Articles | Volume 11, issue 14
Research article 26 Jul 2011
Research article | 26 Jul 2011
Modeling ozone plumes observed downwind of New York City over the North Atlantic Ocean during the ICARTT field campaign
S.-H. Lee et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)High-resolution hybrid inversion of IASI ammonia columns to constrain US ammonia emissions using the CMAQ adjoint modelSimulation of radon-222 with the GEOS-Chem global model: emissions, seasonality, and convective transportRegional CO2 fluxes from 2010 to 2015 inferred from GOSAT XCO2 retrievals using a new version of the Global Carbon Assimilation SystemThe friagem event in the central Amazon and its influence on micrometeorological variables and atmospheric chemistryModeling atmospheric ammonia using agricultural emissions with improved spatial variability and temporal dynamicsQuantifying methane emissions from Queensland's coal seam gas producing Surat Basin using inventory data and a regional Bayesian inversionLarge-eddy simulation of traffic-related air pollution at a very high-resolution in a mega-city: Evaluation against mobile sensors and insights for influencing factorsCOVID-19 lockdowns highlight a risk of increasing ozone pollution in European urban areasImpact of Western Pacific Subtropical High on Ozone Pollution over Eastern ChinaErrors in top-down estimates of emissions using a known sourceThe impact of urban land-surface on extreme air pollution over central EuropeImpacts of future land use and land cover change on mid-21st-century surface ozone air quality: distinguishing between the biogeophysical and biogeochemical effectsTechnical note: Emission mapping of key sectors in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam using satellite derived urban land-use dataWhat have we missed when studying the impact of aerosols on surface ozone via changing photolysis rates?Stratospheric impact on the Northern Hemisphere winter and spring ozone interannual variability in the troposphereDesign and evaluation of CO2 observation network to optimize surface CO2 fluxes in Asia using observation system simulation experimentsOzone pollution over China and India: seasonality and sourcesInfluences of oceanic ozone deposition on tropospheric photochemistryInvestigating the regional contributions to air pollution in Beijing: a dispersion modelling study using CO as a tracerEvaluation of NU-WRF model performance on air quality simulation under various model resolutions – an investigation within the framework of MICS-Asia Phase IIIUrban canopy meteorological forcing and its impact on ozone and PM2.5: role of vertical turbulent transportUncertainty analysis of a European high-resolution emission inventory of CO2 and CO to support inverse modelling and network designClimate benefits of proposed carbon dioxide mitigation strategies for international shipping and aviationObjective evaluation of surface- and satellite-driven carbon dioxide atmospheric inversionsAnalysis of summer O3 in the Madrid air basin with the LOTOS-EUROS chemical transport modelAnalysis of temporal and spatial variability of atmospheric CO2 concentration within Paris from the GreenLITE™ laser imaging experimentA typical weather pattern for ozone pollution events in North ChinaThe control of anthropogenic emissions contributed to 80 % of the decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing from 2013 to 2017Trans-Pacific transport and evolution of aerosols: spatiotemporal characteristics and source contributionsForeign influences on tropospheric ozone over East Asia through global atmospheric transportEstimating ground-level CO concentrations across China based on the national monitoring network and MOPITT: potentially overlooked CO hotspots in the Tibetan PlateauTerrestrial ecosystem carbon flux estimated using GOSAT and OCO-2 XCO2 retrievalsDiagnosing spatial error structures in CO2 mole fractions and XCO2 column mole fractions from atmospheric transportHow marine emissions of bromoform impact the remote atmosphereAn atmospheric inversion over the city of Cape Town: sensitivity analysesModelling CO2 weather – why horizontal resolution mattersCalibration of a multi-physics ensemble for estimating the uncertainty of a greenhouse gas atmospheric transport modelAnalysis of atmospheric CH4 in Canadian Arctic and estimation of the regional CH4 fluxesAccounting for the vertical distribution of emissions in atmospheric CO2 simulationsUrban source term estimation for mercury using a boundary-layer budget methodCharacterizing uncertainties in atmospheric inversions of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in CaliforniaIntercomparison of atmospheric trace gas dispersion models: Barnett Shale case studyAttributing differences in the fate of lateral boundary ozone in AQMEII3 models to physical process representationsImpacts of physical parameterization on prediction of ethane concentrations for oil and gas emissions in WRF-ChemAn important mechanism of regional O3 transport for summer smog over the Yangtze River Delta in eastern ChinaRapid and reliable assessment of methane impacts on climateImpact of physical parameterizations and initial conditions on simulated atmospheric transport and CO2 mole fractions in the US MidwestSeasonal ozone vertical profiles over North America using the AQMEII3 group of air quality models: model inter-comparison and stratospheric intrusionsQuantifying the vertical transport of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 over the western Pacific2010–2016 methane trends over Canada, the United States, and Mexico observed by the GOSAT satellite: contributions from different source sectors
Yilin Chen, Huizhong Shen, Jennifer Kaiser, Yongtao Hu, Shannon L. Capps, Shunliu Zhao, Amir Hakami, Jhih-Shyang Shih, Gertrude K. Pavur, Matthew D. Turner, Daven K. Henze, Jaroslav Resler, Athanasios Nenes, Sergey L. Napelenok, Jesse O. Bash, Kathleen M. Fahey, Gregory R. Carmichael, Tianfeng Chai, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Martin Van Damme, and Armistead G. Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2067–2082,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) emissions can exert adverse impacts on air quality and ecosystem well-being. NH3 emission inventories are viewed as highly uncertain. Here we optimize the NH3 emission estimates in the US using an air quality model and NH3 measurements from the IASI satellite instruments. The optimized NH3 emissions are much higher than the National Emissions Inventory estimates in April. The optimized NH3 emissions improved model performance when evaluated against independent observation.
Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, James H. Crawford, Gao Chen, T. Duncan Fairlie, Scott Chambers, Chang-Hee Kang, Alastair G. Williams, Kai Zhang, David B. Considine, Melissa P. Sulprizio, and Robert M. Yantosca
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1861–1887,Short summary
We simulate atmospheric 222Rn using the GEOS-Chem model to improve understanding of 222Rn emissions and characterize convective transport in the model. We demonstrate the potential of a customized global 222Rn emission scenario to improve simulated surface 222Rn concentrations and seasonality. We assess convective transport using observed 222Rn vertical profiles. Results have important implications for using chemical transport models to interpret the transport of trace gases and aerosols.
Fei Jiang, Hengmao Wang, Jing M. Chen, Weimin Ju, Xiangjun Tian, Shuzhuang Feng, Guicai Li, Zhuoqi Chen, Shupeng Zhang, Xuehe Lu, Jane Liu, Haikun Wang, Jun Wang, Wei He, and Mousong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1963–1985,Short summary
We present a 6-year inversion from 2010 to 2015 for the global and regional carbon fluxes using only the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. We find that the XCO2 retrievals could significantly improve the modeling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and that the inferred interannual variations in the terrestrial carbon fluxes in most land regions have a better relationship with the changes in severe drought area or leaf area index, or are more consistent with the previous estimates about drought impact.
Guilherme F. Camarinha-Neto, Julia C. P. Cohen, Cléo Q. Dias-Júnior, Matthias Sörgel, José Henrique Cattanio, Alessandro Araújo, Stefan Wolff, Paulo A. F. Kuhn, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Luciana V. Rizzo, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 339–356,Short summary
It was observed that friagem phenomena (incursion of cold waves from the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere to the Amazon region), very common in the dry season of the Amazon region, produced significant changes in microclimate and atmospheric chemistry. Moreover, the effects of the friagem change the surface O3 and CO2 mixing ratios and therefore interfere deeply in the microclimatic conditions and the chemical composition of the atmosphere above the rainforest.
Xinrui Ge, Martijn Schaap, Richard Kranenburg, Arjo Segers, Gert Jan Reinds, Hans Kros, and Wim de Vries
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16055–16087,Short summary
This article is about improving the modeling of agricultural ammonia emissions. By considering land use, meteorology and agricultural practices, ammonia emission totals officially reported by countries are distributed in space and time. We illustrated the first step for a better understanding of the variability of ammonia emission, with the possibility of being applied at a European scale, which is of great significance for ammonia budget research and future policy-making.
Ashok K. Luhar, David M. Etheridge, Zoë M. Loh, Julie Noonan, Darren Spencer, Lisa Smith, and Cindy Ong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15487–15511,Short summary
With the sharp rise in coal seam gas (CSG) production in Queensland’s Surat Basin, there is much interest in quantifying methane emissions from this area and from unconventional gas production in general. We develop and apply a regional Bayesian inverse model that uses hourly methane concentration data from two sites and modelled backward dispersion to quantify emissions. The model requires a narrow prior and suggests that the emissions from the CSG areas are 33% larger than bottom-up estimates.
Yanxu Zhang, Xingpei Ye, Shibao Wang, Xiaojing He, Lingyao Dong, Ning Zhang, Haikun Wang, Zhongrui Wang, Yun Ma, Lei Wang, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Mingzhi Yao, Yunpeng Li, Qilin Li, Ling Zhang, and Yongle Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Urban air quality varies drastically at street scale but traditional methods are too coarse to resolve it. We develop a 10 m resolution air quality model and apply it for traffic-related carbon monoxide air quality in a megacity, Nanjing. The model reveals a detailed geographical dispersion pattern of air pollution in and out of the road network and agrees well with validation dataset. The model can be a vigorous part of the smart city system and inform urban planning and air quality management.
Stuart K. Grange, James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Alastair C. Lewis, Christoph Hueglin, Lukas Emmenegger, and David C. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The changes in mobility across Europe due to the COVID-19 lockdowns had consequences for air quality. We compare what was experienced, to estimates of
what would have beenwithout the lockdowns. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an important vehicle-sourced pollutant, decreased by a third. However, ozone (O3) increased in response to the lower NO2. Because NO2 is decreasing over time, increases in O3 can be expected in European urban areas and will require management to avoid future negative outcomes.
Zhongjing Jiang, Jing Li, Xiao Lu, Cheng Gong, Lin Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study demonstrates that the intensity of Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), a major synoptic pattern in the North Pacific during the summer season, can induce a dipole change of surface ozone pollution over Eastern China. Ozone concentration increases in the north and decreased in the south during the strong WPSH phase, and vice versa. The change of chemical processes associated with the WPSH change plays a decisive role, whereas natural emission of ozone precursors accounts for ~30 %.
Wayne M. Angevine, Jeff Peischl, Alice Crawford, Christopher P. Loughner, Ilana B. Pollack, and Chelsea R. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11855–11868,Short summary
Emissions of air pollutants must be known for a wide variety of applications. Different methods of estimating emissions often disagree substantially. In this study, we apply standard methods to a well-known source, a power plant. We explore the uncertainty implied by the different answers that come from the different methods, different samples taken over several years, and different pollutants. We find that the overall uncertainty of emissions estimates is about 30 %.
Peter Huszar, Jan Karlický, Jana Ďoubalová, Tereza Nováková, Kateřina Šindelářová, Filip Švábik, Michal Belda, Tomáš Halenka, and Michal Žák
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11655–11681,Short summary
The paper shows how extreme meteorological conditions change due to the urban land-cover forcing and how this translates to the impact on the extreme air pollution over central European cities. It focuses on ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm and shows that, while for the extreme daily maximum 8 h ozone, changes are same as for the mean ones, much larger modifications are calculated for extreme NO2 and PM2.5 compared to their mean changes.
Lang Wang, Amos P. K. Tai, Chi-Yung Tam, Mehliyar Sadiq, Peng Wang, and Kevin K. W. Cheung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11349–11369,Short summary
We investigate the effects of future land use and land cover change (LULCC) on surface ozone air quality worldwide and find that LULCC can significantly influence ozone in North America and Europe via modifying surface energy balance, boundary-layer meteorology, and regional circulation. The strength of such “biogeophysical effects” of LULCC is strongly dependent on forest type and generally greater than the “biogeochemical effects” via changing deposition and emission fluxes alone.
Trang Thi Quynh Nguyen, Wataru Takeuchi, and Prakhar Misra
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study provides annual emissions of transportation, manufacturing industries and construction and residential sectors at 1 km resolution from 2009 to 2016 for Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. We consider both Scope 1 – all direct emissions from the activities occurring within the city and Scope 2 that is indirect emissions from electricity purchased. Our originality is the use of satellite derived urban land-use morphological maps which allow emission mapping in study area.
Jinhui Gao, Ying Li, Bin Zhu, Bo Hu, Lili Wang, and Fangwen Bao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10831–10844,Short summary
Light extinction of aerosols can decease surface ozone mainly via reducing photochemical production of ozone. However, it also leads to high levels of ozone aloft being entrained down to the surface which partly counteracts the reduction in surface ozone. The impact of aerosols is more sensitive to local ozone, which suggests that while controlling the levels of aerosols, controlling the local ozone precursors is an effective way to suppress the increase of ozone over China at present.
Junhua Liu, Jose M. Rodriguez, Luke D. Oman, Anne R. Douglass, Mark A. Olsen, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6417–6433,Short summary
Our paper quantifies and identifies the importance of stratospheric ozone influence on the tropospheric ozone IAV in Northern Hemisphere mid-high latitudes. Our analysis provides an in-depth understanding of how 3-D dynamics influences the O3 redistribution in the troposphere. These findings are particularly important considering the potential changes in these dynamical conditions in the future as a result of climate change
Jun Park and Hyun Mee Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5175–5195,Short summary
Observation network experiments were conducted to optimize the surface CO2 flux in Asia. The impacts of the redistribution of and additions to the existing observation network were evaluated. The addition experiments revealed that considering both the normalized self-sensitivity and ecoregion information can yield better simulated surface CO2 fluxes compared to random addition. This study provides useful information for future observation network design to estimate the surface CO2 flux.
Meng Gao, Jinhui Gao, Bin Zhu, Rajesh Kumar, Xiao Lu, Shaojie Song, Yuzhong Zhang, Beixi Jia, Peng Wang, Gufran Beig, Jianlin Hu, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, Peter Sherman, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4399–4414,Short summary
A regional fully coupled meteorology–chemistry model, Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), was employed to study the seasonality of ozone (O3) pollution and its sources in both China and India.
Ryan J. Pound, Tomás Sherwen, Detlev Helmig, Lucy J. Carpenter, and Mat J. Evans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4227–4239,Short summary
Ozone is an important pollutant with impacts on health and the environment. Ozone is lost to plants, land and the oceans. Loss to the ocean is slow compared to all other types of land cover and has not received as much attention. We build on previous work to more accurately model ozone loss to the ocean. We find changes in the concentration of ozone over the oceans, notably the Southern Ocean, which improves model performance.
Marios Panagi, Zoë L. Fleming, Paul S. Monks, Matthew J. Ashfold, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, Qiang Zhang, Freya A. Squires, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2825–2838,Short summary
In this paper, using dispersion modelling with emission inventories it was determined that on average 45 % of the total CO pollution that affects Beijing is transported from other areas. About half of the CO comes from beyond the immediate surrounding areas. Finally three classification types of pollution were identified and used to analyse the APHH winter campaign. The results can inform targeted control measures to be implemented in Beijing and the other regions to tackle air quality problems.
Zhining Tao, Mian Chin, Meng Gao, Tom Kucsera, Dongchul Kim, Huisheng Bian, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Yuesi Wang, Zirui Liu, Gregory R. Carmichael, Zifa Wang, and Hajime Akimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2319–2339,Short summary
One goal of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III is to identify strengths and weaknesses of current air quality models to provide insights into reducing uncertainties. This study identified that a 15 km grid would be the optimal horizontal resolution in terms of performance and resource usage to capture average and extreme air quality over East Asia and is thus suggested for use in future MICS-Asia modeling activities if the investigation domain remains the same.
Peter Huszar, Jan Karlický, Jana Ďoubalová, Kateřina Šindelářová, Tereza Nováková, Michal Belda, Tomáš Halenka, Michal Žák, and Petr Pišoft
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1977–2016,Short summary
Urban surfaces alter meteorological conditions which consequently alter air pollution due to modified transport and chemical reactions. Here, we focus on a major component of this influence, enhanced vertical eddy diffusion. Using a regional climate model coupled to a chemistry transport model, we investigate how different representations of turbulent transport translate to urban canopy impact on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations and whether turbulence remains the most important component.
Ingrid Super, Stijn N. C. Dellaert, Antoon J. H. Visschedijk, and Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1795–1816,Short summary
Emission data contain uncertainties introduced by the methodology and the data used. We quantified uncertainties in gridded emissions using the uncertainty in underlying data, showing that disaggregation in space and time significantly increases the uncertainty. Understanding uncertainties helps to interpret atmospheric measurements and the gap with modelled concentrations. Moreover, our analyses help identify regions with large uncertainties, which require further scrutiny.
Catherine C. Ivanovich, Ilissa B. Ocko, Pedro Piris-Cabezas, and Annie Petsonk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14949–14965,Short summary
The Paris Agreement set the goal of remaining well below a 2 °C global temperature rise, but it is unclear how future emissions from international shipping and aviation will contribute to this threshold. Here we estimate that the sectors' future emissions of carbon dioxide will contribute a combined 0.12 °C by the end of the century should no action be taken, but proposed mitigation policies have the potential to reduce this warming by almost 90 %.
Frédéric Chevallier, Marine Remaud, Christopher W. O'Dell, David Baker, Philippe Peylin, and Anne Cozic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14233–14251,Short summary
We present a way to rate the CO2 flux estimates made from inversion of a global atmospheric transport model. Our approach relies on accurate aircraft measurements in the free troposphere. It shows that some satellite soundings can now provide inversion results that are, despite their uncertainty, comparable in credibility to traditional inversions using the accurate but sparse surface network and that these inversions are, therefore, complementary for studies of the global carbon budget.
Miguel Escudero, Arjo Segers, Richard Kranenburg, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Rafael Borge, David de la Paz, Gotzon Gangoiti, and Martijn Schaap
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14211–14232,Short summary
In this work we optimise LOTOS-EUROS CTM for simulating tropospheric O3 during summer in the Madrid metropolitan area, one of the largest conurbations in the Mediterranean. Comparing the outputs from five set-ups with different combinations of spatial resolution, meteorological data and vertical structure, we conclude that the model benefits from fine horizontal resolution and highly resolved vertical structure. Running optimized configuration run, we interpret O3 variability during July 2016.
Jinghui Lian, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, T. Scott Zaccheo, Jeremy Dobler, Michel Ramonet, Johannes Staufer, Diego Santaren, Irène Xueref-Remy, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13809–13825,Short summary
CO2 emissions within urban areas impact nearby and downwind concentrations. A different system, based on bi-wavelength laser measurements, has been deployed over Paris. It samples CO2 concentrations along horizontal lines, between a transceiver and a reflector. In this paper, we analyze the measurements provided by this system, together with the more classical in situ sampling and high-resolution modeling. We focus on the temporal and spatial variability of atmospheric CO2 concentrations.
Cheng Gong and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13725–13740,Short summary
Severe O3 pollution events (OPEs) were observed frequently in summer in North China. We found a typical weather pattern that was responsible for the 21 OPEs observed in North China in May to July of 2014–2017. This weather pattern is characterized by high daily maximum temperature, low relative humidity and an anomalous high-pressure system at 500 hPa. Under such a weather pattern, chemical production of O3 is high between 800 and 900 hPa, which is then transported downward to enhance O3 levels.
Ziyue Chen, Danlu Chen, Mei-Po Kwan, Bin Chen, Bingbo Gao, Yan Zhuang, Ruiyuan Li, and Bing Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13519–13533,Short summary
We employed Kolmogorov–Zurbenko filtering and WRF-CMAQ to quantify the relative contribution of meteorological variations and emission reduction to PM2.5 reduction in Beijing from 2013 to 2017, which is crucial to evaluate the Five-year Clean Air Action Plan. Both models suggested that despite favourable meteorological conditions, the control of anthropogenic emissions accounted for around 80 % of PM2.5 reduction in Beijing. Therefore, such a long-term clean air plan should be continued.
Zhiyuan Hu, Jianping Huang, Chun Zhao, Yuanyuan Ma, Qinjian Jin, Yun Qian, L. Ruby Leung, Jianrong Bi, and Jianmin Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12709–12730,Short summary
This study investigates aerosol chemical compositions and relative contributions to total aerosols in the western US. The results show that trans-Pacific aerosols have a maximum concentration in the boreal spring, with the greatest contribution from dust. Over western North America, the trans-Pacific aerosols dominate the column-integrated aerosol mass and number concentration. However, near the surface, aerosols mainly originated from local emissions.
Han Han, Jane Liu, Huiling Yuan, Tijian Wang, Bingliang Zhuang, and Xun Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12495–12514,Short summary
In the East Asian middle and upper troposphere, foreign ozone is 0.8–4.8 times more than its native counterpart in all the seasons. At the East Asian surface, the annual mean concentrations of foreign ozone and native ozone are comparable, being approximately 20 ppbv. The seasonal and interannual variations in foreign ozone over East Asia are closely related to the East Asian monsoon.
Dongren Liu, Baofeng Di, Yuzhou Luo, Xunfei Deng, Hanyue Zhang, Fumo Yang, Michael L. Grieneisen, and Yu Zhan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12413–12430,Short summary
The spatiotemporal distributions of daily ground-level CO concentrations across China during 2013–2016 are derived by fusing the data from remote sensing and ground monitoring. The population–weighted CO was predicted to be 0.99 ± 0.30 mg m−3 and showed a decreasing trend of −0.021 ± 0.004 mg m−3 per year. The CO pollution was the most severe in the North China Plain. The hotspots in the Tibetan Plateau overlooked by the remote sensing were depicted by the data-fusion approach.
Hengmao Wang, Fei Jiang, Jun Wang, Weimin Ju, and Jing M. Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12067–12082,Short summary
The differences in inverted global and regional carbon fluxes from GOSAT and OCO-2 XCO2 from 1 January to 31 December 2015 are studied. We find significant differences for inverted terrestrial carbon fluxes on both global and regional scales. Overall, GOSAT XCO2 has a better performance than OCO-2, and GOSAT data can effectively improve carbon flux estimates in the Northern Hemisphere, while OCO-2 data, with the specific version used in this study, show only slight improvement.
Thomas Lauvaux, Liza I. Díaz-Isaac, Marc Bocquet, and Nicolas Bousserez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12007–12024,Short summary
A small-size ensemble of mesoscale simulations has been filtered to characterize the spatial structures of transport errors in atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios. The extracted error structures in in situ and column CO2 show similar length scales compared to other meteorological variables, including seasonality, which could be used as proxies in regional inversion systems.
Yue Jia, Susann Tegtmeier, Elliot Atlas, and Birgit Quack
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11089–11103,
Alecia Nickless, Peter J. Rayner, Robert J. Scholes, Francois Engelbrecht, and Birgit Erni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7789–7816,Short summary
Different frameworks for an atmospheric inversion study over Cape Town, South Africa, are considered. We focused particularly on how sensitive the estimates of CO2 fluxes were to changes in the way the uncertainty in these estimates was specified and the impact different prior information had on the final flux estimates. We used atmospheric measurements from two new sites located near Cape Town: Robben Island and Hangklip lighthouses, which were specifically deployed for this inversion study.
Anna Agustí-Panareda, Michail Diamantakis, Sébastien Massart, Frédéric Chevallier, Joaquín Muñoz-Sabater, Jérôme Barré, Roger Curcoll, Richard Engelen, Bavo Langerock, Rachel M. Law, Zoë Loh, Josep Anton Morguí, Mark Parrington, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Michel Ramonet, Coleen Roehl, Alex T. Vermeulen, Thorsten Warneke, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7347–7376,Short summary
This paper demonstrates the benefits of using global models with high horizontal resolution to represent atmospheric CO2 patterns associated with evolving weather. The modelling of CO2 weather is crucial to interpret the variability from ground-based and satellite CO2 observations, which can then be used to infer CO2 fluxes in atmospheric inversions. The benefits of high resolution come from an improved representation of the topography, winds, tracer transport and CO2 flux distribution.
Liza I. Díaz-Isaac, Thomas Lauvaux, Marc Bocquet, and Kenneth J. Davis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5695–5718,Short summary
We demonstrate that transport model errors, one of the main contributors to the uncertainty in regional CO2 inversions, can be represented by a small-size ensemble carefully calibrated with meteorological data. Our results also confirm transport model errors represent a significant fraction of the model–data mismatch in CO2 mole fractions and hence in regional inverse CO2 fluxes.
Misa Ishizawa, Douglas Chan, Doug Worthy, Elton Chan, Felix Vogel, and Shamil Maksyutov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4637–4658,Short summary
The Canadian Arctic has the potential for enhanced methane (CH4) emissions under global warming. However, the regional CH4 emission (fluxes) estimates range widely. This study analyzes recent Canadian Arctic CH4 observations and estimates the regional emissions. The additional observations yield robust CH4 flux estimates and enable the partitioning of the CH4 sources into wetland and forest fires. The results indicate that years with warmer summer conditions result in more wetland CH4 emissions.
Dominik Brunner, Gerrit Kuhlmann, Julia Marshall, Valentin Clément, Oliver Fuhrer, Grégoire Broquet, Armin Löscher, and Yasjka Meijer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4541–4559,Short summary
Atmospheric transport models are increasingly being used to estimate CO2 emissions from atmospheric CO2 measurements. This study demonstrates the importance of distributing CO2 emissions vertically in the model according to realistic profiles, since a major proportion of CO2 is emitted through tall stacks from power plants and industrial sources. With the traditional approach of emitting all CO2 at the surface, models may significantly overestimate the atmospheric CO2 levels.
Basil Denzler, Christian Bogdal, Cyrill Kern, Anna Tobler, Jing Huo, and Konrad Hungerbühler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3821–3831,Short summary
Mercury poses a threat to human health and the environment. Therefore, the reduction of emissions is a declared aim. Here, we quantified mercury emission for the city of Zurich, Switzerland, based on atmospheric measurements and box modeling. This so-called top-down approach allows us to better constrain mercury emissions from diffuse distributed sources. This is applicable to other regions and presents a cost-effective way of quantifying emissions, as a first step in the reduction thereof.
Kieran Brophy, Heather Graven, Alistair J. Manning, Emily White, Tim Arnold, Marc L. Fischer, Seongeun Jeong, Xinguang Cui, and Matthew Rigby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2991–3006,Short summary
We investigate potential errors and uncertainties related to the spatial and temporal prior representation of emissions and modelled atmospheric transport for the inversion of California's fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Our results indicate that uncertainties in posterior total state fossil fuel CO2 estimates arising from the choice of prior emissions or atmospheric transport model are on the order of 15 % or less for the ground-based network in California we consider.
Anna Karion, Thomas Lauvaux, Israel Lopez Coto, Colm Sweeney, Kimberly Mueller, Sharon Gourdji, Wayne Angevine, Zachary Barkley, Aijun Deng, Arlyn Andrews, Ariel Stein, and James Whetstone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2561–2576,Short summary
In this study, we use atmospheric methane concentration observations collected during an airborne campaign to compare different model-based emissions estimates from the Barnett Shale oil and natural gas production basin in Texas, USA. We find that the tracer dispersion model has a significant impact on the results because the models differ in their simulation of vertical dispersion. Additional work is needed to evaluate and improve vertical mixing in the tracer dispersion models.
Peng Liu, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Jesper H. Christensen, Johannes Bieser, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Greg Yarwood, Rohit Mathur, Shawn Roselle, and Tanya Spero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17157–17175,Short summary
This study represents an intercomparison of four regional-scale air quality simulations in order to understand the model similarities and differences in estimating the impact of ozone imported from outside of the US on the surface ozone within the US at process level. Vertical turbulent mixing stands out as a primary contributor to the model differences in inert tracers.
Maryam Abdi-Oskouei, Gabriele Pfister, Frank Flocke, Negin Sobhani, Pablo Saide, Alan Fried, Dirk Richter, Petter Weibring, James Walega, and Gregory Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16863–16883,Short summary
This study presents a quantification of model uncertainties due to configurations and errors in the emission inventories. The analysis includes performing simulations with different configurations and comparisons with airborne and ground-based observations with a focus on capturing transport and emissions from the oil and gas sector. The presented results reflect the challenges that one may face when attempting to improve emission inventories by contrasting measured with modeled concentrations.
Jun Hu, Yichen Li, Tianliang Zhao, Jane Liu, Xiao-Ming Hu, Duanyang Liu, Yongcheng Jiang, Jianming Xu, and Luyu Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16239–16251,Short summary
Using observational and modeling studies, the importance of the mechanism driving regional O3 transport in the residual layer (RL) with respect to summer smog over the Yangtze River Delta region in eastern China was revealed. This mechanism was also examined in association with diurnal change in the atmospheric boundary layer. Regional O3 transport through the nocturnal RL is believed to have great implications for understanding urban and regional O3 pollution in this area.
Ilissa B. Ocko, Vaishali Naik, and David Paynter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15555–15568,Short summary
As communities worldwide analyse options to reduce methane emissions from energy use, agriculture, and waste management, there is an immediate need to build confidence in rapid assessment tools other than standard climate metrics – which misrepresent impacts over all timescales. In this paper, we show that a simplified climate model can easily and rapidly provide scientifically robust climate responses to changes in methane emissions, thereby improving mitigation analysis and decision-making.
Liza I. Díaz-Isaac, Thomas Lauvaux, and Kenneth J. Davis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14813–14835,Short summary
Atmospheric inversions rely on the accurate representation of the atmospheric dynamics in order to produce reliable surface fluxes. In this work, we evaluate the sensitivity of a state-of-the-art mesoscale atmospheric model to the different physics parameterizations and forcing. We conclude that no model configuration is optimal across an entire region. Therefore, we recommend an ensemble approach or the assimilation of meteorological observations in future inversion studies.
Marina Astitha, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ghezae Araya Fisseha, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Jesper H. Christensen, Owen R. Cooper, Stefano Galmarini, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Bryan Johnson, Peng Liu, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Efisio Solazzo, David W. Tarasick, and Greg Yarwood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13925–13945,Short summary
This work is unique in the detailed analyses of modeled ozone vertical profiles from sites in North America through the collaboration of four research groups from the US and EU. We assess the air quality models' performance and model inter-comparison for ozone vertical profiles and stratospheric ozone intrusions. Lastly, we designate the important role of lateral boundary conditions in the ozone vertical profiles using chemically inert tracers.
Robyn Butler, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Stephen J. Andrews, Elliot L. Atlas, Lucy J. Carpenter, Valeria Donets, Neil R. P. Harris, Stephen A. Montzka, Laura L. Pan, Ross J. Salawitch, and Sue M. Schauffler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13135–13153,Short summary
Natural sources of short-lived bromoform and dibromomethane are important for determining the inorganic bromine budget in the stratosphere that drives ozone loss. Two new modelling techniques describe how different geographical source regions influence their atmospheric variability over the western Pacific. We find that it is driven primarily by open ocean sources, and we use atmospheric observations to help estimate their contributions to the upper tropospheric inorganic bromine budget.
Jian-Xiong Sheng, Daniel J. Jacob, Alexander J. Turner, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Joshua Benmergui, A. Anthony Bloom, Claudia Arndt, Ritesh Gautam, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Hartmut Boesch, and Robert J. Parker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12257–12267,Short summary
Analysis of 7 years (2010–2016) of GOSAT methane trends over Canada, the contiguous US, and Mexico suggests that US methane emissions increased by 2.5 ± 1.4 % a−1 over the 7-year period, with contributions from both oil–gas systems and livestock in the Midwest. Mexican emissions show a decrease that can be attributed to a decreasing cattle population. Canadian emissions show year-to-year variability driven by wetland emissions and correlated with wetland areal extent.
Ackermann, I. J., Hass, H., Memmesheimer, M., Ebel, A., Binkowski, F. S., and Shankar, U.: Model aerosol dynamics model for Europe: Development and first applications, Atmos. Environ., 32(17), 2981–2999, 1998.
Andreae, M. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15(4), 955–966, 2001.
Angevine, W. M., Trainer, M., McKeen, S. A., and Berkowitz, C. M.: Mesoscale meteorology of the New England coast, Gulf of Maine, and Nova Scotia: Overview, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D22), 28893–28901, 1996.
Angevine, W. M., Senff, C. J., White, A. B., Williams, E. J., Koermer, J., Miller, S. T. K., Talbot, R., Johnston, P. E., McKeen, S. A., and Downs, T.: Coastal boundary layer influence on pollutant transport in New England, J. Appl. Meteorol., 43, 1425–1437, 2004.
Angevine, W. M., Tjernstrom, M., and Zagar, M.: Modeling of the coastal boundary layer and pollutant transport in New England, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 45, 137–154, 2006.
Auvray, M. and Bey, I.: Long-range transport to Europe: Seasonal variations and implications for the European ozone budget, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D11303, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005503, 2005.
Chen, F. and Dudhia, J.: Coupling an advanced land-surface-hydrology model with the Penn State-NCAR MM5 modeling system: Part I: Model description and implementation, Mon. Weather Rev., 129, 569–585, 2001.
Cooper, O. R., Moody, J. L., Parrish, D. D., Trainer, M., Ryerson, T. B., Holloway, J. S., Hubler, G., Fehsenfeld, F. C., and Evans, M. J.: Trace gas composition of midlatitude cyclones over the western North Atlantic Ocean: A conceptual model, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D7), 4056, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000901, 2002.
Cooper, O. R., Parrish, D. D., Stohl, A., Trainer, M., Nédélec, P., Thouret, V., Cammas, J. P., Oltmans, S. J., Johnson, B. J., Tarasick, D., Leblanc, T., McDermid, I. S., Jaffe, D., Gao, R., Stith, J., Ryerson, T., Aikin, K., Campos, T., Weinheimer A., and Avery, M. A.: Increasing springtime ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere over western North America, Nature, 463, 344–348, 2010.
Damian, V., Sandu, A., Damian, M., Potra, F., and Carmichael, G. R.: The Kinetic PreProcessor KPP-A software environment for solving chemical kinetics, Comput. Chem. Eng., 26, 1567–1579, 2002.
Daum, P. H., Kleinman, L. I., Newman, L., Luke, W. T., Weinstein-Lloyd, J., Berkowitz, C. M., and Busness, K. M.: Chemical and physical properties of plumes of anthropogenic pollutants transported over the North Atlantic during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D22), 29029–29042, 1996.
de Gouw, J. A., Warneke, C., Parrish, D. D., Holloway, J. S., Trainer, M., and Fehsenfeld, F.: Emission sources and ocean uptake of acetonitrile (CH3CN) in the atmosphere, J. Goephys. Res., 108(D11), 4329, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002897, 2003.
de Gouw, J. A., Warneke, C., Stohl, A., Wollny, A. G., Brock, C. A., Cooper, O. R., Holloway, J. S., Trainer, M., Fehsenfeld, F. C., Atlas, E. L., Donnelly, S. G., Stroud, V., and Lueb, A.: Volatile organic compounds composition of merged and aged forest fire plumes from Alaska and western Canada, J. Goephys. Res., 111, D10303, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006175, 2006.
Dudhia, J.: Numerical study of convection observed during the winter monsoon experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 3077–3107, 1989.
Emmons, L. K., Walters, S., Hess, P. G., Lamarque, J.-F., Pfister, G. G., Fillmore, D., Granier, C., Guenther, A., Kinnison, D., Laepple, T., Orlando, J., Tie, X., Tyndall, G., Wiedinmyer, C., Baughcum, S. L., and Kloster, S.: Description and evaluation of the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4), Geosci. Model Dev., 3, 43–67, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-3-43-2010, 2010.
Fang, Y., Fiore, A. M., Horowitz, L. W., Gnanadesikan, A., Levy, H., Hu, Y., and Russell, A. G.: Estimating the contribution of strong daily export events to total pollutant export from the United States in summer, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D23302, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010946, 2009.
Fehsenfeld, F. C., Ancellet, G., Bates, T. S., Goldstein, A. H., Hardesty, R. M., Honrath, R., Law, K. S., Lewis, A. C., Leaitch, R., McKeen, S., Meagher, J., Parrish, D. D., Pszenny, A. A. P., Russell, P. B., Schlager, H., Seinfeld, J., Talbot, R., and Zbinden, R.: International consortium for atmospheric research on transport and transformation (ICARTT): North America to Europe–Overview of the 2004 summer field study, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D23S01, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007829, 2006.
Freitas, S. R., Longo, K. M., Silva Dias, M., Silva Dias, P., Chatfield, R., Prins, E., Artaxo, P., Grell, G., and Recuero, F.: Monitoring the transport of biomass burning emissions in South America, Environ. Fluid Mech., 5, 135–167, 2005.
Freitas, S. R., Longo, K. M., Chatfield, R., Latham, D., Silva Dias, M. A. F., Andreae, M. O., Prins, E., Santos, J. C., Gielow, R., and Carvalho Jr., J. A.: Including the sub-grid scale plume rise of vegetation fires in low resolution atmospheric transport models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 3385–3398, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-3385-2007, 2007.
Giglio, L., Descloitres, J., Justice, C. O., and Kaufman, Y. J.: An enhanced contextual fire detection algorithm for MODIS, Remote Sens. Environ., 87, 273–282, 2003.
Grabowski, W.: Coupling cloud processes with the large-scale dynamics using the cloud-resolving convection parameterization, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 978–997, 2001.
Grell, G. A. and Devenyi, D.: A generalized approach to parameterizing convection combining ensemble and data assimilation techniques, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(14), 1693, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015311, 2002.
Grell, G. A., Peckham, S. E., Schmitz, R., McKeen, S. A., Frost, G., Skamarock, W., and Eder, B.: Fully coupled "online" chemistry within the WRF model, Atmos. Environ., 39, 6957–6975, 2005.
Holt, T. R. and Pullen, J.: Urban canopy modeling of the New York City metropolitan area: A comparison and validation of single- and multilayer parameterizations, Mon. Weather Rev., 135, 1906–1927, 2007.
Hong, S.-Y., Dudhia, J., and Chen, S.-H.: A revised approach to ice microphysical processes for the bulk parameterization of cloud and precipitation, Mon. Weather Rev., 132, 103–120, 2004.
Jacob, D. J., Logan, J. A., and Murti, P. P.: Effect of rising Asian emissions on surface ozone in the United States, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2175–2178, 1999.
Janjic, Z. I.: The step mountain eta coordinate: Physical package, Mon. Weather Rev., 118, 1561–1575, 1990.
Lee, S.-H.: Further development of the Vegetated Urban Canopy Model including a grass-covered surface parametrization and photosynthesis effects, Bound.-Layer Meteor., 140, 315–342, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-011-9603-7, 2011.
Lee, S.-H., McKeen, S. A., Angevine, W. M., Frost, G. J., Kim, S.-W., and Trainer, M.: Impact of an urban land surface parameterization on the transport and dispersion of gaseous air pollutant, The 7th International Conference on Urban Climate, Yokohama, Japan, 29 June–3 July, 2009.
Li, Q., Jacob, D. J., Bey, I., Palmer, P. I., Duncan, B. N., Field, B. D., Martin, R. V., Fiore, A. M., Yantosca,, R. M., Parrish, D. D., Simmonds, P. G., and Oltmans, S. J.: Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D13), 4166, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD001422, 2002.
Li, Q., Jacob, D. J., Park, R., Wang, Y., Heald, C. L., Hudman, R., Yantosca, R. M., Martin, R. V., and Evans, M.: North American pollution outflow and the trapping of convectively lifted pollution by upper-level anticyclone, J. Goephys. Res., 110, D10301, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005039, 2005.
Liu, S. C., McKeen, S. A., Hsie, E.-Y., Lin, X., Kelly, K. K., Bradshaw, J. D., Sandholm, S. T., Browell, E. V., Gregory, G. L., Sachse, G. W., Bandy, A. R., Thornton, D. C., Blake, D. R., Rowland, F. S., Newell, R., Heikes, B. G., Singh, H., and Talbot, R. W.: Model study of tropospheric trace species distributions during PEM-West A, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D1), 2073–2085, 1996.
Longo, K. M., Freitas, S. R., Andreae, M. O., Setzer, A., Prins, E., and Artaxo, P.: The Coupled Aerosol and Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CATT-BRAMS) – Part 2: Model sensitivity to the biomass burning inventories, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5785–5795, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-5785-2010, 2010.
Madronich, S.: Photodissociation in the atmosphere: 1. Actinic flux and the effects of ground reflections and clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 92(D8), 9740–9752, https://doi.org/10.1029/JD092iD08p09740, 1987.
Mao, H., Talbot, R., Troop, D., Johnson, R., Businger, S., and Thompson, A. M.: Smart balloon observations over the North Atlantic: O3 data analysis and modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D23S56, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006507, 2006.
McKeen, S. A., Wotawa, G., Parrish, D. D., Holloway, J. S., Buhr, M. P., Hubler, G., Fehsenfeld, F. C., and Meagher, J. F.: Ozone production from Canadian wildfires during June and July of 1995, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D14), 4192, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000697, 2002.
Mlawer, E. J., Taubman, S. J., Brown, P. D., Iacono, M. J., and Clough S. A.: Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmosphere: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the long-wave, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D14), 16663–16682, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JD00237, 1997.
Neuman, J. A., Parrish, D. D., Trainer, M., Ryerson, T. B., Holloway, J. S., Nowak, J. B., Swanson, A., Flocke, F., Roberts, J. M., Brown, S. S., Stark, H., Sommariva, R., Stohl, A., Peltier, R., Weber, R., Wollny, A. G., Sueper, D. T., Hubler, G., and Fehsenfeld, F. C.: Reactive nitrogen transport and photochemistry in urban plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D23S54, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD007010, 2006.
Owen, R. C., Cooper, O. R., Stohl, A., and Honrath, R. E.: An analysis of the mechanisms of North American pollutant transport to the central North Atlantic lower free troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D23S58, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007062, 2006.
Park, R. J., Jacob, D. J., Field, B. D., Yantosca, R. M., and Chin, M.: Natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols in the United States: Implications for policy, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D15204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004473, 2004.
Parrish, D., Trainer, M., Holloway, J., Yee, J., Warshawsky, M., and Fehnsenfeld, F.: Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites in the North Atlantic region, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 13357–13376, 1998.
Prins, E., Feltz, J., Menzel, W., and Ward, D.: An overview of GOES-8 diurnal fire and smoke results for SCAR-B and 1995 fire season in South America, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D24), 31821–31835, 1998.
Pu, R., Li, Z., Gong, P., Csiszar, I., Fraser, R., Hao, W.-M., Kondragunta, S., and Weng, F.: Development and analysis of a 12-year daily 1-km forest fire dataset across North America from NOAA/AVHRR data, Remote Sens. Environ., 108, 198–208, 2007.
Real, E., Law, K. S., Schlager, H., Roiger, A., Huntrieser, H., Methven, J., Cain, M., Holloway, J., Neuman, J. A., Ryerson, T., Flocke, F., de Gouw, J., Atlas, E., Donnelly, S., and Parrish, D.: Lagrangian analysis of low altitude anthropogenic plume processing across the North Atlantic, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 7737–7754, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-7737-2008, 2008.
Schell, B., Ackermann, I. J., Hass, H., Binkowski, F. S., and Ebel, A.: Modeling the formation of secondary organic aerosol within a comprehensive air quality model system, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D22), 28275–28293, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000384, 2001.
Skamarock, W. C., Klemp, J. B., Dudhia, J., Gill, D. O., Barker, D. M., Duda, M. G., Hwang, X.-Y., Wang, W., and Powers, J. G.: A description of the advanced research WRF version 3, Technical Note 475+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA, 2008.
Singh, H. B., Brune, W. H., Crawford, J. H., Jacob, D. J., and Russell, P. B.: Overview of the summer 2004 intercontinental chemical transport experiment – North America (INTEX-A), J. Geophys. Res., 111, D24S01, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007905, 2006.
Song, C.-K., Byun, D. W., Pierce, R. B., Alsaadi, J. A., Schaack, T. K., and Vukovich, F.: Downscale linkage of global model output for regional chemical transport modeling: Method and general performance, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D08308, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008951, 2008.
Stockwell, W. R., Kirchner, F., Kuhm, M., and Seefeld, S.: A new mechanism for regional atmospheric chemistry modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D22), 25847–25879, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JD00849, 1997.
Tang, Y. H., Lee, P., Tsidulko, M., Huang, H. C., McQueen, J. T., DiMego, G. J., Emmons, L. K., Pierce, R. B., Thompson, A. M., Lin, H. M., Kang, D., Tong, D., Yu, S. C., Mathur, R., Pleim, J. E., Otte, T. L., Pouliot, G., Young, J. O., Schere, K. L., Davidson, P. M., and Stajner, I.: The impact of chemical lateral boundary conditions on CMAQ predictions of tropospheric ozone over the continental United States, Environ. Fluid Mech., 9, 43–58, doi10.1007/s10652-008-9092-5, 2009.
Thompson, A. M., Stone, J. B., Witte, J. C., Miller, S. K., Pierce, R. B., Chatfield, R. B., Oltmans, S. J., Cooper, O. R., Loucks, A. L., Taubman, B. F., Johnson, B. J., Joseph, E., Kucsera, T. L., Merrill, J. T., Morris, G. A., Hersey, S., Forbes, G., Newchurch, M. J., Schmidlin, F. J., Tarasick, D. W., Thouret, V., and Cammas J.-P.: Intercontinental chemical transport experiment ozonesonde network study (IONS) 2004: 1. Summertime upper troposphere/lower stratosphere ozone over northeastern North America, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D12S12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007441, 2007.
Trainer, M., Ridley, B. A., Buhr, M. P., Kok, G., Walega, J., Hubler, G., Parrish, D. D., and Fehsenfeld, F. C.: Regional ozone and urban plumes in the southeastern United States: Birmingham, a case study, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D9), 18823–18834, 1995.
Turquety, S., Logan, J. A., Jacob, D. J., Hudman, R. C., Leung, F. Y., Heald, C. L., Yantosca, R. M., Wu, S., Emmons, L. K., Edwards, D. P., and Sachse, G. W.: Inventory of boreal fire emissions for North America in 2004: Importance of peat burning and pyroconvective injection, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D12S03, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007281, 2007.
Wang, H., Jacob, D. J., Le Sager P., Streets, D. G., Park, R. J., Gilliland, A. B., and van Donkelaar, A.: Surface ozone background in the United States: Canadian and Mexican pollution influences, Atmos. Environ., 43, 1310–1319, 2009a.
Wang, H., Skamarock, W. C., and Feingold, G.: Evaluation of scalar advection schemes in the Advanced Research WRF model using large-eddy simulations of aerosol-cloud interactions, Mon. Weather Rev., 137, 2547–2558, 2009b.
Ward, E., Susott, R., Kaufman, J., Babbit, R., Cummings, D., Dias, B., Holben, B., Kaufman, Y., Rasmussen, R., and Setzer, A.: Smoke and fire characteristics for cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil: BASE-B experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 97(D13), 14601–14619, 1992.
Willmott, C. J.: On the validation of models. Phys. Geogr., 2, 184–194, 1981.