Articles | Volume 15, issue 6
Research article 25 Mar 2015
Research article | 25 Mar 2015
Relating hygroscopicity and optical properties to chemical composition and structure of secondary organic aerosol particles generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene
C. Denjean et al.
No articles found.
Hongming Yi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Aline Gratien, Vincent Michoud, Edouard Pangui, Jean-Francois Doussin, and Weidong Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
HONO, NO2 plays a crucial role in the atmospheric oxidation capacity that affects the regional air quality and global climate. Accurate measurements of HONO are challenging due to the drawback of existing detection methods. Calibration-free, high-sensitivity, direct, simultaneous NO2, HONO and CH2O measurement with UV-IBBCEAS provide accurate and fast quantitative analysis of their concentration variation within their lifetime by intercomparison with NOx analyzer, FT-IR and NitroMAC sensor.
Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Sarah J. Doherty, Bernadette Luna, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michael S. Diamond, Yohei Shinozuka, Ian Y. Chang, Rei Ueyama, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Amie N. Dobracki, Arlindo M. da Silva, Karla M. Longo, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Connor J. Flynn, Kristina Pistone, Nichola M. Knox, Stuart J. Piketh, James M. Haywood, Paola Formenti, Marc Mallet, Philip Stier, Andrew S. Ackerman, Susanne E. Bauer, Ann M. Fridlind, Gregory R. Carmichael, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Brian Cairns, Brent N. Holben, Kirk D. Knobelspiesse, Simone Tanelli, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Andrew M. Dzambo, Ousmane O. Sy, Greg M. McFarquhar, Michael R. Poellot, Siddhant Gupta, Joseph R. O'Brien, Athanasios Nenes, Mary Kacarab, Jenny P. S. Wong, Jennifer D. Small-Griswold, Kenneth L. Thornhill, David Noone, James R. Podolske, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Peter Pilewskie, Hong Chen, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Timothy J. Lang, Eric Stith, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Richard A. Ferrare, Sharon P. Burton, Chris A. Hostetler, David J. Diner, Felix C. Seidel, Steven E. Platnick, Jeffrey S. Myers, Kerry G. Meyer, Douglas A. Spangenberg, Hal Maring, and Lan Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1507–1563,Short summary
Southern Africa produces significant biomass burning emissions whose impacts on regional and global climate are poorly understood. ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) is a 5-year NASA investigation designed to study the key processes that determine these climate impacts. The main purpose of this paper is to familiarize the broader scientific community with the ORACLES project, the dataset it produced, and the most important initial findings.
Jim M. Haywood, Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Nicolas Bellouin, Alan Blyth, Keith N. Bower, Melissa Brooks, Ken Carslaw, Haochi Che, Hugh Coe, Michael I. Cotterell, Ian Crawford, Zhiqiang Cui, Nicholas Davies, Beth Dingley, Paul Field, Paola Formenti, Hamish Gordon, Martin de Graaf, Ross Herbert, Ben Johnson, Anthony C. Jones, Justin M. Langridge, Florent Malavelle, Daniel G. Partridge, Fanny Peers, Jens Redemann, Philip Stier, Kate Szpek, Jonathan W. Taylor, Duncan Watson-Parris, Robert Wood, Huihui Wu, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1049–1084,Short summary
Every year, the seasonal cycle of biomass burning from agricultural practices in Africa creates a huge plume of smoke that travels many thousands of kilometres over the Atlantic Ocean. This study provides an overview of a measurement campaign called the cloud–aerosol–radiation interaction and forcing for year 2017 (CLARIFY-2017) and documents the rationale, deployment strategy, observations, and key results from the campaign which utilized the heavily equipped FAAM atmospheric research aircraft.
Danitza Klopper, Paola Formenti, Andreas Namwoonde, Mathieu Cazaunau, Servanne Chevaillier, Anaïs Feron, Cécile Gaimoz, Patrick Hease, Fadi Lahmidi, Cécile Mirande-Bret, Sylvain Triquet, Zirui Zeng, and Stuart J. Piketh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15811–15833,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosol particles is very important as it determines to which extent they can affect the Earth's climate by acting with solar light and modifying the properties of clouds. The South Atlantic region is a remote and under-explored region to date where these effects could be important. The measurements presented in this paper consist in the analysis of samples collected at a coastal site in Namibia. The first long-term source apportionment is presented and discussed.
Axel Fouqueau, Manuela Cirtog, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Jean-François Doussin, and Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15167–15189,
Patrick Chazette, Cyrille Flamant, Harald Sodemann, Julien Totems, Anne Monod, Elsa Dieudonné, Alexandre Baron, Andrew Seidl, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, Pascal Doira, Amandine Durand, and Sylvain Ravier
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In order to gain understanding on the vertical structure of atmospheric water vapour above mountain lakes and to assess the respective influence of evaporation and advection processes, the L-WAIVE (Lacustrine-Water vApor Isotope inVentory Experiment) field campaign was conducted in the Annecy valley in the French Alps in June 2019. This campaign was based on a synergy between a suite of ground-based, boat-borne, and airborne measuring platforms.
Clarissa Baldo, Paola Formenti, Sophie Nowak, Servanne Chevaillier, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Claudia Di Biagio, Jean-Francois Doussin, Konstantin Ignatyev, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, A. Robert MacKenzie, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13521–13539,Short summary
We showed that Icelandic dust has a fundamentally different chemical and mineralogical composition from low-latitude dust. In particular, magnetite is as high as 1 %–2 % of the total dust mass. Our results suggest that Icelandic dust may have an important impact on the radiation balance in the subpolar and polar regions.
Marc Mallet, Fabien Solmon, Pierre Nabat, Nellie Elguindi, Fabien Waquet, Dominique Bouniol, Andrew Mark Sayer, Kerry Meyer, Romain Roehrig, Martine Michou, Paquita Zuidema, Cyrille Flamant, Jens Redemann, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13191–13216,Short summary
This paper presents numerical simulations using two regional climate models to study the impact of biomass fire plumes from central Africa on the radiative balance of this region. The results indicate that biomass fires can either warm the regional climate when they are located above low clouds or cool it when they are located above land. They can also alter sea and land surface temperatures by decreasing solar radiation at the surface. Finally, they can also modify the atmospheric dynamics.
Benjamin Chazeau, Brice Temime-Roussel, Grégory Gille, Boualem Mesbah, Barbara D'Anna, Henri Wortham, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The temporal trends in the chemical composition and particle number of the submicron aerosols in a Mediterranean city, Marseille, are investigated over 14 months. Fifteen days were found to exceed the WHO PM2.5 daily limit (25 µg m−3) only during the cold period, with two distinct origins: local pollution events with an increased fraction of the carbonaceous fraction due to domestic wood burning and long-range pollution events with high level of oxygenated organic aerosol and ammonium nitrate.
Aurélien Chauvigné, Fabien Waquet, Frédérique Auriol, Luc Blarel, Cyril Delegove, Oleg Dubovik, Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Philippe Goloub, Rodrigue Loisil, Marc Mallet, Jean-Marc Nicolas, Frédéric Parol, Fanny Peers, Benjamin Torres, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The work presents aerosol above cloud properties close to the Namibian coast from a combination of airborne passive remote sensings. The complete analyse of aerosol and cloud optical properties as well as their microphysical and radiative properties allow us to better identify impacts of biomass burning emissions. This work also give a complete view of key-parameters to constrain climat models in case aerosol and cloud coexist in the troposphere.
Juan Miguel González-Sánchez, Nicolas Brun, Junteng Wu, Julien Morin, Brice Temime-Rousell, Sylvain Ravier, Camille Mouchel-Vallon, Jean-Louis Clément, and Anne Monod
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Organic nitrates play a crucial role on air pollution as they are considered as NOx reservoirs. This work lights up the importance of their reactions with OH radicals in the aqueous-phase (cloud/fog, wet aerosol), which is slower than in the gas-phase. For compounds that significantly partition in water such as polyfunctional biogenic nitrates, these aqueous-phase reactions should drive their atmospheric removal, leading to a broader spatial distribution of NOx than previously accounted for.
Evangelia Kostenidou, Alvaro Martinez-Valiente, Badr R'Mili, Baptiste Marques, Brice Temime-Roussel, Michel André, Yao Liu, Cédric Louis, Boris Vansevenant, Daniel Ferry, Carine Laffon, Philippe Parent, and Barbara D'Anna
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Passenger vehicles' emissions can be a significant source of particulate matter in urban areas. In this study the particle phase emissions of seven Euro 5 passenger cars were characterized. Changes in engine technologies and after-treatment devices can alter the chemical composition and the size of the emitted particulate matter. The condition of the Diesel Particle Filter (DPF) plays an important role on the emitted pollutants.
James Brean, David C. S. Beddows, Zongbo Shi, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, María Cruz Minguillón, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10029–10045,Short summary
New particle formation is a key process influencing both local air quality and climatically active cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. This study has carried out fundamental measurements of nucleation processes in Barcelona, Spain, and concludes that a mechanism involving stabilisation of sulfuric acid clusters by low molecular weight amines is primarily responsible for new particle formation events.
David O. De Haan, Lelia N. Hawkins, Kevin Jansen, Hannah G. Welsh, Raunak Pednekar, Alexia de Loera, Natalie G. Jimenez, Margaret A. Tolbert, Mathieu Cazaunau, Aline Gratien, Antonin Bergé, Edouard Pangui, Paola Formenti, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9581–9590,Short summary
When exposed to glyoxal in chamber experiments, dry ammonium or methylammonium sulfate particles turn brown immediately and reversibly without increasing in size. Much less browning was observed on wet aerosol particles, and no browning was observed with sodium sulfate aerosol. While estimated dry aerosol light absorption caused by background glyoxal (70 ppt) is insignificant compared to that of secondary brown carbon overall, in polluted regions this process could be a source of brown carbon.
Nelson Bègue, Lerato Shikwambana, Hassan Bencherif, Juan Pallotta, Venkataraman Sivakumar, Elian Wolfram, Nkanyiso Mbatha, Facundo Orte, David Jean Du Preez, Marion Ranaivombola, Stuart Piketh, and Paola Formenti
Ann. Geophys., 38, 395–420,Short summary
This study investigates the influence of the 2015 Calbuco eruption (41.2°S, 72.4°W; Chile) on the total columnar aerosol optical properties in the Southern Hemisphere. The well-known technique of sun photometry was applied to the investigation of the transport and the spatio-temporal evolution of the optical properties of the volcanic plume. The CIMEL sun photometer measurements performed over six South American and three African sites were statistically analyzed.
Samuel E. LeBlanc, Jens Redemann, Connor Flynn, Kristina Pistone, Meloë Kacenelenbogen, Michal Segal-Rosenheimer, Yohei Shinozuka, Stephen Dunagan, Robert P. Dahlgren, Kerry Meyer, James Podolske, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Jennifer Small-Griswold, Brent Holben, Michael Diamond, Robert Wood, Paola Formenti, Stuart Piketh, Gillian Maggs-Kölling, Monja Gerber, and Andreas Namwoonde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1565–1590,Short summary
The southeast Atlantic during August–October experiences layers of smoke from biomass burning over marine stratocumulus clouds. Here we present the light attenuation of the smoke and its dependence in the spatial, vertical, and spectral domain through direct measurements from an airborne platform during September 2016. From our observations of this climatically important smoke, we found an average aerosol optical depth of 0.32 at 500 nm, slightly lower than comparative satellite measurements.
Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault, Ricardo Suarez-Bertoa, Marius Duncianu, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Marc David, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 487–498,Short summary
Multifunctional organic nitrates are important atmospheric species that are known to play a key role in the transport of reactive nitrogen and in aerosol composition. However, very little is known about their atmospheric reactivity. Here we provide an experimental study on the photolysis and reaction of two carbonyl nitrates with OH radicals. Atmospheric implications and the influence of the chemical structure on the reactivity are discussed.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Yves Balkanski, Lorenzo Caponi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Emilie Journet, Sophie Nowak, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Thuraya Saeed, Stuart Piketh, David Seibert, Earle Williams, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15503–15531,Short summary
This paper presents a new dataset of laboratory measurements of the shortwave (SW) spectral complex refractive index and single-scattering albedo (SSA) for global mineral dust aerosols of varying origin and composition. Our results show that the dust refractive index and SSA vary strongly from source to source, mostly due to particle iron content changes. We recommend that source-dependent values of the SW spectral refractive index and SSA be used in models and remote sensing applications.
Patrick Chazette, Cyrille Flamant, Julien Totems, Marco Gaetani, Gwendoline Smith, Alexandre Baron, Xavier Landsheere, Karine Desboeufs, Jean-François Doussin, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14979–15005,Short summary
Evolution of the vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols in the free troposphere is analysed for the first time over the Namibian coast, a region where uncertainties on aerosol–cloud coupling in climate simulations are significant. The high variability of atmospheric aerosol composition is highlighted using a combination of ground-based, airborne and space-borne lidar. Aerosols are mainly transported from Angola, but part of the highest aerosol layer may come from South America.
Marc D. Mallet, Barbara D'Anna, Aurélie Même, Maria Chiara Bove, Federico Cassola, Giandomenico Pace, Karine Desboeufs, Claudia Di Biagio, Jean-Francois Doussin, Michel Maille, Dario Massabò, Jean Sciare, Pascal Zapf, Alcide Giorgio di Sarra, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11123–11142,Short summary
We present findings from a summertime field campaign at the remote island of Lampedusa in the central Mediterranean Sea. We show that the aerosol loading is similar to coastal sites around the Mediterranean. We observe higher loadings of sulfate and aged organic aerosol from air masses transported over the central and eastern Mediterranean in comparison to those from the western Mediterranean. These results highlight the rarity of pristine air masses, even in remote marine environments.
Marc Mallet, Pierre Nabat, Paquita Zuidema, Jens Redemann, Andrew Mark Sayer, Martin Stengel, Sebastian Schmidt, Sabrina Cochrane, Sharon Burton, Richard Ferrare, Kerry Meyer, Pablo Saide, Hiren Jethva, Omar Torres, Robert Wood, David Saint Martin, Romain Roehrig, Christina Hsu, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4963–4990,Short summary
The model is able to represent LWP but not the LCF. AOD is consistent over the continent but also over ocean (ACAOD). Differences are observed in SSA due to the absence of internal mixing in ALADIN-Climate. A significant regional gradient of the forcing at TOA is observed. An intense positive forcing is simulated over Gabon. Results highlight the significant effect of enhanced moisture on BBA extinction. The surface dimming modifies the energy budget.
María José Granados-Muñoz, Michael Sicard, Roberto Román, Jose Antonio Benavent-Oltra, Rubén Barragán, Gerard Brogniez, Cyrielle Denjean, Marc Mallet, Paola Formenti, Benjamín Torres, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 523–542,Short summary
The influence of mineral dust in the direct radiative effect is affected by a large uncertainty. This study investigates mineral dust radiative properties during an episode affecting southern Spain in June 2013 by using remote sensors and data collected on board an aircraft to feed a radiative transfer model. The study reveals the complexity of parameterizing these models, as characterizing mineral dust is still quite challenging, and the need for accurate mineral dust measurements.
Paola Formenti, Lydie Mbemba Kabuiku, Isabelle Chiapello, Fabrice Ducos, François Dulac, and Didier Tanré
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6761–6784,Short summary
Aerosol particles from natural and anthropogenic sources are climate regulators as they can counteract or amplify the warming effect of greenhouse gases, but are difficult to observe due to their temporal and spatial variability. Satellite sensors can provide the needed global coverage but need validation. In this paper we explore the capability of the POLDER-3 advanced space-borne sensor to observe aerosols over the western Mediterranean region.
Claire L. Ryder, Franco Marenco, Jennifer K. Brooke, Victor Estelles, Richard Cotton, Paola Formenti, James B. McQuaid, Hannah C. Price, Dantong Liu, Patrick Ausset, Phil D. Rosenberg, Jonathan W. Taylor, Tom Choularton, Keith Bower, Hugh Coe, Martin Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Gary Lloyd, Eleanor J. Highwood, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17225–17257,Short summary
Every year, millions of tons of Saharan dust particles are carried across the Atlantic by the wind, where they can affect weather patterns and climate. Their sizes span orders of magnitude, but the largest (over 10 microns – around the width of a human hair) are difficult to measure and few observations exist. Here we show new aircraft observations of large dust particles, finding more than we would expect, and we quantify their properties which allow them to interact with atmospheric radiation.
Paola Formenti, Stuart John Piketh, Andreas Namwoonde, Danitza Klopper, Roelof Burger, Mathieu Cazaunau, Anaïs Feron, Cécile Gaimoz, Stephen Broccardo, Nicola Walton, Karine Desboeufs, Guillaume Siour, Mattheus Hanghome, Samuel Mafwila, Edosa Omoregie, Wolfgang Junkermann, and Willy Maenhaut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17003–17016,Short summary
Three-years of continuous measurements at the Henties Bay Aerosol Observatory (HBAO; 22°S, 14°05’E), Namibia, show that during the austral wintertime, long- and medium-range transport of pollution from biomass and fossil fuel burning give rise to peaks of light-absorbing black carbon aerosols into the marine boundary layer ahead of the main biomass burning season. This could affect the cloud properties.
Cristina Carnerero, Noemí Pérez, Cristina Reche, Marina Ealo, Gloria Titos, Hong-Ku Lee, Hee-Ram Eun, Yong-Hee Park, Lubna Dada, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Enrique Mantilla, Miguel Escudero, Francisco J. Gómez-Moreno, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Esther Coz, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, David C. S. Beddows, Roy M. Harrison, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Kang-Ho Ahn, Andrés Alastuey, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16601–16618,Short summary
The vertical distribution of new particle formation events was studied using tethered balloons carrying miniaturized instrumentation. Results show that new particle formation and growth occurs only in the lower layer of the atmosphere, where aerosols are mixed due to convection, especially when the atmosphere is clean. A comparison of urban and suburban surface stations was also made, suggesting that such events may have a significant impact on ultrafine particle concentrations in a wide area.
Dario Massabò, Silvia Giulia Danelli, Paolo Brotto, Antonio Comite, Camilla Costa, Andrea Di Cesare, Jean François Doussin, Federico Ferraro, Paola Formenti, Elena Gatta, Laura Negretti, Maddalena Oliva, Franco Parodi, Luigi Vezzulli, and Paolo Prati
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5885–5900,
Anne-Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Christophe Boissard, Elena Ormeño, Juliette Lathière, Ilja M. Reiter, Henri Wortham, Jean-Philippe Orts, Brice Temime-Roussel, Bertrand Guenet, Svenja Bartsch, Thierry Gauquelin, and Catherine Fernandez
Biogeosciences, 15, 4711–4730,Short summary
From seasonal in situ observations on how a Mediterranean ecosystem responds to drought, a specific isoprene emission (ER, emission rates) algorithm was developed, upon which 2100 projections (IPCC RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios) were made. Emission rates were found to be mainly sensitive to future temperature changes and poorly represented by current empirical emission models. Drought was found to aggravate thermal stress on emission rates.
Amelie Bertrand, Giulia Stefenelli, Simone M. Pieber, Emily A. Bruns, Brice Temime-Roussel, Jay G. Slowik, Henri Wortham, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10915–10930,Short summary
We model the evolution of several BBOA markers including levoglucosan during aging experiments conducted in an atmospheric Teflon chamber, in order to evaluate the influence of vapor wall loss on the determination of the rate constants of the compounds with hydroxyl radicals (OH).
Amelie Bertrand, Giulia Stefenelli, Coty N. Jen, Simone M. Pieber, Emily A. Bruns, Haiyan Ni, Brice Temime-Roussel, Jay G. Slowik, Allen H. Goldstein, Imad El Haddad, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, Henri Wortham, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7607–7624,Short summary
A thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph coupled to an aerosol mass spectrometer (TAG–AMS) is connected to an atmospheric chamber. The setup serves the quantitative study of the impact of combustion conditions and atmospheric aging on the chemical fingerprint at the molecular level of biomass burning organic aerosol.
Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Gotzon Gangoiti, Noemí Perez, Hong K. Lee, Heeram R. Eun, Yonghee Park, Enrique Mantilla, Miguel Escudero, Gloria Titos, Lucio Alonso, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, Juan R. Moreta, M. Arantxa Revuelta, Pedro Salvador, Begoña Artíñano, Saúl García dos Santos, Mónica Anguas, Alberto Notario, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Roy M. Harrison, Millán Millán, and Kang-Ho Ahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6511–6533,Short summary
We show the main drivers of high O3 episodes in and around Madrid. High levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) are evidenced, but we demonstrate that most O3 arises from the fumigation of high atmospheric layers, whereas UFPs are generated inside the PBL. O3 contributions from the fumigation of the vertical recirculation of regional air masses, hemispheric transport, and horizontally from direct urban plume transport are shown. Complexity arises from the need to quantify them to abate surface O3.
Daniela Meloni, Alcide di Sarra, Gérard Brogniez, Cyrielle Denjean, Lorenzo De Silvestri, Tatiana Di Iorio, Paola Formenti, José L. Gómez-Amo, Julian Gröbner, Natalia Kouremeti, Giuliano Liuzzi, Marc Mallet, Giandomenico Pace, and Damiano M. Sferlazzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4377–4401,Short summary
This study examines how different aerosol optical properties determine the dust longwave radiative effects at the surface, in the atmosphere and at the top of the atmosphere, based on the combination of remote sensing and in situ observations from the ground, from airborne sensors, and from space, by means of radiative transfer modelling. The closure experiment is based on longwave irradiances and spectral brightness temperatures measured during the 2013 ChArMEx–ADRIMED campaign at Lampedusa.
Allison N. Schwier, Karine Sellegri, Sébastien Mas, Bruno Charrière, Jorge Pey, Clémence Rose, Brice Temime-Roussel, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, David Parin, David Picard, Mickael Ribeiro, Greg Roberts, Richard Sempéré, Nicolas Marchand, and Barbara D'Anna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14645–14660,Short summary
In the present paper, we quantify sea-to-air emission fluxes of aerosol to the atmosphere and characterize their physical and chemical properties as a function of the seawater biochemical and physical properties. Fluxes are evaluated with an original approach, a "lab in the field" experiment that preserves the seawater and atmospheric complexity while isolating air-to-sea exchanges from their surroundings. We show different features of the aerosol emission fluxes compared to previous findings.
Peter J. Gallimore, Chiara Giorio, Brendan M. Mahon, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14485–14500,Short summary
This work helps to better understand the potential climate and health impacts of airborne aerosol particles. We applied a new technique to provide a diagnostic fingerprint of the organic compounds present in aerosols. We followed changes in this fingerprint over time in lab experiments which mimic the conversion of plant emissions into aerosols. Our results compare well with computer simulations of the reactions and we conclude that the technique merits continuing use and development in future.
Peter J. Gallimore, Brendan M. Mahon, Francis P. H. Wragg, Stephen J. Fuller, Chiara Giorio, Ivan Kourtchev, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9853–9868,Short summary
Limonene is emitted in substantial quantities by plants, and also has indoor sources from
air freshenersand cleaning products. We studied particle formation from the oxidation of limonene and found substantial quantities of oxidising components which are thought to be associated with the negative health effects of particulates. State-of-the-art measurements of the products of limonene–ozone chemistry were also presented.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Nicolas Marchand, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2923–2939,Short summary
Mineral dust is one of the most abundant aerosol species at the global scale and an accurate estimation of its absorption at solar wavelengths is crucial to assess its impact on climate. In this work we provide an estimate of the Aethalometer multiple scattering correction for mineral dust aerosols at 450 and 660 nm. Our results suggest that the use of an optimized correction factor can lead to up to 11 % higher absorption coefficient and to 3 % higher single scattering albedo for mineral dust.
Amélie Saunier, Elena Ormeño, Christophe Boissard, Henri Wortham, Brice Temime-Roussel, Caroline Lecareux, Alexandre Armengaud, and Catherine Fernandez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7555–7566,Short summary
We investigated the BVOC emissions variations of Quercus Pubescens, under natural and amplified drought, in situ, in order to determine the dependency to light and/or temperature of these emissions. Our results showed that all BVOC emissions were reduced with amplified drought. Moreover, we highlighted two dependences: (i) light and temperature and (ii) light and temperature during the day and to temperature during the night. These results can be useful to enhance emission models.
Lorenzo Caponi, Paola Formenti, Dario Massabó, Claudia Di Biagio, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Servanne Chevaillier, Gautier Landrot, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Stuart Piketh, Thuraya Saeed, Dave Seibert, Earle Williams, Yves Balkanski, Paolo Prati, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7175–7191,Short summary
This paper presents new laboratory measurements of the shortwave mass absorption efficiency (MAE) used by climate models for mineral dust of different origin and at different sizes. We found that small particles are more efficient, by given mass, in absorbing radiation, particularly at shorter wavelength. Because dust has high concentrations in the atmosphere, light absorption by mineral dust can be competitive to other absorbing atmospheric aerosols such as black and brown carbon.
Marius Duncianu, Marc David, Sakthivel Kartigueyane, Manuela Cirtog, Jean-François Doussin, and Benedicte Picquet-Varrault
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1445–1463,Short summary
A commercial PTR-ToF-MS has been optimized in order to allow the measurement of individual organic nitrates in the atmosphere. This has been accomplished by shifting the distribution between different ionizing analytes. The proposed approach has been proved to be appropriate for the online detection of individual alkyl nitrates and functionalized nitrates.
Igor B. Konovalov, Matthias Beekmann, Evgeny V. Berezin, Paola Formenti, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4513–4537,Short summary
A shortage of consistent observational evidence on biomass burning (BB) aerosol aging processes hinders the development of their adequate representations in atmospheric models. Here we show that useful insights into the BB aerosol dynamics can be obtained from analysis of satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth and carbon dioxide. Our results indicate that aging processes strongly affect the evolution of BB aerosol in smoke plumes from wildfires in Siberia.
Camille Mouchel-Vallon, Laurent Deguillaume, Anne Monod, Hélène Perroux, Clémence Rose, Giovanni Ghigo, Yoann Long, Maud Leriche, Bernard Aumont, Luc Patryl, Patrick Armand, and Nadine Chaumerliac
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1339–1362,Short summary
The Cloud Explicit Physico-chemical Scheme (CLEPS 1.0) describes oxidation of water-soluble organic compounds resulting from isoprene oxidation. It is based on structure activity relationships (SARs) (global rate constants and branching ratios for HO• abstraction and addition) and GROMHE SAR (Henry's law constants for undocumented species). It is coupled to the MCM gas phase mechanism and is included in a model using the DSMACC model and KPP to analyze experimental and field data.
Giuliano Liuzzi, Guido Masiello, Carmine Serio, Daniela Meloni, Claudia Di Biagio, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 599–615,Short summary
In this work we have given a contribution to better understand some of the properties of the desert dust plumes in the western Mediterranean, using both direct measurements and satellite observations. This study has mainly evidenced that satellite observations can provide information about the geographical provenance of dust. This is important because such variability is reflected in the way in which dust interacts with atmosphere and impacts over the observed infrared radiation from satellites.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Yves Balkanski, Lorenzo Caponi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Emilie Journet, Sophie Nowak, Sandrine Caquineau, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Thuraya Saeed, Stuart Piketh, David Seibert, Earle Williams, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1901–1929,Short summary
Modeling the interaction of dust with long-wave (LW) radiation is still a challenge due to the scarcity of information on their refractive index. In this paper, we present a unique dataset of dust refractive indices obtained from in situ measurements in a large smog chamber. Our results show that the dust LW refractive index varies strongly from source to source due to particle composition changes. We recommend taking this variability into account in climate and remote sensing applications.
Emily A. Bruns, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, Dogushan Kilic, Felix Klein, Josef Dommen, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 705–720,Short summary
We characterize primary and aged gaseous emissions from residential wood combustion using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This approach allows for improved characterization, particularly of oxygenated gases, which are a considerable fraction of the total gaseous mass emitted during residential wood combustion. This study is the first thorough characterization of organic gases from this source and provides a benchmark for future studies.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Lionel Doppler, Cécile Gaimoz, Noel Grand, Gerard Ancellet, Jean-Luc Attié, Silvia Bucci, Philippe Dubuisson, Federico Fierli, Marc Mallet, and François Ravetta
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10591–10607,Short summary
Pollution aerosols strongly influence the composition of the Western Mediterranean, but at present little is known on their optical properties. Here, we report observations of pollution aerosols measured during the TRAQA airborne campaign in summer 2012. Data from this study indicate a large variability of the absorption for pollution particles. This variability strongly influences their direct radiative effect, with possible consequences on the hydrological cycle in this part of the basin.
Rachel Gemayel, Stig Hellebust, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nathalie Hayeck, Johannes T. Van Elteren, Henri Wortham, and Sasho Gligorovski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1947–1959,Short summary
LAAP-ToF-MS has been optimized for particle size and number concentration evolution and characterization of the chemical composition of ambient particles by following specific ions. The advantage of this instrument is that it can analyze the ambient particles online and continuously. It is capable of analyzing inorganic material in ambient particles; in particular the presence of metals can be analyzed. Last but not least, it is a compact and easily transportable tool for field measurements.
L. Brégonzio-Rozier, C. Giorio, F. Siekmann, E. Pangui, S. B. Morales, B. Temime-Roussel, A. Gratien, V. Michoud, M. Cazaunau, H. L. DeWitt, A. Tapparo, A. Monod, and J.-F. Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1747–1760,Short summary
The impact of cloud events on isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has been studied from an isoprene/ NOx/light system in an atmospheric simulation chamber. aqSOA formation can be linked to water soluble volatile organic compounds' dissolution in the aqueous phase and to further aqueous phase reactions. Cloud-induced SOA formation is experimentally demonstrated in this study, thus highlighting the importance of aqueous multiphase systems in atmospheric SOA formation estimations.
S. Mailler, L. Menut, A. G. di Sarra, S. Becagli, T. Di Iorio, B. Bessagnet, R. Briant, P. Formenti, J.-F. Doussin, J. L. Gómez-Amo, M. Mallet, G. Rea, G. Siour, D. M. Sferlazzo, R. Traversi, R. Udisti, and S. Turquety
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1219–1244,Short summary
We studied the impact of aerosols on tropospheric photolysis rates at Lampedusa during the CharMEx/ADRIMED campaign in June 2013. It is shown by using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model (CTM) as well as in situ and remote-sensing measurements that taking into account the radiative effect of the tropospheric aerosols improves the ability of the model to reproduce the observed photolysis rates. It is hence important for CTMs to include the radiative effect of aerosols on photochemistry.
C. Denjean, F. Cassola, A. Mazzino, S. Triquet, S. Chevaillier, N. Grand, T. Bourrianne, G. Momboisse, K. Sellegri, A. Schwarzenbock, E. Freney, M. Mallet, and P. Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1081–1104,Short summary
This study investigates the size distribution, chemical composition, and optical properties of Saharan mineral dust transported over the western Mediterranean using in situ measurements collected from aircraft. Their variability due to altitude, time of transport, and mixing rate with pollution particles are discussed. We found moderate light absorption of the dust plumes even in the presence of pollution particles and the persistence of large dust particles after transport in the Mediterranean.
M. Mallet, F. Dulac, P. Formenti, P. Nabat, J. Sciare, G. Roberts, J. Pelon, G. Ancellet, D. Tanré, F. Parol, C. Denjean, G. Brogniez, A. di Sarra, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. Arndt, F. Auriol, L. Blarel, T. Bourrianne, P. Chazette, S. Chevaillier, M. Claeys, B. D'Anna, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, T. Di Iorio, J.-F. Doussin, P. Durand, A. Féron, E. Freney, C. Gaimoz, P. Goloub, J. L. Gómez-Amo, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, N. Grand, E. Hamonou, I. Jankowiak, M. Jeannot, J.-F. Léon, M. Maillé, S. Mailler, D. Meloni, L. Menut, G. Momboisse, J. Nicolas, T. Podvin, V. Pont, G. Rea, J.-B. Renard, L. Roblou, K. Schepanski, A. Schwarzenboeck, K. Sellegri, M. Sicard, F. Solmon, S. Somot, B Torres, J. Totems, S. Triquet, N. Verdier, C. Verwaerde, F. Waquet, J. Wenger, and P. Zapf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 455–504,Short summary
The aim of this article is to present an experimental campaign over the Mediterranean focused on aerosol-radiation measurements and modeling. Results indicate an important atmospheric loading associated with a moderate absorbing ability of mineral dust. Observations suggest a complex vertical structure and size distributions characterized by large aerosols within dust plumes. The radiative effect is highly variable, with negative forcing over the Mediterranean and positive over northern Africa.
C. Di Biagio, L. Doppler, C. Gaimoz, N. Grand, G. Ancellet, J.-C. Raut, M. Beekmann, A. Borbon, K. Sartelet, J.-L. Attié, F. Ravetta, and P. Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9611–9630,Short summary
Observations from this study indicate that continental pollution largely affects the atmospheric composition and structure of the western Mediterranean basin. Pollution plumes reach 3000-4000 m in altitude and present a very complex and highly stratified structure, characterized by fresh and aged layers both in the boundary layer and in the free troposphere. Also we report the observations of high levels of ultrafine particles over the basin, possibly linked to new particle formation events.
B. Ervens, P. Renard, S. Tlili, S. Ravier, J.-L. Clément, and A. Monod
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9109–9127,Short summary
A detailed chemical mechanism is developed based on laboratory studies that predicts the formation of high molecular weight compounds in the aqueous phase of atmospheric aerosol particles. Model simulations using this mechanism for atmospheric conditions show that these pathways are likely not a substantial source of particle mass, unless unidentified precursors for these compounds exist that were not taken into account so far and/or the solubility of oxygen in aerosol water is overestimated.
C. L. Ryder, J. B. McQuaid, C. Flamant, P. D. Rosenberg, R. Washington, H. E. Brindley, E. J. Highwood, J. H. Marsham, D. J. Parker, M. C. Todd, J. R. Banks, J. K. Brooke, S. Engelstaedter, V. Estelles, P. Formenti, L. Garcia-Carreras, C. Kocha, F. Marenco, H. Sodemann, C. J. T. Allen, A. Bourdon, M. Bart, C. Cavazos-Guerra, S. Chevaillier, J. Crosier, E. Darbyshire, A. R. Dean, J. R. Dorsey, J. Kent, D. O'Sullivan, K. Schepanski, K. Szpek, J. Trembath, and A. Woolley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8479–8520,Short summary
Measurements of the Saharan atmosphere and of atmospheric mineral dust are lacking but are vital to our understanding of the climate of this region and their impacts further afield. Novel observations were made by the Fennec climate programme during June 2011 and 2012 using ground-based, remote sensing and airborne platforms. Here we describe the airborne observations and the contributions they have made to furthering our understanding of the Saharan climate system.
L. Menut, S. Mailler, G. Siour, B. Bessagnet, S. Turquety, G. Rea, R. Briant, M. Mallet, J. Sciare, P. Formenti, and F. Meleux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6159–6182,Short summary
The ozone and aerosol concentration variability is studied over the Euro-Mediterranean area during the months of June and July 2013 and in the framework of the ADRIMED project. A first analysis is performed using meteorological variables, ozone and aerosol concentrations using routine network station, satellite and specific ADRIMED project airborne measurements. This analysis is complemented by modeling using the WRF and CHIMERE regional models.
I. Kourtchev, J.-F. Doussin, C. Giorio, B. Mahon, E. M. Wilson, N. Maurin, E. Pangui, D. S. Venables, J. C. Wenger, and M. Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5683–5695,
H. L. DeWitt, S. Hellebust, B. Temime-Roussel, S. Ravier, L. Polo, V. Jacob, C. Buisson, A. Charron, M. André, A. Pasquier, J. L. Besombes, J. L. Jaffrezo, H. Wortham, and N. Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4373–4387,Short summary
By performing source-apportionment modeling, the amount of primary and secondary organic emissions was resolved from a bulk aerosol data set measured adjacent to a major highway in France. Over 70% of vehicles on this highway were diesel, and a high concentration of BC and NOx were measured. Even close to a major highway, the bulk of the aerosol mass was secondary in nature. Radiocarbon data revealed that most of the fossil organic carbon was from primary vehicular emissions and not from SOA.
P. Nabat, S. Somot, M. Mallet, M. Michou, F. Sevault, F. Driouech, D. Meloni, A. di Sarra, C. Di Biagio, P. Formenti, M. Sicard, J.-F. Léon, and M.-N. Bouin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3303–3326,Short summary
This paper uses an original approach based on a coupled regional aerosol--atmosphere--ocean model to study the dust radiative effects over the Mediterranean in summer 2012. After an evaluation of the prognostic aerosol scheme, the dust aerosol daily variability is shown to improve the simulated surface radiation and temperature at the daily scale. It has also a significant impact on the summer average, thus highlighting the importance of a relevant representation of aerosols in climate models.
L. Brégonzio-Rozier, F. Siekmann, C. Giorio, E. Pangui, S. B. Morales, B. Temime-Roussel, A. Gratien, V. Michoud, S. Ravier, M. Cazaunau, A. Tapparo, A. Monod, and J.-F. Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2953–2968,Short summary
First- and higher order -generation products formed from the oxidation of isoprene and methacrolein with OH radicals in the presence of NOx have been studied in a simulation chamber. Differences in light source are proposed to partially explain the discrepancies observed between different studies in the literature for both isoprene- and methacrolein-SOA mass yields. According to our results, these SOA yields in the atmosphere could be lower than suggested by most of the current chamber studies.
C. Denjean, P. Formenti, B. Picquet-Varrault, M. Camredon, E. Pangui, P. Zapf, Y. Katrib, C. Giorio, A. Tapparo, B. Temime-Roussel, A. Monod, B. Aumont, and J. F. Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 883–897,
P. Renard, F. Siekmann, G. Salque, C. Demelas, B. Coulomb, L. Vassalo, S. Ravier, B. Temime-Roussel, D. Voisin, and A. Monod
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 21–35,
C. Di Biagio, H. Boucher, S. Caquineau, S. Chevaillier, J. Cuesta, and P. Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11093–11116,
P. Formenti, S. Caquineau, K. Desboeufs, A. Klaver, S. Chevaillier, E. Journet, and J. L. Rajot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10663–10686,
W. Ait-Helal, A. Borbon, S. Sauvage, J. A. de Gouw, A. Colomb, V. Gros, F. Freutel, M. Crippa, C. Afif, U. Baltensperger, M. Beekmann, J.-F. Doussin, R. Durand-Jolibois, I. Fronval, N. Grand, T. Leonardis, M. Lopez, V. Michoud, K. Miet, S. Perrier, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. Schneider, G. Siour, P. Zapf, and N. Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10439–10464,
L. Menut, S. Mailler, G. Siour, B. Bessagnet, S. Turquety, G. Rea, R. Briant, M. Mallet, J. Sciare, and P. Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
C. Denjean, P. Formenti, B. Picquet-Varrault, Y. Katrib, E. Pangui, P. Zapf, and J. F. Doussin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 183–197,
J.-F. Doussin and A. Monod
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11625–11641,
P. Renard, F. Siekmann, A. Gandolfo, J. Socorro, G. Salque, S. Ravier, E. Quivet, J.-L. Clément, M. Traikia, A.-M. Delort, D. Voisin, V. Vuitton, R. Thissen, and A. Monod
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6473–6491,
A. Waked, C. Seigneur, F. Couvidat, Y. Kim, K. Sartelet, C. Afif, A. Borbon, P. Formenti, and S. Sauvage
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5873–5886,
Q. J. Zhang, M. Beekmann, F. Drewnick, F. Freutel, J. Schneider, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prevot, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, V. Gros, A. Borbon, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J.-F. Doussin, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Haeffelin, J.-C. Dupont, G. Siour, H. Petetin, B. Bessagnet, S. N. Pandis, A. Hodzic, O. Sanchez, C. Honoré, and O. Perrussel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5767–5790,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Brown carbon's emission factors and optical characteristics in household biomass burning: developing a novel algorithm for estimating the contribution of brown carbonEffect of mixing structure on the water uptake of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and phthalic acid particlesToward closure between predicted and observed particle viscosity over a wide range of temperatures and relative humidityThe effects of morphology, mobility size, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material coating on the ice nucleation activity of black carbon in the cirrus regimeThe ice-nucleating activity of Arctic sea surface microlayer samples and marine algal culturesSize-Resolved Atmospheric Ice Nucleating Particles during East Asian Dust EventsComparing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) volatility distributions derived from isothermal SOA particle evaporation data and FIGAERO–CIMS measurementsLaboratory studies of fresh and aged biomass burning aerosol emitted from east African biomass fuels – Part 1: Optical propertiesEnhanced growth rate of atmospheric particles from sulfuric acidAqueous phase behavior of glyoxal and methylglyoxal observed with carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopyComposition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from oxidation of real tree emissions compared to simplified volatile organic compound (VOC) systemsEffects of SO2 on optical properties of secondary organic aerosol generated from photooxidation of toluene under different relative humidity conditionsInfluence of the dry aerosol particle size distribution and morphology on the cloud condensation nuclei activation. An experimental and theoretical investigationExperimental investigation into the volatilities of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs)Detection of tar brown carbon with a single particle soot photometer (SP2)Complex refractive indices and single-scattering albedo of global dust aerosols in the shortwave spectrum and relationship to size and iron contentTechnical note: Frenkel, Halsey and Hill analysis of water on clay minerals: toward closure between cloud condensation nuclei activity and water adsorptionLiquid–liquid phase separation and viscosity within secondary organic aerosol generated from diesel fuel vaporsLaboratory study of the heterogeneous ice nucleation on black-carbon-containing aerosolSpecifying the light-absorbing properties of aerosol particles in fresh snow samples, collected at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS), ZugspitzeOptimization of process models for determining volatility distribution and viscosity of organic aerosols from isothermal particle evaporation dataInversely modeling homogeneous H2SO4 − H2O nucleation rate in exhaust-related conditionsThe importance of crystalline phases in ice nucleation by volcanic ashHeterogeneous ice nucleation properties of natural desert dust particles coated with a surrogate of secondary organic aerosolCloud condensation nuclei activity of six pollenkitts and the influence of their surface activityLinks of climate variability in Arctic sea ice, Eurasian teleconnection pattern and summer surface ozone pollution in North ChinaThe effect of hydrophobic glassy organic material on the cloud condensation nuclei activity of particles with different morphologiesTechnical note: The role of evolving surface tension in the formation of cloud dropletsPhysical properties of secondary photochemical aerosol from OH oxidation of a cyclic siloxaneCloud droplet activation of secondary organic aerosol is mainly controlled by molecular weight, not water solubilityProduction of particulate brown carbon during atmospheric aging of residential wood-burning emissionsEvaluating the performance of two surface layer schemes for the momentum and heat exchange processes during severe haze pollution in Jing-Jin-Ji in eastern ChinaMeasured particle water uptake enhanced by co-condensing vapoursCloud droplet activation of black carbon particles coated with organic compounds of varying solubilityMeasurement and modeling of the multiwavelength optical properties of uncoated flame-generated sootLiquid–liquid phase separation in organic particles containing one and two organic species: importance of the average O : CEstablishing the impact of model surfactants on cloud condensation nuclei activity of sea spray aerosol mimicsMorphological transformation of soot: investigation of microphysical processes during the condensation of sulfuric acid and limonene ozonolysis product vaporsExperimental study of H2SO4 aerosol nucleation at high ionization levelsDetermination of the refractive index of insoluble organic extracts from atmospheric aerosol over the visible wavelength range using optical tweezersHygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acidsIce-nucleating particle concentrations unaffected by urban air pollution in Beijing, ChinaInvestigating biomass burning aerosol morphology using a laser imaging nephelometerResolving nanoparticle growth mechanisms from size- and time-dependent growth rate analysisA detailed characterization of the Saharan dust collected during the Fennec campaign in 2011: in situ ground-based and laboratory measurementsHygroscopicity of organic surrogate compounds from biomass burning and their effect on the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate in mixed aerosol particlesNew particle formation in the sulfuric acid–dimethylamine–water system: reevaluation of CLOUD chamber measurements and comparison to an aerosol nucleation and growth modelThe role of ions in new particle formation in the CLOUD chamberPotential influences of neglecting aerosol effects on the NCEP GFS precipitation forecastEmission characteristics of refractory black carbon aerosols from fresh biomass burning: a perspective from laboratory experiments
Jianzhong Sun, Yuzhe Zhang, Guorui Zhi, Regina Hitzenberger, Wenjing Jin, Yingjun Chen, Lei Wang, Chongguo Tian, Zhengying Li, Rong Chen, Wen Xiao, Yuan Cheng, Wei Yang, Liying Yao, Yang Cao, Duo Huang, Yueyuan Qiu, Jiali Xu, Xiaofei Xia, Xin Yang, Xi Zhang, Zheng Zong, Yuchun Song, and Changdong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2329–2341,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) emission factors from household biomass fuels were measured with an integrating sphere optics approach supported by iterative calculations. A novel algorithm to directly estimate the absorption contribution of BrC relative to that of BrC + black carbon (FBrC) was proposed based purely on the absorption exponent (AAE) (FBrC = 0.5519 lnAAE + 0.0067). The FBrC for household biomass fuels was as high as 50.8 % across the strongest solar spectral range of 350−850 nm.
Weigang Wang, Ting Lei, Andreas Zuend, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Yajun Shi, Maofa Ge, and Mingyuan Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2179–2190,Short summary
Aerosol mixing state regulates the interactions between water molecules and particles and thus controls aerosol activation and hygroscopic growth, which thereby influences visibility degradation, cloud formation, and its radiative forcing. However, there are few studies attempting to investigate their interactions with water molecules. Here, we investigated the effect of organic coatings on the hygroscopic behavior of the inorganic core.
Sabin Kasparoglu, Ying Li, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Markus D. Petters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1127–1141,Short summary
Viscosity is important because it determines the lifetime, impact, and fate of particulate matter. We collected new data to rigorously test a framework that is used to constrain the phase state in global simulations. We find that the framework is accurate as long as appropriate compound specific inputs are available.
Cuiqi Zhang, Yue Zhang, Martin J. Wolf, Leonid Nichman, Chuanyang Shen, Timothy B. Onasch, Longfei Chen, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13957–13984,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is considered the second most important global warming agent. However, the role of BC aerosol–cloud–climate interactions in the cirrus formation remains uncertain. Our study of selected BC types and sizes suggests that increases in diameter, compactness, and/or surface oxidation of BC particles lead to more efficient ice nucleation (IN) via pore condensation freezing (PCF) pathways，and that coatings of common secondary organic aerosol (SOA) materials can inhibit ice formation.
Luisa Ickes, Grace C. E. Porter, Robert Wagner, Michael P. Adams, Sascha Bierbauer, Allan K. Bertram, Merete Bilde, Sigurd Christiansen, Annica M. L. Ekman, Elena Gorokhova, Kristina Höhler, Alexei A. Kiselev, Caroline Leck, Ottmar Möhler, Benjamin J. Murray, Thea Schiebel, Romy Ullrich, and Matthew E. Salter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11089–11117,Short summary
The Arctic is a region where aerosols are scarce. Sea spray might be a potential source of aerosols acting as ice-nucleating particles. We investigate two common phytoplankton species (Melosira arctica and Skeletonema marinoi) and present their ice nucleation activity in comparison with Arctic seawater microlayer samples from different field campaigns. We also aim to understand the aerosolization process of marine biological samples and the potential effect on the ice nucleation activity.
Jingchuan Chen, Zhijun Wu, Jie Chen, Naama Reicher, Xin Fang, Yinon Rudich, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Asian mineral dust is a crucial contributor to global ice nucleating particles (INPs), while its size-resolved information on freezing activity is extremely rare. Here we conducted the first known INP measurements of size-resolved airborne East Asian dust particles. An explicit size dependence of both INP concentration and surface ice active density was observed. The new parameterizations can be widely applied in models to better characterize and predict ice nucleation activities of Asian dust.
Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Angela Buchholz, Arttu Ylisirniö, Siegfried Schobesberger, Annele Virtanen, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10441–10458,Short summary
We compared the volatility distributions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constituents estimated from isothermal evaporation experiments from either particle size change data, by process modelling and global optimization, or from mass spectrometer data with positive matrix factorization analysis. Our results show that, despite the two very different estimation methods, the volatility distributions are comparable if uncertainties are taken into account.
Damon M. Smith, Marc N. Fiddler, Rudra P. Pokhrel, and Solomon Bililign
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10149–10168,Short summary
Biomass burning aerosol can scatter and absorb light, contributing to the cooling or warming of the planet. The scattering and absorption properties (optical properties) change as aerosol ages and interacts with atmospheric gases. Optical properties also depend on burning conditions, fuel type, and morphology. Africa is a major source of biomass burning aerosols, but there are very few laboratory studies. This study focuses on the optical properties of aerosols from east African biomass fuels.
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Georgia Michailoudi, Jack J. Lin, Hayato Yuzawa, Masanari Nagasaka, Marko Huttula, Nobuhiro Kosugi, Theo Kurtén, Minna Patanen, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study provides insight into hydration of two significant atmospheric compounds, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Using synchrotron radiation excited X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we confirm that glyoxal is fully hydrated in water, and for the first time, we experimentally detect enol structures in aqueous methylglyoxal. Our results support the contribution of these compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation, known to have a large uncertainty in atmospheric models and climate predictions.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Angela Buchholz, Claudia Mohr, Zijun Li, Luis Barreira, Andrew Lambe, Celia Faiola, Eetu Kari, Taina Yli-Juuti, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5629–5644,Short summary
We studied the chemical composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from emissions of Scots pines and compared those results to SOA formed from α-pinene and from a sesquiterpene mixture. We found that SOA formed from single precursors cannot capture the properties of SOA formed from real plant emissions.
Wenyu Zhang, Weigang Wang, Junling Li, Chao Peng, Kun Li, Li Zhou, Bo Shi, Yan Chen, Mingyuan Liu, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4477–4492,Short summary
We investigated the effect of SO2 under different humidities on optical properties of toluene-derived SOA under four conditions with CRDs and PAX at 532 and 375 nm, respectively. Our results showed that SO2 under different humidities can change the refractive complex index of toluene SOA by influencing the multiphase processes and altering the aerosol chemical compositions. Different atmospheric conditions could affect the properties of toluene SOA, as well as the global radiative balance.
Junteng Wu, Alessandro Faccinetto, Symphorien Grimonprez, Sébastien Batut, Jérôme Yon, Pascale Desgroux, and Denis Petitprez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4209–4225,Short summary
Soot particles released during anthropogenic activities may lead to positive direct or negative indirect climate forcing depending on their aging in the atmosphere. The latter occurs whenever soot particles act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and trigger the formation of persistent clouds. Herein, we investigate the impact of the size distribution and morphology of freshly emitted soot particles on their aging process and propose a model to quantitatively predict their efficiency as CCN.
Otso Peräkylä, Matthieu Riva, Liine Heikkinen, Lauriane Quéléver, Pontus Roldin, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 649–669,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules have been suggested to form a large part of secondary organic aerosol. However, with their exotic structures, their volatilities are not well known, making their exact role in particle formation hard to assess. In laboratory experiments, we found the volatility of HOMs formed in the ozonolysis of the monoterpene alpha-pinene to be in the middle of earlier estimates. The volatilities of HOMs could be well explained in terms of their molecular formulae.
Joel C. Corbin and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15673–15690,Short summary
We review the literature to refine the definition of "tar balls" (or tar particles). Then, using a marine-engine data set, we show that a standard SP2 can identify tar particles in two ways, as evaporating and non-incandescing (30 % of tar particles by number) or incandescing particles which scatter more light than soot at incandescence (70 % of tar particles by number). To our knowledge, no other technique can provide in situ, real-time evidence for the presence of tar particles in an aerosol.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Yves Balkanski, Lorenzo Caponi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Emilie Journet, Sophie Nowak, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Thuraya Saeed, Stuart Piketh, David Seibert, Earle Williams, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15503–15531,Short summary
This paper presents a new dataset of laboratory measurements of the shortwave (SW) spectral complex refractive index and single-scattering albedo (SSA) for global mineral dust aerosols of varying origin and composition. Our results show that the dust refractive index and SSA vary strongly from source to source, mostly due to particle iron content changes. We recommend that source-dependent values of the SW spectral refractive index and SSA be used in models and remote sensing applications.
Courtney D. Hatch, Paul R. Tumminello, Megan A. Cassingham, Ann L. Greenaway, Rebecca Meredith, and Matthew J. Christie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13581–13589,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust has been identified as an important contributor to cloud formation and cloud properties that influence the Earth's climate, yet experimental measurements of climate model parameters currently disagree. This study demonstrates current best practices for analyzing water adsorption measurements, resulting in significantly improved agreement among experimental practices. As such, more accurate parameters can be used to improve simulations of aerosol climate effects.
Mijung Song, Adrian M. Maclean, Yuanzhou Huang, Natalie R. Smith, Sandra L. Blair, Julia Laskin, Alexander Laskin, Wing-Sy Wong DeRieux, Ying Li, Manabu Shiraiwa, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12515–12529,
Leonid Nichman, Martin Wolf, Paul Davidovits, Timothy B. Onasch, Yue Zhang, Doug R. Worsnop, Janarjan Bhandari, Claudio Mazzoleni, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12175–12194,Short summary
Previous studies showed widespread ice nucleation activity of soot. In this systematic study we investigated the factors that affect the heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of soot surrogates in the cirrus cloud regime. Our observations are consistent with an ice nucleation mechanism of pore condensation followed by freezing. The results show significant variations in ice nucleation activity as a function of size, morphology, and surface chemistry of the black-carbon-containing particles.
Martin Schnaiter, Claudia Linke, Inas Ibrahim, Alexei Kiselev, Fritz Waitz, Thomas Leisner, Stefan Norra, and Till Rehm
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10829–10844,Short summary
When combustion particles are deposited to the ground, they darken Earth's snow and ice surfaces by even tiny quantities. This darkening reduces the back reflection of sunlight and induces an additional climate warming. Particles from fresh snow samples were investigated according to their light absorption strength. Enhanced absorption was found in the snow that cannot fully be attributed to combustion particles. Dust and biogenic matter are likely the cause of this additional snow darkening.
Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Väinö Hämäläinen, Grazia Rovelli, Antti Lipponen, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jonathan P. Reid, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9333–9350,Short summary
We assessed how well the organic aerosol particle composition and viscosity can be captured by optimizing process models to match particle evaporation data. We performed the analysis for both artificial and real evaporation data and tested two optimization algorithms. Our findings show that the optimization method yields a good estimate for the studied properties. The timescale of the evaporation data and particle size was found to be important in identifying the volatility of organic compounds.
Miska Olin, Jenni Alanen, Marja R. T. Palmroth, Topi Rönkkö, and Miikka Dal Maso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6367–6388,Short summary
The mechanism for new particle formation (NPF) in vehicle exhaust is currently unknown. This study focuses on determining the NPF rate in vehicle exhaust caused by sulfuric acid, which is the most promising candidate involved in the NPF process. The NPF rate function obtained in this study helps in examining the NPF mechanism in exhaust plumes, and it can also be used to improve air quality models. The results also imply that the NPF process cannot be fully explained by sulfuric acid only.
Elena C. Maters, Donald B. Dingwell, Corrado Cimarelli, Dirk Müller, Thomas F. Whale, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5451–5465,Short summary
This experimental study investigates the influence of volcanic ash chemical composition, crystallinity, and mineralogy on its ability to promote freezing of supercooled water. The results indicate that crystals in ash play a key role in this process and suggest that feldspars and perhaps pyroxenes in ash may be highly ice-active. These findings contribute to improving understanding of the potential of ash emissions from different explosive eruptions to impact ice formation in the atmosphere.
Zamin A. Kanji, Ryan C. Sullivan, Monika Niemand, Paul J. DeMott, Anthony J. Prenni, Cédric Chou, Harald Saathoff, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5091–5110,Short summary
The ice nucleation ability of two natural desert dusts coated with a proxy of secondary organic aerosol is presented for temperatures and relative humidity conditions relevant for mixed-phase clouds. We find that at the tested conditions, there is no effect on the ice nucleation ability of the particles due to the organic coating. Furthermore, the two dust samples do not show variability within measurement uncertainty. Particle size and surface area may play a role in any difference observed.
Nønne L. Prisle, Jack J. Lin, Sara Purdue, Haisheng Lin, J. Carson Meredith, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4741–4761,Short summary
We measure surface activity and cloud-forming potential of pollenkitt, an organic mixture coating pollen grains. Cloud droplet formation is affected through both surface tension and bulk depletion, with a consistent particle size-dependent signature. We observe nonideal solution effects in pollenkitt mixtures with ammonium sulfate salt. Our results suggest sensitivity of general water interactions, including cloud formation by pollen and their fragments, to both atmospheric humidity and aging.
Zhicong Yin, Huijun Wang, Yuyan Li, Xiaohui Ma, and Xinyu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3857–3871,Short summary
Summer surface ozone pollution has rapidly intensified recently, damaging human and ecosystem health. This study aims to examine the large-scale atmospheric circulations associated with the interannual variation in summer surface O3 pollution in North China based on long-term meteorological observations. The impacts of Arctic sea ice were also revealed. The outcomes may provide a basis for understanding the interannual variation of 03 pollution and its seasonal to interannual prediction.
Ankit Tandon, Nicholas E. Rothfuss, and Markus D. Petters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3325–3339,Short summary
Organic compounds may form a barrier to condensation. Such barriers have been hypothesized to prevent water and other substances from mixing with salt cores. This will hinder the particles' ability to aid cloud formation of < 100 nm particles. Here we perform experiments encasing particles in plastic shells akin to water bottles. Against expectations, the plastic shell did not alter the droplet activation behavior of the encased particles. Water appears to readily permeate the plastic shell.
James F. Davies, Andreas Zuend, and Kevin R. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2933–2946,Short summary
The formation of cloud droplets involves the condensation of water onto preexisting particles in the atmosphere. The efficiency of this process depends on the nature of the particles, and recent work has shown that organic-rich particles may exhibit a suppressed surface tension that promotes the formation of cloud droplets. In this technical note, we discuss the mechanism for this and highlight the evolution of surface tension as the key factor in the extent of surface effects.
Nathan J. Janechek, Rachel F. Marek, Nathan Bryngelson, Ashish Singh, Robert L. Bullard, William H. Brune, and Charles O. Stanier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1649–1664,Short summary
Cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMSs) are widely used chemicals in personal care products which can undergo oxidation to generate secondary organic aerosol. In this work, cVMS oxidation aerosols were generated using a photochemical chamber and the physical properties characterized. The aerosol yield, volatility, hygroscopicity, morphology, elemental composition, and proposed parameters for treatment as secondary organic aerosol in atmospheric models are provided.
Jian Wang, John E. Shilling, Jiumeng Liu, Alla Zelenyuk, David M. Bell, Markus D. Petters, Ryan Thalman, Fan Mei, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Guangjie Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 941–954,Short summary
Earlier studies showed organic hygroscopicity increases with oxidation level. Such increases have been attributed to higher water solubility for more oxidized organics. By systematically varying the water content of activating droplets, we show that for secondary organic aerosols, essentially all organics are dissolved at the point of droplet activation. Therefore, the organic hygroscopicity is not limited by solubility but is dictated mainly by the molecular weight of organic species.
Nivedita K. Kumar, Joel C. Corbin, Emily A. Bruns, Dario Massabó, Jay G. Slowik, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, Paolo Prati, Athanasia Vlachou, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17843–17861,Short summary
It is clear that considerable uncertainties still exist in understanding the magnitude of aerosol absorption on a global scale and its contribution to global warming. This manuscript provides a comprehensive assessment of the optical absorption by organic aerosols (brown carbon) from residential wood combustion as a function of atmospheric aging.
Yue Peng, Hong Wang, Yubin Li, Changwei Liu, Tianliang Zhao, Xiaoye Zhang, Zhiqiu Gao, Tong Jiang, Huizheng Che, and Meng Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17421–17435,Short summary
Two surface layer schemes are evaluated in eastern China based on observational flux data. The results indicate that the Li scheme better describes regional atmosphere stratification compared with the MM5 scheme, especially for the transition stage from unstable to stable atmosphere conditions, corresponding to PM2.5 accumulation. Our research suggests the potential improved possibilities for severe haze prediction in eastern China by coupling Li online into atmosphere chemical models.
Dawei Hu, David Topping, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14925–14937,Short summary
Co-condensation of inorganic or organic vapours on growing droplets could significantly enhance both CCN and cloud droplet number concentration, thereby influencing climate. Until now, there has been very few direct observational evidence of this process. We exposed involatile inorganic particles to a moist atmosphere containing a controlled amount of an organic semi-volatile vapour. We measured a much greater growth of the particles than if they had only been exposed to water vapour.
Maryam Dalirian, Arttu Ylisirniö, Angela Buchholz, Daniel Schlesinger, Johan Ström, Annele Virtanen, and Ilona Riipinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12477–12489,Short summary
Atmospheric black carbon (BC) particles are a concern due to their impact on air quality and climate. Their net climate effect is, however, still uncertain. In this study, laboratory measurements were performed to investigate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of BC particles, in pure state or coated by various organic species. Our results show that existing theories have potential in describing the CCN activation of atmospheric BC mixed with soluble pollutants.
Sara D. Forestieri, Taylor M. Helgestad, Andrew T. Lambe, Lindsay Renbaum-Wolff, Daniel A. Lack, Paola Massoli, Eben S. Cross, Manvendra K. Dubey, Claudio Mazzoleni, Jason S. Olfert, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Andrew Freedman, Paul Davidovits, Timothy B. Onasch, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12141–12159,Short summary
We characterized optical properties of flame-derived black carbon particles and interpret our observations through the use of Mie theory and Rayleigh–Debye–Gans theory. We determined that the mass absorption coefficient is independent of particle collapse and use this to derive theory- and wavelength-specific refractive indices for black carbon (BC). We demonstrate the inadequacy of Mie theory and suggest an alternative approach for atmospheric models to better represent light absorption by BC.
Mijung Song, Suhan Ham, Ryan J. Andrews, Yuan You, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12075–12084,
Sara D. Forestieri, Sean M. Staudt, Thomas M. Kuborn, Katharine Faber, Christopher R. Ruehl, Timothy H. Bertram, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10985–11005,Short summary
Our work establishes how surface tension reduction influences droplet growth and activation of simple sea spray mimics (NaCl coated with fatty acids). Fatty acids can substantially reduce droplet surface tension near activation but have limited impact on activation. Coating of NaCl by palmitic acid (a wax) impedes water uptake, but this impedance is removed if oleic acid (a liquid) is mixed in. The properties that surface-active compounds need to impact activation are theoretically examined.
Xiangyu Pei, Mattias Hallquist, Axel C. Eriksson, Joakim Pagels, Neil M. Donahue, Thomas Mentel, Birgitta Svenningsson, William Brune, and Ravi Kant Pathak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9845–9860,Short summary
The findings in this study show that morphological transformation of soot occurs via two key complementary and sequential processes, i.e., void filling in the particle and its diameter growth. To quantify the state of morphological transformation, i.e., the utilization of material for filling and growth during the condensation processes, a framework was developed which can further be utilized to quantify the effect of condensed material on the optical and hygroscopic properties of soot.
Maja Tomicic, Martin Bødker Enghoff, and Henrik Svensmark
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5921–5930,Short summary
A supernova within a distance of about 100 pc from the Earth would increase the cosmic ray flux and thereby the atmospheric ionization. We study the impact of high ion concentrations on aerosol nucleation through experiments. The measurements show that nucleation increases by up to an order of magnitude when the ionization increases from background to supernova levels under fixed concentrations of the nucleating gas. This suggests that a supernova could influence the atmospheric microphysics.
Rosalie H. Shepherd, Martin D. King, Amelia A. Marks, Neil Brough, and Andrew D. Ward
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5235–5252,Short summary
The refractive index of atmospheric extracts sourced from urban (London), remote (Antarctica), and woodsmoke aerosol was determined by applying optical trapping simultaneously with Mie spectroscopy. In addition, owing to the absorbing nature of woodsmoke and an aqueous humic acid aerosol extract, the absorption Ångström exponent could be determined.The refractive index and absorption Ångström exponent were then applied in a top-of-the-atmosphere albedo radiation transfer model.
Bo Jing, Zhen Wang, Fang Tan, Yucong Guo, Shengrui Tong, Weigang Wang, Yunhong Zhang, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5115–5127,Short summary
The nitrate/organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Our results reveal that the coexisting organic acid has considerable impacts on the phase and morphology of nitrate particles in the low and medium RH range, which thus result in obvious enhancement or suppression of water uptake with increasing RH. This new information provided here has important implications for atmospheric chemistry.
Jie Chen, Zhijun Wu, Stefanie Augustin-Bauditz, Sarah Grawe, Markus Hartmann, Xiangyu Pei, Zirui Liu, Dongsheng Ji, and Heike Wex
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3523–3539,Short summary
The ice nucleation activity of urban aerosols in the atmosphere of Beijing was detected in this study. Results showed that ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations were not influenced by the highly variable numbers of atmospheric particles, both in mass and particle number concentrations, implying that INP concentrations might not be influenced directly by anthropogenic activities, at least not down to roughly −25 °C and maybe even below.
Katherine M. Manfred, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Nicholas L. Wagner, Gabriela Adler, Frank Erdesz, Caroline C. Womack, Kara D. Lamb, Joshua P. Schwarz, Alessandro Franchin, Vanessa Selimovic, Robert J. Yokelson, and Daniel M. Murphy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1879–1894,Short summary
In this study, we use a new laser imaging nephelometer to measure the bulk aerosol scattering phase function for biomass burning aerosol from controlled fires. By comparing measurements to models for spherical and fractal particles, we demonstrate that the dominant morphology varies by fuel type. This instrument has unique capabilities to directly measure how morphology affects optical properties, and can be used in the future for important validations of remote sensing retrievals.
Lukas Pichelstorfer, Dominik Stolzenburg, John Ortega, Thomas Karl, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, James N. Smith, Peter H. McMurry, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1307–1323,Short summary
Quantification of new particle formation as a source of atmospheric aerosol is clearly of importance for climate and health aspects. In our new study we developed two analysis methods that allow retrieval of nanoparticle growth dynamics at much higher precision than it was possible so far. Our results clearly demonstrate that growth rates show much more variation than is currently known and suggest that the Kelvin effect governs growth in the sub-10 nm size range.
Adriana Rocha-Lima, J. Vanderlei Martins, Lorraine A. Remer, Martin Todd, John H. Marsham, Sebastian Engelstaedter, Claire L. Ryder, Carolina Cavazos-Guerra, Paulo Artaxo, Peter Colarco, and Richard Washington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1023–1043,Short summary
We present results of ground-based measurements and subsequent laboratory analysis of Sahara dust samples collected in Algeria and Mauritania during the Fennec campaign in 2011. The results show that the sampled dust has low absorption characteristics and exhibits a distinct spectral bow-like shape. We find distinctive differences in the composition and optical characteristics of the dust from the two sites, corroborating with other studies that not all Saharan dust is the same.
Ting Lei, Andreas Zuend, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Weigang Wang, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1045–1064,Short summary
Measurements and thermodynamic equilibrium predictions for organic–inorganic aerosols related to components from biomass burning emissions demonstrate a diversity of hygroscopic growth and shrinking behavior, which we observed using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). Controlled laboratory experiments with single solutes and/or with mixed organic–inorganic systems of known phase state will be useful to constrain model parameters of thermodynamic equilibrium models.
Andreas Kürten, Chenxi Li, Federico Bianchi, Joachim Curtius, António Dias, Neil M. Donahue, Jonathan Duplissy, Richard C. Flagan, Jani Hakala, Tuija Jokinen, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ari Laaksonen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Vladimir Makhmutov, Antti Onnela, Matti P. Rissanen, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Penglin Ye, and Peter H. McMurry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 845–863,Short summary
A recent laboratory study (CLOUD) showed that new particles nucleate efficiently from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine (DMA). The reanalysis of previously published data reveals that the nucleation rates are even faster than previously assumed, i.e., nucleation can proceed at rates that are compatible with collision-controlled new particle formation for atmospheric conditions. This indicates that sulfuric acid–DMA nucleation is likely an important source of particles in the boundary layer.
Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jonathan Duplissy, Tuomo Nieminen, Juha Kangasluoma, Lauri R. Ahonen, Lubna Dada, Jenni Kontkanen, Hanna E. Manninen, Antonio Dias, Antonio Amorim, Paulus S. Bauer, Anton Bergen, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Xuemeng Chen, Danielle C. Draper, Lukas Fischer, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Jani Hakala, Liine Heikkinen, Martin Heinritzi, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Alexander N. Kvashnin, Tiia Laurila, Michael J. Lawler, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Roy L. Mauldin III, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Felix Piel, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Nina Sarnela, Simon Schallhart, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Yrjö Viisanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Mao Xiao, Penglin Ye, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, James N. Smith, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas Worsnop, Mikael Ehn, Mikko Sipilä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15181–15197,
Mengjiao Jiang, Jinqin Feng, Zhanqing Li, Ruiyu Sun, Yu-Tai Hou, Yuejian Zhu, Bingcheng Wan, Jianping Guo, and Maureen Cribb
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13967–13982,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions have been recognized as playing an important role in precipitation. As a benchmark evaluation of model results that exclude aerosol effects, the operational precipitation forecast (before any aerosol effects included) is evaluated using multiple datasets with the goal of determining if there is any link between the model bias and aerosol loading. The forecast model overestimates light and underestimates heavy rain. Aerosols suppress light rain and enhance heavy rain.
Xiaole Pan, Yugo Kanaya, Fumikazu Taketani, Takuma Miyakawa, Satoshi Inomata, Yuichi Komazaki, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Zhe Wang, Itsushi Uno, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13001–13016,Short summary
Characteristics of refractory black carbon (rBC) from open biomass burning (OBB) have a great impact on regional pollution and climate, in particular in East Asia. However, experimental study on characteristics of rBC from agricultural residue burning in East China was limited. This study performed laboratory experiments: we found that emission of rBC is highly related to flaming burning, and non-rBC to smoldering burning. Rapid condensation of semi-volatile organics resulted in coated rBC.
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