMI data products are presented.
S. R. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7337–7349,Short summary
Measurements of the photolysis rates which drive production of OH from ozone are reported for Cape Grim, a "clean-air" site in the southern midlatitudes. This remote maritime site sits in the Southern Ocean, a region of the globe which is little studied. From the 6 years of data the dependence of this photolysis on solar zenith angle and stratospheric ozone is determined. Included with the reported values is an estimate of the uncertainties in these measurements.
C. A. Varotsos, S. Lovejoy, N. V. Sarlis, C. G. Tzanis, and M. N. Efstathiou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7301–7306,Short summary
Varotsos et al. (Theor. Appl. Climatol., 114, 725–727, 2013) found that the solar ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths exhibit 1/f-type power-law correlations. In this study, we show that the residues of the spectral solar incident flux with respect to the Planck law over a wider range of wavelengths (i.e. UV-visible) have a scaling regime too.
P. Wang, M. Allaart, W. H. Knap, and P. Stammes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4131–4144,Short summary
A green light sensor has been developed at KNMI to measure actinic flux profiles together with an ozonesonde. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux is clearly detected. Good agreement is found between the DAK-simulated actinic flux profiles and the observations for single-layer clouds in fully overcast scenes. The instrument is suitable for operational balloon measurements because of its simplicity and low cost.
V. De Bock, H. De Backer, R. Van Malderen, A. Mangold, and A. Delcloo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12251–12270,
A. Kreuter, R. Buras, B. Mayer, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Bais, N. Kouremeti, and M. Blumthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5989–6002,
C.-M. Gan, J. Pleim, R. Mathur, C. Hogrefe, C. N. Long, J. Xing, S. Roselle, and C. Wei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1701–1715,
G. de Boer, M. D. Shupe, P. M. Caldwell, S. E. Bauer, O. Persson, J. S. Boyle, M. Kelley, S. A. Klein, and M. Tjernström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 427–445,
G. Bernhard, A. Dahlback, V. Fioletov, A. Heikkilä, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, and T. Svendby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10573–10590,
O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, A. Riihelä, P. Räisänen, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, R. Kouznetsov, M. Sofiev, J. Svensson, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J.-L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3793–3810,
M. Antón, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, J. C Chiu, and F. J. Olmo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11723–11732,
K. C. Wang, R. E. Dickinson, M. Wild, and S. Liang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9581–9592,
A. Sanchez-Lorenzo and M. Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 8635–8644,
S. Gubler, S. Gruber, and R. S. Purves
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5077–5098,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 13029–13045,
I. Roy and J. D. Haigh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11679–11687,
J. Xu, C. Li, H. Shi, Q. He, and L. Pan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3281–3289,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3291–3301,
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Solar spectra of optical layer properties of cirrus have been derived from the first truly collocated airborne radiation measurements using an aircraft and a towed sensor platform. The measured layer properties differ slightly due to horizontal cirrus inhomogeneities and the influence of low-level water clouds. Applying a 1-D radiative transfer model sensitivity studies were performed. It was found that if a low-level cloud is not considered, the solar cooling of the cirrus is strongly overestimated.
Solar spectra of optical layer properties of cirrus have been derived from the first truly...