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ACP | Articles | Volume 20, issue 5
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2927–2951, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-2927-2020
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2927–2951, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-2927-2020
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 11 Mar 2020

Research article | 11 Mar 2020

Ambient air quality in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, during the pre-monsoon: concentrations and sources of particulate matter and trace gases

Md. Robiul Islam et al.

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Abad, G. G., Allen, N. D. C., Bernath, P. F., Boone, C. D., McLeod, S. D., Manney, G. L., Toon, G. C., Carouge, C., Wang, Y., Wu, S., Barkley, M. P., Palmer, P. I., Xiao, Y., and Fu, T. M.: Ethane, ethyne and carbon monoxide concentrations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from ACE and GEOS-Chem: a comparison study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9927–9941, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-9927-2011, 2011. 
Akagi, S., Yokelson, R. J., Wiedinmyer, C., Alvarado, M., Reid, J., Karl, T., Crounse, J., and Wennberg, P.: Emission factors for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmospheric models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9, 4039–4072, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-4039-2011, 2011. 
Al-Naiema, I., Estillore, A. D., Mudunkotuwa, I. A., Grassian, V. H., and Stone, E. A.: Impacts of co-firing biomass on emissions of particulate matter to the atmosphere, Fuel, 162, 111–120, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.08.054, 2015. 
Al-Naiema, I. M. and Stone, E. A.: Evaluation of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers from aromatic hydrocarbons, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3, 2053–2065, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-2053-2017, 2017. 
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Short summary
The Kathmandu Valley experiences high levels of air pollution. In this study, atmospheric gases and particulate matter were characterized by online and off-line measurements, with an emphasis on understanding their sources. The major sources of particulate matter and trace gases were identified as garbage burning, biomass burning, and vehicles. The majority of secondary organic aerosol was attributed to anthropogenic precursors, while a minority was attributed to biogenic gases.
The Kathmandu Valley experiences high levels of air pollution. In this study, atmospheric gases...
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