Articles | Volume 18, issue 1
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over canopy of two typical subtropical forests in south China
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Collaborative Innovation Centre for Regional Environmental Quality, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Collaborative Innovation Centre for Regional Environmental Quality, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Collaborative Innovation Centre for Regional Environmental Quality, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
No articles found.
Da Gao, Bin Zhao, Shuxiao Wang, Yuan Wang, Brian Gaudet, Yun Zhu, Xiaochun Wang, Jiewen Shen, Shengyue Li, Yicong He, Dejia Yin, and Zhaoxin Dong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14359–14373,Short summary
Surface PM2.5 concentrations can be enhanced by aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs) and aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs). In this study, we found PM2.5 enhancement induced by ACIs shows a significantly smaller decrease ratio than that induced by ARIs in China with anthropogenic emission reduction from 2013 to 2021, making ACIs more important for enhancing PM2.5 concentrations. ACI-induced PM2.5 enhancement needs to be emphatically considered to meet the national PM2.5 air quality standard.
Zeqi Li, Shuxiao Wang, Shengyue Li, Xiaochun Wang, Guanghan Huang, Xing Chang, Lyuyin Huang, Chengrui Liang, Yun Zhu, Haotian Zheng, Qian Song, Qingru Wu, Fenfen Zhang, and Bin Zhao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 5017–5037,Short summary
This study developed the first full-volatility organic emission inventory for cooking sources in China, presenting high-resolution cooking emissions during 2015–2021. It identified the key subsectors and hotspots of cooking emissions, analyzed emission trends and drivers, and proposed future control strategies. The dataset is valuable for accurately simulating organic aerosol formation and evolution and for understanding the impact of organic emissions on air pollution and climate change.
Chupeng Zhang, Shangfei Hai, Yang Gao, Yuhang Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Bin Zhao, Shuxiao Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Xin Huang, Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Aura Lupascu, Manish Shrivastava, Jerome D. Fast, Wenxuan Cheng, Xiuwen Guo, Ming Chu, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Qiaoqiao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10713–10730,Short summary
New particle formation is an important source of atmospheric particles, exerting critical influences on global climate. Numerical models are vital tools to understanding atmospheric particle evolution, which, however, suffer from large biases in simulating particle numbers. Here we improve the model chemical processes governing particle sizes and compositions. The improved model reveals substantial contributions of newly formed particles to climate through effects on cloud condensation nuclei.
Yuyang Li, Jiewen Shen, Bin Zhao, Runlong Cai, Shuxiao Wang, Yang Gao, Manish Shrivastava, Da Gao, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8789–8804,Short summary
We set up a new parameterization for 1.4 nm particle formation rates from sulfuric acid–dimethylamine (SA–DMA) nucleation, fully including the effects of coagulation scavenging and cluster stability. Incorporating the new parameterization into 3-D chemical transport models, we achieved better consistencies between simulation results and observation data. This new parameterization provides new insights into atmospheric nucleation simulations and its effects on atmospheric pollution or health.
Shengyue Li, Shuxiao Wang, Qingru Wu, Yanning Zhang, Daiwei Ouyang, Haotian Zheng, Licong Han, Xionghui Qiu, Yifan Wen, Min Liu, Yueqi Jiang, Dejia Yin, Kaiyun Liu, Bin Zhao, Shaojun Zhang, Ye Wu, and Jiming Hao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 2279–2294,Short summary
This study compiled China's emission inventory of air pollutants and CO2 during 2005–2021 (ABaCAS-EI v2.0) based on unified emission-source framework. The emission trends and its drivers are analyzed. Key sectors and regions with higher synergistic reduction potential of air pollutants and CO2 are identified. Future control measures are suggested. The dataset and analyses provide insights into the synergistic reduction of air pollutants and CO2 emissions for China and other developing countries.
Rui Li, Yining Gao, Yubao Chen, Meng Peng, Weidong Zhao, Gehui Wang, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4709–4726,Short summary
A random forest model was used to isolate the effects of emission and meteorology to trace elements in PM2.5 in Tangshan. The results suggested that control measures facilitated decreases of Ga, Co, Pb, Zn, and As, due to the strict implementation of coal-to-gas strategies and optimisation of industrial structure and layout. However, the deweathered levels of Ca, Cr, and Fe only displayed minor decreases, indicating that ferrous metal smelting and vehicle emission controls should be enhanced.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Drew C. Pendergrass, Nadia K. Colombi, Viral Shah, Laura Hyesung Yang, Qiang Zhang, Shuxiao Wang, Hwajin Kim, Yele Sun, Jin-Soo Choi, Jin-Soo Park, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Jack E. Dibb, Taehyoung Lee, Jin-Seok Han, Bruce E. Anderson, Ke Li, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4271–4281,Short summary
Anthropogenic fugitive dust in East Asia not only causes severe coarse particulate matter air pollution problems, but also affects fine particulate nitrate. Due to emission control efforts, coarse PM decreased steadily. We find that the decrease of coarse PM is a major driver for a lack of decrease of fine particulate nitrate, as it allows more nitric acid to form fine particulate nitrate. The continuing decrease of coarse PM requires more stringent ammonia and nitrogen oxides emission controls.
Xiao He, Xuan Zheng, Shaojun Zhang, Xuan Wang, Ting Chen, Xiao Zhang, Guanghan Huang, Yihuan Cao, Liqiang He, Xubing Cao, Yuan Cheng, Shuxiao Wang, and Ye Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13935–13947,Short summary
With the use of two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC ToF-MS), we successfully give a comprehensive characterization of particulate intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. I/SVOCs are speciated, identified, and quantified based on the patterns of the mass spectrum, and the gas–particle partitioning is fully addressed.
Yi Cheng, Shaofei Kong, Liquan Yao, Huang Zheng, Jian Wu, Qin Yan, Shurui Zheng, Yao Hu, Zhenzhen Niu, Yingying Yan, Zhenxing Shen, Guofeng Shen, Dantong Liu, Shuxiao Wang, and Shihua Qi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4757–4775,Short summary
This work establishes the first emission inventory of carbonaceous aerosols from cooking, fireworks, sacrificial incense, joss paper burning, and barbecue, using multi-source datasets and tested emission factors. These emissions were concentrated in specific periods and areas. Positive and negative correlations between income and emissions were revealed in urban and rural regions. The dataset will be helpful for improving modeling studies and modifying corresponding emission control policies.
Lulu Cui, Di Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Qingcheng Xu, Ruolan Hu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11931–11944,Short summary
A 1-year campaign was conducted to characterize VOCs at a Beijing urban site during different episodes. VOCs from fuel evaporation and diesel exhaust, particularly toluene, xylenes, trans-2-butene, acrolein, methyl methacrylate, vinyl acetate, 1-butene, and 1-hexene, were the main contributors. VOCs from diesel exhaust as well as coal and biomass combustion were found to be the dominant contributors for SOAFP, particularly the VOC species toluene, 1-hexene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, and styrene.
Mengying Li, Shaocai Yu, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Zhe Song, Weiping Liu, Pengfei Li, Xiaoye Zhang, Meigen Zhang, Yele Sun, Zirui Liu, Caiping Sun, Jingkun Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Benjamin N. Murphy, Kiran Alapaty, Rohit Mathur, Daniel Rosenfeld, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11845–11866,Short summary
This study constructed an emission inventory of condensable particulate matter (CPM) in China with a focus on organic aerosols (OAs), based on collected CPM emission information. The results show that OA emissions are enhanced twofold for the years 2014 and 2017 after the inclusion of CPM in the new inventory. Sensitivity cases demonstrated the significant contributions of CPM emissions from stationary combustion and mobile sources to primary, secondary, and total OA concentrations.
Jiandong Wang, Jia Xing, Shuxiao Wang, Rohit Mathur, Jiaping Wang, Yuqiang Zhang, Chao Liu, Jonathan Pleim, Dian Ding, Xing Chang, Jingkun Jiang, Peng Zhao, Shovan Kumar Sahu, Yuzhi Jin, David C. Wong, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5147–5156,Short summary
Aerosols reduce surface solar radiation and change the photolysis rate and planetary boundary layer stability. In this study, the online coupled meteorological and chemistry model was used to explore the detailed pathway of how aerosol direct effects affect secondary inorganic aerosol. The effects through the dynamics pathway act as an equally or even more important route compared with the photolysis pathway in affecting secondary aerosol concentration in both summer and winter.
Xiaomeng Wu, Daoyuan Yang, Ruoxi Wu, Jiajun Gu, Yifan Wen, Shaojun Zhang, Rui Wu, Renjie Wang, Honglei Xu, K. Max Zhang, Ye Wu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1939–1950,Short summary
Our work pioneered land-use machine learning methods for developing link-level emission inventories, utilizing hourly traffic profiles, including volume, speed, and fleet mix, obtained from the governmental intercity highway monitoring network in the "capital circles" of China. This research provides a platform to realize the near-real-time process of establishing high-resolution vehicle emission inventories for policy makers to engage in sophisticated traffic management.
Lin Huang, Song Liu, Zeyuan Yang, Jia Xing, Jia Zhang, Jiang Bian, Siwei Li, Shovan Kumar Sahu, Shuxiao Wang, and Tie-Yan Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4641–4654,Short summary
Accurate estimation of emissions is a prerequisite for effectively controlling air pollution, but current methods lack either sufficient data or a representation of nonlinearity. Here, we proposed a novel deep learning method to model the dual relationship between emissions and pollutant concentrations. Emissions can be updated by back-propagating the gradient of the loss function measuring the deviation between simulations and observations, resulting in better model performance.
Sunling Gong, Hongli Liu, Bihui Zhang, Jianjun He, Hengde Zhang, Yaqiang Wang, Shuxiao Wang, Lei Zhang, and Jie Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2999–3013,Short summary
Surface concentrations of PM2.5 in China have had a declining trend since 2013 across the country. This research found that the control measures of emission reduction are the dominant factors in the PM2.5 declining trends in various regions. The contribution by the meteorology to the surface PM2.5 concentrations from 2013 to 2019 was not found to show a consistent trend, fluctuating positively or negatively by about 5% on the annual average and 10–20% for the fall–winter heavy-pollution seasons.
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Jia Xing, Siwei Li, Yueqi Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Dian Ding, Zhaoxin Dong, Yun Zhu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14347–14359,Short summary
Quantifying emission changes is a prerequisite for assessment of control effectiveness in improving air quality. However, traditional bottom-up methods usually take months to perform and limit timely assessments. A novel method was developed by using a response model that provides real-time estimation of emission changes based on air quality observations. It was successfully applied to quantify emission changes on the North China Plain due to the COVID-19 pandemic shutdown.
Jia Xing, Dian Ding, Shuxiao Wang, Zhaoxin Dong, James T. Kelly, Carey Jang, Yun Zhu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13627–13646,Short summary
The study aims at addressing the challenge in efficient quantification of the nonlinear response of air pollution to precursor emission perturbations. The newly developed observable response indicators can be easily calculated by a combination of ambient concentrations of certain species. Their capability in representing the spatial and temporal variation in PM2.5 and O3 chemistry has also been well evaluated and applied in China.
Mingchen Ma, Yang Gao, Yuhang Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, L. Ruby Leung, Cheng Liu, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Xing Chang, Hang Su, Tianqi Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12195–12207,Short summary
Ozone pollution has become severe in China, and extremely high ozone episodes occurred in summer 2017 over the North China Plain. While meteorology impacts are clear, we find that enhanced biogenic emissions, previously ignored by the community, driven by high vapor pressure deficit, land cover change and urban landscape contribute substantially to ozone formation. This study has significant implications for ozone pollution control with more frequent heat waves and urbanization growth in future.
Xiaoxiao Li, Shaojie Song, Wei Zhou, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12163–12174,Short summary
Aerosol liquid water is ubiquitous in ambient aerosol. Using long-term aerosol chemical composition to model the aerosol water in Beijing, we found that water absorbed by organics contributes a significant fraction to the total aerosol water. We emphasize the hygroscopicity of organics is highly variable and should be taken into consideration in modelling. A positive feedback loop between organic hygroscopicity and aerosol water was found as one of the driving factors of severe haze in Beijing.
Ling Qi and Shuxiao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11545–11557,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) contributes two-thirds of the climate impact of carbon dioxide, pushing methane into third place of the human contributors to global warming. This study shows that contributions from biomass burning (producing marginal lensing effect) have a strong spatial variation, from 20 % in Europe to 60 % in Africa. Thus, the inclusion of strong lensing-related absorption enhancement to all BC particles in previous estimates may lead to overestimating their positive radiative forcing.
Tuan V. Vu, Zongbo Shi, Jing Cheng, Qiang Zhang, Kebin He, Shuxiao Wang, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11303–11314,Short summary
A 5-year Clean Air Action Plan was implemented in 2013 to improve ambient air quality in Beijing. Here, we applied a novel machine-learning-based model to determine the real trend in air quality from 2013 to 2017 in Beijing to assess the efficacy of the plan. We showed that the action plan led to a major reduction in primary emissions and significant improvement in air quality. The marked decrease in PM2.5 and SO2 is largely attributable to a reduction in coal combustion.
Xionghui Qiu, Qi Ying, Shuxiao Wang, Lei Duan, Jian Zhao, Jia Xing, Dian Ding, Yele Sun, Baoxian Liu, Aijun Shi, Xiao Yan, Qingcheng Xu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6737–6747,Short summary
Current chemical transport models cannot capture the diurnal and nocturnal variation in atmospheric nitrate, which may be relative to the missing atmospheric chlorine chemistry. In this work, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with improved chlorine heterogeneous chemistry is applied to simulate the impact of chlorine chemistry on summer nitrate concentrations in Beijing. The results of this work can improve our understanding of nitrate formation.
Junlan Feng, Yan Zhang, Shanshan Li, Jingbo Mao, Allison P. Patton, Yuyan Zhou, Weichun Ma, Cong Liu, Haidong Kan, Cheng Huang, Jingyu An, Li Li, Yin Shen, Qingyan Fu, Xinning Wang, Juan Liu, Shuxiao Wang, Dian Ding, Jie Cheng, Wangqi Ge, Hong Zhu, and Katherine Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6167–6183,Short summary
This study aims to estimate the emissions, air quality and population exposure impacts of shipping in 2015, prior to the implementation of the DECAs. It shows that ship emissions within 12 NM of the shore could account for over 55 % of the shipping impact on air pollution in the YRD in summer. Ships entering the Yangtze River and other inland waterways of Shanghai contribute 40–80 % of the ship-related air pollution and population exposure，which both have important implications regarding policy.
Zhenying Xu, Mingxu Liu, Minsi Zhang, Yu Song, Shuxiao Wang, Lin Zhang, Tingting Xu, Tiantian Wang, Caiqing Yan, Tian Zhou, Yele Sun, Yuepeng Pan, Min Hu, Mei Zheng, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5605–5613,
Haotian Zheng, Siyi Cai, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Xing Chang, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3447–3462,Short summary
The heavy air pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region is a global hot topic. We established a unit-based industrial emission inventory for the BTH region. The inventory significantly improved air quality modeling results; this improvement subsequently contributes to an accurate source apportionment of haze pollution and more precisely targeted decision making.
Shaojie Song, Meng Gao, Weiqi Xu, Yele Sun, Douglas R. Worsnop, John T. Jayne, Yuzhong Zhang, Lei Zhu, Mei Li, Zhen Zhou, Chunlei Cheng, Yibing Lv, Ying Wang, Wei Peng, Xiaobin Xu, Nan Lin, Yuxuan Wang, Shuxiao Wang, J. William Munger, Daniel J. Jacob, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1357–1371,Short summary
Chemistry responsible for sulfate production in northern China winter haze remains mysterious. We propose a potentially key pathway through the reaction of formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide that has not been accounted for in previous studies. The special atmospheric conditions favor the formation and existence of their complex, hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS).
Ge Zhang, Yang Gao, Wenju Cai, L. Ruby Leung, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Minghuai Wang, Huayao Shan, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 565–576,Short summary
Based on observed data, this study reveals a distinct seesaw feature of abnormally high and low PM2.5 concentrations in December 2015 and January 2016 over North China. The mechanism of the seesaw pattern was found to be linked to a super El Niño and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). During the mature phase of El Niño in December 2015, the weakened East Asian winter monsoon favors strong haze formation; however, the circulation pattern was reversed in the next month due to the phase change of the AO.
Mingxu Liu, Xin Huang, Yu Song, Tingting Xu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Lin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xuejun Liu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17933–17943,
Runlong Cai, Indra Chandra, Dongsen Yang, Lei Yao, Yueyun Fu, Xiaoxiao Li, Yiqun Lu, Lun Luo, Jiming Hao, Yan Ma, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Takafumi Seto, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16587–16599,Short summary
Significant influences of transport on measured aerosol size distributions are commonly observed. We propose a method for estimating the contributions of transport to nanoparticles during new particle formation events. This method was used to analyze new particle formation events in Southeast Tibet, Fukue Island, and urban Beijing. The changes in the contributions of transport have a good correlation with the changes in wind speed and direction, indicating the feasibility of the method.
Runlong Cai, Dongsen Yang, Lauri R. Ahonen, Linlin Shi, Frans Korhonen, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Tuukka Petäjä, Jun Zheng, Juha Kangasluoma, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4477–4491,Short summary
We tested the performance of four inversion methods to recover sub-3 nm aerosol size distributions using the particle size magnifier (PSM). The PSM is widely used in new particle formation study; however, the inversion methods used in previous studies may report false particle concentrations. Due to the results, we suggest using the expectation–maximization algorithm to address the PSM inversion problem. We also gave practical suggestions on PSM operation based on the inversion analysis.
Yi Tang, Shuxiao Wang, Qingru Wu, Kaiyun Liu, Long Wang, Shu Li, Wei Gao, Lei Zhang, Haotian Zheng, Zhijian Li, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8279–8291,Short summary
In this study, 3-year measurements of atmospheric Hg were carried out at a rural site in East China. A significant downward trend was observed during the sampling period. This study used a new approach that considers both cluster frequency and the Hg concentration associated with each cluster, and we calculated that atmospheric Hg from the whole region of China has caused a 70 % decline of GEM concentration at the Chongming monitoring site due to strict air pollution control policies in China.
Chandra Venkataraman, Michael Brauer, Kushal Tibrewal, Pankaj Sadavarte, Qiao Ma, Aaron Cohen, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Joseph Frostad, Zbigniew Klimont, Randall V. Martin, Dylan B. Millet, Sajeev Philip, Katherine Walker, and Shuxiao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8017–8039,
Jia Xing, Dian Ding, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Carey Jang, Wenjing Wu, Fenfen Zhang, Yun Zhu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7799–7814,Short summary
NOx is the common precursor for both PM2.5 and O3 pollution, while the effectiveness of NOx controls for reducing PM2.5 and O3 are largely influenced by the ambient levels of NH3 and VOCs. This study developed a new method to quantify the nonlinear effectiveness of emission controls for reducing PM2.5 and O3. The new method not only substantially reduces the computational burden but also provides a series of quantitative indicators to quantify the nonlinear control effectiveness.
Shaojie Song, Meng Gao, Weiqi Xu, Jingyuan Shao, Guoliang Shi, Shuxiao Wang, Yuxuan Wang, Yele Sun, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7423–7438,Short summary
Severe haze events occur frequently over northern China, especially in winter. Acidity plays a critical role in the formation of secondary PM2.5 and its toxicity. Using field measurements of gases and particles to critically evaluate two thermodynamic models routinely employed to determine particle acidity, we found that China's winter haze particles are generally within a moderately acidic range (pH 4–5) and not highly acidic (0) or neutral (7) as has been previously reported in the literature.
Xing Chang, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Siyi Cai, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4843–4858,Short summary
The Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region in China has been suffering from a severe particulate matter pollution, and the inter-city transport of the pollutant plays an important role. The current research quantitatively assesses the transport process. We identify three transport pathways. The southwest–northwest one happens in both winter and summer. The transport is stronger at 300–1000 m, or 1–2 days before a pollution peak. The result may guide the joint emission control along the transport pathway.
Jianlin Hu, Xun Li, Lin Huang, Qi Ying, Qiang Zhang, Bin Zhao, Shuxiao Wang, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13103–13118,Short summary
The model performance of CMAQ with WRF using four different emission inventories in China was validated and compared to obtain the best air pollutants prediction for health effect studies of severe air pollution. The differences in performance of chemical transport model were analyzed for different months and regions in the vast part of China and ensemble predictions were firstly obtained from different inventories for health analysis with minimized errors for pollutants including PM2.5 and O3.
Runlong Cai, Dongsen Yang, Yueyun Fu, Xing Wang, Xiaoxiao Li, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Jun Zheng, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12327–12340,Short summary
The governing factors for new particle formation (NPF) events in Beijing were analyzed. The roles of gaseous precursors and aerosol surface area were illustrated. It appears that the abundance of gaseous precursors in Beijing is high enough to have nucleation; however, it is aerosol surface area that determines the occurrence of NPF events in Beijing. Aerosol loading thresholds (in the form of aerosol surface area and PM2.5 concentration) for predicting NPF days in Beijing were suggested.
Bin Zhao, Wenjing Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Jia Xing, Xing Chang, Kuo-Nan Liou, Jonathan H. Jiang, Yu Gu, Carey Jang, Joshua S. Fu, Yun Zhu, Jiandong Wang, Yan Lin, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12031–12050,Short summary
Using over 1000 chemical transport model simulations in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, we find that the emissions of primary inorganic PM2.5 make the largest contribution to PM2.5 concentrations and thus should be prioritized in PM2.5 control strategies. Among the precursors, PM2.5 concentrations are primarily sensitive to the emissions of NH3, NMVOC+IVOC, and POA, and the sensitivities increase substantially for NH3 and NHx with the increase in emission reduction ratio.
Qingru Wu, Wei Gao, Shuxiao Wang, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10423–10433,Short summary
Iron and steel production (ISP) is one of the most significant atmospheric Hg emission sources in China. Atmospheric Hg emissions from ISP increased from 11.5 t in 2000 to 32.75 t in 2015 with a peak of 35.65 t in 2013. In the coming years, emissions from ISP are expected to decrease. Although sinter/pellet plants and blast furnaces were the largest two emission processes, emissions from roasting plants and coke ovens accounted for 22 %–34 % of ISP’s emissions.
Jia Xing, Jiandong Wang, Rohit Mathur, Shuxiao Wang, Golam Sarwar, Jonathan Pleim, Christian Hogrefe, Yuqiang Zhang, Jingkun Jiang, David C. Wong, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9869–9883,Short summary
The assessment of the impacts of aerosol direct effects (ADE) is important for understanding emission reduction strategies that seek co-benefits associated with reductions in both particulate matter and ozone. This study quantifies the ADE impacts on tropospheric ozone by using a two-way coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry model. Results suggest that reducing ADE may have the potential risk of increasing ozone in winter, but it will benefit the reduction of maxima ozone in summer.
Leiming Zhang, Seth Lyman, Huiting Mao, Che-Jen Lin, David A. Gay, Shuxiao Wang, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Xinbin Feng, and Frank Wania
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9133–9144,Short summary
Future research needs are proposed for improving the understanding of atmospheric mercury cycling. These include refinement of mercury emission estimations, quantification of dry deposition and air–surface exchange, improvement of the treatment of chemical mechanisms in chemical transport models, increase in the accuracy of oxidized mercury measurements, better interpretation of atmospheric mercury chemistry data, and harmonization of network operation.
Qiao Ma, Siyi Cai, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Randall V. Martin, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Jingkun Jiang, Wei Zhou, Jiming Hao, Joseph Frostad, Mohammad H. Forouzanfar, and Richard T. Burnett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4477–4491,Short summary
In order to quantitatively identify the contributions of coal combustion to airborne fine particles, we developed an emission inventory using up-to-date information and conducted simulations using an atmospheric model. Results show that coal combustion contributes 40 % of the airborne fine-particle concentration on national average in China. Among the subsectors of coal combustion, industrial coal burning is the dominant contributor, which should be prioritized when policies are applied.
Jianlin Hu, Peng Wang, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, Jianjun Chen, Xinlei Ge, Xinghua Li, Jingkun Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Jie Zhang, Yu Zhao, and Yingyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 77–92,Short summary
An annual simulation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations in China with updated SOA formation pathways reveals that SOA can be a significant contributor to PM2.5 in major urban areas. Summer SOA is dominated by emissions from biogenic sources, while winter SOA is dominated by anthropogenic emissions such as alkanes and aromatic compounds. Reactive surface uptake of dicarbonyls throughout the year and isoprene epoxides in summer is the most important contributor.
Yang Hua, Shuxiao Wang, Jiandong Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Tianshu Zhang, Yu Song, Ling Kang, Wei Zhou, Runlong Cai, Di Wu, Siwei Fan, Tong Wang, Xiaoqing Tang, Qiang Wei, Feng Sun, and Zhimei Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15451–15460,Short summary
The characteristics of three PM2.5 pollution episodes were analyzed during the APEC Summit at a rural site outside of Beijing. It was found that meteorological conditions on the ground could not explain the pollution process, while vertical parameters helped improve the understanding of heavy pollution processes. Our research suggests that regional transport of air pollutants contributes significantly to severe secondary particle pollution, even when local emission is controlled effectively.
Biwu Chu, Xiao Zhang, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Yele Sun, Jingkun Jiang, Junhua Li, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14219–14230,Short summary
The interactive effects between inorganic and organic species under highly complex pollution conditions remain uncertain and were studied in a smog chamber. This study indicated that the synergistic formation of secondary inorganic and organic aerosol might increase the secondary aerosol load in the atmosphere and contribute haze pollution in eastern China. These synergistic effects were related to the heterogeneous process on aerosol surface and need to be considered in air quality models.
Shaojun Zhang, Ye Wu, Ruikun Huang, Jiandong Wang, Han Yan, Yali Zheng, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9965–9981,Short summary
For highly populated cities in eastern Asian, traffic management has played an increasingly important role in mitigating local emissions from vehicles. Therefore, high-resolution vehicle emission inventory is an irreplaceable assessment tool. This study selected Macau, the most populated city in the world, to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular pollution by coupling detailed local data collected and interdisciplinary models.
Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, Yu Gu, Cenlin He, Wee-Liang Lee, Xing Chang, Qinbin Li, Shuxiao Wang, Hsien-Liang R. Tseng, Lai-Yung R. Leung, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5841–5852,Short summary
We examine the impact of buildings on surface solar fluxes in Beijing by accounting for their 3-D structures. We find that inclusion of buildings changes surface solar fluxes by within ±1 W m−2, ±1–10 W m−2, and up to ±100 W m−2 at grid resolutions of 4 km, 800 m, and 90 m, respectively. We can resolve pairs of positive-negative flux deviations on different sides of buildings at ≤ 800 m resolutions. We should treat building-effect on solar fluxes differently in models with different resolutions.
Lei Zhang, Shuxiao Wang, Qingru Wu, Fengyang Wang, Che-Jen Lin, Leiming Zhang, Mulin Hui, Mei Yang, Haitao Su, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2417–2433,
A. Stohl, B. Aamaas, M. Amann, L. H. Baker, N. Bellouin, T. K. Berntsen, O. Boucher, R. Cherian, W. Collins, N. Daskalakis, M. Dusinska, S. Eckhardt, J. S. Fuglestvedt, M. Harju, C. Heyes, Ø. Hodnebrog, J. Hao, U. Im, M. Kanakidou, Z. Klimont, K. Kupiainen, K. S. Law, M. T. Lund, R. Maas, C. R. MacIntosh, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, D. Olivié, J. Quaas, B. Quennehen, J.-C. Raut, S. T. Rumbold, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Ø. Seland, K. P. Shine, R. B. Skeie, S. Wang, K. E. Yttri, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10529–10566,Short summary
This paper presents a summary of the findings of the ECLIPSE EU project. The project has investigated the climate and air quality impacts of short-lived climate pollutants (especially methane, ozone, aerosols) and has designed a global mitigation strategy that maximizes co-benefits between air quality and climate policy. Transient climate model simulations allowed quantifying the impacts on temperature (e.g., reduction in global warming by 0.22K for the decade 2041-2050) and precipitation.
H. Z. Tian, C. Y. Zhu, J. J. Gao, K. Cheng, J. M. Hao, K. Wang, S. B. Hua, Y. Wang, and J. R. Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10127–10147,Short summary
For the first time, with S-shaped curves, the best available representation of time-varying emission factors of 12 heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) from primary anthropogenic sources of China are determined on account of economic transitions and pollution control technology improvement. The temporal and spatial variation characteristics of these heavy metals emissions during the period of 1949−2012 are calculated and evaluated with uncertainty analysis.
X. Fu, S. X. Wang, L. M. Ran, J. E. Pleim, E. Cooter, J. O. Bash, V. Benson, and J. M. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6637–6649,Short summary
In this study, we estimate, for the first time, the NH3 emission from the agricultural fertilizer application in China online using the bi-directional CMAQ model coupled to an agro-ecosystem model. Compared with previous researches, this method considers more influencing factors, such as meteorological fields, soil and the fertilizer application, and provides improved NH3 emission with higher spatial and temporal resolution.
B. Zhao, S. X. Wang, J. Xing, K. Fu, J. S. Fu, C. Jang, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Dong, Y. Gao, W. J. Wu, J. D. Wang, and J. M. Hao
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 115–128,
S. X. Wang, B. Zhao, S. Y. Cai, Z. Klimont, C. P. Nielsen, T. Morikawa, J. H. Woo, Y. Kim, X. Fu, J. Y. Xu, J. M. Hao, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6571–6603,
Z. Cheng, S. Wang, X. Fu, J. G. Watson, J. Jiang, Q. Fu, C. Chen, B. Xu, J. Yu, J. C. Chow, and J. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4573–4585,
X. Fu, S. X. Wang, Z. Cheng, J. Xing, B. Zhao, J. D. Wang, and J. M. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1239–1254,
L. Zhang, S. X. Wang, L. Wang, and J. M. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10505–10516,
B. Zhao, S. X. Wang, H. Liu, J. Y. Xu, K. Fu, Z. Klimont, J. M. Hao, K. B. He, J. Cofala, and M. Amann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9869–9897,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Ozone in the boreal forest in the Alberta Oil Sands RegionFingerprints of the COVID-19 economic downturn and recovery on ozone anomalies at high-elevation sites in North America and Western EuropeZugspitze ozone 1970–2020: the role of stratosphere–troposphere transportAtmospheric turbulence observed during a fuel-bed-scale low intensity surface fireHigh sulfur dioxide deposition velocities measured with the flux–gradient technique in a boreal forest in the Alberta Oil Sands RegionQuantification of methane emissions in Hamburg using a network of FTIR spectrometers and an inverse modeling approachLocal-to-regional methane emissions from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) quantified using UAV-based atmospheric measurementsTransport pathways of carbon monoxide from Indonesian fire pollution to a subtropical high-altitude mountain site in the western North PacificGlobal warming will largely increase waste treatment CH4 emissions in Chinese megacities: insight from the first city-scale CH4 concentration observation network in Hangzhou, ChinaDisentangling methane and carbon dioxide sources and transport across the Russian Arctic from aircraft measurementsAirborne glyoxal measurements in the marine and continental atmosphere: comparison with TROPOMI observations and EMAC simulationsMercury in the free troposphere and bidirectional atmosphere–vegetation exchanges – insights from Maïdo mountain observatory in the Southern Hemisphere tropicsDiurnal variability of atmospheric O2, CO2, and their exchange ratio above a boreal forest in southern FinlandHow adequately are elevated moist layers represented in reanalysis and satellite observations?Quantitative impacts of vertical transport on the long-term trend of nocturnal ozone increase over the Pearl River Delta region during 2006–2019Factors influencing the temporal variability of atmospheric methane emissions from Upper Silesia coal mines: a case study from the CoMet missionEnhanced natural releases of mercury in response to the reduction in anthropogenic emissions during the COVID-19 lockdown by explainable machine learningTemporal variability of tropospheric ozone and ozone profiles in the Korean Peninsula during the East Asian summer monsoon: insights from multiple measurements and reanalysis datasetsRetrieving CH4-emission rates from coal mine ventilation shafts using UAV-based AirCore observations and the genetic algorithm–interior point penalty function (GA-IPPF) modelMeasurement report: Atmospheric mercury in a coastal city of Southeast China – inter-annual variations and influencing factorsTropospheric and stratospheric ozone profiles during the 2019 TROpomi vaLIdation eXperiment (TROLIX-19)Evaluation of correlated Pandora column NO2 and in situ surface NO2 measurements during GMAP campaignTransport of substantial stratospheric ozone to the surface by a dying typhoon and shallow convectionObservational constraints on methane emissions from Polish coal mines using a ground-based remote sensing networkContinuous CH4 and δ13CH4 measurements in London demonstrate under-reported natural gas leakageLong-term fluxes of carbonyl sulfide and their seasonality and interannual variability in a boreal forestDeclines and peaks in NO2 pollution during the multiple waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in the New York metropolitan areaMeasurement report: Characterization of uncertainties in fluxes and fuel sulfur content from ship emissions in the Baltic SeaLimitations of the radon tracer method (RTM) to estimate regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions – a case study for methane in HeidelbergPositive and negative influences of typhoons on tropospheric ozone over southern ChinaSpatial and temporal variations of CO2 mole fractions observed at Beijing, Xianghe, and Xinglong in North ChinaThe CO2 integral emission by the megacity of St Petersburg as quantified from ground-based FTIR measurements combined with dispersion modellingAnthropogenic and natural controls on atmospheric δ13C-CO2 variations in the Yangtze River delta: insights from a carbon isotope modeling frameworkQuantifying variability, source, and transport of CO in the urban areas over the Himalayas and Tibetan PlateauNew methodology shows short atmospheric lifetimes of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen due to dry depositionUncertainties in eddy covariance air–sea CO2 flux measurements and implications for gas transfer velocity parameterisationsConvergent evidence for the pervasive but limited contribution of biomass burning to atmospheric ammonia in peninsular Southeast AsiaConcurrent variation in oil and gas methane emissions and oil price during the COVID-19 pandemicOzone variability induced by synoptic weather patterns in warm seasons of 2014–2018 over the Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaSeasonal patterns of atmospheric mercury in tropical South America as inferred by a continuous total gaseous mercury record at Chacaltaya station (5240 m) in BoliviaA mass-weighted isentropic coordinate for mapping chemical tracers and computing atmospheric inventoriesMethane mapping, emission quantification, and attribution in two European cities: Utrecht (NL) and Hamburg (DE)Ozone affected by a succession of four landfall typhoons in the Yangtze River Delta, China: major processes and health impacts4D dispersion of total gaseous mercury derived from a mining source: identification of criteria to assess risks related to high concentrations of atmospheric mercuryEstimating CH4, CO2 and CO emissions from coal mining and industrial activities in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin using an aircraft-based mass balance approachProfiling of formaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and CO over the Amazon: normalized excess mixing ratios and related emission factors in biomass burning plumesMeasurement report: Leaf-scale gas exchange of atmospheric reactive trace species (NO2, NO, O3) at a northern hardwood forest in MichiganA dedicated flask sampling strategy developed for Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) stations based on CO2 and CO measurements and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) footprint modellingThe increasing atmospheric burden of the greenhouse gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)Understanding nighttime methane signals at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO)
Xuanyi Zhang, Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Timothy Jiang, Jonathan Davies, and David Tarasick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13647–13664,Short summary
Measurements of ozone in the atmosphere were made in a forest downwind of oil sands mining and production facilities in northern Alberta. These measurements show that the emissions of other pollutants from oil sands production and processing reduce the amount of ozone in the forest. By using an atmospheric model combined with measurements, we find that the rate at which ozone is absorbed by the forest is lower than typical rates from similar measurements in other forests.
Davide Putero, Paolo Cristofanelli, Kai-Lan Chang, Gaëlle Dufour, Gregory Beachley, Cédric Couret, Peter Effertz, Daniel A. Jaffe, Dagmar Kubistin, Jason Lynch, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Melissa Puchalski, Timothy Sharac, Barkley C. Sive, Martin Steinbacher, Carlos Torres, and Owen R. Cooper
We investigated the impact of the societal restriction measures during the COVID-19 pandemic on surface ozone at 41 high-elevation sites worldwide. Negative ozone anomalies were observed for spring and summer 2020 for all of the regions considered. In 2021, negative anomalies continued for Europe and partially for the Eastern US, while Western US sites showed positive anomalies due to wildfires. IASI satellite data and Carbon Monitor supported emission reductions as a cause of the anomalies.
Thomas Trickl, Cédric Couret, Ludwig Ries, and Hannes Vogelmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8403–8427,Short summary
Downward atmospheric transport from the stratosphere (STT) is the most important natural source of tropospheric ozone. We analyse the stratospheric influence on the long-term series of ozone and carbon monoxide measured on the Zugspitze in the Bavarian Alps (2962 m a.s.l.). Since the 1970s, there has been a pronounced ozone rise that has been ascribed to an increase in STT. We determine the stratospheric influence from the observational data alone (humidity and 7Be).
Joseph Seitz, Shiyuan Zhong, Joseph Charney, Warren Heilman, Kenneth Clark, Xindi Bian, Nicholas Skowronski, Michael Gallagher, Matthew Patterson, Jason Cole, Mike Kiefer, Rory Hadden, and Eric Mueller
Atmospheric turbulence affects wildland fire behaviors and heat/smoke transfer. Turbulence data collected during an experimental fire on a 10 m x 10 m densely instrumented burn plot are analyzed and the results reveal substantial heterogeneity in fire-induced turbulence characteristics across the small plot, which highlights the necessity for coupled atmosphere-fire behavior models to have 1–2 m grid spacing so that adequate simulations of fire behavior and smoke transfer can be achieved.
Mark Gordon, Dane Blanchard, Timothy Jiang, Paul A. Makar, Ralf M. Staebler, Julian Aherne, Cris Mihele, and Xuanyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7241–7255,Short summary
Measurements of the gas sulfur dioxide (SO2) were made in a forest downwind of oil sands mining and production facilities in northern Alberta. These measurements tell us the rate at which SO2 is absorbed by the forest. The measured rate is much higher than what is currently used by air quality models, which is supported by a previous study in this region. This suggests that SO2 may have a much shorter lifetime in the atmosphere at this location than currently predicted by models.
Andreas Forstmaier, Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Juan Bettinelli, Hossein Maazallahi, Carsten Schneider, Dominik Winkler, Xinxu Zhao, Taylor Jones, Carina van der Veen, Norman Wildmann, Moritz Makowski, Aydin Uzun, Friedrich Klappenbach, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Stefan Schwietzke, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6897–6922,Short summary
Large cities emit greenhouse gases which contribute to global warming. In this study, we measured the release of one important green house gas, methane, in Hamburg. Multiple sources that contribute to methane emissions were located and quantified. Methane sources were found to be mainly caused by human activity (e.g., by release from oil and gas refineries). Moreover, potential natural sources have been located, such as the Elbe River and lakes.
Truls Andersen, Zhao Zhao, Marcel de Vries, Jaroslaw Necki, Justyna Swolkien, Malika Menoud, Thomas Röckmann, Anke Roiger, Andreas Fix, Wouter Peters, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5191–5216,Short summary
The Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, is one of the hot spots of methane emissions in Europe. Using an uncrewed aerial vehicle (UAV), we performed atmospheric measurements of methane concentrations downwind of five ventilation shafts in this region and determined the emission rates from the individual shafts. We found a strong correlation between quantified shaft-averaged emission rates and hourly inventory data, which also allows us to estimate the methane emissions from the entire region.
Saginela Ravindra Babu, Chang-Feng Ou-Yang, Stephen M. Griffith, Shantanu Kumar Pani, Steven Soon-Kai Kong, and Neng-Huei Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4727–4740,Short summary
In October 2006 and 2015, extensive fire episodes occurred in Indonesia, releasing an enormous amount of CO emissions. By combining in situ and satellite CO measurements and reanalysis products, we reported plausible transport pathways of CO from Indonesia to the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS; 23.47° N, 120.87° E; 2862 m a.s.l.) in Taiwan. We identified (i) horizontal transport in the free troposphere and (ii) vertical transport through the Hadley circulation.
Cheng Hu, Junqing Zhang, Bing Qi, Rongguang Du, Xiaofei Xu, Haoyu Xiong, Huili Liu, Xinyue Ai, Yiyi Peng, and Wei Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4501–4520,Short summary
We build the first city-scale tower-based atmospheric CH4 concentration observation network in China. The a priori total annual anthropogenic CH4 emissions and emissions from waste treatment were overestimated by 36.0 % and 47.1 %, respectively, in Hangzhou. Global warming will largely enhance the CH4 emission factor of waste treatment, which will increase by 17.6 %, 9.6 %, 5.6 % and 4.0 % for Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, RCP6.0, RCP4.5 and RCP2.6, respectively, by 2100.
Clément Narbaud, Jean-Daniel Paris, Sophie Wittig, Antoine Berchet, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Nédélec, Boris D. Belan, Mikhail Y. Arshinov, Sergei B. Belan, Denis Davydov, Alexander Fofonov, and Artem Kozlov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2293–2314,Short summary
We measured CH4 and CO2 from aircraft over the Russian Arctic. Analyzing our data with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART, we find a sharp east–west gradient in atmospheric composition. Western Siberia is influenced by strong wetland CH4 emissions, deep CO2 gradient from biospheric uptake, and long-range transport from Europe and North America. Eastern flights document less variability. Over the Arctic Ocean, we find a small influence from marine CH4 emissions compatible with reasonable inventories.
Flora Kluge, Tilman Hüneke, Christophe Lerot, Simon Rosanka, Meike K. Rotermund, Domenico Taraborrelli, Benjamin Weyland, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1369–1401,Short summary
Using airborne glyoxal concentration and vertical column density measurements, vertical profiles are inferred for eight global regions in aged biomass burning plumes and the tropical marine boundary layer. Using TROPOMI observations, an analysis of space- and airborne measurements is performed. A comparison to EMAC simulations shows a general glyoxal underprediction, which points to various missing sources and precursors from anthropogenic activities, biomass burning, and the sea surface.
Alkuin M. Koenig, Olivier Magand, Bert Verreyken, Jerome Brioude, Crist Amelynck, Niels Schoon, Aurélie Colomb, Beatriz Ferreira Araujo, Michel Ramonet, Mahesh K. Sha, Jean-Pierre Cammas, Jeroen E. Sonke, and Aurélien Dommergue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1309–1328,Short summary
The global distribution of mercury, a potent neurotoxin, depends on atmospheric transport, chemistry, and interactions between the Earth’s surface and the air. Our understanding of these processes is still hampered by insufficient observations. Here, we present new data from a mountain observatory in the Southern Hemisphere. We give insights into mercury concentrations in air masses coming from aloft, and we show that tropical mountain vegetation may be a daytime source of mercury to the air.
Kim A. P. Faassen, Linh N. T. Nguyen, Eadin R. Broekema, Bert A. M. Kers, Ivan Mammarella, Timo Vesala, Penelope A. Pickers, Andrew C. Manning, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Harro A. J. Meijer, Wouter Peters, and Ingrid T. Luijkx
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 851–876,Short summary
The exchange ratio (ER) between atmospheric O2 and CO2 provides a useful tracer for separately estimating photosynthesis and respiration processes in the forest carbon balance. This is highly relevant to better understand the expected biosphere sink, which determines future atmospheric CO2 levels. We therefore measured O2, CO2, and their ER above a boreal forest in Finland and investigated their diurnal behaviour for a representative day, and we show the most suitable way to determine the ER.
Marc Prange, Stefan A. Buehler, and Manfred Brath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 725–741,Short summary
We investigate the representation of elevated moist layers (EMLs) in two satellite retrieval products and ERA5 reanalysis. EMLs occur in the vicinity of tropical convective storms and are thought to have an impact on their evolution through radiative heating. We provide a first dedicated assessment of EMLs in long-term data products in terms of moist layer strength, vertical thickness and altitude by comparing to collocated radiosondes over the western Pacific, a region where EMLs often occur.
Yongkang Wu, Weihua Chen, Yingchang You, Qianqian Xie, Shiguo Jia, and Xuemei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 453–469,Short summary
Relying on observed and simulated data, we determine the spatiotemporal characteristics of nocturnal O3 increase (NOI) events in the Pearl River Delta region during 2006–2019. Low-level jets and convective storms are the main meteorological processes causing NOI. Daytime O3 is another essential influencing factor. More importantly, a more prominent role of meteorological processes in NOI has been demonstrated. Our study highlights the important role of meteorology in nocturnal O3 pollution.
Justyna Swolkień, Andreas Fix, and Michał Gałkowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16031–16052,Short summary
Determination of emissions from coal mines on a local scale requires instantaneous data. We analysed temporal emission data for ventilation shafts and factors influencing their variability. They were saturation of the seams with methane, the permeability of the rock mass, and coal output. The data for the verification should reflect the actual values of emissions from point sources. It is recommended to achieve this by using a standardised emission measurement system for all coal mines.
Xiaofei Qin, Shengqian Zhou, Hao Li, Guochen Wang, Cheng Chen, Chengfeng Liu, Xiaohao Wang, Juntao Huo, Yanfen Lin, Jia Chen, Qingyan Fu, Yusen Duan, Kan Huang, and Congrui Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15851–15865,Short summary
Using artificial neural network modeling and an explainable analysis approach, natural surface emissions (NSEs) were identified as a main driver of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) variations during the COVID-19 lockdown. A sharp drop in GEM concentrations due to a significant reduction in anthropogenic emissions may disrupt the surface–air exchange balance of Hg, leading to increases in NSEs. This implies that NSEs may pose challenges to the future control of Hg pollution.
Juseon Bak, Eun-Ji Song, Hyo-Jung Lee, Xiong Liu, Ja-Ho Koo, Joowan Kim, Wonbae Jeon, Jae-Hwan Kim, and Cheol-Hee Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14177–14187,Short summary
Our study investigates the temporal variations of ozone profiles at Pohang in the Korean Peninsula from multiple ozone products. We discuss the quantitative relationships between daily surface measurements and key meteorological variables, different seasonality of ozone between the troposphere and stratosphere, and interannual changes in the lower tropospheric ozone, linked by the weather pattern driven by the East Asian summer monsoon.
Tianqi Shi, Zeyu Han, Ge Han, Xin Ma, Huilin Chen, Truls Andersen, Huiqin Mao, Cuihong Chen, Haowei Zhang, and Wei Gong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13881–13896,Short summary
CH4 works as the second-most important greenhouse gas, its reported emission inventories being far less than CO2. In this study, we developed a self-adjusted model to estimate the CH4 emission rate from strong point sources by the UAV-based AirCore system. This model would reduce the uncertainty in CH4 emission rate quantification accrued by errors in measurements of wind and concentration. Actual measurements on Pniówek coal demonstrate the high accuracy and stability of our developed model.
Jiayan Shi, Yuping Chen, Lingling Xu, Youwei Hong, Mengren Li, Xiaolong Fan, Liqian Yin, Yanting Chen, Chen Yang, Gaojie Chen, Taotao Liu, Xiaoting Ji, and Jinsheng Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11187–11202,Short summary
Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) was observed in Southeast China over the period 2012–2020. The observed GEM concentrations showed no distinct inter-annual variation trends. The interpretation rate of transportation and meteorology on GEM variations displayed an increasing trend. In contrast, anthropogenic emissions have shown a decreasing interpretation rate since 2012, indicating the effectiveness of emission mitigation measures in reducing GEM concentrations in the study region.
John T. Sullivan, Arnoud Apituley, Nora Mettig, Karin Kreher, K. Emma Knowland, Marc Allaart, Ankie Piters, Michel Van Roozendael, Pepijn Veefkind, Jerry R. Ziemke, Natalya Kramarova, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Laurence Twigg, Grant Sumnicht, and Thomas J. McGee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11137–11153,Short summary
A TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) validation campaign (TROLIX-19) was held in the Netherlands in September 2019. The research presented here focuses on using ozone lidars from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center to better evaluate the characterization of ozone throughout TROLIX-19 as compared to balloon-borne, space-borne and ground-based passive measurements, as well as a global coupled chemistry meteorology model.
Lim-Seok Chang, Donghee Kim, Hyunkee Hong, Deok-Rae Kim, Jeong-Ah Yu, Kwangyul Lee, Hanlim Lee, Daewon Kim, Jinkyu Hong, Hyun-Young Jo, and Cheol-Hee Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10703–10720,Short summary
Our study explored the synergy of combined column and surface measurements during GMAP (GEMS Map of Air Pollution) campaign. It has several points to note for vertical distribution analysis. Particularly under prevailing local wind meteorological conditions, Pandora-based vertical structures sometimes showed negative correlations between column and surface measurements. Vertical analysis should be done carefully in some local meteorological conditions when employing either surface or columns.
Zhixiong Chen, Jane Liu, Xiushu Qie, Xugeng Cheng, Yukun Shen, Mengmiao Yang, Rubin Jiang, and Xiangke Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8221–8240,Short summary
A vigorous surface ozone surge event of stratospheric origin occurred in the North China Plain at night. Surface ozone concentrations were 40–50 ppbv higher than the corresponding monthly mean, whereas surface carbon monoxide concentrations declined abruptly, which confirmed the direct stratospheric intrusions to the surface. We further addressed the notion that a combined effect of the dying typhoon and mesoscale convective systems was responsible for this vigorous ozone surge.
Andreas Luther, Julian Kostinek, Ralph Kleinschek, Sara Defratyka, Mila Stanisavljević, Andreas Forstmaier, Alexandru Dandocsi, Leon Scheidweiler, Darko Dubravica, Norman Wildmann, Frank Hase, Matthias M. Frey, Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Jarosław Nȩcki, Justyna Swolkień, Christoph Knote, Sanam N. Vardag, Anke Roiger, and André Butz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5859–5876,Short summary
Coal mining is an extensive source of anthropogenic methane emissions. In order to reduce and mitigate methane emissions, it is important to know how much and where the methane is emitted. We estimated coal mining methane emissions in Poland based on atmospheric methane measurements and particle dispersion modeling. In general, our emission estimates suggest higher emissions than expected by previous annual emission reports.
Eric Saboya, Giulia Zazzeri, Heather Graven, Alistair J. Manning, and Sylvia Englund Michel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3595–3613,Short summary
Continuous measurements of atmospheric methane concentrations and its carbon-13 isotope have been made in central London since early 2018. These measurements were used to evaluate methane emissions reported in global and UK-specific emission inventories for the London area. Compared to atmospheric methane measurements from March 2018 to October 2020, both inventories are under-reporting natural gas leakage for the London area.
Timo Vesala, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Arnaud P. Praplan, Lenka Foltýnová, Pasi Kolari, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, David Nelson, Dan Yakir, Mark Zahniser, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2569–2584,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) provides new insights into carbon cycle research. We present an easy-to-use flux parameterization and the longest existing time series of forest–atmosphere COS exchange measurements, which allow us to study both seasonal and interannual variability. We observed only uptake of COS by the forest on an annual basis, with 37 % variability between years. Upscaling the boreal COS uptake using a biosphere model indicates a significant missing COS sink at high latitudes.
Maria Tzortziou, Charlotte F. Kwong, Daniel Goldberg, Luke Schiferl, Róisín Commane, Nader Abuhassan, James J. Szykman, and Lukas C. Valin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2399–2417,Short summary
The COVID-19 pandemic created an extreme natural experiment in which sudden changes in human behavior significantly impacted urban air quality. Using a combination of model, satellite, and ground-based data, we examine the impact of multiple waves and phases of the pandemic on atmospheric nitrogen pollution in the New York metropolitan area, and address the role of weather as a key driver of high pollution episodes observed even during – and despite – the stringent early lockdowns.
Jari Walden, Liisa Pirjola, Tuomas Laurila, Juha Hatakka, Heidi Pettersson, Tuomas Walden, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Harri Nordlund, Toivo Truuts, Miika Meretoja, and Kimmo K. Kahma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18175–18194,Short summary
Ship emissions play an important role in the deposition of gaseous compounds and nanoparticles (Ntot), affecting climate, human health (especially in coastal areas), and eutrophication. Micrometeorological methods showed that ship emissions were mainly responsible for the deposition of Ntot, whereas they only accounted for a minor proportion of CO2 deposition. An uncertainty analysis applied to the fluxes and fuel sulfur content results demonstrated the reliability of the results.
Ingeborg Levin, Ute Karstens, Samuel Hammer, Julian DellaColetta, Fabian Maier, and Maksym Gachkivskyi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17907–17926,Short summary
The radon tracer method is applied to atmospheric methane and radon observations from the upper Rhine valley to independently estimate methane emissions from the region. Comparison of our top-down results with bottom-up inventory data requires high-resolution footprint modelling and representative radon flux data. In agreement with inventories, observed emissions decreased, but only until 2005. A limitation of this method is that point-source emissions are not captured or not fully captured.
Zhixiong Chen, Jane Liu, Xugeng Cheng, Mengmiao Yang, and Hong Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16911–16923,Short summary
Using a large ensemble of typhoons, we investigate the impacts of evolving typhoons on tropospheric ozone and address the linkages between typhoon-affected meteorological conditions and ozone variations. The influences of typhoon-induced stratospheric intrusions on lower-troposphere ozone are also quantified. Thus, the results obtained in this study have important implications for a full understanding of the multifaced roles of typhoons in modulating tropospheric ozone variation.
Yang Yang, Minqiang Zhou, Ting Wang, Bo Yao, Pengfei Han, Denghui Ji, Wei Zhou, Yele Sun, Gengchen Wang, and Pucai Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11741–11757,Short summary
This study introduces the in situ CO2 measurement system installed in Beijing (urban), Xianghe (suburban), and Xinglong (rural) in North China for the first time. The spatial and temporal variations in CO2 mole fractions at the three sites between June 2018 and April 2020 are discussed on both seasonal and diurnal scales.
Dmitry V. Ionov, Maria V. Makarova, Frank Hase, Stefani C. Foka, Vladimir S. Kostsov, Carlos Alberti, Thomas Blumenstock, Thorsten Warneke, and Yana A. Virolainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10939–10963,Short summary
Megacities are a significant source of emissions of various substances in the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, which is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. In 2019–2020, the Emission Monitoring Mobile Experiment was carried out in St Petersburg, which is the second-largest industrial city in Russia. The results of this experiment, coupled with numerical modelling, helped to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by the city. This value was twice as high as predicted.
Cheng Hu, Jiaping Xu, Cheng Liu, Yan Chen, Dong Yang, Wenjing Huang, Lichen Deng, Shoudong Liu, Timothy J. Griffis, and Xuhui Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10015–10037,Short summary
Seventy percent of global CO2 emissions were emitted from urban landscapes. The Yangtze River delta (YRD) ranks as one of the most densely populated regions in the world and is an anthropogenic CO2 hotspot. Besides anthropogenic factors, natural ecosystems and croplands act as significant CO2 sinks and sources. Independent quantification of the fossil and cement CO2 emission and assessment of their impact on atmospheric δ13C-CO2 have potential to improve our understanding of urban CO2 cycling.
Youwen Sun, Hao Yin, Yuan Cheng, Qianggong Zhang, Bo Zheng, Justus Notholt, Xiao Lu, Cheng Liu, Yuan Tian, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9201–9222,Short summary
We quantified the variability, source, and transport of urban CO over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP) by using measurement, model simulation, and the analysis of meteorological fields. Urban CO over the HTP is dominated by anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions from local, South Asia and East Asia, and oxidation sources. The decreasing trends in surface CO since 2015 in most cities over the HTP are attributed to the reduction in local and transported CO emissions in recent years.
Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, Paul Makar, John Liggio, Samar G. Moussa, Ayodeji Akingunola, Robert McLaren, Ralf M. Staebler, Andrea Darlington, Jason O'Brien, Junhua Zhang, Mengistu Wolde, and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8377–8392,Short summary
We developed a method using aircraft measurements to determine lifetimes with respect to dry deposition for oxidized sulfur and nitrogen compounds over the boreal forest in Alberta, Canada. Atmospheric lifetimes were significantly shorter than derived from chemical transport models with differences related to modelled dry deposition velocities. The shorter lifetimes suggest models need to reassess dry deposition treatment and predictions of sulfur and nitrogen in the atmosphere and ecosystems.
Yuanxu Dong, Mingxi Yang, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Vassilis Kitidis, and Thomas G. Bell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8089–8110,Short summary
Eddy covariance (EC) is the most direct method for measuring air–sea CO2 flux from ships. However, uncertainty in EC air–sea CO2 fluxes has not been well quantified. Here we show that with the state-of-the-art gas analysers, instrumental noise no longer contributes significantly to the CO2 flux uncertainty. Applying an appropriate averaging timescale (1–3 h) and suitable air–sea CO2 fugacity threshold (at least 20 µatm) to EC flux data enables an optimal analysis of the gas transfer velocity.
Yunhua Chang, Yan-Lin Zhang, Sawaeng Kawichai, Qian Wang, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Tippawan Prapamontol, and Moritz F. Lehmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7187–7198,Short summary
In this study, we integrated satellite constraints on atmospheric NH3 levels and fire intensity, discrete NH3 concentration measurement, and N isotopic analysis of NH3 in order to assess the regional-scale contribution of biomass burning to ambient atmospheric NH3 in the heartland of Southeast Asia. The combined approach provides a valuable cross-validation framework for source apportioning of NH3 in the lower atmosphere and will thus help to ameliorate predictions of biomass burning emissions.
David R. Lyon, Benjamin Hmiel, Ritesh Gautam, Mark Omara, Katherine A. Roberts, Zachary R. Barkley, Kenneth J. Davis, Natasha L. Miles, Vanessa C. Monteiro, Scott J. Richardson, Stephen Conley, Mackenzie L. Smith, Daniel J. Jacob, Lu Shen, Daniel J. Varon, Aijun Deng, Xander Rudelis, Nikhil Sharma, Kyle T. Story, Adam R. Brandt, Mary Kang, Eric A. Kort, Anthony J. Marchese, and Steven P. Hamburg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6605–6626,Short summary
The Permian Basin (USA) is the world’s largest oil field. We use tower- and aircraft-based approaches to measure how methane emissions in the Permian Basin changed throughout 2020. In early 2020, 3.3 % of the region’s gas was emitted; then in spring 2020, the loss rate temporarily dropped to 1.9 % as oil price crashed. We find this short-term reduction to be a result of reduced well development, less gas flaring, and fewer abnormal events despite minimal reductions in oil and gas production.
Da Gao, Min Xie, Jane Liu, Tijian Wang, Chaoqun Ma, Haokun Bai, Xing Chen, Mengmeng Li, Bingliang Zhuang, and Shu Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5847–5864,Short summary
O3 has been increasing in recent years over the Yangtze River Delta region of China and is closely associated with dominant weather systems. Still, the study on the impact of changes in synoptic weather patterns (SWPs) on O3 variation is quite limited. This work aims to reveal the unique features of changes in each SWP under O3 variation and quantifies the effects of meteorological conditions on O3 variation. Our findings could be helpful in strategy planning for O3 pollution control.
Alkuin Maximilian Koenig, Olivier Magand, Paolo Laj, Marcos Andrade, Isabel Moreno, Fernando Velarde, Grover Salvatierra, René Gutierrez, Luis Blacutt, Diego Aliaga, Thomas Reichler, Karine Sellegri, Olivier Laurent, Michel Ramonet, and Aurélien Dommergue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3447–3472,Short summary
The environmental cycling of atmospheric mercury, a harmful global contaminant, is still not sufficiently constrained, partly due to missing data in remote regions. Here, we address this issue by presenting 20 months of atmospheric mercury measurements, sampled in the Bolivian Andes. We observe a significant seasonal pattern, whose key features we explore. Moreover, we deduce ratios to constrain South American biomass burning mercury emissions and the mercury uptake by the Amazon rainforest.
Yuming Jin, Ralph F. Keeling, Eric J. Morgan, Eric Ray, Nicholas C. Parazoo, and Britton B. Stephens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 217–238,Short summary
We propose a new atmospheric coordinate (Mθe) based on equivalent potential temperature (θe) but with mass as the unit. This coordinate is useful in studying the spatial and temporal distribution of long-lived chemical tracers (CO2, CH4, O2 / N2, etc.) from sparse data, like airborne observation. Using this coordinate and sparse airborne observation (HIPPO and ATom), we resolve the Northern Hemisphere mass-weighted average CO2 seasonal cycle with high accuracy.
Hossein Maazallahi, Julianne M. Fernandez, Malika Menoud, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Zachary D. Weller, Stefan Schwietzke, Joseph C. von Fischer, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14717–14740,Short summary
Methane accounts for ∼ 25 % of current climate warming. The current lack of methane measurements is a barrier for tracking major sources, which are key for near-term climate mitigation. We use mobile measurements to identify and quantify methane emission sources in Utrecht (NL) and Hamburg (DE) with a focus on natural gas pipeline leaks. The measurements resulted in fixing the major leaks by the local utility, but coordinated efforts are needed at national levels for further emission reductions.
Chenchao Zhan, Min Xie, Chongwu Huang, Jane Liu, Tijian Wang, Meng Xu, Chaoqun Ma, Jianwei Yu, Yumeng Jiao, Mengmeng Li, Shu Li, Bingliang Zhuang, Ming Zhao, and Dongyang Nie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13781–13799,Short summary
The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region has been suffering from severe ozone (O3) pollution in recent years. Synoptic systems, like typhoons, can have a significant effect on O3 episodes. However, research on landfall typhoons affecting O3 in the YRD is limited. This work aims to reveal the main processes of landfall typhoons affecting surface O3 and estimate health impacts of O3 during the study period in the YRD, which can be useful for taking reasonable pollution control measures in this area.
José M. Esbrí, Pablo L. Higueras, Alba Martínez-Coronado, and Rocío Naharro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12995–13010,Short summary
The aim of this work was to identify criteria to obtain the minimum amount of data with the maximum meaning and representativeness in order to delimit risk areas, both in a spatial and temporal respect. We have constructed a model of vertical mercury movements which could be used to predict the location and timing of mercury inhalation risk. Also, we have designed a monitoring strategy to identify the relevant criteria, which involved the measurement of gaseous mercury in a vertical section.
Alina Fiehn, Julian Kostinek, Maximilian Eckl, Theresa Klausner, Michał Gałkowski, Jinxuan Chen, Christoph Gerbig, Thomas Röckmann, Hossein Maazallahi, Martina Schmidt, Piotr Korbeń, Jarosław Neçki, Pawel Jagoda, Norman Wildmann, Christian Mallaun, Rostyslav Bun, Anna-Leah Nickl, Patrick Jöckel, Andreas Fix, and Anke Roiger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12675–12695,Short summary
A severe reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is necessary to fulfill the Paris Agreement. We use aircraft- and ground-based in situ observations of trace gases and wind speed from two flights over the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, for independent emission estimation. The derived methane emission estimates are within the range of emission inventories, carbon dioxide estimates are in the lower range and carbon monoxide emission estimates are slightly higher than emission inventory values.
Flora Kluge, Tilman Hüneke, Matthias Knecht, Michael Lichtenstern, Meike Rotermund, Hans Schlager, Benjamin Schreiner, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12363–12389,Short summary
The presented study reports on airborne measurements of formaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and CO over the Amazon basin and lays a special focus on the influence of biomass burning emissions on the atmospheric profiles of these carbonyl compounds within the planetary boundary layer as well as in the free and upper troposphere.
Wei Wang, Laurens Ganzeveld, Samuel Rossabi, Jacques Hueber, and Detlev Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11287–11304,Short summary
Trees exchange with the atmosphere nitrogen oxides and ozone, affecting the tropospheric composition and consequently air quality and ecosystem health. We examined the leaf-level gas exchanges for four typical tree species (pine, maple, oak, aspen) found in northern Michigan, US. The leaves largely absorb the gases, showing little evidence of emission. We measured the uptake rates that can be used to improve model studies of the source and sink processes controlling these gases in forests.
Ingeborg Levin, Ute Karstens, Markus Eritt, Fabian Maier, Sabrina Arnold, Daniel Rzesanke, Samuel Hammer, Michel Ramonet, Gabriela Vítková, Sebastien Conil, Michal Heliasz, Dagmar Kubistin, and Matthias Lindauer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11161–11180,Short summary
Based on observations and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) footprint modelling, a sampling strategy has been developed for tall tower stations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) research infrastructure atmospheric station network. This strategy allows independent quality control of in situ measurements, provides representative coverage of the influence area of the sites, and is capable of automated targeted sampling of fossil fuel CO2 emission hotspots.
Peter G. Simmonds, Matthew Rigby, Alistair J. Manning, Sunyoung Park, Kieran M. Stanley, Archie McCulloch, Stephan Henne, Francesco Graziosi, Michela Maione, Jgor Arduini, Stefan Reimann, Martin K. Vollmer, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Ray F. Weiss, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Mi-Kyung Park, Hyeri Park, Tim Arnold, Chris Rennick, L. Paul Steele, Blagoj Mitrevski, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7271–7290,Short summary
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a potent greenhouse gas which is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. From a 40-year record of measurements, collected at five global monitoring sites and archived air samples, we show that its concentration in the atmosphere has steadily increased. Using modelling techniques, we estimate that global emissions have increased by about 24 % over the past decade. We find that this increase is driven by the demand for SF6-insulated switchgear in developing countries.
Santiago Botía, Christoph Gerbig, Julia Marshall, Jost V. Lavric, David Walter, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna Holanda, Gilberto Fisch, Alessandro Carioca de Araújo, Marta O. Sá, Paulo R. Teixeira, Angélica F. Resende, Cleo Q. Dias-Junior, Hella van Asperen, Pablo S. Oliveira, Michel Stefanello, and Otávio C. Acevedo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6583–6606,Short summary
A long record of atmospheric methane concentrations in central Amazonia was analyzed. We describe events in which concentrations at 79 m are higher than at 4 m. These events are more frequent during the nighttime of dry season, but we found no association with fire signals. Instead, we suggest that a combination of nighttime transport and a nearby source could explain such events. Our research gives insights into how methane is transported in the complex nocturnal atmosphere in Amazonia.
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This study provides high-quality direct observation data of a clean and a contaminated site in subtropical south China and quantifies the natural forest Hg emission. We find that clean and contaminated forests present a net GEM source with annual average values of 6.67 and 0.30 ng m-2 h-1, respectively; daily variations of GEM fluxes showed a source in the daytime with a peak at 13:00, and as a sink or balance at night; and higher atmospheric GEM concentration restricted the forest GEM emission.
This study provides high-quality direct observation data of a clean and a contaminated site in...