Articles | Volume 21, issue 13
| Highlight paper
09 Jul 2021
Research article | Highlight paper | 09 Jul 2021
Orographically induced spontaneous imbalance within the jet causing a large-scale gravity wave event
Markus Geldenhuys et al.
No articles found.
Jörn Ungermann, Anne Kleinert, Guido Maucher, Irene Bartolomé, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Sören Johansson, Lukas Krasauskas, and Tom Neubert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2503–2530,Short summary
GLORIA is a 2-D infrared imaging spectrometer operated on two high-flying research aircraft. This paper details our instrument calibration and characterization efforts, which in particular leverage in-flight data almost exclusively and often exploit the novel 2-D nature of the measurements. We show that the instrument surpasses the original instrument specifications and conclude by analyzing how the derived errors affect temperature and ozone retrievals, two of our main derived quantities.
Helmut Ziereis, Peter Hoor, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Andreas Zahn, Greta Stratmann, Paul Stock, Michael Lichtenstern, Jens Krause, Vera Bense, Armin Afchine, Christian Rolf, Wolfgang Woiwode, Marleen Braun, Jörn Ungermann, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Engel, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Hermann Oelhaf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3631–3654,Short summary
Airborne observations were conducted in the lowermost Arctic stratosphere during the winter of 2015/2016. The observed distribution of reactive nitrogen shows clear indications of nitrification in mid-winter and denitrification in late winter. This was caused by the formation of polar stratospheric cloud particles, which were observed during several flights. The sedimentation and evaporation of these particles and the descent of air masses cause a redistribution of reactive nitrogen.
Sören Johansson, Gerald Wetzel, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Norbert Glatthor, Michael Höpfner, Anne Kleinert, Tom Neubert, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Jörn Ungermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3675–3691,Short summary
We present GLORIA airborne cross sections of PAN, C2H6, HCOOH, CH3OH, and C2H4 in the South Atlantic UTLS in September/October 2019. Filamentary structures and a large plume were observed. Backward trajectories indicate that measured pollutants come from South America and central Africa. Comparisons to CAMS show structural agreement of the measured distributions. PAN absolute VMRs agree with the GLORIA measurements, C2H6 and HCOOH are simulated too low, and CH3OH and C2H4 are too high.
Florian Haenel, Wolfgang Woiwode, Jennifer Buchmüller, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Michael Höpfner, Sören Johansson, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Anne Kleinert, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Roland Ruhnke, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Jörn Ungermann, Michael Weimer, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2843–2870,Short summary
We compare remote sensing observations of H2O, O3, HNO3 and clouds in the upper troposphere–lowermost stratosphere during an Arctic winter long-range research flight with simulations by two different state-of-the-art model systems. We find good agreement for dynamical structures, trace gas distributions and clouds. We investigate model biases and sensitivities, with the goal of aiding model development and improving our understanding of processes in the upper troposphere–lowermost stratosphere.
Dina Khordakova, Christian Rolf, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Rolf Müller, Paul Konopka, Andreas Wieser, Martina Krämer, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1059–1079,Short summary
Extreme storms transport humidity from the troposphere to the stratosphere. Here it has a strong impact on the climate. With ongoing global warming, we expect more storms and, hence, an enhancement of this effect. A case study was performed in order to measure the impact of the direct injection of water vapor into the lower stratosphere. The measurements displayed a significant transport of water vapor into the lower stratosphere, and this was supported by satellite and reanalysis data.
Cornelia Strube, Peter Preusse, Manfred Ern, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18641–18668,Short summary
High gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratospheric southern polar vortex around 60° S are still poorly understood. Few GW sources are found at these latitudes. We present a ray tracing case study on waves resolved in high-resolution global model temperatures southeast of New Zealand. We show that lateral propagation of more than 1000 km takes place below 20 km altitude, and a variety of orographic and non-orographic sources located north of 50° S generate the wave field.
Corwin J. Wright, Richard J. Hall, Timothy P. Banyard, Neil P. Hindley, Isabell Krisch, Daniel M. Mitchell, and William J. M. Seviour
Weather Clim. Dynam., 2, 1283–1301,Short summary
Major sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) are some of the most dramatic events in the atmosphere and are believed to help cause extreme winter weather events such as the 2018 Beast from the East in Europe and North America. Here, we use unique data from the European Space Agency's new Aeolus satellite to make the first-ever measurements at a global scale of wind changes due to an SSW in the lower part of the atmosphere to help us understand how SSWs affect the atmosphere and surface weather.
Isabell Krisch, Neil P. Hindley, Oliver Reitebuch, and Corwin J. Wright
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
The Aeolus satellite measures global height resolved profiles of wind along a certain line-of-sight. However, for atmospheric dynamics research, wind measurements along the three cardinal axes are most useful. This paper presents methods to convert the measurements into zonal and meridional wind components. By combining the measurements during ascending and descending orbits, we achieve good derivation of zonal wind (equatorward of 80° latitude) and meridional wind (poleward of 70° latitude).
Manfred Ern, Mohamadou Diallo, Peter Preusse, Martin G. Mlynczak, Michael J. Schwartz, Qian Wu, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13763–13795,Short summary
Details of the driving of the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the tropical winds in the middle atmosphere are still not known. We investigate the SAO and its driving by small-scale gravity waves (GWs) using satellite data and different reanalyses. In a large altitude range, GWs mainly drive the SAO westerlies, but in the upper mesosphere GWs seem to drive both SAO easterlies and westerlies. Reanalyses reproduce some features of the SAO but are limited by model-inherent damping at upper levels.
Lukas Krasauskas, Jörn Ungermann, Peter Preusse, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Andreas Zahn, Helmut Ziereis, Christian Rolf, Felix Plöger, Paul Konopka, Bärbel Vogel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10249–10272,Short summary
A Rossby wave (RW) breaking event was observed over the North Atlantic during the WISE measurement campaign in October 2017. Infrared limb sounding measurements of trace gases in the lower stratosphere, including high-resolution 3-D tomographic reconstruction, revealed complex spatial structures in stratospheric tracers near the polar jet related to previous RW breaking events. Backward-trajectory analysis and tracer correlations were used to study mixing and stratosphere–troposphere exchange.
Felix Ploeger, Mohamadou Diallo, Edward Charlesworth, Paul Konopka, Bernard Legras, Johannes C. Laube, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Gebhard Günther, Andreas Engel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8393–8412,Short summary
We investigate the global stratospheric circulation (Brewer–Dobson circulation) in the new ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis based on age of air simulations, and we compare it to results from the preceding ERA-Interim reanalysis. Our results show a slower stratospheric circulation and higher age for ERA5. The age of air trend in ERA5 over the 1989–2018 period is negative throughout the stratosphere, related to multi-annual variability and a potential contribution from changes in the reanalysis system.
Gerald Wetzel, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Norbert Glatthor, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Thomas Gulde, Michael Höpfner, Sören Johansson, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Anne Kleinert, Erik Kretschmer, Guido Maucher, Hans Nordmeyer, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Christof Piesch, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Jörn Ungermann, and Bärbel Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8213–8232,Short summary
Measurements of the pollutants C2H6, C2H2, HCOOH, and PAN were performed in the North Atlantic UTLS region with the airborne limb imager GLORIA in 2017. Enhanced amounts of these species were detected in the upper troposphere and even in the lowermost stratosphere (PAN). Main sources of these gases are forest fires in North America and anthropogenic pollution in South Asia. Simulations of EMAC and CAMS are qualitatively able to reproduce the measured data but underestimate the absolute amounts.
Mohamadou Diallo, Manfred Ern, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7515–7544,Short summary
Despite good agreement in the spatial structure, there are substantial differences in the strength of the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) and its modulations in the UTLS and upper stratosphere. The tropical upwelling is generally weaker in ERA5 than in ERAI due to weaker planetary and gravity wave breaking in the UTLS. Analysis of the BDC trend shows an acceleration of the BDC of about 1.5 % decade-1 due to the long-term intensification in wave breaking, consistent with climate predictions.
Irene Bartolome Garcia, Reinhold Spang, Jörn Ungermann, Sabine Griessbach, Martina Krämer, Michael Höpfner, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3153–3168,Short summary
Cirrus clouds contribute to the general radiation budget of the Earth. Measuring optically thin clouds is challenging but the IR limb sounder GLORIA possesses the necessary technical characteristics to make it possible. This study analyses data from the WISE campaign obtained with GLORIA. We developed a cloud detection method and derived characteristics of the observed cirrus-like cloud top, cloud bottom or position with respect to the tropopause.
Robert Wagner, Baptiste Testa, Michael Höpfner, Alexei Kiselev, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Jörn Ungermann, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1977–1991,Short summary
During the Asian summer monsoon period, air pollutants are transported from layers near the ground to high altitudes of 13 to 18 km in the atmosphere. Infrared measurements have shown that particles composed of solid ammonium nitrate are a major part of these pollutants. To enable the quantitative analysis of the infrared spectra, we have determined for the first time accurate optical constants of ammonium nitrate for the low-temperature conditions of the upper atmosphere.
Jörn Ungermann, Irene Bartolome, Sabine Griessbach, Reinhold Spang, Christian Rolf, Martina Krämer, Michael Höpfner, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 7025–7045,Short summary
This study examines the potential of new IR limb imager instruments and tomographic methods for cloud detection purposes. Simple color-ratio-based methods are examined and compared against more involved nonlinear convex optimization. In a second part, 3-D measurements of the airborne limb sounder GLORIA taken during the Wave-driven ISentropic Exchange campaign are used to exemplarily derive the location and extent of small-scale cirrus clouds with high spatial accuracy.
Wolfgang Woiwode, Andreas Dörnbrack, Inna Polichtchouk, Sören Johansson, Ben Harvey, Michael Höpfner, Jörn Ungermann, and Felix Friedl-Vallon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15379–15387,Short summary
The lowermost-stratosphere moist bias in ECMWF analyses and 12 h forecasts is diagnosed for the Arctic winter-spring 2016 period by using two-dimensional GLORIA water vapor observations. The bias is already present in the initial conditions (i.e., the analyses), and sensitivity forecasts on time scales of < 12 h show hardly any sensitivity to modified spatial resolution and output frequency.
Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Oliver Kirner, Ingo Wohltmann, Silvia Bucci, Bernard Legras, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Norbert Glatthor, Erik Kretschmer, Jörn Ungermann, and Gerald Wetzel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14695–14715,Short summary
We present high-resolution measurements of pollutant trace gases (PAN, C2H2, and HCOOH) in the Asian monsoon UTLS from the airborne limb imager GLORIA during StratoClim 2017. Enhancements are observed up to 16 km altitude, and PAN and C2H2 even up to 18 km. Two atmospheric models, CAMS and EMAC, reproduce the pollutant's large-scale structures but not finer structures. Convection is investigated using backward trajectories of the models ATLAS and TRACZILLA with advanced detection of convection.
Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, David Fahey, Eric Jensen, Sergey Khaykin, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Laura L. Pan, Martin Riese, Andrew Rollins, Fred Stroh, Troy Thornberry, Veronika Wolf, Sarah Woods, Peter Spichtinger, Johannes Quaas, and Odran Sourdeval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12569–12608,Short summary
To improve the representations of cirrus clouds in climate predictions, extended knowledge of their properties and geographical distribution is required. This study presents extensive airborne in situ and satellite remote sensing climatologies of cirrus and humidity, which serve as a guide to cirrus clouds. Further, exemplary radiative characteristics of cirrus types and also in situ observations of tropical tropopause layer cirrus and humidity in the Asian monsoon anticyclone are shown.
Isabell Krisch, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, Cornelia Strube, Jörn Ungermann, Wolfgang Woiwode, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11469–11490,Short summary
In 2016, a scientific research flight above Scandinavia acquired various atmospheric data (temperature, gas composition, etc.). Through advanced 3-D reconstruction methods, a superposition of multiple gravity waves was identified. An in-depth analysis enabled the characterisation of these waves as well as the identification of their sources. This work will enable a better understanding of atmosphere dynamics and could lead to improved climate projections.
Cornelia Strube, Manfred Ern, Peter Preusse, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4927–4945,Short summary
We present how inertial instabilities affect gravity wave background removal filters on different temperature data sets. Vertical filtering has to remove a part of the gravity wave spectrum to eliminate inertial instability remnants, while horizontal filtering leaves typical gravity wave scales untouched. In addition, we show that it is possible to separate inertial instabilities from gravity wave perturbations for infrared limb-sounding satellite profiles using a cutoff zonal wavenumber of 6.
Yajun Zhu, Martin Kaufmann, Qiuyu Chen, Jiyao Xu, Qiucheng Gong, Jilin Liu, Daikang Wei, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3033–3042,Short summary
OH airglow emissions can be used to derive rotational temperature and trace constituents in the mesopause region, but systematic differences exist for the follow-up data using OH emission radiance as measured by SCIAMACHY and SABER. This paper makes a comparison of OH emission radiance as measured by them and shows the systematic differences between the two measurements. The radiometric calibration of the two instruments could potentially explain the differences between the two measurements.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Jianchun Bian, Gebhard Günther, Felix Ploeger, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Zhixuan Bai, Holger Vömel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4133–4152,Short summary
Low ozone and low water vapour signatures in the UTLS were investigated using balloon-borne measurements and trajectory calculations. The results show that deep convection in tropical cyclones over the western Pacific transports boundary air parcels with low ozone into the tropopause region. Subsequently, these air parcels are dehydrated when passing the lowest temperature region (< 190 K) during quasi-horizontal advection.
Sabine Griessbach, Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Peggy Achtert, Marc von Hobe, Nina Mateshvili, Rolf Müller, Martin Riese, Christian Rolf, Patric Seifert, and Jean-Paul Vernier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1243–1271,Short summary
In this paper we study the cloud top height derived from MIPAS measurements. Previous studies showed contradictory results with respect to MIPAS, both underestimating and overestimating cloud top height. We used simulations and found that overestimation and/or underestimation depend on cloud extinction. To support our findings we compared MIPAS cloud top heights of volcanic sulfate aerosol with measurements from CALIOP, ground-based lidar, and ground-based twilight measurements.
Xiaolu Yan, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Aurélien Podglajen, Jonathon S. Wright, Rolf Müller, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15629–15649,Short summary
The Asian and North American summer monsoons (ASM and NASM) have considerable influence on stratospheric chemistry and physics. More air mass is transported from the monsoon regions to the tropical stratosphere when the tracers are released clearly below the tropopause than when they are released close to the tropopause. Results for different altitudes of air origin reveal two transport pathways (monsoon and tropical) from the upper troposphere over the monsoon regions to the tropical pipe.
Qiuyu Chen, Martin Kaufmann, Yajun Zhu, Jilin Liu, Ralf Koppmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13891–13910,Short summary
Atomic oxygen is one of the most important trace species in the mesopause region. A common technique to derive it from satellite measurements is to measure airglow emissions involved in the photochemistry of oxygen. In this work, hydroxyl nightglow measured by the GOMOS instrument on Envisat is used to derive a 10-year dataset of atomic oxygen in the middle and upper atmosphere. Annual and semiannual oscillations are observed in the data. The new data are consistent with various other datasets.
Marleen Braun, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Wolfgang Woiwode, Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Hermann Oelhaf, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Helmut Ziereis, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13681–13699,Short summary
We analyse nitrification of the LMS in the Arctic winter 2015–2016 based on GLORIA measurements. Vertical cross sections of HNO3 for several flights show complex fine–scale structures and enhanced values down to 9 km. The extent of overall nitrification is quantified based on HNO3–O3 correlations and reaches between 5 ppbv and 7 ppbv at potential temperature levels between 350 and 380 K. Further, we compare our result with the atmospheric model CLaMS.
Daniel Kunkel, Peter Hoor, Thorsten Kaluza, Jörn Ungermann, Björn Kluschat, Andreas Giez, Hans-Christoph Lachnitt, Martin Kaufmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12607–12630,Short summary
In this study we present a mixing process around the tropopause in extratropical baroclinic waves. We analyze airborne data from a flight during the WISE campaign in autumn 2017 over the North Atlantic. We use idealized experiments to study the mixing process. Although the process occurs on a small geographical scale, it might be of importance due to its relation to a frequent feature of the extratropical UTLS. The process is relevant for STE but is not fully included in climatologies.
Dan Chen, Cornelia Strube, Manfred Ern, Peter Preusse, and Martin Riese
Ann. Geophys., 37, 487–506,Short summary
In this paper, for the first time, absolute gravity wave momentum flux (GWMF) on temporal scales from terannual variation up to solar cycle length is investigated. The systematic spectral analysis of SABER absolute GWMF is presented and physically interpreted. The various roles of filtering and oblique propagating are discussed, which is likely an important factor for MLT dynamics, and hence can be used as a stringent test bed of the reproduction of such features in global models.
Sören Johansson, Michelle L. Santee, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Michael Höpfner, Marleen Braun, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Erik Kretschmer, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Ines Tritscher, Jörn Ungermann, Kaley A. Walker, and Wolfgang Woiwode
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8311–8338,Short summary
We present a study based on GLORIA aircraft and MLS/ACE-FTS/CALIOP satellite measurements during the Arctic winter 2015/16, which demonstrate (for the Arctic) unusual chlorine deactivation into HCl instead of ClONO2 due to low ozone abundances in the lowermost stratosphere, with a focus at 380 K potential temperature. The atmospheric models CLaMS and EMAC are evaluated, and measured ClONO2 is linked with transport and in situ deactivation in the lowermost stratosphere.
Paul Konopka, Mengchu Tao, Felix Ploeger, Mohamadou Diallo, and Martin Riese
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2441–2462,Short summary
CLaMS is a Lagrangian transport model suitable for simulating atmospheric transport and chemistry. The novel approach of CLaMS is its description of atmospheric mixing. Whereas the common approach is to minimize the numerical diffusion ever present in the modeling of transport, CLaMS is a first attempt to apply this
undesirable disturbing effectto parametrize the true physical mixing. In this paper, we show how this concept works both in the stratosphere and in the troposphere.
Mengchu Tao, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Xiaolu Yan, Jonathon S. Wright, Mohamadou Diallo, Stephan Fueglistaler, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6509–6534,Short summary
This paper examines the annual and interannual variations as well as long-term trend of modeled stratospheric water vapor with a Lagrangian chemical transport model driven by ERA-I, MERRA-2 and JRA-55. We find reasonable consistency among the annual cycle, QBO and the variabilities induced by ENSO and volcanic aerosols. The main discrepancies are linked to the differences in reanalysis upwelling rates in the lower stratosphere. The trends are sensitive to the reanalyses that drives the model.
Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Gebhard Günther, Reinhold Spang, Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Dan Li, Martin Riese, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6007–6034,Short summary
We identified the transport pathways of air masses from the region of the Asian monsoon (e.g. pollution and greenhouse gases caused by increasing population and growing industries in Asia) into the lower stratosphere. Even small changes of the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere have an impact on surface climate (e.g. surface temperatures). Therefore, it is important to identify transport pathways to the stratosphere to allow potential environmental risks to be assessed.
Felix Ploeger, Bernard Legras, Edward Charlesworth, Xiaolu Yan, Mohamadou Diallo, Paul Konopka, Thomas Birner, Mengchu Tao, Andreas Engel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6085–6105,Short summary
We analyse the change in the circulation of the middle atmosphere based on current generation meteorological reanalysis data sets. We find that long-term changes from 1989 to 2015 are similar for the chosen reanalyses, mainly resembling the forced response in climate model simulations to climate change. For shorter periods circulation changes are less robust, and the representation of decadal variability appears to be a major uncertainty for modelling the circulation of the middle atmosphere.
Corinna Kloss, Marc von Hobe, Michael Höpfner, Kaley A. Walker, Martin Riese, Jörn Ungermann, Birgit Hassler, Stefanie Kremser, and Greg E. Bodeker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2129–2138,Short summary
Are regional and seasonal averages from only a few satellite measurements, all aligned along a specific path, representative? Probably not. We present a method to adjust for the so-called
sampling biasand investigate its influence on derived long-term trends. The method is illustrated and validated for a long-lived trace gas (carbonyl sulfide), and it is shown that the influence of the sampling bias is too small to change scientific conclusions on long-term trends.
Lukas Krasauskas, Jörn Ungermann, Stefan Ensmann, Isabell Krisch, Erik Kretschmer, Peter Preusse, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 853–872,Short summary
Many limb sounder measurements from the same atmospheric region taken at different angles can be combined into a 3-D tomographic image of the atmosphere. Mathematically, this is a complex, computationally expensive, underdetermined problem that needs additional constraints (regularisation). We introduce an improved regularisation method based on physical properties of the atmosphere with a new irregular grid implementation. Simulated data tests show improved results and lower computational cost.
Ines Tritscher, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Reinhold Spang, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, Rolf Müller, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 543–563,Short summary
We present Lagrangian simulations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) for the Arctic winter 2009/2010 and the Antarctic winter 2011 using the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). The paper comprises a detailed model description with ice PSCs and related dehydration being the focus of this study. Comparisons between our simulations and observations from different satellites on season-long and vortex-wide scales as well as for single PSC events show an overall good agreement.
Mohamadou Diallo, Paul Konopka, Michelle L. Santee, Rolf Müller, Mengchu Tao, Kaley A. Walker, Bernard Legras, Martin Riese, Manfred Ern, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 425–446,Short summary
This paper assesses the structural changes in the shallow and transition branches of the BDC induced by El Nino using the Lagrangian model simulations driven by ERAi and JRA-55 combined with MLS observations. We found a clear evidence of a weakening of the transition branch due to an upward shift in the dissipation height of the planetary and gravity waves and a strengthening of the shallow branch due to enhanced GW breaking in the tropics–subtropics and PW breaking at high latitudes.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Jianchun Bian, Gebhard Günther, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Zhixuan Bai, Holger Vömel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17979–17994,Short summary
Balloon-borne measurements performed over Lhasa in August 2013 are investigated using CLaMS trajectory calculations. Here, we focus on high ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Our findings demonstrate that both stratospheric intrusions and convective transport of air pollution play a major role in enhancing middle and upper tropospheric ozone.
Wolfgang Woiwode, Andreas Dörnbrack, Martina Bramberger, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Florian Haenel, Michael Höpfner, Sören Johansson, Erik Kretschmer, Isabell Krisch, Thomas Latzko, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Peter Preusse, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Jörn Ungermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15643–15667,Short summary
GLORIA observations during two crossings of the polar front jet stream resolve the fine mesoscale structure of a tropopause fold in high detail. Tracer–tracer correlations of H2O and O3 are presented as a function of potential temperature and reveal an active mixing region. Our study confirms conceptual models of tropopause folds, validates the high quality of ECMWF IFS forecasts, and suggests that mountain waves are capable of modulating exchange processes in the vicinity of tropopause folds.
Mohamadou Diallo, Martin Riese, Thomas Birner, Paul Konopka, Rolf Müller, Michaela I. Hegglin, Michelle L. Santee, Mark Baldwin, Bernard Legras, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13055–13073,Short summary
The unprecedented timing of an El Niño event aligned with the disrupted QBO in 2015–2016 caused a perturbation to the stratospheric circulation, affecting trace gases. This paper resolves the puzzling response of the lower stratospheric water vapor by showing that the QBO disruption reversed the lower stratosphere moistening triggered by the alignment of the El Niño event with a westerly QBO in early boreal winter.
Sören Johansson, Wolfgang Woiwode, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Anne Kleinert, Erik Kretschmer, Thomas Latzko, Johannes Orphal, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Michelle L. Santee, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Giez, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Andreas Zahn, Andreas Engel, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Hermann Oelhaf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4737–4756,Short summary
We present two-dimensional cross sections of temperature, HNO3, O3, ClONO2, H2O and CFC-12 from measurements of the GLORIA infrared limb imager during the POLSTRACC/GW-LCYCLE/SALSA aircraft campaigns in the Arctic winter 2015/2016. GLORIA sounded the atmosphere between 5 and 14 km with vertical resolutions of 0.4–1 km. Estimated errors are in the range of 1–2 K (temperature) and 10 %–20 % (trace gases). Comparisons to in situ instruments onboard the aircraft and to Aura/MLS are shown.
Isabell Krisch, Jörn Ungermann, Peter Preusse, Erik Kretschmer, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4327–4344,Short summary
Three-dimensional temperature measurements of the atmosphere are required to address current research questions concerning the propagation of gravity waves. Limited angle tomography (LAT) with measurements from an airborne infrared limb imager can provide such 3-D temperature measurements. Wave parameters derived from such LAT measurements achieve an accuracy similar to that derived from full angle tomography, if the orientation of the flight path is optimized with respect to the gravity wave.
Armin Afchine, Christian Rolf, Anja Costa, Nicole Spelten, Martin Riese, Bernhard Buchholz, Volker Ebert, Romy Heller, Stefan Kaufmann, Andreas Minikin, Christiane Voigt, Martin Zöger, Jessica Smith, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Sergey Khaykin, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4015–4031,Short summary
The ice water content (IWC) of cirrus clouds is an essential parameter that determines their radiative properties and is thus important for climate simulations. Experimental investigations of IWCs measured on board research aircraft reveal that their accuracy is influenced by the sampling position. IWCs detected at the aircraft roof deviate significantly from wing, side or bottom IWCs. The reasons are deflections of the gas streamlines and ice particle trajectories behind the aircraft cockpit.
Anne Kleinert, Isabell Krisch, Jörn Ungermann, Albert Adibekyan, Berndt Gutschwager, and Christian Monte
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3871–3882,Short summary
This study investigates the required accuracy of radiometric calibration sources for remote sensing instruments to properly resolve decadal trends of climate relevant trace species like ozone, water vapor and temperature. The required temperature knowledge of the calibration source is in the order of 100 mK. This is demonstrated by a Monte Carlo simulation. The results are confirmed using real measurements acquired by the GLORIA instrument.
Martin Kaufmann, Friedhelm Olschewski, Klaus Mantel, Brian Solheim, Gordon Shepherd, Michael Deiml, Jilin Liu, Rui Song, Qiuyu Chen, Oliver Wroblowski, Daikang Wei, Yajun Zhu, Friedrich Wagner, Florian Loosen, Denis Froehlich, Tom Neubert, Heinz Rongen, Peter Knieling, Panos Toumpas, Jinjun Shan, Geshi Tang, Ralf Koppmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3861–3870,Short summary
The concept and optical layout of a limb sounder using a spatial heterodyne spectrometer is presented. The instrument fits onto a nano-satellite platform, such as a CubeSat. It is designed for the derivation of temperatures in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The design parameters of the optics and a radiometric assessment of the instrument as well as the main characterization and calibration steps are discussed.
Liubov Poshyvailo, Rolf Müller, Paul Konopka, Gebhard Günther, Martin Riese, Aurélien Podglajen, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8505–8527,Short summary
Water vapour (H2O) in the UTLS is a key player for global radiation, which is critical for predictions of future climate change. We investigate the effects of current uncertainties in tropopause temperature, horizontal transport and small-scale mixing on simulated H2O, using the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere. Our sensitivity studies provide new insights into the leading processes controlling stratospheric H2O, important for assessing and improving climate model projections.
Xiaolu Yan, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Mengchu Tao, Rolf Müller, Michelle L. Santee, Jianchun Bian, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8079–8096,Short summary
Many works investigate the impact of ENSO on the troposphere. However, only a few works check the impact of ENSO at higher altitudes. Here, we analyse the impact of ENSO on the vicinity of the tropopause using reanalysis, satellite, in situ and model data. We find that ENSO shows the strongest signal in winter, but its impact can last until early the next summer. The ENSO anomaly is insignificant in late summer. Our study can help to understand the atmosphere propagation after ENSO.
Rui Song, Martin Kaufmann, Manfred Ern, Jörn Ungermann, Guang Liu, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3161–3175,Short summary
In this paper, we propose a new observation strategy, called
sweep mode, for a real three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere by modifying the observation geometry of conventional limb-sounding measurements. It enhances the horizontal resolution that typical limb sounders can achieve while at the same time retaining the good vertical resolution they have.
Lena Schoon and Christoph Zülicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6971–6983,Short summary
Different kinds of waves are the subject of intense research because they are suspected to steer several different atmospheric phenomena. To analyse the effects of waves, wave packet characteristics have to be known. We introduce a new tool to study wave packets locally: Unified Wave Diagnostics (UWaDi). To show the advantages of UWaDi, a sudden stratospheric warming period in 2016 is analysed for different background wind conditions, revealing gravity waves emitted from a jet exit region.
Manfred Ern, Quang Thai Trinh, Peter Preusse, John C. Gille, Martin G. Mlynczak, James M. Russell III, and Martin Riese
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 857–892,Short summary
The gravity wave climatology based on atmospheric infrared limb emissions observed by satellite (GRACILE) is a global data set of gravity wave (GW) distributions in the stratosphere and the mesosphere observed by the infrared limb sounding satellite instruments HIRDLS and SABER. Typical distributions of multiple GW parameters are provided. Possible applications are scientific studies, comparison with other observations, or comparison with resolved or parametrized GW distributions in models.
Vivien Matthias and Manfred Ern
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4803–4815,Short summary
The aim of this study is to find the origin of mesospheric stationary planetary wave (SPW) in the subtropics and in mid and polar latitudes in mid winter 2015/2016. Our results based on observations show that upward propagating SPW and in situ generated SPWs by longitudinally variable gravity wave drag and by instabilities can be responsible for the occurrence of mesospheric SPWs and that they can act at the same time, which confirms earlier model studies.
Quang Thai Trinh, Manfred Ern, Eelco Doornbos, Peter Preusse, and Martin Riese
Ann. Geophys., 36, 425–444,
Christian Rolf, Bärbel Vogel, Peter Hoor, Armin Afchine, Gebhard Günther, Martina Krämer, Rolf Müller, Stefan Müller, Nicole Spelten, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2973–2983,Short summary
The Asian monsoon is a pronounced circulation system linked to rapid vertical transport of surface air from India and east Asia in the summer months. We found, based on aircraft measurements, higher concentration of water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere caused by the Asian monsoon. Enrichment of water vapor concentrations in the lowermost stratosphere impacts the radiation budget and thus climate. Understanding those variations in water vapor is important for climate projections.
Catrin I. Meyer, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Quang Thai Trinh, and M. Joan Alexander
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 215–232,Short summary
We investigate stratospheric gravity wave observations by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). Waves seen by AIRS contribute significantly to momentum flux, which indicates a calculated momentum flux factor. AIRS and HIRDLS agree well in the phase structure of the wave events and also in the seasonal and latitudinal patterns of gravity wave activity and can be used complementary to each other.
Isabell Krisch, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Stephen D. Eckermann, Manfred Ern, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Martin Kaufmann, Hermann Oelhaf, Markus Rapp, Cornelia Strube, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14937–14953,Short summary
Using the infrared limb imager GLORIA, the 3-D structure of mesoscale gravity waves in the lower stratosphere was measured for the first time, allowing for a complete 3-D characterization of the waves. This enables the precise determination of the sources of the waves in the mountain regions of Iceland with backward ray tracing. Forward ray tracing shows oblique propagation, an effect generally neglected in global atmospheric models.
Gerald Wetzel, Hermann Oelhaf, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Andreas Ebersoldt, Thomas Gulde, Sebastian Kazarski, Oliver Kirner, Anne Kleinert, Guido Maucher, Hans Nordmeyer, Johannes Orphal, Roland Ruhnke, and Björn-Martin Sinnhuber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14631–14643,Short summary
We report the first stratospheric measurements of the diurnal variation in the inorganic bromine (Bry) reservoir species BrONO2 around sunrise and sunset. The main goal of these observations was to check the current understanding of stratospheric bromine chemistry and to estimate the amount of lower-stratospheric Bry. The calculated temporal variation in BrONO2 largely reproduces the balloon-borne observations. The amount of Bry was estimated to be about 21–25 pptv in the lower stratosphere.
Rui Song, Martin Kaufmann, Jörn Ungermann, Manfred Ern, Guang Liu, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4601–4612,Short summary
Gravity waves (GWs) play an important role in atmospheric dynamics. In this work, we propose a new observation strategy for GWs in the mesopause region by combining limb and sub-limb satellite-borne remote sensing measurements for improving the spatial resolution of temperatures that are retrieved from atmospheric soundings. It shows that one major advantage of this observation strategy is that much smaller-scale GWs can be observed.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Michelle L. Santee, Lucien Froidevaux, Jörn Ungermann, Roland Ruhnke, Wolfgang Woiwode, Hermann Oelhaf, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12893–12910,Short summary
The 2015/2016 Arctic winter was one of the coldest winters in recent years, allowing extensive PSC formation and chlorine activation. Model simulations of the 2015/2016 Arctic winter were performed with the atmospheric chemistry–climate model ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC). We find that ozone loss was quite strong but not as strong as in 2010/2011; denitrification and dehydration were so far the strongest observed in the Arctic stratosphere in at least the past 10 years.
Gabriele P. Stiller, Federico Fierli, Felix Ploeger, Chiara Cagnazzo, Bernd Funke, Florian J. Haenel, Thomas Reddmann, Martin Riese, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11177–11192,Short summary
The discrepancy between modelled and observed 25-year trends of the strength of the stratospheric Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) is still not resolved. With our paper we trace the observed hemispheric dipole structure of age of air trends back to natural variability in shorter-term (decadal) time frames. Beyond this we demonstrate that after correction for the decadal natural variability the remaining trend for the first decade of the 21st century is consistent with model simulations.
Felix Ploeger, Paul Konopka, Kaley Walker, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7055–7066,Short summary
Pollution transport from the surface to the stratosphere within the Asian summer monsoon circulation may cause harmful effects on stratospheric chemistry and climate. We investigate air mass transport from the monsoon anticyclone into the stratosphere, combining model simulations with satellite trace gas measurements. We show evidence for two transport pathways from the monsoon: (i) into the tropical stratosphere and (ii) into the Northern Hemisphere extratropical lower stratosphere.
Annika Vogel, Jörn Ungermann, and Hendrik Elbern
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
The potential for chemical state analysis at tropopause heights was investigated by combining airborne tomographic observations with a chemical data-assimilation system in form of a case study. Related developments include the use of potential vorticity for ozone initialization and flow-dependent horizontal correlations. This setup demonstrated substantial improvements in terms of spatial extend and alignment of atmospheric structures down to filamentary foldings along airmass boundaries.
Bärbel Vogel, Gebhard Günther, Rolf Müller, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Armin Afchine, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Martina Krämer, Stefan Müller, Martin Riese, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Gabriele P. Stiller, Jörn Ungermann, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15301–15325,Short summary
The identification of transport pathways from the Asian monsoon anticyclone into the lower stratosphere is unclear. Global simulations with the CLaMS model demonstrate that source regions in Asia and in the Pacific Ocean have a significant impact on the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere by flooding the extratropical lower stratosphere with young moist air masses. Two main horizontal transport pathways from the Asian monsoon anticyclone are identified.
Sabine Griessbach, Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Marc von Hobe, Rolf Müller, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4399–4423,Short summary
A new method for detecting aerosol in the UTLS based on infrared limb emission measurements is presented. The method was developed using radiative transfer simulations (including scattering) and Envisat MIPAS measurements. Results are presented for volcanic ash and sulfate aerosol originating from the Grimsvötn (Iceland), Puyehue–Cordon Caulle (Chile), and Nabro (Eritrea) eruptions in 2011 and compared with AIRS volcanic ash and SO2 measurements.
Stefan Müller, Peter Hoor, Heiko Bozem, Ellen Gute, Bärbel Vogel, Andreas Zahn, Harald Bönisch, Timo Keber, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Martin Riese, Hans Schlager, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10573–10589,Short summary
In situ airborne measurements performed during TACTS/ESMVal 2012 were analysed to investigate the chemical compostion of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. N2O, CO and O3 data show an increase in tropospherically affected air masses within the extratropical stratosphere from August to September 2012, which originate from the Asian monsoon region. Thus, the Asian monsoon anticyclone significantly affected the chemical composition of the extratropical stratosphere during summer 2012.
Reinhold Spang, Lars Hoffmann, Michael Höpfner, Sabine Griessbach, Rolf Müller, Michael C. Pitts, Andrew M. W. Orr, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3619–3639,Short summary
We present a new classification approach for different polar stratospheric cloud types. The so-called Bayesian classifier estimates the most likely probability that one of the three PSC types (ice, NAT, or STS) dominates the characteristics of a measured infrared spectrum. The entire measurement period of the satellite instrument MIPAS from July 2002 to April 2013 is processed using the new classifier.
Manfred Ern, Quang Thai Trinh, Martin Kaufmann, Isabell Krisch, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Yajun Zhu, John C. Gille, Martin G. Mlynczak, James M. Russell III, Michael J. Schwartz, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9983–10019,Short summary
Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) influence the atmospheric circulation over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. We investigate the global distribution of small-scale gravity waves (GWs) during SSWs as derived from 13 years of satellite observations. We find that GWs may play an important role for triggering SSWs by preconditioning the polar vortex, as well as during long-lasting vortex recovery phases after SSWs. The GW distribution during SSWs displays strong day-to-day variability.
Jörn Ungermann, Mandfred Ern, Martin Kaufmann, Rolf Müller, Reinhold Spang, Felix Ploeger, Bärbel Vogel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8389–8403,Short summary
This paper presents an analysis of temperature and the trace gases PAN and O3 in the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) region. The positive PAN anomaly consisting of polluted air is confined vertically within the main ASM anticyclone, whereas a recently shed eddy exhibits enhanced PAN VMRs for 1 to 2 km above the thermal tropopause. This implies that eddy shedding provides a very rapid horizontal transport pathway of Asian pollution into the extratropical lowermost stratosphere.
Quang Thai Trinh, Silvio Kalisch, Peter Preusse, Manfred Ern, Hye-Yeong Chun, Stephen D. Eckermann, Min-Jee Kang, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7335–7356,Short summary
Convection is an important source of atmospheric gravity waves (GWs). In this work, scales of convective GWs seen by limb sounders were first defined based on observed spectral information. Interactions of these waves with the background were considered. Long-scale convective GWs addressed by this approach showed significant importance in driving the QBO. Zonal mean of GW momentum flux and its vertical gradients are in good agreement with respective observations provided by limb sounders.
B. Vogel, G. Günther, R. Müller, J.-U. Grooß, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13699–13716,Short summary
The Asian summer monsoon circulation is an important global circulation system associated with strong upward transport of tropospheric source gases. We show that the contribution of different boundary source regions to the Asian monsoon anticyclone strongly depends on its intra-seasonal variability and that emissions from Asia have a significant impact on the chemical compositions of the lowermost stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere at the end of the monsoon season in Sep./Oct. 2012.
F. Ploeger, C. Gottschling, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, G. Guenther, P. Konopka, R. Müller, M. Riese, F. Stroh, M. Tao, J. Ungermann, B. Vogel, and M. von Hobe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13145–13159,Short summary
The Asian summer monsoon provides an important pathway of tropospheric source gases and pollution into the lower stratosphere. This transport is characterized by deep convection and steady upwelling, combined with confinement inside a large-scale anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In this paper, we show that a barrier to horizontal transport in the monsoon can be determined from a local maximum in the gradient of potential vorticity.
A. Butz, J. Orphal, R. Checa-Garcia, F. Friedl-Vallon, T. von Clarmann, H. Bovensmann, O. Hasekamp, J. Landgraf, T. Knigge, D. Weise, O. Sqalli-Houssini, and D. Kemper
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4719–4734,Short summary
The Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E) is a mission concept for a greenhouse gas sounder in geostationary orbit. It is designed to provide column-average concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide with high spatial and 2-hour temporal resolution throughout the central European continent. The prospective data density, precision and accuracy suggest G3E as a key component of a future carbon emission monitoring system.
C. Rolf, A. Afchine, H. Bozem, B. Buchholz, V. Ebert, T. Guggenmoser, P. Hoor, P. Konopka, E. Kretschmer, S. Müller, H. Schlager, N. Spelten, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, J. Ungermann, A. Zahn, and M. Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9143–9158,
M. Tao, P. Konopka, F. Ploeger, J.-U. Grooß, R. Müller, C. M. Volk, K. A. Walker, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8695–8715,Short summary
A remarkable major stratospheric sudden warming during the boreal winter 2008/09 is studied with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). We investigate how mixing triggered by this event correlates the wave forcing and how transport and mixing affect the composition of the whole stratosphere in the Northern Hemisphere, by using the tracer-tracer correlation technique.
T. Guggenmoser, J. Blank, A. Kleinert, T. Latzko, J. Ungermann, F. Friedl-Vallon, M. Höpfner, M. Kaufmann, E. Kretschmer, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, H. Oelhaf, P. Preusse, M. Riese, H. Rongen, M. K. Sha, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, and V. Tan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3147–3161,Short summary
The plane-carried Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) measures the thermal radiation emitted by gases and particles in the atmosphere, in a height range of about 5-20 km. In between these measurements, GLORIA is pointed at known radiation sources for calibration. Noise in these calibration measurements can lead to artefacts in the final products. In this paper, we present new techniques which exploit GLORIA's imaging capabilities to reduce these noise effects.
G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, M. Birk, A. de Lange, A. Engel, F. Friedl-Vallon, O. Kirner, A. Kleinert, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, J. Orphal, R. Ruhnke, B.-M. Sinnhuber, and P. Vogt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8065–8076,
E. Kretschmer, M. Bachner, J. Blank, R. Dapp, A. Ebersoldt, F. Friedl-Vallon, T. Guggenmoser, T. Gulde, V. Hartmann, R. Lutz, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, H. Oelhaf, P. Preusse, G. Schardt, C. Schmitt, A. Schönfeld, and V. Tan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2543–2553,
W. Woiwode, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, H. Oelhaf, M. Höpfner, G. V. Belyaev, A. Ebersoldt, F. Friedl-Vallon, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, M. Kaufmann, A. Kleinert, M. Krämer, E. Kretschmer, T. Kulessa, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, C. Piesch, P. Preusse, M. Riese, H. Rongen, C. Sartorius, G. Schardt, A. Schönfeld, D. Schuettemeyer, M. K. Sha, F. Stroh, J. Ungermann, C. M. Volk, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2509–2520,
J. Ungermann, J. Blank, M. Dick, A. Ebersoldt, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Giez, T. Guggenmoser, M. Höpfner, T. Jurkat, M. Kaufmann, S. Kaufmann, A. Kleinert, M. Krämer, T. Latzko, H. Oelhaf, F. Olchewski, P. Preusse, C. Rolf, J. Schillings, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, V. Tan, N. Thomas, C. Voigt, A. Zahn, M. Zöger, and M. Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2473–2489,Short summary
The GLORIA sounder is an airborne infrared limb-imager combining a two-dimensional infrared detector with a Fourier transform spectrometer. It was operated aboard the new German Gulfstream G550 research aircraft HALO during the TACTS and ESMVAL campaigns in summer 2012. This paper describes the retrieval of temperature, as well as H2O, HNO3, and O3 cross sections from GLORIA dynamics mode spectra. A high correlation is achieved between the remote sensing and the in situ trace gas measurements.
M. Ern, P. Preusse, and M. Riese
Ann. Geophys., 33, 483–504,Short summary
The forcings of the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the tropical zonal wind in the stratopause region are investigated based on ERA-Interim reanalysis and HIRDLS satellite observations. In particular, the SAO driving by mesoscale gravity waves is estimated directly from satellite observations of gravity waves. Our study confirms previous indirect evidence that planetary waves dominate during the westward driving of the SAO, while gravity waves mainly provide eastward forcing.
C. Piesch, C. Sartorius, F. Friedl-Vallon, T. Gulde, S. Heger, E. Kretschmer, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, J. Barthel, A. Ebersoldt, F. Graf, F. Hase, A. Kleinert, T. Neubert, and H. J. Schillings
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1773–1787,Short summary
The paper shows the design and the technics of the GLORIA spectrometer, the dedicated cooling system, and the performance during operation on HALO aircraft.
Q. T. Trinh, S. Kalisch, P. Preusse, H.-Y. Chun, S. D. Eckermann, M. Ern, and M. Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1491–1517,
R. Spang, G. Günther, M. Riese, L. Hoffmann, R. Müller, and S. Griessbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 927–950,Short summary
Here we present observations of the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) of cirrus cloud and water vapour in August 1997 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. The observations indicate a considerable flux of moisture from the upper tropical troposphere into the extra-tropical lowermost stratosphere (LMS), resulting in the occurrence of high-altitude optically thin cirrus clouds in the LMS.
M. Kaufmann, J. Blank, T. Guggenmoser, J. Ungermann, A. Engel, M. Ern, F. Friedl-Vallon, D. Gerber, J. U. Grooß, G. Guenther, M. Höpfner, A. Kleinert, E. Kretschmer, Th. Latzko, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, H. Nordmeyer, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, J. Orphal, P. Preusse, H. Schlager, H. Schneider, D. Schuettemeyer, F. Stroh, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, B. Vogel, C. M. Volk, W. Woiwode, and M. Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 81–95,
R. Pommrich, R. Müller, J.-U. Grooß, P. Konopka, F. Ploeger, B. Vogel, M. Tao, C. M. Hoppe, G. Günther, N. Spelten, L. Hoffmann, H.-C. Pumphrey, S. Viciani, F. D'Amato, C. M. Volk, P. Hoor, H. Schlager, and M. Riese
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2895–2916,Short summary
A version of the chemical transport model CLaMS is presented, which features a simplified (numerically inexpensive) chemistry scheme. The model results using this version of CLaMS show a good representation of anomaly fields of CO, CH4, N2O, and CFC-11 in the lower stratosphere. CO measurements of three instruments (COLD, HAGAR, and Falcon-CO) in the lower tropical stratosphere (during the campaign TROCCINOX in 2005) have been compared and show a good agreement within the error bars.
A. Kleinert, F. Friedl-Vallon, T. Guggenmoser, M. Höpfner, T. Neubert, R. Ribalda, M. K. Sha, J. Ungermann, J. Blank, A. Ebersoldt, E. Kretschmer, T. Latzko, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, and P. Preusse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4167–4184,
B. Vogel, G. Günther, R. Müller, J.-U. Grooß, P. Hoor, M. Krämer, S. Müller, A. Zahn, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12745–12762,Short summary
Enhanced tropospheric trace gases (e.g. pollutants) were measured in situ in the lowermost stratosphere over Northern Europe on 26 September 2012 during the TACTS aircraft campaign. We found that the combination of rapid uplift by a typhoon and eastward eddy shedding from the Asian monsoon anticyclone is a novel fast transport pathway that may carry boundary emissions from Southeast Asia/western Pacific within approximately 5 weeks to the lowermost stratosphere in Northern Europe.
J. Y. Jia, P. Preusse, M. Ern, H.-Y. Chun, J. C. Gille, S. D. Eckermann, and M. Riese
Ann. Geophys., 32, 1373–1394,
F. Friedl-Vallon, T. Gulde, F. Hase, A. Kleinert, T. Kulessa, G. Maucher, T. Neubert, F. Olschewski, C. Piesch, P. Preusse, H. Rongen, C. Sartorius, H. Schneider, A. Schönfeld, V. Tan, N. Bayer, J. Blank, R. Dapp, A. Ebersoldt, H. Fischer, F. Graf, T. Guggenmoser, M. Höpfner, M. Kaufmann, E. Kretschmer, T. Latzko, H. Nordmeyer, H. Oelhaf, J. Orphal, M. Riese, G. Schardt, J. Schillings, M. K. Sha, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, and J. Ungermann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3565–3577,
P. Preusse, M. Ern, P. Bechtold, S. D. Eckermann, S. Kalisch, Q. T. Trinh, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10483–10508,
M. Riese, H. Oelhaf, P. Preusse, J. Blank, M. Ern, F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. Guggenmoser, M. Höpfner, P. Hoor, M. Kaufmann, J. Orphal, F. Plöger, R. Spang, O. Suminska-Ebersoldt, J. Ungermann, B. Vogel, and W. Woiwode
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1915–1928,
S. Griessbach, L. Hoffmann, R. Spang, and M. Riese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1487–1507,
F. Olschewski, A. Ebersoldt, F. Friedl-Vallon, B. Gutschwager, J. Hollandt, A. Kleinert, C. Monte, C. Piesch, P. Preusse, C. Rolf, P. Steffens, and R. Koppmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3067–3082,
C. Kalicinsky, J.-U. Grooß, G. Günther, J. Ungermann, J. Blank, S. Höfer, L. Hoffmann, P. Knieling, F. Olschewski, R. Spang, F. Stroh, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10859–10871,
J. Ungermann, L. L. Pan, C. Kalicinsky, F. Olschewski, P. Knieling, J. Blank, K. Weigel, T. Guggenmoser, F. Stroh, L. Hoffmann, and M. Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10517–10534,
M. von Hobe, S. Bekki, S. Borrmann, F. Cairo, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ebersoldt, M. Ebert, C. Emde, I. Engel, M. Ern, W. Frey, S. Genco, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, G. Günther, E. Hösen, L. Hoffmann, V. Homonnai, C. R. Hoyle, I. S. A. Isaksen, D. R. Jackson, I. M. Jánosi, R. L. Jones, K. Kandler, C. Kalicinsky, A. Keil, S. M. Khaykin, F. Khosrawi, R. Kivi, J. Kuttippurath, J. C. Laube, F. Lefèvre, R. Lehmann, S. Ludmann, B. P. Luo, M. Marchand, J. Meyer, V. Mitev, S. Molleker, R. Müller, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, Y. Orsolini, T. Peter, K. Pfeilsticker, C. Piesch, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, F. D. Pope, F. Ravegnani, M. Rex, M. Riese, T. Röckmann, B. Rognerud, A. Roiger, C. Rolf, M. L. Santee, M. Scheibe, C. Schiller, H. Schlager, M. Siciliani de Cumis, N. Sitnikov, O. A. Søvde, R. Spang, N. Spelten, F. Stordal, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, A. Ulanovski, J. Ungermann, S. Viciani, C. M. Volk, M. vom Scheidt, P. von der Gathen, K. Walker, T. Wegner, R. Weigel, S. Weinbruch, G. Wetzel, F. G. Wienhold, I. Wohltmann, W. Woiwode, I. A. K. Young, V. Yushkov, B. Zobrist, and F. Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9233–9268,
K. Minschwaner, L. Hoffmann, A. Brown, M. Riese, R. Müller, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4253–4263,
F. Khosrawi, R. Müller, J. Urban, M. H. Proffitt, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, S. Lossow, D. Kinnison, F. Olschewski, M. Riese, and D. Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3619–3641,
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 15–32,
Related subject area
Subject: Dynamics | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Momentum fluxes from airborne wind measurements in three cumulus cases over landExploring the elevated water vapor signal associated with the free tropospheric biomass burning plume over the southeast Atlantic OceanOpinion: Gigacity – a source of problems or the new way to sustainable developmentThe thermodynamic structures of the planetary boundary layer dominated by synoptic circulations and the regular effect on air pollution in BeijingTurbulent and boundary layer characteristics during VOCALS-RExA foehn-induced haze front in Beijing: observations and implicationsAirborne measurements and large-eddy simulations of small-scale gravity waves at the tropopause inversion layer over ScandinaviaObservational analysis of the daily cycle of the planetary boundary layer in the central Amazon during a non-El Niño year and El Niño year (GoAmazon project 2014/5)Planetary boundary layer evolution over the Amazon rainforest in episodes of deep moist convection at the Amazon Tall Tower ObservatoryDominant patterns of summer ozone pollution in eastern China and associated atmospheric circulationsWhat controls the formation of nocturnal low-level stratus clouds over southern West Africa during the monsoon season?Recent trends in climate variability at the local scale using 40 years of observations: the case of the Paris region of FranceNocturnal boundary layer turbulence regimes analysis during the BLLAST campaignLow-level stratiform clouds and dynamical features observed within the southern West African monsoonResidual layer ozone, mixing, and the nocturnal jet in California's San Joaquin ValleyFrom weak to intense downslope winds: origin, interaction with boundary-layer turbulence and impact on CO2 variabilityOn the fine vertical structure of the low troposphere over the coastal margins of East AntarcticaSpatial and temporal variability of turbulence dissipation rate in complex terrainCharacterizing wind gusts in complex terrainLong-term trends of instability and associated parameters over the Indian region obtained using a radiosonde networkImplication of tropical lower stratospheric cooling in recent trends in tropical circulation and deep convective activityThe observed diurnal cycle of low-level stratus clouds over southern West Africa: a case studyNocturnal low-level clouds in the atmospheric boundary layer over southern West Africa: an observation-based analysis of conditions and processesCharacteristics and evolution of diurnal foehn events in the Dead Sea valleyHigh tropospheric ozone in Lhasa within the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone in 2013: influence of convective transport and stratospheric intrusionsAnthropogenic and natural drivers of a strong winter urban heat island in a typical Arctic cityA comparison of plume rise algorithms to stack plume measurements in the Athabasca oil sandsUpscaling surface energy fluxes over the North Slope of Alaska using airborne eddy-covariance measurements and environmental response functionsClimatological study of the Boundary-layer air Stagnation Index for China and its relationship with air pollutionSelf-organized classification of boundary layer meteorology and associated characteristics of air quality in BeijingThe strengthening relationship between Eurasian snow cover and December haze days in central North China after the mid-1990sObservational analyses of dramatic developments of a severe air pollution event in the Beijing areaThe meteorology and chemistry of high nitrogen oxide concentrations in the stable boundary layer at the South PoleMountain waves modulate the water vapor distribution in the UTLSRetrieving characteristics of inertia gravity wave parameters with least uncertainties using the hodograph methodIn situ temperature measurements in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere from 2 decades of IAGOS long-term routine observationA meteorological and chemical overview of the DACCIWA field campaign in West Africa in June–July 2016Investigation of the mixing layer height derived from ceilometer measurements in the Kathmandu Valley and implications for local air qualityAir stagnation in China (1985–2014): climatological mean features and trendsModes of vertical thermodynamic and wind variability over the Maritime ContinentDiurnal variability of the atmospheric boundary layer height over a tropical station in the Indian monsoon regionThe open-ocean sensible heat flux and its significance for Arctic boundary layer mixing during early fallControlled meteorological (CMET) free balloon profiling of the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer around Spitsbergen compared to ERA-Interim and Arctic System ReanalysesBoundary layer evolution over the central Himalayas from radio wind profiler and model simulationsEstimation of the advection effects induced by surface heterogeneities in the surface energy budgetTurbulence kinetic energy budget during the afternoon transition – Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period daysHow stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions? LUAMI 2008Why did the storm ex-Gaston (2010) fail to redevelop during the PREDICT experiment?A study of local turbulence and anisotropy during the afternoon and evening transition with an unmanned aerial system and mesoscale simulationVertical wind retrieved by airborne lidar and analysis of island induced gravity waves in combination with numerical models and in situ particle measurements
Ada Mariska Koning, Louise Nuijens, and Christian Mallaun
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Wind measurements from mixed layer to cloud top are scarce, causing a lack of knowledge on wind mixing between and within these layers. We use airborne observations of wind profiles and local wind at high frequency to study wind transport in cloud fields. A case with thick clouds had its maximum transport in the cloud layer, which was not expected from turbulence theory. This was caused by eddies > 700 m. In other cases large eddies undid transport of smaller eddies resulting in no net transport.
Kristina Pistone, Paquita Zuidema, Robert Wood, Michael Diamond, Arlindo M. da Silva, Gonzalo Ferrada, Pablo E. Saide, Rei Ueyama, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Leonhard Pfister, James Podolske, David Noone, Ryan Bennett, Eric Stith, Gregory Carmichael, Jens Redemann, Connor Flynn, Samuel LeBlanc, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, and Yohei Shinozuka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9643–9668,Short summary
Using aircraft-based measurements off the Atlantic coast of Africa, we found the springtime smoke plume was strongly correlated with the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (more smoke indicated more humidity). We see the same general feature in satellite-assimilated and free-running models. Our analysis suggests this relationship is not caused by the burning but originates due to coincident continental meteorology plus fires. This air is transported over the ocean without further mixing.
Markku Kulmala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Juha Pekkanen, Sami Paatero, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8313–8322,Short summary
The eastern part of China as a whole is practically a gigacity with 650 million inhabitants. The gigacity, with its emissions, processes in the pollution cocktail and numerous feedbacks and interactions, has a crucial and big impact on regional air quality and on global climate. A large-scale research and innovation program is needed to meet the interlinked grand challenges in this gigacity and to serve as a platform for finding pathways for sustainable development of the globe.
Yunyan Jiang, Jinyuan Xin, Ying Wang, Guiqian Tang, Yuxin Zhao, Danjie Jia, Dandan Zhao, Meng Wang, Lindong Dai, Lili Wang, Tianxue Wen, and Fangkun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6111–6128,Short summary
Multiscale-circulation coupling affects pollution by changing the planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure. The multilayer PBL under cyclonic circulation has no diurnal variation; the temperature inversion and zero-speed zone can reach 600–900 m with strong mountain winds. The monolayer PBL under southwestern circulation can reach 2000 m; the inversion is lower than nocturnal PBL (400 m) with strong ambient winds. The zonal winds' vertical shear produces the inversion under western circulation.
Dillon S. Dodson and Jennifer D. Small Griswold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1937–1961,Short summary
The results here reinforce findings from previous in situ studies of the marine boundary layer. It is found that turbulence is maximized in the middle of the stratocumulus layer from latent heating effects. Precipitation acts to increase turbulence in the sub-cloud layer, while acting to stabilize the entire boundary layer after the evaporation of precipitation in the sub-cloud has stopped. A negative correlation is present between the boundary layer height and turbulence.
Ju Li, Zhaobin Sun, Donald H. Lenschow, Mingyu Zhou, Youjun Dou, Zhigang Cheng, Yaoting Wang, and Qingchun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15793–15809,Short summary
We analyzed a haze front event involving warm–dry downslope flow in December 2015 in Beijing, China. The haze front was formed by the collision between a clean warm–dry air mass flowing from a nearby mountainous region and a polluted cold–wet air mass over an urban area. We found that the polluted air advanced toward the clean air, resulting in a severe air pollution event. Our study highlights the need to further investigate the warm–dry downslope and its impacts on air pollution.
Sonja Gisinger, Johannes Wagner, and Benjamin Witschas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10091–10109,Short summary
Gravity waves are an important coupling mechanism in the atmosphere. Measurements by two research aircraft during a mountain wave event over Scandinavia in 2016 revealed changes of the horizontal scales in the vertical velocity field and of momentum fluxes in the vicinity of the tropopause inversion. Idealized simulations revealed the presence of interfacial waves. They are found downstream of the mountain peaks, meaning that they horizontally transport momentum/energy away from their source.
Rayonil G. Carneiro and Gilberto Fisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5547–5558,Short summary
The objective of this study was to conduct observational evaluations of the daily cycle of the height of the planetary boundary layer from data that were measured and/or estimated using instruments such as a radiosonde, sodar, ceilometer, wind profiler, lidar and microwave radiometer installed in the central Amazon during 2014 (considered a typical year) and 2015 during which an intense El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event predominated during the GoAmazon experiment.
Maurício I. Oliveira, Otávio C. Acevedo, Matthias Sörgel, Ernani L. Nascimento, Antonio O. Manzi, Pablo E. S. Oliveira, Daiane V. Brondani, Anywhere Tsokankunku, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15–27,Short summary
In this study, data collected during four deep convection events at the 80 m tower from the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory are analyzed. It provides a unique view on how such events affect the local boundary layer and how it recovers after their passage. Quantities analyzed include mean wind speed, virtual potential temperature, turbulent kinetic energy, sensible, and latent heat fluxes. A conceptual model for boundary layer structure along the passage of deep convection events is proposed.
Zhicong Yin, Bufan Cao, and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13933–13943,Short summary
Ozone occurs both in the stratosphere and at ground level. Surface ozone is a man-made air pollutant and has harmful effects on people and the environment. Two dominant patterns of summer ozone pollution were determined. The most dominant pattern in 2017 and 2018 was different from that in previous years. The findings of this study help us to understand the features of surface ozone pollution in eastern China and their relationships with large-scale atmospheric circulations.
Karmen Babić, Norbert Kalthoff, Bianca Adler, Julian F. Quinting, Fabienne Lohou, Cheikh Dione, and Marie Lothon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13489–13506,Short summary
This study investigates differences in atmospheric conditions between nights with and without low-level stratus clouds (LLCs) over southern West Africa. We use high-quality observations collected during 2016 summer monsoon season and the ERA5 reanalysis data set. Our results show that the formation of LLCs depends on the interplay between the onset time and strength of the nocturnal low-level jet, horizontal cold-air advection, and the overall moisture level in the whole region.
Justine Ringard, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Sophie Bastin, and Florence Habets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13129–13155,Short summary
This study characterizes the changes observed at Paris urban scale and attempts to identify the surface–atmosphere feedbacks likely to explain the trends observed as a function of the different configurations of large-scale dynamics. This article is interested in several atmospheric parameters and their possible retroactions. Finally, to study urban environments, the analysis at the local scale is essential because it is very poorly represented in the model.
Jesús Yus-Díez, Mireia Udina, Maria Rosa Soler, Marie Lothon, Erik Nilsson, Joan Bech, and Jielun Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9495–9514,Short summary
This study helps improve the understanding of the turbulence description and the interactions occurring in the lower part of the boundary layer. It is carried out at an orographically influenced site close to the Pyrenees to explore the hockey-stick transition (HOST) theory. HOST is seen to be strongly dependent on both the meteorological conditions and the orographic features. Examples of intermittent turbulence events that lead to transitions between the turbulence regimes are also identified.
Cheikh Dione, Fabienne Lohou, Marie Lothon, Bianca Adler, Karmen Babić, Norbert Kalthoff, Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Yannick Bezombes, and Omar Gabella
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8979–8997,Short summary
Low atmospheric dynamics and low-level cloud (LLC) macrophysical properties are analyzed using in situ and remote sensing data collected from 20 June to 30 July at Savè, Benin, during the DACCIWA field campaign in 2016. We find that the low-level jet (LLJ), LLCs, monsoon flow, and maritime inflow reveal a day-to-day variability. LLCs form at the same level as the jet core height. The cloud base height is stationary at night and remains below the jet. The cloud top height is found above the jet.
Dani J. Caputi, Ian Faloona, Justin Trousdell, Jeanelle Smoot, Nicholas Falk, and Stephen Conley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4721–4740,Short summary
This paper covers the importance of understanding ozone pollution in California’s southern San Joaquin Valley from the perspective of meteorological conditions that occur overnight. Our main finding is that stronger winds aloft allow ozone to be depleted overnight, leading to less ozone the following day. This finding has the potential to greatly improve ozone forecasts in the San Joaquin Valley. This study is primarily conducted with aircraft observations.
Jon Ander Arrillaga, Carlos Yagüe, Carlos Román-Cascón, Mariano Sastre, Maria Antonia Jiménez, Gregorio Maqueda, and Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4615–4635,Short summary
Thermally driven downslope winds develop in mountainous areas under a weak large-scale forcing and clear skies. In this work, we find that their onset time and intensity are closely connected with both the large-scale wind and soil moisture. We also show how the distinct downslope intensities shape the turbulent and thermal features of the nocturnal atmosphere. The analysis concludes that the downslope–turbulence interaction and the horizontal transport explain the important CO2 variability.
Étienne Vignon, Olivier Traullé, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4659–4683,Short summary
The future sea-level rise will depend on how much the Antarctic ice sheet gain – via precipitation – or loose mass. The simulation of precipitation by numerical models used for projections depends on the representation of the atmospheric circulation over and around Antarctica. Using daily measurements from balloon soundings at nine Antarctic stations, this study characterizes the structure of the atmosphere over the Antarctic coast and its representation in atmospheric simulations.
Nicola Bodini, Julie K. Lundquist, Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Mikhail Pekour, Larry K. Berg, and Aditya Choukulkar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4367–4382,Short summary
To improve the parameterization of the turbulence dissipation rate (ε) in numerical weather prediction models, we have assessed its temporal and spatial variability at various scales in the Columbia River Gorge during the WFIP2 field experiment. The turbulence dissipation rate shows large spatial variability, even at the microscale, with larger values in sites located downwind of complex orographic structures or in wind farm wakes. Distinct diurnal and seasonal cycles in ε have also been found.
Frederick Letson, Rebecca J. Barthelmie, Weifei Hu, and Sara C. Pryor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3797–3819,Short summary
Wind gusts are a key driver of aerodynamic loading, and common approximations used to describe wind gust behavior may not be appropriate in complex terrain at heights relevant to wind turbines and other structures. High-resolution observations from sonic anemometers and vertically pointing Doppler lidars collected in the Perdigão experiment are analyzed to provide a foundation for improved wind gust characterization in complex terrain.
Rohit Chakraborty, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, and Shaik Ghouse Basha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3687–3705,Short summary
Intense convective phenomena are a common climatic feature in the Indian tropical region which occur during the pre-monsoon to post-monsoon seasons (April–October) and are generally accompanied by intense thunderstorms, lightning, and wind gusts with heavy rainfall. Here we show long-term trends of the parameters related to convection and instability obtained from 27 radiosonde stations across six subdivisions over the Indian region during the period 1980–2016.
Kunihiko Kodera, Nawo Eguchi, Rei Ueyama, Yuhji Kuroda, Chiaki Kobayashi, Beatriz M. Funatsu, and Chantal Claud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2655–2669,Short summary
The recent cooling of the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean occurred in conjunction with enhanced cross-equatorial southerlies associated with a strengthening of the boreal summer Hadley circulation. A combination of land surface warming and reduced static stability in the tropical tropopause layer due to stratospheric cooling is suggested to have caused the increase in the deep ascending branch of the Hadley circulation and related recent decadal change in the tropical troposphere and ocean.
Karmen Babić, Bianca Adler, Norbert Kalthoff, Hendrik Andersen, Cheikh Dione, Fabienne Lohou, Marie Lothon, and Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1281–1299,Short summary
The first detailed observational analysis of the complete diurnal cycle of low-level clouds (LLC) and associated atmospheric processes over southern West Africa is performed using the data gathered within the DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud-Interactions in West Africa) ground-based campaign. We find cooling related to the horizontal advection, which occurs in connection with the inflow of cool maritime air mass and a prominent low-level jet, to have the dominant role in LLC formation.
Bianca Adler, Karmen Babić, Norbert Kalthoff, Fabienne Lohou, Marie Lothon, Cheikh Dione, Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, and Hendrik Andersen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 663–681,Short summary
This study deals with nocturnal stratiform low-level clouds that frequently form in the atmospheric boundary layer over southern West Africa. We use observational data from 11 nights to characterize the clouds and intranight variability of boundary layer conditions as well as to assess the physical processes relevant for cloud formation. We find that cooling is crucial to reach saturation and a large part of the cooling is related to horizontal advection of cool air from the Gulf of Guinea.
Jutta Vüllers, Georg J. Mayr, Ulrich Corsmeier, and Christoph Kottmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18169–18186,Short summary
This paper investigates frequently occurring foehn at the Dead Sea, which strongly impacts the local climatic conditions, in particular temperature and humidity, as well as evaporation from the Dead Sea, the aerosol load, and visibility. A statistical classification exposes two types of foehn and first-time, high-resolution measurements reveal trigger mechanisms and relevant characteristics, such as wind velocities, affected air layers, and resulting phenomena such as hydraulic jumps and rotors.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Jianchun Bian, Gebhard Günther, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Zhixuan Bai, Holger Vömel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17979–17994,Short summary
Balloon-borne measurements performed over Lhasa in August 2013 are investigated using CLaMS trajectory calculations. Here, we focus on high ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Our findings demonstrate that both stratospheric intrusions and convective transport of air pollution play a major role in enhancing middle and upper tropospheric ozone.
Mikhail Varentsov, Pavel Konstantinov, Alexander Baklanov, Igor Esau, Victoria Miles, and Richard Davy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17573–17587,Short summary
This study reports on the urban heat island (UHI) in a typical Arctic city in winter. Using in situ observations, remote sensing data and modeling, we show that the urban temperature anomaly reaches up to 11 K with a mean value of 1.9 K. At least 50 % of this anomaly is caused by the UHI effect, driven mostly by heating. The rest is created by natural microclimatic variability over the hilly terrain. This is a strong argument in support of energy efficiency measures in the Arctic cities.
Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ralf M. Staebler, Junhua Zhang, Ayodeji Akingunola, Wanmin Gong, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14695–14714,Short summary
This work uses aircraft-based measurements of smokestack plumes carried out in northern Alberta in 2013. These measurements are used to test equations used to predict how high in the air smokestack plumes rise. It is important to predict plume rise height accurately as it tells us how far downwind pollutants are carried and what air quality can be expected at the surface. We found that the equations that are typically used significantly underestimate the plume rise at this location.
Andrei Serafimovich, Stefan Metzger, Jörg Hartmann, Katrin Kohnert, Donatella Zona, and Torsten Sachs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10007–10023,Short summary
In order to support the evaluation of coupled atmospheric–land-surface models we investigated spatial patterns of energy fluxes in relation to land-surface properties and upscaled airborne flux measurements to high resolution flux maps. A machine learning technique allows us to estimate environmental response functions between spatially and temporally resolved flux observations and corresponding biophysical and meteorological drivers.
Qianqian Huang, Xuhui Cai, Jian Wang, Yu Song, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7573–7593,Short summary
Air stagnation index is a vital meteorological measure of the atmosphere's ability to dilute air pollutants. We propose a Boundary-layer air Stagnation Index (BSI) based on daily maximal ventilation, real latent instability and precipitation. The BSI is positively correlated with API during 2000–2012, tracks the day-by-day variation of PM2.5 concentration during January 2013 in Beijing well, and successfully represents the improved air quality during November and December in 2017.
Zhiheng Liao, Jiaren Sun, Jialin Yao, Li Liu, Haowen Li, Jian Liu, Jielan Xie, Dui Wu, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6771–6783,Short summary
This paper investigates the modulation effect of ABL meteorology on Beijing’s surface air quality based on self-organizing maps. The self-organized ABL types correspond to significantly distinct pollutant loadings and diurnal evolution, particularly in winter. Anomalous stable ABL conditions are estimated to contribute 58.3 %, 46.4 % and 73.3 % of the elevated PM2.5 concentrations in January 2013, December 2015 and December 2016.
Zhicong Yin and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4753–4763,Short summary
In China, the haze pollution in December has become increasingly serious over recent decades. The relationship between the snow cover and the December haze days was analyzed. This relationship significantly strengthened after the mid-1990s, which is attributed to the effective connections between the snow cover and the Eurasian atmospheric circulations.
Ju Li, Jielun Sun, Mingyu Zhou, Zhigang Cheng, Qingchun Li, Xiaoyan Cao, and Jingjiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3919–3935,Short summary
A rapid increase in the PM2.5 concentration in Beijing, China, on 30 November 2015 was found to be transported from south of Beijing by both turbulent mixing and advection processes. The nighttime relatively clean air was from the downslope flow northwest of Beijing; the rapid increase in the PM2.5 concentration in the morning resulted from the downward convective turbulent transfer of the polluted air that was rapidly advected over the nighttime stable boundary layer.
William Neff, Jim Crawford, Marty Buhr, John Nicovich, Gao Chen, and Douglas Davis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3755–3778,Short summary
Our study examined the effect of the seasonal cycle in meteorology from November through December and the role of stratospheric ozone depletion in the photochemical production of nitrogen oxide (NO) from nitrate in the snow at the South Pole. We found that ozone depletion which now extends into late November–early December coincides with optimum meteorological conditions (clear skies, a stable shallow boundary layer, and light winds) for high concentrations of NO to accumulate at the surface.
Romy Heller, Christiane Voigt, Stuart Beaton, Andreas Dörnbrack, Andreas Giez, Stefan Kaufmann, Christian Mallaun, Hans Schlager, Johannes Wagner, Kate Young, and Markus Rapp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14853–14869,
Gopa Dutta, Palla Vinay Kumar, and Salauddin Mohammad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14811–14819,Short summary
Gravity wave stress is crucial for weather prediction purposes. It is found that proper filtering of the data is essential to reduce uncertainties in the popular hodograph method to delineate low-frequency gravity wave parameters. Our research helped in improving the estimates of gravity wave stress by reducing errors.
Florian Berkes, Patrick Neis, Martin G. Schultz, Ulrich Bundke, Susanne Rohs, Herman G. J. Smit, Andreas Wahner, Paul Konopka, Damien Boulanger, Philippe Nédélec, Valerie Thouret, and Andreas Petzold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12495–12508,Short summary
This study highlights the importance of independent global measurements with high and long-term accuracy to quantify long-term changes, especially in the UTLS region, and to help identify inconsistencies between different data sets of observations and models. Here we investigated temperature trends over different regions within a climate-sensitive area of the atmosphere and demonstrated the value of the IAGOS temperature observations as an anchor point for the evaluation of reanalyses.
Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Adrien Deroubaix, Eleanor Morris, Flore Tocquer, Mat J. Evans, Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Christophe Lavaysse, Celine Mari, John H. Marsham, Rémi Meynadier, Abalo Affo-Dogo, Titike Bahaga, Fabien Brosse, Konrad Deetz, Ridha Guebsi, Issaou Latifou, Marlon Maranan, Philip D. Rosenberg, and Andreas Schlueter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10893–10918,Short summary
In June–July 2016 DACCIWA (Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa), a large, EU-funded European–African project, organised an international field campaign in densely populated southern West Africa, including measurements from ground sites, research aircraft, weather balloons and urban sites. This paper gives an overview of the atmospheric evolution during this period focusing on meteorological (precipitation, cloudiness, winds) and composition (gases, particles) aspects.
Andrea Mues, Maheswar Rupakheti, Christoph Münkel, Axel Lauer, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Tim Butler, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8157–8176,Short summary
Ceilometer measurements taken in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, were used to study the temporal and spatial evolution of the mixing layer height in the valley. This provides important information on the vertical structure of the atmosphere and can thus also help to understand the mixing of air pollutants (e.g. black carbon) in the valley. The seasonal and diurnal cycles of the mixing layer were found to be highly dependent on meteorology and mainly anticorrelated to black carbon concentrations.
Qianqian Huang, Xuhui Cai, Yu Song, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7793–7805,Short summary
Air stagnation is an important meteorological measure of unfavorable air conditions, and previous studies have found that stagnation events are usually related to air pollution episodes. China is currently experiencing heavy air pollution, but to our knowledge, little is known about air stagnation in the country. In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of air stagnation climatology in China based on sounding and surface observations across the country.
Jennie Bukowski, Derek J. Posselt, Jeffrey S. Reid, and Samuel A. Atwood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4611–4626,Short summary
The Maritime Continent (MC) exhibits tremendous meteorological variability. In this study, multiple years of atmospheric soundings over the MC are analyzed to identify key sources of variability in the region's temperature, water vapor, and wind structure. Coherent vertical structures are found among profiles sampled from different geographic locations. The results indicate that the complex meteorology of the region can be described using a few simple structure functions.
Sanjay Kumar Mehta, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Sukumarapillai V. Sunilkumar, Daggumati Narayana Rao, and Boddapaty V. Krishna Murthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 531–549,Short summary
Study of the diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height is important for the knowledge of pollutant dispersion, crucial for all living beings. The most difficult part in the study of the diurnal variation is in identification of the stable boundary layer which occurs ~ 50% of times only and mostly during nighttime winter. Surface temperature and clouds directly affect the diurnal pattern of the ABL. Thus, stronger (weaker) diurnal variation found during pre-monsoon (winter).
Manisha Ganeshan and Dong L. Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13173–13184,Short summary
The amplified Arctic warming has seen a rapid decline in sea ice with serious implications for global climate. The loss of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere is considered important for the recovery of the diminishing sea ice. Yet there is little observational evidence regarding the efficiency of this process. In our study, we explore and quantify the ability of the open ocean to lose heat through sensible heat fluxes. It is found to depend on the prevailing cloud and wind regime.
Tjarda J. Roberts, Marina Dütsch, Lars R. Hole, and Paul B. Voss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12383–12396,Short summary
We present Controlled Meteorological (CMET) balloon flights in the Arctic. CMETs are a novel balloon that can be controlled (by satellite link) to change altitude during the flight and remain in the troposphere up to several days. We performed automated repeated soundings in the Arctic boundary layer during the flight and compared the observations (temperature, humidity, wind) to output from two atmospheric models. CMETs are a valuable tool for probing the lower atmosphere in remote regions.
Narendra Singh, Raman Solanki, Narendra Ojha, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Andrea Pozzer, and Surendra K. Dhaka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10559–10572,Short summary
Our study presents measurements and model simulations of boundary layer evolution over a mountain peak in the central Himalayas. The observations were made as a part of the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment. The implications of biases in model simulated boundary layer towards simulations of trace species is investigated.
Joan Cuxart, Burkhard Wrenger, Daniel Martínez-Villagrasa, Joachim Reuder, Marius O. Jonassen, Maria A. Jiménez, Marie Lothon, Fabienne Lohou, Oscar Hartogensis, Jens Dünnermann, Laura Conangla, and Anirban Garai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9489–9504,Short summary
Estimations of the effect of thermal advection in the surface energy budget are provided. Data from the experimental campaign BLLAST, held in Southern France in summer 2011, are used, including airborne data by drones and surface-based instrumentation. Model data outputs and satellite information are also inspected. Surface heterogeneities of the order of the kilometer or larger seem to have little effect on the budget, whereas hectometer-scale structures may contribute significantly to it.
Erik Nilsson, Fabienne Lohou, Marie Lothon, Eric Pardyjak, Larry Mahrt, and Clara Darbieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8849–8872,Short summary
The evolution of near-surface turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and its budget in the afternoon transition has been studied based on field measurements. The study shows that TKE transport is an important budget term that needs to be taken into account in modeling of TKE. A non-local parametrization of dissipation using a TKE–length scale model which takes into account of boundary layer depth also gave improved results compared to a local parametrization.
Thomas Trickl, Hannes Vogelmann, Andreas Fix, Andreas Schäfler, Martin Wirth, Bertrand Calpini, Gilbert Levrat, Gonzague Romanens, Arnoud Apituley, Keith M. Wilson, Robert Begbie, Jens Reichardt, Holger Vömel, and Michael Sprenger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8791–8815,Short summary
A rather homogeneous deep stratospheric intrusion event was mapped by vertical sounding over central Europe and by model calculations along the transport path. The very low minimum H2O mixing ratios demonstrate almost negligible mixing with tropospheric air during the downward transport. The vertical distributions of O3 and aerosol were transferred from the source region to Europe without major change. A rather shallow outflow from the stratosphere was found.
Thomas M. Freismuth, Blake Rutherford, Mark A. Boothe, and Michael T. Montgomery
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8511–8519,Short summary
Numerical model analyses are used to investigate the role of dry, environmental air in the failed redevelopment of a tropical cyclone (ex-Gaston, 2010). As early as 12:00 UTC 2 September 2010, a dry layer at and above 600 hPa results in a decrease in the vertical mass flux and vertical, relative vorticity. The intrusion of dry air led to a reduction in vorticity and a compromised pouch at these middle levels. This study supports work looking at the role of dry air in moist convection.
Astrid Lampert, Falk Pätzold, Maria Antonia Jiménez, Lennart Lobitz, Sabrina Martin, Gerald Lohmann, Guylaine Canut, Dominique Legain, Jens Bange, Dani Martínez-Villagrasa, and Joan Cuxart
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8009–8021,Short summary
For a large field experiment in summer 2011 in southern France (BLLAST campaign), the development of turbulence in the atmosphere was analysed during the afternoon and evening. Besides ground-based remote sensing and in situ observations, turbulence parameters were measured with an unmanned aerial vehicle and analysed by numerical simulation. Turbulence decreased during the afternoon, but increased after sunset due to local wind systems. Turbulent eddies lost symmetry during the transition.
Fernando Chouza, Oliver Reitebuch, Michael Jähn, Stephan Rahm, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4675–4692,Short summary
This study presents the analysis of island induced gravity waves observed by an airborne Doppler wind lidar (DWL). First, the instrumental corrections required for the retrieval vertical wind measurements from an airborne DWL are presented. Then, the method is applied to two case studies to determine, in combination with numerical models and in situ measurements, the main characteristics of the observed waves.
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A large-scale gravity wave (GW) was observed spanning the whole of Greenland. The GWs proposed in this paper come from a new jet–topography mechanism. The topography compresses the flow and triggers a change in u- and v-wind components. The jet becomes out of geostrophic balance and sheds energy in the form of GWs to restore the balance. This topography–jet interaction was not previously considered by the community, rendering the impact of the gravity waves largely unaccounted for.
A large-scale gravity wave (GW) was observed spanning the whole of Greenland. The GWs proposed...