Articles | Volume 19, issue 15
08 Aug 2019
Research article | 08 Aug 2019
The remote sensing of radiative forcing by light-absorbing particles (LAPs) in seasonal snow over northeastern China
Wei Pu et al.
No articles found.
Xiaoying Niu, Wei Pu, Pingqing Fu, Yang Chen, Yuxuan Xing, Dongyou Wu, Ziqi Chen, Tenglong Shi, Yue Zhou, Hui Wen, and Xin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14075–14094,Short summary
In this study, we do the first investigation of WSOC in seasonal snow of northeastern China. The results revealed the regional-specific compositions and sources of WSOC due to different natural environments and anthropogenic activities. The abundant concentrations of WSOC and its absorption properties contributed to a crucial impact on the snow albedo and radiative effect. We established that our study could raise awareness of carbon cycling processes, hydrological processes, and climate change.
Chaman Gul, Shichang Kang, Siva Praveen Puppala, Xiaokang Wu, Cenlin He, Yangyang Xu, Inka Koch, Sher Muhammad, Rajesh Kumar, and Getachew Dubache
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8725–8737,Short summary
This work aims to understand concentrations, spatial variability, and potential source regions of light-absorbing impurities (black carbon aerosols, dust particles, and organic carbon) in the surface snow of central and western Himalayan glaciers and their impact on snow albedo and radiative forcing.
Huilin Huang, Yun Qian, Ye Liu, Cenlin He, Jianyu Zheng, Zhibo Zhang, and Antonis Gkikas
Using a clustering method developed in the field of artificial neural networks, we identify four typical dust transport patterns across the Sierra Nevada, associated with the mesoscale and regional scale wind circulations. Our results highlight the connection between dust transport and dominant weather patterns, which can be used to understand dust transport in a changing climate.
Dalei Hao, Gautam Bisht, Cenlin He, Edward Bair, Huilin Huang, Cheng Dang, Karl Rittger, Yu Gu, Hailong Wang, Yun Qian, and L. Ruby Leung
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for GMDShort summary
Snow with the highest albedo of land surface plays a vital role in Earth’s surface energy and water cycles. Our study demonstrates that snow grain shape and mixing state of light absorbing particle-snow play an important role in snow processes, surface energy balance and water cycle. This study offers guidance for improving snow simulations and surface radiative forcing estimates in Earth system models under future climate.
Chao Gao, Aijun Xiu, Xuelei Zhang, Qingqing Tong, Hongmei Zhao, Shichun Zhang, Guangyi Yang, and Mengduo Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5265–5329,Short summary
With ever-growing applications of two-way coupled meteorology and air quality models in Asia over the past decade, this paper summarizes the current status and research focuses, as well as how aerosol effects impact model performance, meteorology, and air quality. These models enable investigations of ARI and ACI effects induced by natural and anthropogenic aerosols in Asia, which has serious air pollution problems. The current gaps and perspectives are also presented and discussed.
Mark G. Flanner, Julian B. Arnheim, Joseph M. Cook, Cheng Dang, Cenlin He, Xianglei Huang, Deepak Singh, S. McKenzie Skiles, Chloe A. Whicker, and Charles S. Zender
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7673–7704,Short summary
We present the technical formulation and evaluation of a publicly available code and web-based model to simulate the spectral albedo of snow. Our model accounts for numerous features of the snow state and ambient conditions, including the the presence of light-absorbing matter like black and brown carbon, mineral dust, volcanic ash, and snow algae. Carbon dioxide snow, found on Mars, is also represented. The model accurately reproduces spectral measurements of clean and contaminated snow.
Siqi Ma, Daniel Tong, Lok Lamsal, Julian Wang, Xuelei Zhang, Youhua Tang, Rick Saylor, Tianfeng Chai, Pius Lee, Patrick Campbell, Barry Baker, Shobha Kondragunta, Laura Judd, Timothy A. Berkoff, Scott J. Janz, and Ivanka Stajner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16531–16553,Short summary
Predicting high ozone gets more challenging as urban emissions decrease. How can different techniques be used to foretell the quality of air to better protect human health? We tested four techniques with the CMAQ model against observations during a field campaign over New York City. The new system proves to better predict the magnitude and timing of high ozone. These approaches can be extended to other regions to improve the predictability of high-O3 episodes in contemporary urban environments.
Yue Zhou, Christopher P. West, Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Xiaoying Niu, Hui Wen, Jiecan Cui, Tenglong Shi, Wei Pu, Xin Wang, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8531–8555,Short summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in seasonal snow of northwestern China. We applied complementary multimodal analytical techniques to investigate bulk and molecular-level composition, optical properties, and sources of WSOC. For the first time, we estimated the extent of radiative forcing due to WSOC in snow using a model simulation and showed the profound influences of WSOC on the energy budget of midlatitude seasonal snowpack.
Wei Pu, Tenglong Shi, Jiecan Cui, Yang Chen, Yue Zhou, and Xin Wang
The Cryosphere, 15, 2255–2272,Short summary
We have explicitly resolved optical properties of coated BC in snow for explaining complex enhancement of snow albedo reduction due to coating effect in real environments. The parameterizations are developed for climate models to improve the understanding of BC in snow on global climate. We demonstrated that the contribution of BC coating effect to snow light absorption has exceeded dust over north China and will significantly contribute to the retreat of Arctic sea ice and Tibetan glaciers.
Tenglong Shi, Jiecan Cui, Yang Chen, Yue Zhou, Wei Pu, Xuanye Xu, Quanliang Chen, Xuelei Zhang, and Xin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6035–6051,Short summary
We assess the effect of dust external and internal mixing with snow grains on the absorption coefficient and albedo of snowpack. The results suggest that dust–snow internal mixing strongly enhances snow absorption coefficient and albedo reduction relative to external mixing. Meanwhile, the possible non-uniform distribution of dust in snow grains may lead to significantly different values of absorption coefficient and albedo of snowpack in the visible spectral range.
Jiecan Cui, Tenglong Shi, Yue Zhou, Dongyou Wu, Xin Wang, and Wei Pu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 269–288,Short summary
We make the first quantitative, remote-sensing-based, and hemisphere-scale assessment of radiative forcing (RF) due to light-absorbing particles (LAPs) in snow. We observed significant spatial variations in snow albedo reduction and RF due to LAPs throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with the lowest values occurring in the Arctic and the highest in northeastern China. We determined that the LAPs in snow play a critical role in spatial variability in Northern Hemisphere albedo reduction and RF.
Julián Gelman Constantin, Lucas Ruiz, Gustavo Villarosa, Valeria Outes, Facundo N. Bajano, Cenlin He, Hector Bajano, and Laura Dawidowski
The Cryosphere, 14, 4581–4601,Short summary
We present the results of two field campaigns and modeling activities on the impact of atmospheric particles on Alerce Glacier (Argentinean Andes). We found that volcanic ash remains at different snow layers several years after eruption, increasing light absorption on the glacier surface (with a minor contribution of soot). This leads to 36 % higher annual glacier melting. We find remarkably that volcano eruptions in 2011 and 2015 have a relevant effect on the glacier even in 2016 and 2017.
Wenfu Tang, Benjamin Gaubert, Louisa Emmons, Yonghoon Choi, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Xiaomei Xu, Cenlin He, Helen Worden, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca Buchholz, Hannah S. Halliday, and Avelino F. Arellano
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A specific demonstration of the potential use of correlative information from carbon monoxide to refine estimates of regional carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion.
Dandan Zhao, Guangjing Liu, Jinyuan Xin, Jiannong Quan, Yuesi Wang, Xin Wang, Lindong Dai, Wenkang Gao, Guiqian Tang, Bo Hu, Yongxiang Ma, Xiaoyan Wu, Lili Wang, Zirui Liu, and Fangkun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4575–4592,Short summary
Under strong atmospheric oxidization capacity, haze pollution in the summer in Beijing was the result of the synergistic effect of the physicochemical process in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). With the premise of an extremely stable ABL structure, the formation of secondary aerosols dominated by nitrate was quite intense, driving the outbreak of haze pollution.
Xin Wang, Xueying Zhang, and Wenjing Di
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 39–52,Short summary
We developed an improved two-sphere integration (TSI) technique to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations in the atmosphere and seasonal snow. The major advantage of this system is that it combines two distinct integrated spheres to reduce the scattering effect due to light-absorbing particles and thus provides accurate determinations of total light absorption from BC collected on Nuclepore filters.
Siqi Ma, Xuelei Zhang, Chao Gao, Daniel Q. Tong, Aijun Xiu, Guangjian Wu, Xinyuan Cao, Ling Huang, Hongmei Zhao, Shichun Zhang, Sergio Ibarra-Espinosa, Xin Wang, Xiaolan Li, and Mo Dan
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4603–4625,Short summary
Dust storms are thought to be a worldwide societal issue, and numerical modeling is an effective way to help us to predict dust events. Here we present the first comprehensive evaluation of dust emission modules in four commonly used air quality models for northeastern China. The results showed that most of these models were able to capture this dust event and indicated the dust source maps should be carefully selected or replaced with a new one that is constructed with local data.
Xin Wang, Hailun Wei, Jun Liu, Baiqing Xu, Mo Wang, Mingxia Ji, and Hongchun Jin
The Cryosphere, 13, 309–324,Short summary
A large survey on measuring optical and chemical properties of insoluble light-absorbing impurities (ILAPs) from seven glaciers was conducted on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 2013–2015. The results indicated that the mixing ratios of black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and iron (Fe) all showed a tendency to decrease from north to south, and the industrial pollution (33.1 %), biomass and biofuel burning (29.4 %), and soil dust (37.5 %) were the major sources of the ILAPs on the TP.
Yue Zhou, Hui Wen, Jun Liu, Wei Pu, Qingcai Chen, and Xin Wang
The Cryosphere, 13, 157–175,Short summary
We first investigated the optical characteristics and potential sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in seasonal snow over northwestern China. The abundance of CDOM showed regional variation. At some sites strongly influenced by local soil, the absorption of CDOM cannot be neglected compared to black carbon. We found two humic-like and one protein-like fluorophores in snow. The major sources of snow CDOM were soil, biomass burning, and anthropogenic pollution.
Zhiyuan Cong, Shaopeng Gao, Wancang Zhao, Xin Wang, Guangming Wu, Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Yongqin Liu, and Junfeng Ji
The Cryosphere, 12, 3177–3186,Short summary
Cryoconites from glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding area were studied for iron oxides. We found that goethite is the predominant iron oxide form. Using the abundance, speciation and optical properties of iron oxides, the total light absorption was quantitatively attributed to goethite, hematite, black carbon and organic matter. Such findings are essential to understand the relative significance of anthropogenic and natural impacts.
Cenlin He, Mark G. Flanner, Fei Chen, Michael Barlage, Kuo-Nan Liou, Shichang Kang, Jing Ming, and Yun Qian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11507–11527,Short summary
Snow albedo plays a key role in the Earth and climate system. It can be affected by impurities and snow properties. This study implements new parameterizations into a widely used snow model to account for effects of snow shape and black carbon–snow mixing state on snow albedo reduction in the Tibetan Plateau. This study points toward an imperative need for extensive measurements and improved model characterization of snow grain shape and aerosol–snow mixing state in Tibet and elsewhere.
Xin Wang, Hui Wen, Jinsen Shi, Jianrong Bi, Zhongwei Huang, Beidou Zhang, Tian Zhou, Kaiqi Fu, Quanliang Chen, and Jinyuan Xin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2119–2138,Short summary
A ground-based mobile laboratory was deployed near the dust source regions over northwestern China. We not only captured natural dust but also characterized the properties of anthropogenic soil dust produced by agricultural cultivations. The results indicate that large differences were found between the optical and microphysical properties of anthropogenic and natural dust.
Yingying Yan, Jintai Lin, and Cenlin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1185–1202,Short summary
Examining observed and simulated ozone at about 1000 sites during 1990–2014, we find a clear diurnal cycle both in the magnitude of ozone trends and in the relative importance of climate variability versus anthropogenic emissions to ozone changes, which has policy implications to mitigate ozone at night and other non-peak hours.
Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, Yu Gu, Jonathan H. Jiang, Qinbin Li, Rong Fu, Lei Huang, Xiaohong Liu, Xiangjun Shi, Hui Su, and Cenlin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1065–1078,Short summary
The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds represent one of the largest uncertainties among anthropogenic forcings on climate change. We find that the responses of ice crystal effective radius, a key parameter determining ice clouds' net radiative effect, to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount and vary from a significant negative correlation in moist conditions (consistent with the “Twomey effect” for liquid clouds) to a strong positive correlation in dry conditions.
Ling Qi, Qinbin Li, Daven K. Henze, Hsien-Liang Tseng, and Cenlin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9697–9716,Short summary
We find that Asian anthropogenic sources are the largest contributors (~ 40 %) to surface BC in spring in the Arctic, inconsistent with previous studies which repeatedly identified sources of surface BC as anthropogenic emissions from Europe and Russia. It takes 12–17 days for Asian anthropogenic emissions to be transported to the Arctic surface. Additionally, a large fraction (40–65 %) of Asian contribution is in the form of chronic pollution on 1- to 2-month timescales.
Jianrong Bi, Jianping Huang, Jinsen Shi, Zhiyuan Hu, Tian Zhou, Guolong Zhang, Zhongwei Huang, Xin Wang, and Hongchun Jin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7775–7792,Short summary
We conducted a field campaign on exploring dust aerosol in Dunhuang farmland nearby Gobi deserts. The anthropogenic dust produced by agricultural cultivations exerted a significant superimposed effect on elevated dust loadings. Strong south wind in daytime scavenged the pollution and weak northeast wind at night favorably accumulated air pollutants near the surface. The local emissions remarkably modified the absorptive and optical characteristics of mineral dust in desert source region.
Ling Qi, Qinbin Li, Cenlin He, Xin Wang, and Jianping Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7459–7479,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is the second only to CO2 in heating the planet, but the simulation of BC is associated with large uncertainties. BC burden is largely underestimated over land and overestimated over ocean. Our study finds that a missing process in current Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen models largely explains the discrepancy in BC simulation over land. We call for more observations of BC in mixed-phase clouds to understand this process and improve the simulation of global BC.
Wei Pu, Xin Wang, Hailun Wei, Yue Zhou, Jinsen Shi, Zhiyuan Hu, Hongchun Jin, and Quanliang Chen
The Cryosphere, 11, 1213–1233,Short summary
We conducted a large field campaign to collect snow samples in Xinjiang. We measured insoluble light-absorbing particles with estimated black carbon concentrations of 10–150 ngg-1. We found a probable shift in emission sources with the progression of winter and dominated contributions of BC and OC to light absorption. A PMF model indicated an optimal three-factor/source solution that included industrial pollution, biomass burning, and soil dust.
Xin Wang, Wei Pu, Yong Ren, Xuelei Zhang, Xueying Zhang, Jinsen Shi, Hongchun Jin, Mingkai Dai, and Quanliang Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2279–2296,Short summary
A 2014 snow survey was performed across northeastern China to analyze light absorption of ILAPs in seasonal snow, and modeling studies were conducted to compare snow albedo reduction due to assumptions of internal–external mixing of BC in snow and different snow grain shapes. The results show that the simulated snow albedos from both SAMDS and SNICAR agree well with the observed values at low ILAP mixing ratios, but they tend to be higher than surface observations at high ILAP mixing ratios.
Ling Qi, Qinbin Li, Yinrui Li, and Cenlin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1037–1059,Short summary
The Arctic is the most vulnerable region for climate change. Black carbon (BC) in air and deposited on snow and ice warms the Arctic substantially, but simulations of BC climate effects are associated with large uncertainties. To reduce this uncertainty, it is imperative to improve the simulation of BC distribution in the Arctic. We evaluate the effects of controlling factors (emissions, dry and wet deposition) on BC distribution and call for more observations to constrain these processes.
Xuelei Zhang, Daniel Q. Tong, Guangjian Wu, Xin Wang, Aijun Xiu, Yongxiang Han, Tianli Xu, Shichun Zhang, and Hongmei Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
More detailed knowledge regarding recent variations in the characteristics of East Asian dust events and dust sources can effectively improve regional dust modeling and forecasts. Here we reassess the accuracy of previous predictions of trends in dust variations in East Asia, and establish a relatively detailed inventory of dust events based on satellite observations from 2000 to 2015.
Xuezhe Xu, Weixiong Zhao, Qilei Zhang, Shuo Wang, Bo Fang, Weidong Chen, Dean S. Venables, Xinfeng Wang, Wei Pu, Xin Wang, Xiaoming Gao, and Weijun Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6421–6439,Short summary
We report on the field measurement of the optical properties and chemical composition of PM1.0 particles in a suburban environment in Beijing during the winter coal heating season. Organic mass was the largest contributor to the total extinction of PM1.0, while EC, owing to its high absorption efficiency, contributed appreciably to PM1.0 extinction and should be a key target to air quality controls. Non-BC absorption from secondary organic aerosol also contributes to particle absorption.
Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, Yu Gu, Cenlin He, Wee-Liang Lee, Xing Chang, Qinbin Li, Shuxiao Wang, Hsien-Liang R. Tseng, Lai-Yung R. Leung, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5841–5852,Short summary
We examine the impact of buildings on surface solar fluxes in Beijing by accounting for their 3-D structures. We find that inclusion of buildings changes surface solar fluxes by within ±1 W m−2, ±1–10 W m−2, and up to ±100 W m−2 at grid resolutions of 4 km, 800 m, and 90 m, respectively. We can resolve pairs of positive-negative flux deviations on different sides of buildings at ≤ 800 m resolutions. We should treat building-effect on solar fluxes differently in models with different resolutions.
Cenlin He, Qinbin Li, Kuo-Nan Liou, Ling Qi, Shu Tao, and Joshua P. Schwarz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3077–3098,Short summary
Blarck carbon aging significantly affects its global distribution and thus climatic effects. This study develops a microphysics-based BC aging scheme in a global model, which substantially improves model simulations of BC over the remote Pacific. The microphysical scheme shows fast aging over source regions and much slower aging in remote regions. The microphysical aging significantly reduces global BC burden and lifetime, showing important implications for the estimate of BC radiative effects.
C. He, K.-N. Liou, Y. Takano, R. Zhang, M. Levy Zamora, P. Yang, Q. Li, and L. R. Leung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11967–11980,
Y. H. Mao, Q. B. Li, D. K. Henze, Z. Jiang, D. B. A. Jones, M. Kopacz, C. He, L. Qi, M. Gao, W.-M. Hao, and K.-N. Liou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7685–7702,
C. He, Q. B. Li, K. N. Liou, J. Zhang, L. Qi, Y. Mao, M. Gao, Z. Lu, D. G. Streets, Q. Zhang, M. M. Sarin, and K. Ram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7091–7112,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Circular polarization in atmospheric aerosolsSpatiotemporal continuous estimates of daily 1 km PM2.5 from 2000 to present under the Tracking Air Pollution in China (TAP) frameworkAerosol optical depth regime over Megacities of the worldRobust evidence for reversal of the trend in aerosol effective climate forcingSimultaneous retrievals of biomass burning aerosols and trace gases from the ultraviolet to near-infrared over northern Thailand during the 2019 pre-monsoon seasonA decadal assessment of the climatology of aerosol and cloud properties over South AfricaAerosol characterisation in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic region using long-term AERONET measurementsLong-range transport of Asian dust to the Arctic: identification of transport pathways, evolution of aerosol optical properties, and impact assessment on surface albedo changesCanadian and Alaskan wildfire smoke particle properties, their evolution, and controlling factors, from satellite observationsEvaluation of aerosol optical depths and clear-sky radiative fluxes of the CERES Edition 4.1 SYN1deg data productArctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth baseline from long-term observations and model reanalyses – Part 1: Climatology and trendVertical structure of biomass burning aerosol transported over the southeast Atlantic OceanArctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth baseline from long-term observations and model reanalyses – Part 2: Statistics of extreme AOD events, and implications for the impact of regional biomass burning processesAerosol atmospheric rivers: climatology, event characteristics, and detection algorithm sensitivitiesDust transport and advection measurement with spaceborne lidars ALADIN and CALIOP and model reanalysis dataRecord-breaking dust loading during two mega dust storm events over northern China in March 2021: aerosol optical and radiative properties and meteorological driversVertical characterization of the dust fine and coarse particles during an intense Saharan dust outbreak over the Iberian Peninsula in springtime 2021Wintertime Saharan dust transport towards the Caribbean: an airborne lidar case study during EUREC4AEvaluation of aerosol number concentrations from CALIPSO with ATom airborne in situ measurementsZonal variations in the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols over the Indian region and the consequent radiative effectsGlobal maps of aerosol single scattering albedo using combined CERES-MODIS retrievalThe characterization of long-range transported North American biomass burning plumes: what can a multi-wavelength Mie–Raman-polarization-fluorescence lidar provide?Fluorescence lidar observations of wildfire smoke inside cirrus: a contribution to smoke–cirrus interaction researchA novel method of identifying and analysing oil smoke plumes based on MODIS and CALIPSO satellite dataPollen observations at four EARLINET stations during the ACTRIS-COVID-19 campaignIdentifying chemical aerosol signatures using optical suborbital observations: how much can optical properties tell us about aerosol composition?Quantification of the dust optical depth across spatiotemporal scales with the MIDAS global dataset (2003–2017)South American regional smoke plume in recent years: main sources and impact on solar radiation focusing on the Pantanal 2020 biomass burning seasonAerosol radiative impact during the summer 2019 heatwave produced partly by an inter-continental Saharan dust outbreak – Part 2: Long-wave and net dust direct radiative effectComment on “Short-cut transport path for Asian dust directly to the Arctic: a case Study” by Huang et al. (2015) in Environ. Res. Lett.Statistical validation of Aeolus L2A particle backscatter coefficient retrievals over ACTRIS/EARLINET stations on the Iberian PeninsulaInferring iron-oxide species content in atmospheric mineral dust from DSCOVR EPIC observationsMesoscale spatio-temporal variability of airborne lidar-derived aerosol properties in the Barbados region during EUREC4ALong-term characterisation of the vertical structure of the Saharan Air Layer over the Canary Islands using lidar and radiosonde profiles: implications for radiative and cloud processes over the subtropical Atlantic OceanObserved slump of sea land breeze in Brisbane under the effect of aerosols from remote transport during 2019 Australian mega fire eventsMeasurement report: Vehicle-based multi-lidar observational study of the effect of meteorological elements on the three-dimensional distribution of particles in the western Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay AreaMarine aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean in relation to the wintertime meteorological conditionsThe spatiotemporal relationship between PM2.5 and aerosol optical depth in China: influencing factors and implications for satellite PM2.5 estimations using MAIAC aerosol optical depthMeasurement report: Characterization of the vertical distribution of airborne Pinus pollen in the atmosphere with lidar-derived profiles – a modeling case study in the region of Barcelona, NE SpainInvestigation of near-global daytime boundary layer height using high-resolution radiosondes: first results and comparison with ERA5, MERRA-2, JRA-55, and NCEP-2 reanalysesEstimation of the vertical distribution of particle matter (PM2.5) concentration and its transport flux from lidar measurements based on machine learning algorithmsRelating geostationary satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia to fine particulate matter (PM2.5): insights from the KORUS-AQ aircraft campaign and GEOS-Chem model simulationsThree-dimensional climatology, trends, and meteorological drivers of global and regional tropospheric type-dependent aerosols: insights from 13 years (2007–2019) of CALIOP observationsAerosol properties and aerosol–radiation interactions in clear-sky conditions over GermanyGlobal dust optical depth climatology derived from CALIOP and MODIS aerosol retrievals on decadal timescales: regional and interannual variabilityAerosol optical properties derived from POLDER-3/PARASOL (2005–2013) over the Western Mediterranean Sea – Part 2: Spatial distribution and temporal variabilityObservation and modeling of the historic “Godzilla” African dust intrusion into the Caribbean Basin and the southern US in June 2020Multi-dimensional satellite observations of aerosol properties and aerosol types over three major urban clusters in eastern ChinaGeometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 1: MethodologyGeometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 2: Case studies
Santiago Gassó and Kirk D. Knobelspiesse
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13581–13605,Short summary
Atmospheric particles interact with light resulting in observable optical polarization. Thus, we can learn about their composition from space. New satellite sensor technology measures full polarization of reflected sunlight. This paper considers circular polarization, an overlooked category of polarization with distinctive features that could bring new insights. We review existing literature and make novel computations to consider this previously underappreciated category of polarization.
Qingyang Xiao, Guannan Geng, Shigan Liu, Jiajun Liu, Xia Meng, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13229–13242,Short summary
We provided complete coverage PM2.5 concentrations at a 1-km resolution from 2000 to the present, carefully considering the significant changes in land use characteristics in China. This high-resolution PM2.5 data successfully revealed the local-scale PM2.5 variations. We noticed changes in PM2.5 spatial patterns in association with the clean air policies, with the pollution hotspots having transferred from urban centers to rural regions with limited air quality monitoring.
Kyriakoula Papachristopoulou, Ioannis-Panagiotis Raptis, Antonis Gkikas, Ilias Fountoulakis, Akriti Masoom, and Stelios Kazadzis
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Megacities air quality is determined by atmospheric aerosols. We focus on changes over the last two decades at the 81 largest cities using satellite data. European and American cities have lower aerosol, compared to African and Asian. For European, North American and East Asian cities aerosols are decreasing over time, especially in China and US. At remaining cities, aerosol loads are increasing, particularly in India.
Johannes Quaas, Hailing Jia, Chris Smith, Anna Lea Albright, Wenche Aas, Nicolas Bellouin, Olivier Boucher, Marie Doutriaux-Boucher, Piers M. Forster, Daniel Grosvenor, Stuart Jenkins, Zbigniew Klimont, Norman G. Loeb, Xiaoyan Ma, Vaishali Naik, Fabien Paulot, Philip Stier, Martin Wild, Gunnar Myhre, and Michael Schulz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12221–12239,Short summary
Pollution particles cool climate and offset part of the global warming. However, they are washed out by rain and thus their effect responds quickly to changes in emissions. We show multiple datasets to demonstrate that aerosol emissions and their concentrations declined in many regions influenced by human emissions, as did the effects on clouds. Consequently, the cooling impact on the Earth energy budget became smaller. This change in trend implies a relative warming.
Ukkyo Jeong, Si-Chee Tsay, N. Christina Hsu, David M. Giles, John W. Cooper, Jaehwa Lee, Robert J. Swap, Brent N. Holben, James J. Butler, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Somporn Chantara, Hyunkee Hong, Donghee Kim, and Jhoon Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11957–11986,Short summary
Ultraviolet (UV) measurements from satellite and ground are important for deriving information on several atmospheric trace and aerosol characteristics. Simultaneous retrievals of aerosol and trace gases in this study suggest that water uptake by aerosols is one of the important phenomena affecting aerosol properties over northern Thailand, which is important for regional air quality and climate. Obtained aerosol properties covering the UV are also important for various satellite algorithms.
Abdulaziz Tunde Yakubu and Naven Chetty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11065–11087,Short summary
This study examined the source of atmospheric aerosols and their role in forming clouds and rainfall over South Africa. The research provided answers to the cause of low precipitation, mainly linked to drought and water shortages experienced over the region. Further insight into the cause of occasional flooding that occurs in other parts of the area is provided. Finally, the study described the relationship between aerosol–cloud precipitation based on observation over the region.
África Barreto, Rosa D. García, Carmen Guirado-Fuentes, Emilio Cuevas, A. Fernando Almansa, Celia Milford, Carlos Toledano, Francisco J. Expósito, Juan P. Díaz, and Sergio F. León-Luis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11105–11124,Short summary
A comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic has been carried out in this paper using long-term ground AERONET photometric observations over the period 2005–2020 from a unique network made up of four stations strategically located from sea level to 3555 m height on the island of Tenerife. This is a region that can be considered a key location to study the seasonal dependence of dust transport from the Sahel-Sahara.
Xiaoxi Zhao, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, and Sabur F. Abdullaev
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10389–10407,Short summary
Long-range transport of Asian dust to the Arctic was considered an important source of Arctic air pollution. Different transport routes to the Arctic had divergent effects on the evolution of aerosol properties. Depositions of long-range-transported dust particles can reduce the Arctic surface albedo considerably. This study implied that the ubiquitous long-transport dust from China exerted considerable aerosol indirect effects on the Arctic and may have potential biogeochemical significance.
Katherine T. Junghenn Noyes, Ralph A. Kahn, James A. Limbacher, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10267–10290,Short summary
We compare retrievals of wildfire smoke particle size, shape, and light absorption from the MISR satellite instrument to modeling and other satellite data on land cover type, drought conditions, meteorology, and estimates of fire intensity (fire radiative power – FRP). We find statistically significant differences in the particle properties based on burning conditions and land cover type, and we interpret how changes in these properties point to specific aerosol aging mechanisms.
David W. Fillmore, David A. Rutan, Seiji Kato, Fred G. Rose, and Thomas E. Caldwell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10115–10137,Short summary
This paper presents an evaluation of the aerosol analysis incorporated into the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data products as well as the aerosols' impact on solar radiation reaching the surface. CERES is a NASA Earth observation mission with instruments flying on various polar-orbiting satellites. Its primary objective is the study of the radiative energy balance of the climate system as well as examination of the influence of clouds and aerosols on this balance.
Peng Xian, Jianglong Zhang, Norm T. O'Neill, Travis D. Toth, Blake Sorenson, Peter R. Colarco, Zak Kipling, Edward J. Hyer, James R. Campbell, Jeffrey S. Reid, and Keyvan Ranjbar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9915–9947,Short summary
The study provides baseline Arctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth climatology, trend, and extreme event statistics from 2003 to 2019 using a combination of aerosol reanalyses, remote sensing, and ground observations. Biomass burning smoke has an overwhelming contribution to black carbon (an efficient climate forcer) compared to anthropogenic sources. Burning's large interannual variability and increasing summer trend have important implications for the Arctic climate.
Harshvardhan Harshvardhan, Richard Ferrare, Sharon Burton, Johnathan Hair, Chris Hostetler, David Harper, Anthony Cook, Marta Fenn, Amy Jo Scarino, Eduard Chemyakin, and Detlef Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9859–9876,Short summary
The evolution of aerosol in biomass burning smoke plumes that travel over marine clouds off the Atlantic coast of central Africa was studied using measurements made by a lidar deployed on a high-altitude aircraft. The main finding was that the physical properties of aerosol do not change appreciably once the plume has left land and travels over the ocean over a timescale of 1 to 2 d. Almost all particles in the plume are of radius less than 1 micrometer and spherical in shape.
Peng Xian, Jianglong Zhang, Norm T. O'Neill, Jeffrey S. Reid, Travis D. Toth, Blake Sorenson, Edward J. Hyer, James R. Campbell, and Keyvan Ranjbar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9949–9967,Short summary
The study provides a baseline Arctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth climatology, trend, and extreme event statistics from 2003 to 2019 using a combination of aerosol reanalyses, remote sensing, and ground observations. Biomass burning smoke has an overwhelming contribution to black carbon (an efficient climate forcer) compared to anthropogenic sources. Burning's large interannual variability and increasing summer trend have important implications for the Arctic climate.
Sudip Chakraborty, Bin Guan, Duane E. Waliser, and Arlindo M. da Silva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8175–8195,Short summary
This study explores extreme aerosol transport events by aerosol atmospheric rivers (AARs) and shows the characteristics of individual AARs such as length, width, length-to-width ratio, transport strength, and dominant transport direction, the seasonal variations, the relationship to the spatial distribution of surface emissions, the vertical profiles of wind, aerosol mixing ratio, and aerosol mass fluxes, and the major planetary-scale aerosol transport pathways.
Guangyao Dai, Kangwen Sun, Xiaoye Wang, Songhua Wu, Xiangying E, Qi Liu, and Bingyi Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7975–7993,Short summary
In this paper, a Sahara dust event is tracked with the spaceborne lidars ALADIN and CALIOP and the models ECMWF and HYSPLIT. The performance of ALADIN and CALIOP on tracking the dust event and on the observations of dust optical properties and wind fields during the dust transport is evaluated. The dust mass advection is defined, which is calculated with the combination of data from ALADIN and CALIOP coupled with the products from models to describe the dust transport quantitatively.
Ke Gui, Wenrui Yao, Huizheng Che, Linchang An, Yu Zheng, Lei Li, Hujia Zhao, Lei Zhang, Junting Zhong, Yaqiang Wang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7905–7932,Short summary
This study investigates the aerosol optical and radiative properties and meteorological drivers during two mega SDS events over Northern China in March 2021. The MODIS-retrieved DOD data registered these two events as the most intense episode in the same period in history over the past 20 years. These two extreme SDS events were associated with both atmospheric circulation extremes and local meteorological anomalies that favor enhanced dust emissions in the Gobi Desert.
María-Ángeles López-Cayuela, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, Diego Bermejo-Pantaleón, Michaël Sicard, Vanda Salgueiro, Francisco Molero, Clara Violeta Carvajal-Pérez, María José Granados-Muñoz, Adolfo Comerón, Flavio T. Couto, Rubén Barragán, María-Paz Zorzano, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Constantino Muñoz-Pocar, Maria Joao Costa, Begoña Artíñano, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, Daniele Bortoli, Manuel Pujadas, Jesús Abril-Gago, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, and Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
An intense Saharan dust outbreak by crossing the Iberian Peninsula in springtime 2021 was monitored by five lidar stations strategically covering its SW-central-NE pathway. Despite a potential dust ageing along the transport was expected, it stated unappreciated. The different relative contribution of the fine dust regarding optical (~30 %) and mass (~10 %) properties is highlighted. The relevance of polarized lidar measurements, mainly in elastic systems, for dust fine/coarse separation is shown.
Manuel Gutleben, Silke Groß, Christian Heske, and Martin Wirth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7319–7330,Short summary
The main transportation route of Saharan mineral dust particles leads over the subtropical Atlantic Ocean and is subject to a seasonal variation. This study investigates the characteristics of wintertime transatlantic dust transport towards the Caribbean by means of airborne lidar measurements. It is found that dust particles are transported at low atmospheric altitudes (<3.5 km) embedded in a relatively moist mixture with two other particle types, namely marine and biomass-burning particles.
Goutam Choudhury, Albert Ansmann, and Matthias Tesche
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7143–7161,Short summary
Lidars provide height-resolved type-specific aerosol properties and are key in studying vertically collocated aerosols and clouds. In this study, we compare the aerosol number concentrations derived from spaceborne lidar with the in situ flight measurements. Our results show a reasonable agreement between both datasets. Such an agreement has not been achieved yet. It shows the potential of spaceborne lidar in studying aerosol–cloud interactions, which is needed to improve our climate forecasts.
Nair K. Kala, Narayana Sarma Anand, Mohanan R. Manoj, Harshavardhana S. Pathak, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, and Sreedharan K. Satheesh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6067–6085,Short summary
We present the 3-D distribution of atmospheric aerosols and highlight its variation with respect to longitudes over the Indian mainland and the surrounding oceans using long-term satellite observations and realistic synthesised data. The atmospheric heating due to the 3-D distribution of aerosols is estimated using radiative transfer calculations. We believe that our findings will have strong implications for aerosol–radiation interactions in regional climate simulations.
Archana Devi and Sreedharan K. Satheesh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5365–5376,Short summary
Global maps of aerosol absorption were generated using a multi-satellite retrieval algorithm. The retrieved values were validated with available aircraft-based measurements and compared with other global datasets. Seasonal and spatial distributions of aerosol absorption over various regions are also presented. The global maps of single scattering albedo with improved accuracy provide important input to climate models for assessing the climatic impact of aerosols on regional and global scales.
Qiaoyun Hu, Philippe Goloub, Igor Veselovskii, and Thierry Podvin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5399–5414,Short summary
Our lidar observations show that the optical properties of wildfire smoke particles are highly varied after long-range transport. The variabilities are probably relevant to vegetation type, combustion condition and the aging process, which alter the smoke particle properties, as well as their impact on cloud processes and properties. The lidar fluorescence channel provides a good opportunity for smoke characterization and heterogenous ice crystal formation.
Igor Veselovskii, Qiaoyun Hu, Albert Ansmann, Philippe Goloub, Thierry Podvin, and Mikhail Korenskiy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5209–5221,Short summary
A remote sensing method based on fluorescence lidar measurements can detect and quantify the smoke content in the upper troposphere and inside cirrus clouds. Based on two case studies, we demonstrate that the fluorescence lidar technique provides the possibility to estimate the smoke surface area concentration within freshly formed cirrus layers. This value was used in a smoke ice nucleating particle parameterization scheme to predict ice crystal number concentrations in cirrus generation cells.
Alexandru Mereuţă, Nicolae Ajtai, Andrei T. Radovici, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Lucia T. Deaconu, Camelia S. Botezan, Horaţiu I. Ştefănie, Doina Nicolae, and Alexandru Ozunu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5071–5098,Short summary
In this study we analysed oil smoke plumes from 30 major industrial events within a 12-year timeframe. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind that uses a synergetic approach based on satellite remote sensing techniques. Satellite data offer access to these events, which are mainly located in war-prone or hazardous areas. Our study highlights the need for improved aerosol models and algorithms for these types of aerosols with implications on air quality and climate change.
Xiaoxia Shang, Holger Baars, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Ina Mattis, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3931–3944,Short summary
This study reports pollen observations at four lidar stations (Hohenpeißenberg, Germany; Kuopio, Finland; Leipzig, Germany; and Warsaw, Poland) during the intensive observation campaign organized in May 2020. A novel simple method for the characterization of the pure pollen is proposed, based on lidar measurements. It was applied to evaluate the pollen depolarization ratio and for the aerosol classifications.
Meloë S. F. Kacenelenbogen, Qian Tan, Sharon P. Burton, Otto P. Hasekamp, Karl D. Froyd, Yohei Shinozuka, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Luke Ziemba, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jack E. Dibb, Taylor Shingler, Armin Sorooshian, Reed W. Espinosa, Vanderlei Martins, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Joshua P. Schwarz, Matthew S. Johnson, Jens Redemann, and Gregory L. Schuster
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3713–3742,Short summary
The impact of aerosols on Earth's radiation budget and human health is important and strongly depends on their composition. One desire of our scientific community is to derive the composition of the aerosol from satellite sensors. However, satellites observe aerosol optical properties (and not aerosol composition) based on remote sensing instrumentation. This study assesses how much aerosol optical properties can tell us about aerosol composition.
Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Vassilis Amiridis, Stelios Kazadzis, Enza Di Tomaso, Eleni Marinou, Nikos Hatzianastassiou, Jasper F. Kok, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3553–3578,Short summary
We present a comprehensive climatological analysis of dust optical depth (DOD) relying on the MIDAS dataset. MIDAS provides columnar mid-visible (550 nm) DOD at fine spatial resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) over a 15-year period (2003–2017). In the current study, the analysis is performed at various spatial (from regional to global) and temporal (from months to years) scales. More specifically, focus is given to specific regions hosting the major dust sources as well as downwind areas of the planet.
Nilton Évora do Rosário, Elisa Thomé Sena, and Marcia Akemi Yamasoe
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Brazil 2020 biomass burning was a singular one, almost half of Pantanal biome was burned, which caused a significant loss of biodiversity and important climate impacts, whose effects are yet to be fully evaluated. The fire counts in Pantanal were 3.4 times higher than the usually seen. A shift in the regional smoke plume center mass toward Pantanal was observed. Another relevant aspect is that the beginning of the 2020 dry-to-wet season over Pantanal was the most as polluted in 18 years.
Michaël Sicard, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, María-Ángeles López-Cayuela, Albert Ansmann, Adolfo Comerón, María-Paz Zorzano, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, and Constantino Muñoz-Porcar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1921–1937,Short summary
This paper completes the companion paper of Córdoba-Jabonero et al. (2021). We estimate the total direct radiative effect produced by mineral dust particles during the June 2019 mega-heatwave at two sites in Spain and Germany. The results show that the dust particles in the atmosphere contribute to cooling the surface (less radiation reaches the surface) and that the heatwave (parametrized by high surface and air temperatures) contributes to reducing this cooling.
Keyvan Ranjbar, Norm T. O'Neill, and Yasmin Aboel-Fetouh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1757–1760,Short summary
We argue that the illustration employed by Huang et al. (2015) to demonstrate the transport of Asian dust to the high Arctic was, in fact, largely a cloud event and that the actual impact of Asian dust was measurable but much weaker than what they proposed and had occurred a day earlier (in agreement with the transport model they had employed to predict the transport path to the high Arctic).
Jesús Abril-Gago, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Maria João Costa, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Michaël Sicard, Diego Bermejo-Pantaleón, Daniele Bortoli, María José Granados-Muñoz, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, Adolfo Comerón, Pablo Ortiz-Amezcua, Vanda Salgueiro, Marta María Jiménez-Martín, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1425–1451,Short summary
A validation of Aeolus reprocessed optical products is carried out via an intercomparison with ground-based measurements taken at several ACTRIS/EARLINET stations in western Europe. Case studies and a statistical analysis are presented. The stations are located in a hot spot between Africa and the rest of Europe, which guarantees a variety of aerosol types, from mineral dust layers to continental/anthropogenic aerosol, and allows us to test Aeolus performance under different scenarios.
Sujung Go, Alexei Lyapustin, Gregory L. Schuster, Myungje Choi, Paul Ginoux, Mian Chin, Olga Kalashnikova, Oleg Dubovik, Jhoon Kim, Arlindo da Silva, Brent Holben, and Jeffrey S. Reid
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1395–1423,Short summary
This paper presents a retrieval algorithm of iron-oxide species (hematite, goethite) content in the atmosphere from DSCOVR EPIC observations. Our results display variations within the published range of hematite and goethite over the main dust-source regions but show significant seasonal and spatial variability. This implies a single-viewing satellite instrument with UV–visible channels may provide essential information on shortwave dust direct radiative effects for climate modeling.
Patrick Chazette, Alexandre Baron, and Cyrille Flamant
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1271–1292,Short summary
Within the framework of the international EUREC4A project, horizontal lidar measurements were carried out over Barbados from the French research aircraft ATR-42. These measurements highlighted the strong heterogeneity of the aerosol field (mainly dust and biomass burning aerosols) and therefore of the associated optical properties. This heterogeneity varies according to meteorological conditions and could significantly modulate the climatic impact of aerosols trapped over the tropical Atlantic.
África Barreto, Emilio Cuevas, Rosa D. García, Judit Carrillo, Joseph M. Prospero, Luka Ilić, Sara Basart, Alberto J. Berjón, Carlos L. Marrero, Yballa Hernández, Juan José Bustos, Slobodan Ničković, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 739–763,Short summary
In this study, we categorise the different patterns of dust transport over the subtropical North Atlantic and for the first time robustly describe the dust vertical distribution in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) over this region. Our results revealed the important role that both dust and water vapour play in the radiative balance in summer and winter and confirm the role of the SAL in the formation of mid-level clouds as a result of the activation of heterogeneous ice nucleation processes.
Lixing Shen, Chuanfeng Zhao, Xingchuan Yang, Yikun Yang, and Ping Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 419–439,Short summary
Using multi-year data, this study reveals the slump of sea land breeze (SLB) at Brisbane during mega fires and investigates the impact of fire-induced aerosols on SLB. Different aerosols have different impacts on sea wind (SW) and land wind (LW). Aerosols cause the decrease of SW, partially offset by the warming effect of black carbon (BC). The large-scale cooling effect of aerosols on sea surface temperature (SST) and the burst of BC contribute to the slump of LW.
Xinqi Xu, Jielan Xie, Yuman Li, Shengjie Miao, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 139–153,Short summary
The effect of meteorological elements on the three-dimensional distribution structure of particles was studied by making vehicle-based multi-lidar observations in the western Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area of China. Results showed that distribution of particles was closely related to horizontal wind speed and direction, vertical wind speed, and temperature. A model for meteorological elements affecting the vertical distribution of urban particles was offered in this study.
Manu Anna Thomas, Abhay Devasthale, and Michael Kahnert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 119–137,Short summary
The Southern Ocean (SO) covers a large area of our planet and its boundary layer is dominated by sea salt aerosols during winter. These aerosols have large implications for the regional climate through their direct and indirect effects. Using satellite and reanalysis data, we document if and how the aerosol properties over the SO are dependent on different local meteorological parameters. Such an observational assessment is necessary to improve the understanding of atmospheric aerosol processes.
Qingqing He, Mengya Wang, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18375–18391,Short summary
We explore the spatiotemporal relationship between PM2.5 and AOD over China using a multi-scale analysis with MODIS MAIAC 1 km aerosol observations and ground measurements. The impact factors (vertical distribution, relative humidity and terrain) on the relationship are quantitatively studied. Our results provide significant information on PM2.5 and AOD, which is informative for mapping high-resolution PM2.5 and furthering the understanding of aerosol properties and the PM2.5 pollution status.
Michaël Sicard, Oriol Jorba, Jiang Ji Ho, Rebeca Izquierdo, Concepción De Linares, Marta Alarcón, Adolfo Comerón, and Jordina Belmonte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17807–17832,Short summary
This paper investigates the mechanisms involved in the dispersion, structure, and mixing in the vertical column of atmospheric pollen, using observations of pollen concentration obtained at the ground and its stratification in the atmosphere measured by a lidar (laser radar), as well as an atmospheric transport model and a simplified pollen module developed especially for this study. The largest pollen concentration difference between the ground and the layers above is observed during nighttime.
Jianping Guo, Jian Zhang, Kun Yang, Hong Liao, Shaodong Zhang, Kaiming Huang, Yanmin Lv, Jia Shao, Tao Yu, Bing Tong, Jian Li, Tianning Su, Steve H. L. Yim, Ad Stoffelen, Panmao Zhai, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17079–17097,Short summary
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowest part of the troposphere, and boundary layer height (BLH) is the depth of the PBL and is of critical importance to the dispersion of air pollution. The study presents the first near-global BLH climatology by using high-resolution (5-10 m) radiosonde measurements. The variations in BLH exhibit large spatial and temporal dependence, with a peak at 17:00 local solar time. The most promising reanalysis product is ERA-5 in terms of modeling BLH.
Yingying Ma, Yang Zhu, Boming Liu, Hui Li, Shikuan Jin, Yiqun Zhang, Ruonan Fan, and Wei Gong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17003–17016,Short summary
The vertical distribution of the aerosol extinction coefficient (EC) measured by lidar systems has been used to retrieve the profile of particle matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). However, the traditional linear model cannot consider the influence of multiple meteorological variables sufficiently, which then causes low inversion accuracy. In this study, the machine learning algorithms which can input multiple features are used to solve this constraint.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Jared F. Brewer, Ke Li, Jonathan M. Moch, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Hyunkwang Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Su Keun Kuk, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Xuan Wang, Pengfei Liu, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Katherine R. Travis, Johnathan W. Hair, Bruce E. Anderson, Jack E. Dibb, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Qiang Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16775–16791,Short summary
Geostationary satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) has tremendous potential for monitoring surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our study explored the physical relationship between AOD and PM2.5 by integrating data from surface networks, aircraft, and satellites with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We quantitatively showed that accurate simulation of aerosol size distributions, boundary layer depths, relative humidity, coarse particles, and diurnal variations in PM2.5 are essential.
Ke Gui, Huizheng Che, Yu Zheng, Hujia Zhao, Wenrui Yao, Lei Li, Lei Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15309–15336,Short summary
This study utilized the globally gridded aerosol extinction data from CALIOP during 2007–2019 to investigate the 3D climatology, trends, and meteorological drivers of tropospheric type-dependent aerosols. Results revealed that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere contribute 62.08 % and 37.92 %, respectively, of the global tropospheric TAOD. Trends in CALIOP-derived aerosol loading, in particular those partitioned in the PBL, can be explained to a large extent by meteorology.
Jonas Witthuhn, Anja Hünerbein, Florian Filipitsch, Stefan Wacker, Stefanie Meilinger, and Hartwig Deneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14591–14630,Short summary
Knowledge of aerosol–radiation interactions is important for understanding the climate system and for the renewable energy sector. Here, two complementary approaches are used to assess the consistency of the underlying aerosol properties and the resulting radiative effect in clear-sky conditions over Germany in 2015. An approach based on clear-sky models and broadband irradiance observations is contrasted to the use of explicit radiative transfer simulations using CAMS reanalysis data.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Paul Ginoux, and Jerry Shen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13369–13395,Short summary
We present a satellite-derived global dust climatological record over the last two decades, including the monthly mean visible dust optical depth (DAOD) and vertical distribution of dust extinction coefficient at a 2º × 5º spatial resolution derived from CALIOP and MODIS. In addition, the CALIOP climatological dataset also includes dust vertical extinction profiles. Based on these two datasets, we carried out a comprehensive comparative study of the spatial and temporal climatology of dust.
Isabelle Chiapello, Paola Formenti, Lydie Mbemba Kabuiku, Fabrice Ducos, Didier Tanré, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12715–12737,Short summary
The Mediterranean atmosphere is impacted by a variety of particle pollution, which exerts a complex pressure on climate and air quality. We analyze the 2005–2013 POLDER-3 satellite advanced aerosol data set over the Western Mediterranean Sea. Aerosols' spatial distribution and temporal evolution suggests a large-scale improvement of air quality related to the fine aerosol component, most probably resulting from reduction of anthropogenic particle emissions in the surrounding European countries.
Hongbin Yu, Qian Tan, Lillian Zhou, Yaping Zhou, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Claire L. Ryder, Robert C. Levy, Yaswant Pradhan, Yingxi Shi, Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Peter R. Colarco, Dongchul Kim, Lorraine A. Remer, Tianle Yuan, Olga Mayol-Bracero, and Brent N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12359–12383,Short summary
This study characterizes a historic African dust intrusion into the Caribbean Basin in June 2020 using satellites and NASA GEOS. Dust emissions in West Africa were large albeit not extreme. However, a unique synoptic system accumulated the dust near the coast for about 4 d before it was ventilated. Although GEOS reproduced satellite-observed plume tracks well, it substantially underestimated dust emissions and did not lift up dust high enough for ensuing long-range transport.
Yuqin Liu, Tao Lin, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Lamei Shi, Yiyi Huang, Xian Wu, Hao Zhou, Jiahua Zhang, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12331–12358,Short summary
The four-dimensional variation of aerosol properties over the BTH, YRD and PRD (east China) were investigated using satellite observations from 2007 to 2020. Distinct differences between the aerosol optical depth and vertical distribution of the occurrence of aerosol types over these regions depend on season, aerosol loading and meteorological conditions. Day–night differences between the vertical distribution of aerosol types suggest effects of boundary layer dynamics and aerosol transport.
Ákos Horváth, James L. Carr, Olga A. Girina, Dong L. Wu, Alexey A. Bril, Alexey A. Mazurov, Dmitry V. Melnikov, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12189–12206,Short summary
We give a detailed description of a new technique to estimate the height of volcanic eruption columns from near-limb geostationary imagery. Such oblique angle observations offer spectacular side views of eruption columns protruding from the Earth ellipsoid and thereby facilitate a height-by-angle estimation method. Due to its purely geometric nature, the new technique is unaffected by the limitations of traditional brightness-temperature-based height retrievals.
Ákos Horváth, Olga A. Girina, James L. Carr, Dong L. Wu, Alexey A. Bril, Alexey A. Mazurov, Dmitry V. Melnikov, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12207–12226,Short summary
We demonstrate the side view plume height estimation technique described in Part 1 on seven volcanic eruptions from 2019 and 2020, including the 2019 Raikoke eruption. We explore the strengths and limitations of the new technique in comparison to height estimation from brightness temperatures, stereo observations, and ground-based video footage.
Bocquet, M., Elbern, H., Eskes, H., Hirtl, M., Žabkar, R., Carmichael, G. R., Flemming, J., Inness, A., Pagowski, M., Pérez Camaño, J. L., Saide, P. E., San Jose, R., Sofiev, M., Vira, J., Baklanov, A., Carnevale, C., Grell, G., and Seigneur, C.: Data assimilation in atmospheric chemistry models: current status and future prospects for coupled chemistry meteorology models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5325–5358, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-5325-2015, 2015.
Bond, T. C., Streets, D. G., Yarber, K. F., Nelson, S. M., Woo, J. H., and Klimont, Z.: A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D14203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003jd003697, 2004.
Bond, T. C., Habib, G., and Bergstrom, R. W.: Limitations in the enhancement of visible light absorption due to mixing state, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 111, D20211, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006jd007315, 2006.
Bond, T. C., Doherty, S. J., Fahey, D. W., Forster, P. M., Berntsen, T., DeAngelo, B. J., Flanner, M. G., Ghan, S., Karcher, B., Koch, D., Kinne, S., Kondo, Y., Quinn, P. K., Sarofim, M. C., Schultz, M. G., Schulz, M., Venkataraman, C., Zhang, H., Zhang, S., Bellouin, N., Guttikunda, S. K., Hopke, P. K., Jacobson, M. Z., Kaiser, J. W., Klimont, Z., Lohmann, U., Schwarz, J. P., Shindell, D., Storelvmo, T., Warren, S. G., and Zender, C. S.: Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 5380–5552, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50171, 2013.
Cao, G. L., Zhang, X. Y., and Zheng, F. C.: Inventory of black carbon and organic carbon emissions from China, Atmos. Environ., 40, 6516–6527, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.05.070, 2006.
Che, T., Li, X., Jin, R., Armstrong, R., and Zhang, T. J.: Snow depth derived from passive microwave remote-sensing data in China, Ann. Glaciol., 49, 145–154, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756408787814690, 2008.
Cohen, J. and Rind, D.: The Effect of Snow Cover on the Climate, J. Climate, 4, 689–706, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1991)004<0689:Teosco>2.0.Co;2, 1991.
Dang, C. and Hegg, D. A.: Quantifying light absorption by organic carbon in Western North American snow by serial chemical extractions, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 10247–10261, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014jd022156, 2014.
Dang, C., Warren, S. G., Fu, Q., Doherty, S. J., Sturm, M., and Su, J.: Measurements of light-absorbing particles in snow across the Arctic, North America, and China: Effects on surface albedo, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 122, 10149–10168, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017jd027070, 2017.
Di Mauro, B., Fava, F., Ferrero, L., Garzonio, R., Baccolo, G., Delmonte, B., and Colombo, R.: Mineral dust impact on snow radiative properties in the European Alps combining ground, UAV, and satellite observations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 6080–6097, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015jd023287, 2015.
Di Mauro, B., Baccolo, G., Garzonio, R., Giardino, C., Massabò, D., Piazzalunga, A., Rossini, M., and Colombo, R.: Impact of impurities and cryoconite on the optical properties of the Morteratsch Glacier (Swiss Alps), The Cryosphere, 11, 2393–2409, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-11-2393-2017, 2017.
Doherty, S. J., Warren, S. G., Grenfell, T. C., Clarke, A. D., and Brandt, R. E.: Light-absorbing impurities in Arctic snow, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11647–11680, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-11647-2010, 2010.
Doherty, S. J., Dang, C., Hegg, D. A., Zhang, R. D., and Warren, S. G.: Black carbon and other light-absorbing particles in snow of central North America, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 12807–12831, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014jd022350, 2014.
Dumont, M., Brun, E., Picard, G., Michou, M., Libois, Q., Petit, J. R., Geyer, M., Morin, S., and Josse, B.: Contribution of light-absorbing impurities in snow to Greenland's darkening since 2009, Nat. Geosci., 7, 509–512, https://doi.org/10.1038/Ngeo2180, 2014.
Eyring, V., Bony, S., Meehl, G. A., Senior, C. A., Stevens, B., Stouffer, R. J., and Taylor, K. E.: Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) experimental design and organization, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1937–1958, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-1937-2016, 2016.
Flanner, M. G., Zender, C. S., Randerson, J. T., and Rasch, P. J.: Present-day climate forcing and response from black carbon in snow, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D11202, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006jd008003, 2007.
Flanner, M. G., Zender, C. S., Hess, P. G., Mahowald, N. M., Painter, T. H., Ramanathan, V., and Rasch, P. J.: Springtime warming and reduced snow cover from carbonaceous particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2481–2497, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-2481-2009, 2009.
Grenfell, T. C., Doherty, S. J., Clarke, A. D., and Warren, S. G.: Light absorption from particulate impurities in snow and ice determined by spectrophotometric analysis of filters, Appl. Optics, 50, 2037–2048, https://doi.org/10.1364/Ao.50.002037, 2011.
Hadley, O. L. and Kirchstetter, T. W.: Black-carbon reduction of snow albedo, Nat. Clim. Change, 2, 437–440, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1433, 2012.
Hall, D. K., Riggs, G. A., and Salomonson, V. V.: Development of Methods for Mapping Global Snow Cover Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Data, Remote Sens. Environ., 54, 127–140, https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-4257(95)00137-P, 1995.
Hansen, J. and Nazarenko, L.: Soot climate forcing via snow and ice albedos, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101, 423–428, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2237157100, 2004.
He, C. L., Li, Q. B., Liou, K. N., Takano, Y., Gu, Y., Qi, L., Mao, Y. H., and Leung, L. R.: Black carbon radiative forcing over the Tibetan Plateau, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 7806–7813, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl062191, 2014.
He, C. L., Takano, Y., Liou, K. N., Yang, P., Li, Q. B., and Chen, F.: Impact of Snow Grain Shape and Black Carbon-Snow Internal Mixing on Snow Optical Properties: Parameterizations for Climate Models, J. Climate, 30, 10019–10036, https://doi.org/10.1175/Jcli-D-17-0300.1, 2017.
He, C. L., Liou, K. N., Takano, Y., Yang, P., Qi, L., and Chen, F.: Impact of Grain Shape and Multiple Black Carbon Internal Mixing on Snow Albedo: Parameterization and Radiative Effect Analysis, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 123, 1253–1268, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017jd027752, 2018.
Huang, J. P. and Yi, Y. H.: Inversion of a nonlinear dynamic-model from the observation, Sci. China Chem., 34, 1246–1246, 1991.
Huang, J. P., Fu, Q., Zhang, W., Wang, X., Zhang, R. D., Ye, H., and Warren, S. G.: Dust and Black Carbon in Seasonal Snow across Northern China, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 92, 175–181, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010bams3064.1, 2011.
Huang, J. P., Xie, Y. K., Guan, X. D., Li, D. D., and Ji, F.: The dynamics of the warming hiatus over the Northern Hemisphere, Clim. Dynam., 48, 429–446, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3085-8, 2016.
Ichoku, C., Levy, R., Kaufman, Y. J., Remer, L. A., Li, R. R., Martins, V. J., Holben, B. N., Abuhassan, N., Slutsker, I., Eck, T. F., and Pietras, C.: Analysis of the performance characteristics of the five-channel Microtops II Sun photometer for measuring aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, AAC 5-1–AAC 5-17, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001jd001302, 2002.
IPCC: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 2013.
Jacobson, M. Z.: Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, 4410, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001jd001376, 2002.
Jacobson, M. Z.: Climate response of fossil fuel and biofuel soot, accounting for soot's feedback to snow and sea ice albedo and emissivity, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D21201, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004jd004945, 2004.
Kaspari, S., Painter, T. H., Gysel, M., Skiles, S. M., and Schwikowski, M.: Seasonal and elevational variations of black carbon and dust in snow and ice in the Solu-Khumbu, Nepal and estimated radiative forcings, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8089–8103, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-8089-2014, 2014.
Li, C. L., Bosch, C., Kang, S. C., Andersson, A., Chen, P. F., Zhang, Q. G., Cong, Z. Y., Chen, B., Qin, D. H., and Gustafsson, O.: Sources of black carbon to the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau glaciers, Nat. Commun., 7, 12574, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12574, 2016.
Liou, K. N., Takano, Y., and Yang, P.: Light absorption and scattering by aggregates: Application to black carbon and snow grains, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 112, 1581–1594, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2011.03.007, 2011.
Liou, K. N., Takano, Y., He, C., Yang, P., Leung, L. R., Gu, Y., and Lee, W. L.: Stochastic parameterization for light absorption by internally mixed BC/dust in snow grains for application to climate models, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 7616–7632, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014jd021665, 2014.
Lyapustin, A., Tedesco, M., Wang, Y. J., Aoki, T., Hori, M., and Kokhanovsky, A.: Retrieval of snow grain size over Greenland from MODIS, Remote Sens. Environ., 113, 1976–1987, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2009.05.008, 2009.
McConnell, J. R., Edwards, R., Kok, G. L., Flanner, M. G., Zender, C. S., Saltzman, E. S., Banta, J. R., Pasteris, D. R., Carter, M. M., and Kahl, J. D. W.: 20th-century industrial black carbon emissions altered arctic climate forcing, Science, 317, 1381–1384, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1144856, 2007.
Miller, S. D., Wang, F., Burgess, A. B., Skiles, S. M., Rogers, M., and Painter, T. H.: Satellite-Based Estimation of Temporally Resolved Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow Cover, J. Hydrometeorol., 17, 1999–2011, https://doi.org/10.1175/Jhm-D-15-0150.1, 2016.
Ming, J., Du, Z. C., Xiao, C. D., Xu, X. B., and Zhang, D. Q.: Darkening of the mid-Himalaya glaciers since 2000 and the potential causes, Environ. Res. Lett., 7, 014021, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/1/014021, 2012.
Ming, J., Wang, Y. Q., Du, Z. C., Zhang, T., Guo, W. Q., Xiao, C. D., Xu, X. B., Ding, M. H., Zhang, D. Q., and Yang, W.: Widespread Albedo Decreasing and Induced Melting of Himalayan Snow and Ice in the Early 21st Century, Plos One, 10, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126235, 2015.
Negi, H. S. and Kokhanovsky, A.: Retrieval of snow grain size and albedo of western Himalayan snow cover using satellite data, The Cryosphere, 5, 831–847, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-5-831-2011, 2011.
Nolin, A. W. and Dozier, J.: Estimating Snow Grain-Size Using Aviris Data, Remote Sens. Environ., 44, 231–238, https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-4257(93)90018-S, 1993.
Nolin, A. W. and Dozier, J.: A hyperspectral method for remotely sensing the grain size of snow, Remote Sens. Environ., 74, 207–216, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(00)00111-5, 2000.
O'Brien, H. W. and Koh, G.: Near-infrared reflectance of snow-covered substrates, Cold Regions Res. and Eng. Lab., Hanover, N. H. CRREL Report 81-21, 1981.
O'Brien, H. W. and Munis, R. H.: Red and Near-Infrared Spectral Reflectance of Snow, Cold Regions Res. Eng. Lab., Hanover, N.H., CRREL Res. Rep., 332, 1975.
Painter, T. H., Roberts, D. A., Green, R. O., and Dozier, J.: The effect of grain size on spectral mixture analysis of snow-covered area from AVIRIS data, Remote Sens. Environ., 65, 320–332, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00041-8, 1998.
Painter, T. H., Barrett, A. P., Landry, C. C., Neff, J. C., Cassidy, M. P., Lawrence, C. R., McBride, K. E., and Farmer, G. L.: Impact of disturbed desert soils on duration of mountain snow cover, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007gl030284, 2007.
Painter, T. H., Rittger, K., McKenzie, C., Slaughter, P., Davis, R. E., and Dozier, J.: Retrieval of subpixel snow covered area, grain size, and albedo from MODIS, Remote Sens. Environ., 113, 868–879, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2009.01.001, 2009.
Painter, T. H., Deems, J. S., Belnap, J., Hamlet, A. F., Landry, C. C., and Udall, B.: Response of Colorado River runoff to dust radiative forcing in snow, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 17125–17130, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0913139107, 2010.
Painter, T. H., Bryant, A. C., and Skiles, S. M.: Radiative forcing by light absorbing impurities in snow from MODIS surface reflectance data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L17502, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012gl052457, 2012a.
Painter, T. H., Skiles, S. M., Deems, J. S., Bryant, A. C., and Landry, C. C.: Dust radiative forcing in snow of the Upper Colorado River Basin: 1. A 6 year record of energy balance, radiation, and dust concentrations, Water Resour. Res., 48, W07521, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012wr011985, 2012b.
Painter, T. H., Flanner, M. G., Kaser, G., Marzeion, B., VanCuren, R. A., and Abdalati, W.: End of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 15216–15221, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1302570110, 2013a.
Painter, T. H., Seidel, F. C., Bryant, A. C., Skiles, S. M., and Rittger, K.: Imaging spectroscopy of albedo and radiative forcing by light-absorbing impurities in mountain snow, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 9511–9523, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50520, 2013b.
Peltoniemi, J. I., Gritsevich, M., Hakala, T., Dagsson-Waldhauserová, P., Arnalds, Ó., Anttila, K., Hannula, H.-R., Kivekäs, N., Lihavainen, H., Meinander, O., Svensson, J., Virkkula, A., and de Leeuw, G.: Soot on Snow experiment: bidirectional reflectance factor measurements of contaminated snow, The Cryosphere, 9, 2323–2337, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-9-2323-2015, 2015.
Polashenski, C. M., Dibb, J. E., Flanner, M. G., Chen, J. Y., Courville, Z. R., Lai, A. M., Schauer, J. J., Shafer, M. M., and Bergin, M.: Neither dust nor black carbon causing apparent albedo decline in Greenland's dry snow zone: Implications for MODIS C5 surface reflectance, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 9319–9327, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015gl065912, 2015.
Pu, W., Wang, X., Wei, H., Zhou, Y., Shi, J., Hu, Z., Jin, H., and Chen, Q.: Properties of black carbon and other insoluble light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow of northwestern China, The Cryosphere, 11, 1213–1233, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-11-1213-2017, 2017.
Qian, Y., Gustafson, W. I., Leung, L. R., and Ghan, S. J.: Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D03108, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008jd011039, 2009.
Ramanathan, V. and Carmichael, G.: Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, Nat. Geosci., 1, 221–227, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo156, 2008.
Randles, C. A., Da Silva, A. M., Buchard, V., Darmenov, A., Colarco, P. R., Aquila, V., Bian, H., Nowottnick, E. P., Pan, X., Smirnov, A., Yu, H., and Govindaraju, R.: Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation, NASA TM-2016-104606 45, NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, The MERRA-2 Aerosol Assimilation, available at: https://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/reanalysis/MERRA-2/docs/ (last access: 12 April 2019), 2016.
Randles, C. A., Da Silva, A. M., Buchard, V., Colarco, P. R., Darmenov, A., Govindaraju, R., Smirnov, A., Holben, B., Ferrare, R., Hair, J., Shinozuka, Y., and Flynn, C. J.: The MERRA-2 Aerosol Reanalysis, 1980 Onward. Part I: System Description and Data Assimilation Evaluation, J. Climate, 30, 6823–6850, https://doi.org/10.1175/Jcli-D-16-0609.1, 2017.
Ren, Y., Zhang, X. F., Wei, H. L., Xu, L., Zhang, J., Sun, J. X., Wang, X., and Li, W. J.: Comparisons of methods to obtain insoluble particles in snow for transmission electron microscopy, Atmos. Environ., 153, 61–69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.01.021, 2017.
Ricchiazzi, P., Yang, S. R., Gautier, C., and Sowle, D.: SBDART: A research and teaching software tool for plane-parallell radiative transfer in the Earth's atmosphere, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 2101–2114, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<2101:Sarats>2.0.Co;2, 1998.
Rittger, K., Painter, T. H., and Dozier, J.: Assessment of methods for mapping snow cover from MODIS, Adv. Water Resour., 51, 367–380, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.03.002, 2013.
Scambos, T. A., Haran, T. M., Fahnestock, M. A., Painter, T. H., and Bohlander, J.: MODIS-based Mosaic of Antarctica (MOA) data sets: Continent-wide surface morphology and snow grain size, Remote Sens. Environ., 111, 242–257, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2006.12.020, 2007.
Schwarz, J. P., Doherty, S. J., Li, F., Ruggiero, S. T., Tanner, C. E., Perring, A. E., Gao, R. S., and Fahey, D. W.: Assessing Single Particle Soot Photometer and Integrating Sphere/Integrating Sandwich Spectrophotometer measurement techniques for quantifying black carbon concentration in snow, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 2581–2592, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-5-2581-2012, 2012.
Seidel, F. C., Rittger, K., Skiles, S. M., Molotch, N. P., and Painter, T. H.: Case study of spatial and temporal variability of snow cover, grain size, albedo and radiative forcing in the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountain snowpack derived from imaging spectroscopy, The Cryosphere, 10, 1229–1244, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-1229-2016, 2016.
Siegmund, A. and Menz, G.: Fernes nah gebracht–Satelliten-und Luftbildeinsatz zur Analyse von Umweltveränderungen im Geographieunterricht, Geographie und Schule, 154, 2–10, 2005.
Stamnes, K., Tsay, S. C., Wiscombe, W., and Jayaweera, K.: Numerically Stable Algorithm for Discrete-Ordinate-Method Radiative-Transfer in Multiple-Scattering and Emitting Layered Media, Appl. Optics, 27, 2502–2509, https://doi.org/10.1364/Ao.27.002502, 1988.
Toon, O. B., Mckay, C. P., Ackerman, T. P., and Santhanam, K.: Rapid Calculation of Radiative Heating Rates and Photodissociation Rates in Inhomogeneous Multiple-Scattering Atmospheres, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 94, 16287–16301, https://doi.org/10.1029/JD094iD13p16287, 1989.
Vermote, E.: MOD09A1MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500 m SIN Grid V006, NASA EOSDIS Land Processes DAAC, 2015.
Wang, R., Tao, S., Balkanski, Y., Ciais, P., Boucher, O., Liu, J. F., Piao, S. L., Shen, H. Z., Vuolo, M. R., Valari, M., Chen, H., Chen, Y. C., Cozic, A., Huang, Y., Li, B. G., Li, W., Shen, G. F., Wang, B., and Zhang, Y. Y.: Exposure to ambient black carbon derived from a unique inventory and high-resolution model, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 111, 2459–2463, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1318763111, 2014.
Wang, X., Doherty, S. J., and Huang, J. P.: Black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities in snow across Northern China, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 1471–1492, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012jd018291, 2013.
Wang, X., Xu, B. Q., and Ming, J.: An Overview of the Studies on Black Carbon and Mineral Dust Deposition in Snow and Ice Cores in East Asia, J. Meteorol. Res.-PRC, 28, 354–370, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13351-014-4005-7, 2014.
Wang, X., Pu, W., Zhang, X. Y., Ren, Y., and Huang, J. P.: Water-soluble ions and trace elements in surface snow and their potential source regions across northeastern China, Atmos. Environ., 114, 57–65, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.05.012, 2015.
Wang, X., Pu, W., Ren, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, X., Shi, J., Jin, H., Dai, M., and Chen, Q.: Observations and model simulations of snow albedo reduction in seasonal snow due to insoluble light-absorbing particles during 2014 Chinese survey, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2279–2296, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-2279-2017, 2017.
Wang, Z. W., Gallet, J. C., Pedersen, C. A., Zhang, X. S., Ström, J., and Ci, Z. J.: Elemental carbon in snow at Changbai Mountain, northeastern China: concentrations, scavenging ratios, and dry deposition velocities, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 629-640, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-629-2014, 2014.
Warren, S. G.: Optical-Properties of Snow, Rev. Geophys., 20, 67–89, https://doi.org/10.1029/RG020i001p00067, 1982.
Warren, S. G.: Impurities in Snow – Effects on Albedo and Snowmelt Review, Ann. Glaciol., 5, 177–179, https://doi.org/10.3189/1984AoG5-1-177-179, 1984.
Warren, S. G.: Can black carbon in snow be detected by remote sensing?, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 779–786, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012jd018476, 2013.
Warren, S. G. and Wiscombe, W. J.: A Model for the Spectral Albedo of Snow .2. Snow Containing Atmospheric Aerosols, J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2734–2745, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1980)037<2734:Amftsa>2.0.Co;2, 1980.
Wiedensohler, A., Cheng, Y. F., Nowak, A., Wehner, B., Achtert, P., Berghof, M., Birmili, W., Wu, Z. J., Hu, M., Zhu, T., Takegawa, N., Kita, K., Kondo, Y., Lou, S. R., Hofzumahaus, A., Holland, F., Wahner, A., Gunthe, S. S., Rose, D., Su, H., and Pöschl, U.: Rapid aerosol particle growth and increase of cloud condensation nucleus activity by secondary aerosol formation and condensation: A case study for regional air pollution in northeastern China, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D00G08, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008jd010884, 2009.
Wiscombe, W. J. and Warren, S. G.: A Model for the Spectral Albedo of Snow .1. Pure Snow, J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2712–2733, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1980)037<2712:Amftsa>2.0.Co;2, 1980.
Wuttke, S., Seckmeyer, G., and König-Langlo, G.: Measurements of spectral snow albedo at Neumayer, Antarctica, Ann. Geophys., 24, 7–21, https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-24-7-2006, 2006.
Xu, B. Q., Cao, J. J., Hansen, J., Yao, T. D., Joswia, D. R., Wang, N. L., Wu, G. J., Wang, M., Zhao, H. B., Yang, W., Liu, X. Q., and He, J. Q.: Black soot and the survival of Tibetan glaciers, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 22114–22118, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0910444106, 2009.
Yasunari, T. J., Bonasoni, P., Laj, P., Fujita, K., Vuillermoz, E., Marinoni, A., Cristofanelli, P., Duchi, R., Tartari, G., and Lau, K.-M.: Estimated impact of black carbon deposition during pre-monsoon season from Nepal Climate Observatory – Pyramid data and snow albedo changes over Himalayan glaciers, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 6603–6615, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-6603-2010, 2010.
Yasunari, T. J., Koster, R. D., Lau, W. K. M., and Kim, K. M.: Impact of snow darkening via dust, black carbon, and organic carbon on boreal spring climate in the Earth system, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 5485–5503, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014jd022977, 2015.
Zhang, R., Hegg, D. A., Huang, J., and Fu, Q.: Source attribution of insoluble light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow across northern China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6091–6099, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-6091-2013, 2013.
Zhao, C., Hu, Z., Qian, Y., Ruby Leung, L., Huang, J., Huang, M., Jin, J., Flanner, M. G., Zhang, R., Wang, H., Yan, H., Lu, Z., and Streets, D. G.: Simulating black carbon and dust and their radiative forcing in seasonal snow: a case study over North China with field campaign measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11475–11491, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-11475-2014, 2014.
Zhong, G., Song, K., Wang, Z., Du, J., Lei, X., Liu, D., and Zhang, B.: Verification and Comparison of the MODIS and AMSR-E Snow Cover Products in Northeast China, Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 32, 1262–1269, 2010.
Zhou, Y., Wang, X., Wu, X. Q., Cong, Z. Y., Wu, G. M., and Ji, M. X.: Quantifying Light Absorption of Iron Oxides and Carbonaceous Aerosol in Seasonal Snow across Northern China, Atmosphere-Basel, 8, 63, https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8040063, 2017.
LAPs (light-absorbing particles) deposited on snow can decrease snow albedo and increase the absorption of solar radiation. Radiative forcing by LAPs will affect the regional hydrological cycle and climate. We use MODIS observations to retrieve the radiative forcing by LAPs in snow across northeastern China (NEC). The results of radiative forcing present distinct spatial variability. We find that the biases are negatively correlated with LAP concentrations and range from ~ 5 % to ~ 350 %.
LAPs (light-absorbing particles) deposited on snow can decrease snow albedo and increase the...