Articles | Volume 19, issue 7
Research article
11 Apr 2019
Research article |  | 11 Apr 2019

Satellite-derived sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from the 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption (Iceland)

Elisa Carboni, Tamsin A. Mather, Anja Schmidt, Roy G. Grainger, Melissa A. Pfeffer, Iolanda Ialongo, and Nicolas Theys

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Cited articles

Boichu, M., Chiapello, I., Brogniez, C., Péré, J.-C., Thieuleux, F., Torres, B., Blarel, L., Mortier, A., Podvin, T., Goloub, P., Söhne, N., Clarisse, L., Bauduin, S., Hendrick, F., Theys, N., Van Roozendael, M., and Tanré, D.: Current challenges in modelling far-range air pollution induced by the 2014–2015 Bárðarbunga fissure eruption (Iceland), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10831–10845,, 2016. a, b
Carboni, E., Grainger, R., Walker, J., Dudhia, A., and Siddans, R.: A new scheme for sulphur dioxide retrieval from IASI measurements: application to the Eyjafjallajökull eruption of April and May 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11417–11434,, 2012. a, b, c, d, e
Carboni, E., Grainger, R. G., Mather, T. A., Pyle, D. M., Thomas, G. E., Siddans, R., Smith, A. J. A., Dudhia, A., Koukouli, M. E., and Balis, D.: The vertical distribution of volcanic SO2 plumes measured by IASI, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4343–4367,, 2016. a, b, c
Carboni, E., Taylor, I., and Grainger, D.: IASI retrieval of sulphur dioxide (SO2) column amounts and altitude, 2014-09 to 2015-02, version 1.0, Centre for Environmental Data Analysis, available at:, last access: 29 March 2019. 
Carn, S., Clarisse, L., and Prata, A.: Multi-decadal satellite measurements of global volcanic degassing, J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 311, 99–134,, 2016. a
Short summary
The 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption was the largest in Iceland for 200 years, emitting huge quantities of gas into the troposphere, at times overwhelming European anthropogenic emissions. Infrared Atmospheric sounding Interferometer data are used to derive the first time series of daily sulfur dioxide mass and vertical distribution over the eruption period. A scheme is used to estimate sulfur dioxide fluxes, the total erupted mass, and how long the sulfur dioxide remains in the atmosphere.
Final-revised paper