Articles | Volume 18, issue 12
Research article 28 Jun 2018
Research article | 28 Jun 2018
Can explicit convection improve modelled dust in summertime West Africa?
Alexander J. Roberts et al.
No articles found.
Alcide Zhao, Claire L. Ryder, and Laura J. Wilcox
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The CMIP6 Models' simulated dust processes are getting more uncertain as models become more sophisticated. Of particular challenge are the links between dust cycles and optical properties, and we recommend more detailed output relating to dust cycles in future intercomparison projects to constrain such links. Also, models struggle to capture certain key regional dust processes such as dust accumulation along the slope of the Himalayas, and dust seasonal cycles in North China and North America.
Hongbin Yu, Qian Tan, Lillian Zhou, Yaping Zhou, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Claire L. Ryder, Robert C. Levy, Yaswant Pradhan, Yingxi Shi, Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Peter R. Colarco, Dongchul Kim, Lorraine A. Remer, Tianle Yuan, Olga Mayol-Bracero, and Brent N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12359–12383,Short summary
This study characterizes a historic African dust intrusion into the Caribbean Basin in June 2020 using satellites and NASA GEOS. Dust emissions in West Africa were large albeit not extreme. However, a unique synoptic system accumulated the dust near the coast for about 4 d before it was ventilated. Although GEOS reproduced satellite-observed plume tracks well, it substantially underestimated dust emissions and did not lift up dust high enough for ensuing long-range transport.
Jennifer Saxby, Julia Crook, Simon Peatman, Cathryn Birch, Juliane Schwendike, Maria Valdivieso da Costa, Juan Manuel Castillo Sanchez, Chris Holloway, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Ashis Mitra, and Huw Lewis
Weather Clim. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for WCDShort summary
This study assesses the ability of the new Met Office IND1 numerical model to simulate tropical cyclones and their associated hazards, such as high winds and heavy rainfall. The new system consists of both atmospheric and oceanic models coupled together, allowing us to explore the sensitivity of cyclones to important air–sea feedbacks. We find that the model can accurately simulate tropical cyclone position, structure, and intensity, which are crucial for predicting and mitigating hazards.
Rei Kudo, Henri Diémoz, Victor Estellés, Monica Campanelli, Masahiro Momoi, Franco Marenco, Claire L. Ryder, Osamu Ijima, Akihiro Uchiyama, Kouichi Nakashima, Akihiro Yamazaki, Ryoji Nagasawa, Nozomu Ohkawara, and Haruma Ishida
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3395–3426,Short summary
A new method, Skyrad pack MRI version 2, was developed to retrieve aerosol physical and optical properties, water vapor, and ozone column concentrations from the sky radiometer, a filter radiometer deployed in the SKYNET international network. Our method showed good performance in a radiative closure study using surface solar irradiances from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network and a comparison using aircraft in situ measurements of Saharan dust events during the SAVEX-D 2015 campaign.
Jessica C. A. Baker, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Manuel Gloor, John H. Marsham, Wolfgang Buermann, Humberto R. da Rocha, Antonio D. Nobre, Alessandro Carioca de Araujo, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2279–2300,Short summary
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a vital part of the Amazon water cycle, but it is difficult to measure over large areas. In this study, we compare spatial patterns, seasonality, and recent trends in Amazon ET from a water-budget analysis with estimates from satellites, reanalysis, and global climate models. We find large differences between products, showing that many widely used datasets and climate models may not provide a reliable representation of this crucial variable over the Amazon.
Debbie O'Sullivan, Franco Marenco, Claire L. Ryder, Yaswant Pradhan, Zak Kipling, Ben Johnson, Angela Benedetti, Melissa Brooks, Matthew McGill, John Yorks, and Patrick Selmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12955–12982,Short summary
Mineral dust is an important component of the climate system, and we assess how well it is predicted by two operational models. We flew an aircraft in the dust layers in the eastern Atlantic, and we also make use of satellites. We show that models predict the dust layer too low and that it predicts the particles to be too small. We believe that these discrepancies may be overcome if models can be constrained with operational observations of dust vertical and size-resolved distribution.
Teruyuki Nakajima, Monica Campanelli, Huizheng Che, Victor Estellés, Hitoshi Irie, Sang-Woo Kim, Jhoon Kim, Dong Liu, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Govindan Pandithurai, Vijay Kumar Soni, Boossarasiri Thana, Nas-Urt Tugjsurn, Kazuma Aoki, Sujung Go, Makiko Hashimoto, Akiko Higurashi, Stelios Kazadzis, Pradeep Khatri, Natalia Kouremeti, Rei Kudo, Franco Marenco, Masahiro Momoi, Shantikumar S. Ningombam, Claire L. Ryder, Akihiro Uchiyama, and Akihiro Yamazaki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4195–4218,Short summary
This paper overviews the progress in sky radiometer technology and the development of the network called SKYNET. It is found that the technology has produced useful on-site calibration methods, retrieval algorithms, and data analyses from sky radiometer observations of aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and ozone. The paper also discusses current issues of SKYNET to provide better information for the community.
Ross J. Herbert, Nicolas Bellouin, Ellie J. Highwood, and Adrian A. Hill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1317–1340,Short summary
Marine stratocumulus clouds cover large regions of the ocean and act to cool the climate. We use high-resolution simulations to understand how observed layers of elevated smoke impact stratocumulus via the solar heating that occurs within the smoke layer. We find that the cloud response is strongest for thin, dense layers of smoke close to the cloud. The response rapidly weakens as the cloud-to-smoke gap increases. Generally, the smoke acts to thicken clouds and enhance their cooling effect.
Claire L. Ryder, Eleanor J. Highwood, Adrian Walser, Petra Seibert, Anne Philipp, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15353–15376,Short summary
Mineral dust is lifted into the atmosphere from desert regions, where it can be transported over thousands of kilometres around the world. Dust impacts weather, climate, aviation, and air quality. We evaluate new aircraft observations of dust size. We find that the largest particles typically omitted by models have a significant impact on the interactions of dust with radiation and therefore climate. We also find that large dust particles are retained in the atmosphere longer than expected.
James Brooks, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Paul I. Williams, Jim Haywood, Ellie J. Highwood, Sobhan K. Kompalli, S. Suresh Babu, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Andrew G. Turner, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13079–13096,Short summary
Our study presents an analysis of the vertical and horizontal black carbon properties across northern India using aircraft measurements. The Indo-Gangetic Plain saw the greatest black carbon mass concentrations during the pre-monsoon season. Two black carbon modes were recorded: a small black carbon mode (traffic emissions) in the north-west and a moderately coated mode (solid-fuel emissions) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In the vertical profile, absorption properties increase with height.
Carly L. Reddington, William T. Morgan, Eoghan Darbyshire, Joel Brito, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, Catherine E. Scott, John Marsham, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9125–9152,Short summary
We use an aerosol model and observations to explore model representation of aerosol emissions from fires in the Amazon. We find that observed aerosol concentrations are captured by the model over deforestation fires in the western Amazon but underestimated over savanna fires in the Cerrado environment. The model underestimates observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) even when the observed aerosol vertical profile is reproduced. We suggest this may be due to uncertainties in the AOD calculation.
Laura J. Wilcox, Nick Dunstone, Anna Lewinschal, Massimo Bollasina, Annica M. L. Ekman, and Eleanor J. Highwood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9081–9095,Short summary
Asian anthropogenic aerosol emissions have increased rapidly since 1980. In winter, this has resulted in warming over China and cooling over India. Using models of different levels of complexity, we show that Asian-aerosol-induced heating anomalies in the western and northern North Pacific establish a circulation pattern that causes cooling in North America and Europe. This connection makes these regions potentially sensitive to any reductions of Asian aerosol emissions in the near future.
James Brooks, James D. Allan, Paul I. Williams, Dantong Liu, Cathryn Fox, Jim Haywood, Justin M. Langridge, Ellie J. Highwood, Sobhan K. Kompalli, Debbie O'Sullivan, Suresh S. Babu, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Andrew G. Turner, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5615–5634,Short summary
Our study, for the first time, presents measurements of aerosol chemical composition and physical characteristics across northern India in the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of 2016 using the FAAM BAe-146 UK research aircraft. Across northern India, an elevated aerosol layer dominated by sulfate aerosol exists that diminishes with monsoon arrival. The Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) boundary layer is dominated by organics, whereas outside the IGP sulfate dominates with increased scattering aerosol.
Franco Marenco, Claire Ryder, Victor Estellés, Debbie O'Sullivan, Jennifer Brooke, Luke Orgill, Gary Lloyd, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17655–17668,Short summary
The AER-D airborne campaign characterised Saharan dust in the eastern Atlantic. We report an instance of unusual vertical structure of the Saharan Air Layer during an intense event, showing a large radiative impact and correlated with anomalous lightning activity. Moreover, we report a significant presence of giant dust particles. This is important because most models would miss the giant particles. Our findings may change the way we represent dust transport and deposition in the Atlantic.
Claire L. Ryder, Franco Marenco, Jennifer K. Brooke, Victor Estelles, Richard Cotton, Paola Formenti, James B. McQuaid, Hannah C. Price, Dantong Liu, Patrick Ausset, Phil D. Rosenberg, Jonathan W. Taylor, Tom Choularton, Keith Bower, Hugh Coe, Martin Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Gary Lloyd, Eleanor J. Highwood, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17225–17257,Short summary
Every year, millions of tons of Saharan dust particles are carried across the Atlantic by the wind, where they can affect weather patterns and climate. Their sizes span orders of magnitude, but the largest (over 10 microns – around the width of a human hair) are difficult to measure and few observations exist. Here we show new aircraft observations of large dust particles, finding more than we would expect, and we quantify their properties which allow them to interact with atmospheric radiation.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Seiji Kato, Ping Yang, Peter Colarco, Lorraine A. Remer, and Claire L. Ryder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11303–11322,Short summary
Mineral dust is the most abundant atmospheric aerosol component in terms of dry mass. In this study, we integrate recent aircraft measurements of dust microphysical and optical properties with satellite retrievals of aerosol and radiative fluxes to quantify the dust direct radiative effects on the shortwave and longwave radiation at both the top of the atmosphere and the surface in the tropical North Atlantic during summer months.
Angela Benedetti, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peter Knippertz, John H. Marsham, Francesca Di Giuseppe, Samuel Rémy, Sara Basart, Olivier Boucher, Ian M. Brooks, Laurent Menut, Lucia Mona, Paolo Laj, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Alexander Baklanov, Malcolm Brooks, Peter R. Colarco, Emilio Cuevas, Arlindo da Silva, Jeronimo Escribano, Johannes Flemming, Nicolas Huneeus, Oriol Jorba, Stelios Kazadzis, Stefan Kinne, Thomas Popp, Patricia K. Quinn, Thomas T. Sekiyama, Taichu Tanaka, and Enric Terradellas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10615–10643,Short summary
Numerical prediction of aerosol particle properties has become an important activity at many research and operational weather centers. This development is due to growing interest from a diverse set of stakeholders, such as air quality regulatory bodies, aviation authorities, solar energy plant managers, climate service providers, and health professionals. This paper describes the advances in the field and sets out requirements for observations for the sustainability of these activities.
Bryan N. Lawrence, Michael Rezny, Reinhard Budich, Peter Bauer, Jörg Behrens, Mick Carter, Willem Deconinck, Rupert Ford, Christopher Maynard, Steven Mullerworth, Carlos Osuna, Andrew Porter, Kim Serradell, Sophie Valcke, Nils Wedi, and Simon Wilson
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1799–1821,Short summary
Weather and climate models consist of complex software evolving in response to both scientific requirements and changing computing hardware. After years of relatively stable hardware, more diversity is arriving. It is possible that this hardware diversity and the pace of change may lead to an inability for modelling groups to manage their software development. This
chasmbetween aspiration and reality may need to be bridged by large community efforts rather than traditional
Gillian D. Thornhill, Claire L. Ryder, Eleanor J. Highwood, Len C. Shaffrey, and Ben T. Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5321–5342,Short summary
We investigated the impact on the regional climate of different amounts of smoke emission (aerosol) from the burning of vegetation in South America using a climate model. We looked at differences between high and low smoke emissions and found impacts from the higher smoke emissions on the amount of cloud cover, solar radiation reaching the surface, wind patterns and rainfall. This means the local climate may be affected if there is more deforestation and more smoke from burning of vegetation.
Dantong Liu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Jonathan Crosier, Nicholas Marsden, Keith N. Bower, Gary Lloyd, Claire L. Ryder, Jennifer K. Brooke, Richard Cotton, Franco Marenco, Alan Blyth, Zhiqiang Cui, Victor Estelles, Martin Gallagher, Hugh Coe, and Tom W. Choularton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3817–3838,Short summary
This article presents measurements of aerosol properties off the coast of west Africa during August 2015. For the first time, an airborne laser-induced incandescence instrument was deployed to measure the hematite content of dust. The single scattering albedo of dust was found to be influenced by the hematite content, but depended on the dust source and potential dust age. This highlights the importance of size-dependent composition in determining the optical properties of dust.
Netsanet K. Alamirew, Martin C. Todd, Claire L. Ryder, John H. Marsham, and Yi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1241–1262,Short summary
This paper quantifies the radiative effects of dust and water vapour in the Saharan heat low. Dust has a warming effect at the top of the atmosphere while cooling the surface. Water vapour has a warming effect both at the top of atmosphere and the surface. We find dust and water vapour have similar effects in driving the variability in the top-of-atmosphere radiative budget, while dust has a stronger effect than water vapour in controlling day-to-day variability of the surface radiative budget.
Adriana Rocha-Lima, J. Vanderlei Martins, Lorraine A. Remer, Martin Todd, John H. Marsham, Sebastian Engelstaedter, Claire L. Ryder, Carolina Cavazos-Guerra, Paulo Artaxo, Peter Colarco, and Richard Washington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1023–1043,Short summary
We present results of ground-based measurements and subsequent laboratory analysis of Sahara dust samples collected in Algeria and Mauritania during the Fennec campaign in 2011. The results show that the sampled dust has low absorption characteristics and exhibits a distinct spectral bow-like shape. We find distinctive differences in the composition and optical characteristics of the dust from the two sites, corroborating with other studies that not all Saharan dust is the same.
Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Adrien Deroubaix, Eleanor Morris, Flore Tocquer, Mat J. Evans, Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Christophe Lavaysse, Celine Mari, John H. Marsham, Rémi Meynadier, Abalo Affo-Dogo, Titike Bahaga, Fabien Brosse, Konrad Deetz, Ridha Guebsi, Issaou Latifou, Marlon Maranan, Philip D. Rosenberg, and Andreas Schlueter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10893–10918,Short summary
In June–July 2016 DACCIWA (Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa), a large, EU-funded European–African project, organised an international field campaign in densely populated southern West Africa, including measurements from ground sites, research aircraft, weather balloons and urban sites. This paper gives an overview of the atmospheric evolution during this period focusing on meteorological (precipitation, cloudiness, winds) and composition (gases, particles) aspects.
John C. Kealy, Franco Marenco, John H. Marsham, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Pete N. Francis, Michael C. Cooke, and James Hocking
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5789–5807,Short summary
Using novel methods of cloud detection from aircraft data over the Sahara desert, we evaluate the performance of the Meteosat satellite in measuring cloud properties: namely, the cloud mask and the cloud-top height. We find that the cloud mask can justifiably be used for many applications (such as creating a detailed Saharan cloud climatology), and we also discuss its limitations. As for the cloud-top height, we show that the dataset cannot yet be considered robust in this part of the world.
Céline Planche, Graham W. Mann, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Mohit Dalvi, John H. Marsham, and Paul R. Field
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3371–3384,Short summary
A convection-permitting limited area model with prognostic aerosol microphysics is applied to investigate how concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the marine boundary layer are affected by high-resolution dynamical and thermodynamic fields at sub-climate model scale. We gain new insight into the way primary sea-salt and secondary sulfate particles contribute to the overall CCN variance, and find a marked difference in the variability of super- and sub-micron CCN.
Anna R. Esteve, Eleanor J. Highwood, and Claire L. Ryder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7639–7651,Short summary
The radiative effect of aerosols over Europe during the EUCAARI-LONGREX campaign has been calculated using measurements made by the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft and radiative transfer modelling. For one specially designed flight, simulated irradiances have been compared to radiation measurements to explore the validity of model assumptions. We have quantified the uncertainties in our calculations due to the way in which aerosols and other parameters are represented in a radiative transfer model.
John H. Marsham, Douglas J. Parker, Martin C. Todd, Jamie R. Banks, Helen E. Brindley, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Alexander J. Roberts, and Claire L. Ryder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3563–3575,Short summary
The roles of water, clouds and airborne dust in controlling the heating of the Sahara are uncertain, which has major implications for the West African monsoon. Observations from the Fennec project, with satellite data, show that total atmospheric water content provides a far stronger control on total radiative heating than dust does, but dust provides the stronger control on surface heating. Therefore major heating errors in global models are likely due to known errors in water transport.
S. R. Kolusu, J. H. Marsham, J. Mulcahy, B. Johnson, C. Dunning, M. Bush, and D. V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12251–12266,
C. L. Ryder, J. B. McQuaid, C. Flamant, P. D. Rosenberg, R. Washington, H. E. Brindley, E. J. Highwood, J. H. Marsham, D. J. Parker, M. C. Todd, J. R. Banks, J. K. Brooke, S. Engelstaedter, V. Estelles, P. Formenti, L. Garcia-Carreras, C. Kocha, F. Marenco, H. Sodemann, C. J. T. Allen, A. Bourdon, M. Bart, C. Cavazos-Guerra, S. Chevaillier, J. Crosier, E. Darbyshire, A. R. Dean, J. R. Dorsey, J. Kent, D. O'Sullivan, K. Schepanski, K. Szpek, J. Trembath, and A. Woolley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8479–8520,Short summary
Measurements of the Saharan atmosphere and of atmospheric mineral dust are lacking but are vital to our understanding of the climate of this region and their impacts further afield. Novel observations were made by the Fennec climate programme during June 2011 and 2012 using ground-based, remote sensing and airborne platforms. Here we describe the airborne observations and the contributions they have made to furthering our understanding of the Saharan climate system.
L. Guo, A. G. Turner, and E. J. Highwood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6367–6378,
C. A. Randles, S. Kinne, G. Myhre, M. Schulz, P. Stier, J. Fischer, L. Doppler, E. Highwood, C. Ryder, B. Harris, J. Huttunen, Y. Ma, R. T. Pinker, B. Mayer, D. Neubauer, R. Hitzenberger, L. Oreopoulos, D. Lee, G. Pitari, G. Di Genova, J. Quaas, F. G. Rose, S. Kato, S. T. Rumbold, I. Vardavas, N. Hatzianastassiou, C. Matsoukas, H. Yu, F. Zhang, H. Zhang, and P. Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2347–2379,
L. Guo, E. J. Highwood, L. C. Shaffrey, and A. G. Turner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1521–1534,
G. E. Thomas, N. Chalmers, B. Harris, R. G. Grainger, and E. J. Highwood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 393–410,
C. L. Ryder, E. J. Highwood, P. D. Rosenberg, J. Trembath, J. K. Brooke, M. Bart, A. Dean, J. Crosier, J. Dorsey, H. Brindley, J. Banks, J. H. Marsham, J. B. McQuaid, H. Sodemann, and R. Washington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 303–325,
Related subject area
Subject: Dynamics | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Modelling spatiotemporal variations of the canopy layer urban heat island in Beijing at the neighbourhood scaleDispersion of particulate matter (PM2.5) from wood combustion for residential heating: optimization of mitigation actions based on large-eddy simulationsMeasurement report: Effect of wind shear on PM10 concentration vertical structure in the urban boundary layer in a complex terrainThe effect of forced change and unforced variability in heat waves, temperature extremes, and associated population risk in a CO2-warmed worldConvective self–aggregation in a mean flowThe potential for geostationary remote sensing of NO2 to improve weather predictionRobust winter warming over Eurasia under stratospheric sulfate geoengineering – the role of stratospheric dynamicsParameterizing the vertical downward dispersion of ship exhaust gas in the near fieldAnthropogenic aerosol forcing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and the associated mechanisms in CMIP6 modelsSensitivities of the Madden–Julian oscillation forecasts to configurations of physics in the ECMWF global modelIdentifying source regions of air masses sampled at the tropical high-altitude site of Chacaltaya using WRF-FLEXPART and cluster analysisSensitivity of modeled Indian monsoon to Chinese and Indian aerosol emissionsThe spring transition of the North Pacific jet and its relation to deep stratosphere-to-troposphere mass transport over western North AmericaVery long-period oscillations in the atmosphere (0–110 km)Identification of molecular cluster evaporation rates, cluster formation enthalpies and entropies by Monte Carlo methodThe “urban meteorology island”: a multi-model ensemble analysisValidation of reanalysis Southern Ocean atmosphere trends using sea ice dataRevisiting the trend in the occurrences of the “warm Arctic–cold Eurasian continent” temperature patternA microphysics guide to cirrus – Part 2: Climatologies of clouds and humidity from observationsCeilometers as planetary boundary layer height detectors and a corrective tool for COSMO and IFS modelsUsing a coupled large-eddy simulation–aerosol radiation model to investigate urban haze: sensitivity to aerosol loading and meteorological conditionsConfinement of air in the Asian monsoon anticyclone and pathways of convective air to the stratosphere during the summer seasonOn the climate sensitivity and historical warming evolution in recent coupled model ensemblesSurface processes in the 7 November 2014 medicane from air–sea coupled high-resolution numerical modellingHadley cell expansion in CMIP6 modelsAtmospheric teleconnection processes linking winter air stagnation and haze extremes in China with regional Arctic sea ice declineDehydration and low ozone in the tropopause layer over the Asian monsoon caused by tropical cyclones: Lagrangian transport calculations using ERA-Interim and ERA5 reanalysis dataCharacterization of the air–sea exchange mechanisms during a Mediterranean heavy precipitation event using realistic sea state modellingTransport of short-lived halocarbons to the stratosphere over the Pacific OceanA very high-resolution assessment and modelling of urban air qualitySurface temperature response to the major volcanic eruptions in multiple reanalysis data setsRole of eyewall and rainband eddy forcing in tropical cyclone intensificationA double ITCZ phenomenology of wind errors in the equatorial Atlantic in seasonal forecasts with ECMWF modelsAnalysis of total column CO2 and CH4 measurements in Berlin with WRF-GHGQuantifying the contribution of anthropogenic influence to the East Asian winter monsoon in 1960–2012Land cover and its transformation in the backward trajectory footprint region of the Amazon Tall Tower ObservatoryLarge-scale dynamics of tropical cyclone formation associated with ITCZ breakdownA numerical process study on the rapid transport of stratospheric air down to the surface over western North America and the Tibetan PlateauGlobal tropopause altitudes in radiosondes and reanalysesHeat transport pathways into the Arctic and their connections to surface air temperaturesTornado-scale vortices in the tropical cyclone boundary layer: numerical simulation with the WRF–LES frameworkDissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy in stably stratified sheared flowsTwo pathways of how remote SST anomalies drive the interannual variability of autumnal haze days in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, ChinaLong-term simulation of the boundary layer flow over the double-ridge site during the Perdigão 2017 field campaignAnthropogenic fine particulate matter pollution will be exacerbated in eastern China due to 21st century GHG warmingOn the role of thermal expansion and compression in large-scale atmospheric energy and mass transportsChanges in sea-surface temperature and atmospheric circulation patterns associated with reductions in Arctic sea ice cover in recent decadesA multi-model comparison of meteorological drivers of surface ozone over EuropeMulti-model comparison of urban heat island modelling approachesA statistical examination of the effects of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering on tropical storm genesis
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, David Carruthers, Sue Grimmond, Yiqun Han, Pingqing Fu, and Simone Kotthaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13687–13711,Short summary
Heat-related illnesses are of increasing concern in China given its rapid urbanisation and our ever-warming climate. We examine the relative impacts that land surface properties and anthropogenic heat have on the urban heat island (UHI) in Beijing using ADMS-Urban. Air temperature measurements and satellite-derived land surface temperatures provide valuable means of evaluating modelled spatiotemporal variations. This work provides critical information for urban planners and UHI mitigation.
Tobias Wolf, Lasse H. Pettersson, and Igor Esau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12463–12477,Short summary
House heating by wood-burning stoves is cozy and needed in boreal cities, e.g., Bergen, Norway. But smoke (aerosols) from stoves may reduce urban air quality. It can be transported over long distance excessively polluting some neighborhoods. Who will suffer the most? Our modelling study looks at urban pollution in unprecedented meter-sized details tracing smoke pathways and turbulent dispersion in a typical city. We prototype effective policy scenarios to mitigate urban air quality problems.
Piotr Sekuła, Anita Bokwa, Jakub Bartyzel, Bogdan Bochenek, Łukasz Chmura, Michał Gałkowski, and Mirosław Zimnoch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12113–12139,Short summary
The wind shear generated on a local scale by the diversified relief’s impact can be a factor which significantly modifies the spatial pattern of PM10 concentration. The vertical profile of PM10 over a city located in a large valley during the events with high surface-level PM10 concentrations may show a sudden decrease with height not only due to the increase in wind speed, but also due to the change in wind direction alone. Vertical aerosanitary urban zones can be distinguished.
Jangho Lee, Jeffrey C. Mast, and Andrew E. Dessler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11889–11904,Short summary
This paper investigates the impact of global warming on heat and humidity extremes. There are three major findings in this study. We quantify how unforced variability in the climate impacts can lead to large variations where heat waves occur, we find that all heat extremes increase as the climate warms, especially between 1.5 and 2.0 °C of the average global warming, and we show that the economic inequity of facing extreme heat will worsen in a warmer world.
Hyunju Jung, Ann Kristin Naumann, and Bjorn Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10337–10345,Short summary
We analyze the behavior of organized convection in a large-scale flow by imposing a mean flow to idealized simulations. In the mean flow, organized convection initially propagates slower than the mean wind speed and becomes stationary. The initial upstream and downstream difference in surface fluxes becomes symmetric as the surface momentum flux acts as a drag, resulting in the stationarity. Meanwhile, the surface enthalpy flux has a minor role in the propagation of the convection.
Xueling Liu, Arthur P. Mizzi, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Inez Fung, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9573–9583,Short summary
Observations of winds in the planetary boundary layer remain sparse, making it challenging to simulate and predict the atmospheric conditions that are most important for describing and predicting urban air quality. Here we investigate the application of data assimilation of NO2 columns as will be observed from geostationary orbit to improve predictions and retrospective analysis of wind fields in the boundary layer.
Antara Banerjee, Amy H. Butler, Lorenzo M. Polvani, Alan Robock, Isla R. Simpson, and Lantao Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6985–6997,Short summary
We find that simulated stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could lead to warmer Eurasian winters alongside a drier Mediterranean and wetting to the north. These effects occur due to the strengthening of the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex, which shifts the North Atlantic Oscillation to a more positive phase. We find the effects in our simulations to be much more significant than the wintertime effects of large tropical volcanic eruptions which inject much less sulfate aerosol.
Ronny Badeke, Volker Matthias, and David Grawe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5935–5951,Short summary
This work aims to describe the physical distribution of ship exhaust gases in the near field, e.g., inside of a harbor. Results were calculated with a mathematical model for different meteorological and technical conditions. It has been shown that large vessels like cruise ships have a significant effect of up to 55 % downward movement of exhaust gas, as they can disturb the ground near wind circulation. This needs to be considered in urban air pollution studies.
Taufiq Hassan, Robert J. Allen, Wei Liu, and Cynthia A. Randles
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5821–5846,Short summary
State-of-the-art climate models yield robust, externally forced changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), the bulk of which are due to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations to net surface shortwave radiation and sea surface temperature. AMOC-related feedbacks act to reinforce this aerosol-forced response, largely due to changes in sea surface salinity (and hence sea surface density), with temperature- and cloud-related feedbacks acting to mute the initial response.
Jun-Ichi Yano and Nils P. Wedi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4759–4778,Short summary
Sensitivities of forecasts of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) to various different configurations of the physics are examined with the global model of ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). The motivation for the study was to simulate the MJO as a nonlinear free wave. To emulate free dynamics in the IFS, various momentum dissipation terms (
friction) as well as diabatic heating were selectively turned off over the tropics for the range of the latitudes from 20° S to 20° N.
Diego Aliaga, Victoria A. Sinclair, Marcos Andrade, Paulo Artaxo, Samara Carbone, Evgeny Kadantsev, Paolo Laj, Alfred Wiedensohler, Radovan Krejci, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We investigate the origin of air masses sampled at mount Chacaltaya, Bolivia. Three quarters of the measured air has not been influenced by the surface in the previous four days. However, it is rare that, at any given time, the sampled air has not been influenced at all by the surface and often the sampled air has multiple origins. The influence of the surface is more prevalent during day than night. Furthermore, during the 6-month study, one third of the air masses originated from Amazonia.
Peter Sherman, Meng Gao, Shaojie Song, Alex T. Archibald, Nathan Luke Abraham, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew Shindell, Gregory Faluvegi, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3593–3605,Short summary
The aims here are to assess the role of aerosols in India's monsoon precipitation and to determine the relative contributions from Chinese and Indian emissions using CMIP6 models. We find that increased sulfur emissions reduce precipitation, which is primarily dynamically driven due to spatial shifts in convection over the region. A significant increase in precipitation (up to ~ 20 %) is found only when both Indian and Chinese sulfate emissions are regulated.
Melissa L. Breeden, Amy H. Butler, John R. Albers, Michael Sprenger, and Andrew O'Neil Langford
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2781–2794,Short summary
Prior research has found a maximum in deep stratosphere-to-troposphere mass/ozone transport over the western United States in boreal spring, which can enhance surface ozone concentrations, reducing air quality. We find that the winter-to-summer evolution of the north Pacific jet increases the frequency of stratospheric intrusions that drive transport, helping explain the observed maximum. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation affects the timing of the spring jet transition and therefore transport.
Dirk Offermann, Christoph Kalicinsky, Ralf Koppmann, and Johannes Wintel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1593–1611,Short summary
Atmospheric oscillations with periods of up to several 100 years exist at altitudes up to 110 km. They are also seen in computer models (GCMs) of the atmospheric. They are often attributed to external influences from the sun, from the oceans, or from atmospheric constituents. This is difficult to verify as the atmosphere cannot be manipulated in an experiment. However, a GCM can be changed arbitrarily. Doing so, we find that long-period oscillations may be excited internally in the atmosphere.
Anna Shcherbacheva, Tracey Balehowsky, Jakub Kubečka, Tinja Olenius, Tapio Helin, Heikki Haario, Marko Laine, Theo Kurtén, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15867–15906,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation and cluster growth to aerosol particles is an important field of research, in particular due to the climate change phenomenon. Evaporation rates are very difficult to account for but they are important to explain the formation and growth of particles. Different quantum chemistry (QC) methods produce substantially different values for the evaporation rates. We propose a novel approach for inferring evaporation rates of clusters from available measurements.
Jan Karlický, Peter Huszár, Tereza Nováková, Michal Belda, Filip Švábik, Jana Ďoubalová, and Tomáš Halenka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15061–15077,Short summary
Cities are characterized by their impact on various meteorological variables. Our study aims to generalize these modifications into a single phenomenon – the urban meteorology island (UMI). A wide ensemble of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) simulations investigated urban-induced modifications as individual UMI components. Significant changes are found in most of the discussed meteorological variables with a strong impact of specific model simulations.
William R. Hobbs, Andrew R. Klekociuk, and Yuhang Pan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14757–14768,Short summary
Reanalysis products are an invaluable tool for representing variability and long-term trends in regions with limited in situ data. However, validation of these products is difficult because of that lack of station data. Here we present a novel assessment of eight reanalyses over the polar Southern Ocean, leveraging the close relationship between trends in sea ice cover and surface air temperature, that provides clear guidance on the most reliable product for Antarctic research.
Lejiang Yu, Shiyuan Zhong, Cuijuan Sui, and Bo Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13753–13770,Short summary
The recent increasing trend of "warm Arctic, cold continents" has attracted much attention, but it remains debatable as to what forces are behind this phenomenon. Sea surface temperature (SST) over the central North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans influences the trend. On an interdecadal timescale, the recent increase in the occurrences of the warm Arctic–cold Eurasia pattern is a fragment of the interdecadal variability of SST over the Atlantic Ocean and over the central Pacific Ocean.
Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, David Fahey, Eric Jensen, Sergey Khaykin, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Laura L. Pan, Martin Riese, Andrew Rollins, Fred Stroh, Troy Thornberry, Veronika Wolf, Sarah Woods, Peter Spichtinger, Johannes Quaas, and Odran Sourdeval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12569–12608,Short summary
To improve the representations of cirrus clouds in climate predictions, extended knowledge of their properties and geographical distribution is required. This study presents extensive airborne in situ and satellite remote sensing climatologies of cirrus and humidity, which serve as a guide to cirrus clouds. Further, exemplary radiative characteristics of cirrus types and also in situ observations of tropical tropopause layer cirrus and humidity in the Asian monsoon anticyclone are shown.
Leenes Uzan, Smadar Egert, Pavel Khain, Yoav Levi, Elyakom Vadislavsky, and Pinhas Alpert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12177–12192,Short summary
Detection of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height is crucial to various fields, from air pollution assessment to weather prediction. We examined the diurnal summer PBL height by eight ceilometers in Israel, radiosonde profiles, the global IFS, and regional COSMO models. Our analysis utilized the bulk Richardson number method, the parcel method, and the wavelet covariance transform method. A novel correction tool to improve model results against in-situ ceilometer measurements is introduced.
Jessica Slater, Juha Tonttila, Gordon McFiggans, Paul Connolly, Sami Romakkaniemi, Thomas Kühn, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11893–11906,Short summary
The feedback effect between aerosol particles, radiation and meteorology reduces turbulent motion and results in increased surface aerosol concentrations during Beijing haze. Observational analysis and regional modelling studies have examined the feedback effect but these studies are limited. In this work, we set up a high-resolution model for the Beijing environment to examine the sensitivity of the aerosol feedback effect to initial meteorological conditions and aerosol loading.
Bernard Legras and Silvia Bucci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11045–11064,Short summary
The Asian monsoon is the most active region bringing surface compounds by convection to the stratosphere during summer. We study the transport pathways and the trapping within the upper-layer anticyclonic circulation. Above 15 km, the confinement can be represented by a uniform ascent over continental Asia of about 200 m per day and a uniform loss to other regions with a characteristic time of 2 weeks. We rule out the presence of a
chimneyproposed in previous studies over the Tibetan Plateau.
Clare Marie Flynn and Thorsten Mauritsen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7829–7842,Short summary
The range of climate sensitivity of models participating in CMIP6 has increased relative to models participating in CMIP5 due to decreases in the total feedback parameter. This is caused by increases in the shortwave all-sky and clear-sky feedbacks, particularly over the Southern Ocean. These shifts between CMIP6 and CMIP5 did not arise by chance. Both CMIP5 and CMIP6 models are found to exhibit aerosol forcing that is too strong, causing too much cooling relative to observations.
Marie-Noëlle Bouin and Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6861–6881,Short summary
A coupled, kilometre-scale simulation of a medicane is used to assess the impact of the ocean feedback and role of surface fluxes. Sea surface temperature (SST) drop is much weaker than for tropical cyclones, resulting in no impact on the cyclone. Surface fluxes depend mainly on wind and SST for evaporation and on air temperature for sensible heat. Processes in the Mediterranean, like advection of continental air, rain evaporation and dry air intrusion, play a role in cyclone development.
Kevin M. Grise and Sean M. Davis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5249–5268,Short summary
As Earth's climate warms, the tropical overturning circulation (Hadley circulation) is projected to expand, potentially pushing subtropical dry zones further poleward. This study examines projections of the Hadley circulation from the latest generation of computer models and finds several notable differences from older models. For example, the Northern Hemisphere circulation has expanded northward at a greater rate in recent decades than would be expected from increasing greenhouse gases alone.
Yufei Zou, Yuhang Wang, Zuowei Xie, Hailong Wang, and Philip J. Rasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4999–5017,Short summary
We analyze the relationship between winter air stagnation and pollution extremes over eastern China and preceding Arctic sea ice loss based on climate modeling and dynamic diagnoses. We find significant increases in both the probability and intensity of air stagnation extremes in the modeling result driven by regional sea ice and sea surface temperature changes over the Pacific sector of the Arctic. We reveal the considerable impact of the Arctic climate change on mid-latitude weather extremes.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Jianchun Bian, Gebhard Günther, Felix Ploeger, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Zhixuan Bai, Holger Vömel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4133–4152,Short summary
Low ozone and low water vapour signatures in the UTLS were investigated using balloon-borne measurements and trajectory calculations. The results show that deep convection in tropical cyclones over the western Pacific transports boundary air parcels with low ozone into the tropopause region. Subsequently, these air parcels are dehydrated when passing the lowest temperature region (< 190 K) during quasi-horizontal advection.
César Sauvage, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Marie-Noëlle Bouin, and Véronique Ducrocq
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1675–1699,Short summary
Air–sea exchanges during Mediterranean heavy precipitation events are key and their representation must be improved for high-resolution weather forecasts. This study investigates the mechanisms acting at the air–sea interface during a case that occurred in southern France. To focus on the impact of sea state, we developed and used an original coupled air–wave model. Results show modifications of the forecast for the air–sea fluxes, the near-surface wind and the location of precipitation.
Michal T. Filus, Elliot L. Atlas, Maria A. Navarro, Elena Meneguz, David Thomson, Matthew J. Ashfold, Lucy J. Carpenter, Stephen J. Andrews, and Neil R. P. Harris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1163–1181,Short summary
The effectiveness of transport of short-lived halocarbons to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere remains an important unknown in quantifying the supply of ozone-depleting substances to the stratosphere. In early 2014, a major field campaign in Guam in the western Pacific, involving UK and US research aircraft, sampled the tropical troposphere and lower stratosphere. The resulting measurements of CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 are compared here with calculations from a Lagrangian model.
Tobias Wolf, Lasse H. Pettersson, and Igor Esau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 625–647,Short summary
Exceedances of legal thresholds for urban air pollution are of wide concern. We demonstrate the usefulness of very high-resolution modelling for the assessment of air pollution in the urban space on the example of Bergen, Norway. Vulnerability maps highlight areas with high pollutant loading and pathways for pollutant dispersion. This supports the understanding of urban air pollution beyond existing, scarce monitoring networks and possibly the mitigation of impacts on the local population.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Patrick Martineau, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 345–374,Short summary
The global response of surface air temperature (SST) to the eruptions of Mount Agung in 1963, El Chichón in 1982, and Mount Pinatubo in 1991 is investigated using 11 global atmospheric reanalysis data sets. Multiple linear regression is applied, with a set of climatic indices orthogonalized, and the residuals are investigated. It is found that careful treatment of tropical SST variability is necessary to evaluate the surface response to volcanic eruptions in observations and reanalyses.
Ping Zhu, Bryce Tyner, Jun A. Zhang, Eric Aligo, Sundararaman Gopalakrishnan, Frank D. Marks, Avichal Mehra, and Vijay Tallapragada
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14289–14310,Short summary
Producing timely and accurate intensity forecasts of tropical cyclones (TCs) continues to be one of the most difficult challenges in numerical weather prediction. The difficulty stems from the fact that TC intensification is not only modulated by environmental conditions but also largely depends on TC internal dynamics. The study shows that asymmetric eyewall and rainband eddy forcing above the boundary layer plays an important role in spinning up a TC vortex including rapid intensification.
Jonathan K. P. Shonk, Teferi D. Demissie, and Thomas Toniazzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11383–11399,Short summary
Modern climate models are affected by systematic biases that harm their ability to produce reliable seasonal forecasts and climate projections. In this study, we investigate causes of biases in wind patterns over the tropical Atlantic during northern spring in three related models. We find that the wind biases are associated with an increase in excess rainfall and convergence in the tropical western Atlantic at the start of April, leading to the redirection of trade winds away from the Equator.
Xinxu Zhao, Julia Marshall, Stephan Hachinger, Christoph Gerbig, Matthias Frey, Frank Hase, and Jia Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11279–11302,Short summary
The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), coupled with greenhouse gas (GHG) modules (WRF-GHG), is considered to be a suitable basis for precise GHG transport analysis in urban areas, especially when combined with differential column methodology (DCM). DCM is an effective method not only for comparing models to observations independently of biases caused, for example, by initial conditions, but also for detecting and understanding sources of GHG emissions quantitatively in urban areas.
Xin Hao, Shengping He, Huijun Wang, and Tingting Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9903–9911,Short summary
The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) can be greatly influenced by many factors that can be classified as anthropogenic forcing and natural forcing. Our results show that the increasing anthropogenic emissions in the past decades may have contributed to the weakening of the EAWM, the frequency of occurrence of strong EAWM may have decreased by 45 % due to the anthropogenic forcing, and the anthropogenic forcing is a dominant contributor to the occurrence of a weak EAWM.
Christopher Pöhlker, David Walter, Hauke Paulsen, Tobias Könemann, Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Céline Degrendele, Viviane R. Després, Florian Ditas, Bruna A. Holanda, Johannes W. Kaiser, Gerhard Lammel, Jošt V. Lavrič, Jing Ming, Daniel Pickersgill, Mira L. Pöhlker, Maria Praß, Nina Löbs, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Qiaoqiao Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8425–8470,Short summary
The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been established to monitor the rain forest's biosphere–atmosphere exchange, which experiences the combined pressures from human-made deforestation and progressing climate change. This work is meant to be a reference study, which characterizes various geospatial properties of the ATTO footprint region and shows how the human-made transformation of Amazonia may impact future atmospheric observations at ATTO.
Quan Wang, Chanh Kieu, and The-Anh Vu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8383–8397,Short summary
This study presents an analytical model to study large-scale tropical cyclone (TC) formation that can help us understand the maximum capacity of the Earth's atmosphere to produce TCs. Using a barotropic model for the intertropical convergence zone and recent advances in nonlinear dynamical transition, it is found that the Earth's atmosphere can support a limited number of TCs at any given time (<12) in the current climate, thus providing new theoretical insights into the TC formation process.
Bojan Škerlak, Stephan Pfahl, Michael Sprenger, and Heini Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6535–6549,Short summary
Upper-level fronts are often associated with the rapid transport of stratospheric air to the lower troposphere, leading to significantly enhanced ozone concentrations. This paper considers the multi-scale nature that is needed to bring stratospheric air down to the surface. The final transport step to the surface can be related to frontal zones and the associated vertical winds or to near-horizontal tracer transport followed by entrainment into a growing planetary boundary layer.
Tao Xian and Cameron R. Homeyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5661–5678,Short summary
Global characteristics and trends in the tropopause (the boundary between troposphere and stratosphere) over a 35-year period (1981–2015) are evaluated using both observations and models. The use of two coordinate systems reveals previously undiagnosed changes in the tropopause altitude within the tropics and extratropics and these results have important implications for studies of climate and atmospheric composition (especially that related to stratosphere–troposphere exchange).
Daniel Mewes and Christoph Jacobi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3927–3937,Short summary
Horizontal moist static energy (MSE) transport patterns were extracted from reanalysis data using an artificial neuronal network for the winter months. The results show that during the last 30 years transport pathways that favour MSE transport through the North Atlantic are getting more frequent. This North Atlantic pathway is connected to positive temperature anomalies over the central Arctic, which implies a connection between Arctic amplification and the change in horizontal heat transport.
Liguang Wu, Qingyuan Liu, and Yubin Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2477–2487,Short summary
The tornado-scale vortex in the tropical cyclone boundary layer has been speculated in intense hurricanes. A numerical experiment is conducted using the Advanced Weather Research and Forecast model by incorporating the large-eddy simulation technique. The simulated tornado-scale vortex shows the similar features as revealed with the limited observational data. The presence of the tornado-scale vortex also leads to significant gradients in the near surface wind speed and wind gusts.
Sergej Zilitinkevich, Oleg Druzhinin, Andrey Glazunov, Evgeny Kadantsev, Evgeny Mortikov, Iryna Repina, and Yulia Troitskaya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2489–2496,Short summary
We consider the budget of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in stably stratified flows. TKE is generated by velocity shear, then partially converted to potential energy, but basically cascades towards very small eddies and dissipates into heat. The TKE dissipation rate is vital for comprehending and modelling turbulent flows in geophysics, astrophysics, and engineering. Until now its dependence on static stability remained unclear. We define it theoretically and validate against experimental data.
Jing Wang, Zhiwei Zhu, Li Qi, Qiaohua Zhao, Jinhai He, and Julian X. L. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1521–1535,Short summary
Less attention has been paid to haze weather during the autumn season. Here, we unravel the mechanism of how SST anomalies over the subtropical North Atlantic and western North Pacific drive the interannual variability of the autumnal haze days in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region. The two pathways of SST anomaly forcings can result in an anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly over Northeast Asia, leading to a lower-level southerly (northerly) anomaly and in turn more (fewer) haze days in this region.
Johannes Wagner, Thomas Gerz, Norman Wildmann, and Kira Gramitzky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1129–1146,Short summary
Long-term WRF-LES simulations were performed with a horizontal resolution of 200 m for a period of 49 days during the Perdigão campaign. Simulation results were used to characterize the meteorological conditions and to analyse characteristic flow patterns. It could be shown that thermally driven flows including low-level jets frequently occurred during the observation period. Model results were in very good agreement with observations in spite of the long simulation time.
Huopo Chen, Huijun Wang, Jianqi Sun, Yangyang Xu, and Zhicong Yin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 233–243,Short summary
Our results show that the anthropogenic air pollution over eastern China will increase considerably at the end of 21st century, even though we keep the aerosol emission constant throughout the experiment. Furthermore, estimation shows that the effect of climate change induced by the GHG warming can account for 11%–28% of the changes of anthropogenic air pollution days over this region.
Melville E. Nicholls and Roger A. Pielke Sr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15975–16003,Short summary
The current understanding of atmospheric energy and mass transports is that the general circulation moves energy and mass from place to place in a relatively slow manner at the speed of the winds. This study challenges this view and provides evidence that considerable transfer can occur at the speed of sound. This transport mechanism is probably not adequately represented in current global models, which potentially could be a source of error that has yet to be evaluated.
Lejiang Yu and Shiyuan Zhong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14149–14159,Short summary
The Arctic sea ice has been declining at a rapid pace in recent decades, which has been attributed largely to global warming. Using a relatively novel statistical method called self-organizing maps (SOM), we show that a large portion of the autumn Arctic sea ice decline in the past four decades may be explained by atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with anomalous sea-surface temperature patterns over the North Pacific and North Atlantic through ocean–atmosphere interactions.
Noelia Otero, Jana Sillmann, Kathleen A. Mar, Henning W. Rust, Sverre Solberg, Camilla Andersson, Magnuz Engardt, Robert Bergström, Bertrand Bessagnet, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Cournelius Cuvelier, Svetlana Tsyro, Hilde Fagerli, Martijn Schaap, Astrid Manders, Mihaela Mircea, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Mario Adani, Massimo D'Isidoro, María-Teresa Pay, Mark Theobald, Marta G. Vivanco, Peter Wind, Narendra Ojha, Valentin Raffort, and Tim Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12269–12288,Short summary
This paper evaluates the capability of air-quality models to capture the observed relationship between surface ozone concentrations and meteorology over Europe. The air-quality models tended to overestimate the influence of maximum temperature and surface solar radiation. None of the air-quality models captured the strength of the observed relationship between ozone and relative humidity appropriately, underestimating the effect of relative humidity, a key factor in the ozone removal processes.
Jan Karlický, Peter Huszár, Tomáš Halenka, Michal Belda, Michal Žák, Petr Pišoft, and Jiří Mikšovský
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10655–10674,Short summary
Our work presents a comparison of modelled and observed urban-induced meteorological changes in long-term perspective using 10-year simulations. It contains an evaluation of models' urban parameterizations, investigations of the benefits of more sophisticated urban parameterizations with respect to simple approaches and evaluation of urban-induced meteorological changes from the perspective of pollutant dispersion.
Qin Wang, John C. Moore, and Duoying Ji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9173–9188,Short summary
(1) Genesis potential and ventilation indices are assessed in 6 ESMs running RCP4.5 and G4, in 6 tropical cyclone genesis basins. (2) Genesis potential is reasonably well parameterized by simple surface temperature, but other factors are important in different basins and models such as relative humidity and wind shear. (3) The Northern Hemisphere basins behave rather differently from the southern ones, and these dominate TC statistics. G4 leads to significantly fewer TCs globally than RCP4.5.
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Ackerley, D. Joshi, M. M., Highwood, E. J., Ryder, C. L., Harrison, M. A. J., Walters, D. N., Milton, S. F., and Strachan, J.: A Comparison of Two Dust Uplift Schemes within the Same General Circulation Model, Adv. Meteorol., 13, https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/260515, 260515, 2012.
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Allen, C. J. T. and Washington, R.: The low-level jet dust emission mechanism in the central Sahara: Observations from Bordj-Badji Mokhtar during the June 2011 Fennec Intensive Observation Period, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 2990–3015, 2014.
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Chaboureau, J.-P., Flamant, C., Dauhut, T., Kocha, C., Lafore, J.-P., Lavaysse, C., Marnas, F., Mokhtari, M., Pelon, J., Reinares Martínez, I., Schepanski, K., and Tulet, P.: Fennec dust forecast intercomparison over the Sahara in June 2011, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6977–6995, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-6977-2016, 2016.
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Fiedler, S., Schepanski, K., Heinold, B., Knippertz, P., and Tegen, I.: Climatology of nocturnal low-level jets over North Africa and implications for modeling mineral dust emission, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 6100–6121, 2013.
Flamant, C., Chaboureau, J.-P., Parker, D. J., Taylor, C. M., Cammas, J.-P., Bock, O., Timouk, F., and Pelon, J.: Airborne observations of the impact of a convective system on the planetary boundary layer thermodynamics and aerosol distribution on the inter-tropical discontinuity region of the West African Monsoon, Q. J. R. Met. Soc., 133, 1175–1189, 2007.
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Haywood, J. M., Allan, R. P., Culverwell, I., Slingo, T., Milton, S., Edwards, J., and Clerbaux, N.: Can desert dust explain the outgoing longwave radiation anomaly over the Sahara during July 2003?, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D05105, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005232, 2005.
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The summer Saharan dust hotspot is seasonally tied to the occurrence of convective storms. Global weather and climate models parameterise convection and so are unable to represent their associated dust uplift (haboobs). However, this work shows that even when simulations represent convection explicitly: (1) dust fields are not strongly affected, (2) convective storms are too small, (3) haboobs are too weak and (4) the land surface (bare soil and soil moisture) is dominant in controlling dust.
The summer Saharan dust hotspot is seasonally tied to the occurrence of convective storms....