Articles | Volume 19, issue 16
Research article 21 Aug 2019
Research article | 21 Aug 2019
Evaluating the relative importance of northern African mineral dust sources using remote sensing
Natalie L. Bakker et al.
No articles found.
Clarissa Baldo, Akinori Ito, Michael D. Krom, Weijun Li, Tim Jones, Nick Drake, Konstantin Ignatyev, Nicholas Davidson, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
High ionic strength relevant to aerosol water enhanced proton-promoted Fe dissolution of coal fly ash (up to 7 times) at low pH (2–3) but suppressed oxalate-promoted dissolution at more acidic pH. Fe in coal fly ash dissolved up to 7 times faster than in Saharan dust at low pH. The newly measured dissolution kinetics were implemented into a global model, which suggested a larger contribution of pyrogenic dissolved Fe over regions with a strong impact from fossil fuel combustions.
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Measurement report: Vehicle-based multi-lidar observational study of the effect of meteorological elements on the three-dimensional distribution of particles in the western Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay AreaMarine aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean in relation to the wintertime meteorological conditionsThe spatiotemporal relationship between PM2.5 and aerosol optical depth in China: influencing factors and implications for satellite PM2.5 estimations using MAIAC aerosol optical depthMeasurement report: Characterization of the vertical distribution of airborne Pinus pollen in the atmosphere with lidar-derived profiles – a modeling case study in the region of Barcelona, NE SpainInvestigation of near-global daytime boundary layer height using high-resolution radiosondes: first results and comparison with ERA5, MERRA-2, JRA-55, and NCEP-2 reanalysesEstimation of the vertical distribution of particle matter (PM2.5) concentration and its transport flux from lidar measurements based on machine learning algorithmsRelating geostationary satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia to fine particulate matter (PM2.5): insights from the KORUS-AQ aircraft campaign and GEOS-Chem model simulationsThree-dimensional climatology, trends, and meteorological drivers of global and regional tropospheric type-dependent aerosols: insights from 13 years (2007–2019) of CALIOP observationsAerosol properties and aerosol–radiation interactions in clear-sky conditions over GermanyObserved slump of sea land breeze in Brisbane under the effect of aerosols from remote transport during 2019 Australia mega fire eventsGlobal dust optical depth climatology derived from CALIOP and MODIS aerosol retrievals on decadal timescales: regional and interannual variabilityMesoscale spatio-temporal variability of airborne lidar-derived aerosol properties in the Barbados region during EUREC4AAerosol optical properties derived from POLDER-3/PARASOL (2005–2013) over the Western Mediterranean Sea – Part 2: Spatial distribution and temporal variabilityInferring iron oxides species content in atmospheric mineral dust from DSCOVR EPIC observationsObservation and modeling of the historic “Godzilla” African dust intrusion into the Caribbean Basin and the southern US in June 2020Multi-dimensional satellite observations of aerosol properties and aerosol types over three major urban clusters in eastern ChinaGeometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 1: MethodologyGeometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 2: Case studiesSpatiotemporal changes in aerosol properties by hygroscopic growth and impacts on radiative forcing and heating rates during DISCOVER-AQ 2011Estimating radiative forcing efficiency of dust aerosol based on direct satellite observations: case studies over the Sahara and Taklimakan DesertLong-term characterisation of the vertical structure of Saharan dust outbreaks over the Canary Islands using lidar and radiosondes profiles: implications for radiative and cloud processes over the subtropical Atlantic OceanSatellite-based estimation of the impacts of summertime wildfires on PM2.5 concentration in the United StatesAirborne and ground-based measurements of aerosol optical depth of freshly emitted anthropogenic plumes in the Athabasca Oil Sands RegionCloud drop number concentrations over the western North Atlantic Ocean: seasonal cycle, aerosol interrelationships, and other influential factorsSeparating emission and meteorological contributions to long-term PM2.5 trends over eastern China during 2000–2018Overview of the SLOPE I and II campaigns: aerosol properties retrieved with lidar and sun–sky photometer measurementsAerosol radiative impact during the summer 2019 heatwave produced partly by an inter-continental Saharan dust outbreak – Part 2: Long-wave and net dust direct radiative effectRestoring the top-of-atmosphere reflectance during solar eclipses: a proof of concept with the UV absorbing aerosol index measured by TROPOMIAssessing the contribution of the ENSO and MJO to Australian dust activity based on satellite- and ground-based observationsAerosol above-cloud direct radiative effect and properties in the Namibian region during the AErosol, RadiatiOn, and CLOuds in southern Africa (AEROCLO-sA) field campaign – Multi-Viewing, Multi-Channel, Multi-Polarization (3MI) airborne simulator and sun photometer measurementsHimawari-8-derived diurnal variations in ground-level PM2.5 pollution across China using the fast space-time Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM)Lidar depolarization ratio of atmospheric pollen at multiple wavelengthsStatistical validation of Aeolus L2A particle backscatter coefficient retrievals over ACTRIS/EARLINET stations in the Iberian PeninsulaLidar vertical observation network and data assimilation reveal key processes driving the 3-D dynamic evolution of PM2.5 concentrations over the North China PlainAEROCOM and AEROSAT AAOD and SSA study – Part 1: Evaluation and intercomparison of satellite measurementsAerosol radiative impact during the summer 2019 heatwave produced partly by an inter-continental Saharan dust outbreak – Part 1: Short-wave dust direct radiative effectImpact of smoke and non-smoke aerosols on radiation and low-level clouds over the southeast Atlantic from co-located satellite observationsAerosol particle depolarization ratio at 1565 nm measured with a Halo Doppler lidarLong-term variation in aerosol lidar ratio in Shanghai based on Raman lidar measurementsAerosol characteristics at the three poles of the Earth as characterized by Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite ObservationsAerosol impacts on warm-cloud microphysics and drizzle in a moderately polluted environmentAtmospheric boundary layer height estimation from aerosol lidar: a new approach based on morphological image processing techniquesLong-term multi-source data analysis about the characteristics of aerosol optical properties and types over AustraliaStatistical aerosol properties associated with fire events from 2002 to 2019 and a case analysis in 2019 over AustraliaObservation of absorbing aerosols above clouds over the south-east Atlantic Ocean from the geostationary satellite SEVIRI – Part 2: Comparison with MODIS and aircraft measurements from the CLARIFY-2017 field campaignFirst validation of GOME-2/MetOp absorbing aerosol height using EARLINET lidar observationsAutomated time–height-resolved air mass source attribution for profiling remote sensing applicationsAerosol type classification analysis using EARLINET multiwavelength and depolarization lidar observationsSatellite retrieval of aerosol combined with assimilated forecastA global analysis of diurnal variability in dust and dust mixture using CATS observations
Xinqi Xu, Jielan Xie, Yuman Li, Shengjie Miao, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 139–153,Short summary
The effect of meteorological elements on the three-dimensional distribution structure of particles was studied by making vehicle-based multi-lidar observations in the western Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area of China. Results showed that distribution of particles was closely related to horizontal wind speed and direction, vertical wind speed, and temperature. A model for meteorological elements affecting the vertical distribution of urban particles was offered in this study.
Manu Anna Thomas, Abhay Devasthale, and Michael Kahnert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 119–137,Short summary
The Southern Ocean (SO) covers a large area of our planet and its boundary layer is dominated by sea salt aerosols during winter. These aerosols have large implications for the regional climate through their direct and indirect effects. Using satellite and reanalysis data, we document if and how the aerosol properties over the SO are dependent on different local meteorological parameters. Such an observational assessment is necessary to improve the understanding of atmospheric aerosol processes.
Qingqing He, Mengya Wang, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18375–18391,Short summary
We explore the spatiotemporal relationship between PM2.5 and AOD over China using a multi-scale analysis with MODIS MAIAC 1 km aerosol observations and ground measurements. The impact factors (vertical distribution, relative humidity and terrain) on the relationship are quantitatively studied. Our results provide significant information on PM2.5 and AOD, which is informative for mapping high-resolution PM2.5 and furthering the understanding of aerosol properties and the PM2.5 pollution status.
Michaël Sicard, Oriol Jorba, Jiang Ji Ho, Rebeca Izquierdo, Concepción De Linares, Marta Alarcón, Adolfo Comerón, and Jordina Belmonte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17807–17832,Short summary
This paper investigates the mechanisms involved in the dispersion, structure, and mixing in the vertical column of atmospheric pollen, using observations of pollen concentration obtained at the ground and its stratification in the atmosphere measured by a lidar (laser radar), as well as an atmospheric transport model and a simplified pollen module developed especially for this study. The largest pollen concentration difference between the ground and the layers above is observed during nighttime.
Jianping Guo, Jian Zhang, Kun Yang, Hong Liao, Shaodong Zhang, Kaiming Huang, Yanmin Lv, Jia Shao, Tao Yu, Bing Tong, Jian Li, Tianning Su, Steve H. L. Yim, Ad Stoffelen, Panmao Zhai, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17079–17097,Short summary
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowest part of the troposphere, and boundary layer height (BLH) is the depth of the PBL and is of critical importance to the dispersion of air pollution. The study presents the first near-global BLH climatology by using high-resolution (5-10 m) radiosonde measurements. The variations in BLH exhibit large spatial and temporal dependence, with a peak at 17:00 local solar time. The most promising reanalysis product is ERA-5 in terms of modeling BLH.
Yingying Ma, Yang Zhu, Boming Liu, Hui Li, Shikuan Jin, Yiqun Zhang, Ruonan Fan, and Wei Gong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17003–17016,Short summary
The vertical distribution of the aerosol extinction coefficient (EC) measured by lidar systems has been used to retrieve the profile of particle matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). However, the traditional linear model cannot consider the influence of multiple meteorological variables sufficiently, which then causes low inversion accuracy. In this study, the machine learning algorithms which can input multiple features are used to solve this constraint.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Jared F. Brewer, Ke Li, Jonathan M. Moch, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Hyunkwang Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Su Keun Kuk, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Xuan Wang, Pengfei Liu, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Katherine R. Travis, Johnathan W. Hair, Bruce E. Anderson, Jack E. Dibb, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Qiang Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16775–16791,Short summary
Geostationary satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) has tremendous potential for monitoring surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our study explored the physical relationship between AOD and PM2.5 by integrating data from surface networks, aircraft, and satellites with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We quantitatively showed that accurate simulation of aerosol size distributions, boundary layer depths, relative humidity, coarse particles, and diurnal variations in PM2.5 are essential.
Ke Gui, Huizheng Che, Yu Zheng, Hujia Zhao, Wenrui Yao, Lei Li, Lei Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15309–15336,Short summary
This study utilized the globally gridded aerosol extinction data from CALIOP during 2007–2019 to investigate the 3D climatology, trends, and meteorological drivers of tropospheric type-dependent aerosols. Results revealed that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere contribute 62.08 % and 37.92 %, respectively, of the global tropospheric TAOD. Trends in CALIOP-derived aerosol loading, in particular those partitioned in the PBL, can be explained to a large extent by meteorology.
Jonas Witthuhn, Anja Hünerbein, Florian Filipitsch, Stefan Wacker, Stefanie Meilinger, and Hartwig Deneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14591–14630,Short summary
Knowledge of aerosol–radiation interactions is important for understanding the climate system and for the renewable energy sector. Here, two complementary approaches are used to assess the consistency of the underlying aerosol properties and the resulting radiative effect in clear-sky conditions over Germany in 2015. An approach based on clear-sky models and broadband irradiance observations is contrasted to the use of explicit radiative transfer simulations using CAMS reanalysis data.
Lixing Shen, Chuanfeng Zhao, Xingchuan Yang, Yikun Yang, and Ping Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Using multi-year data, this study reveals the slump of sea-land breeze (SLB) at Brisbane during mega fires and investigates the impact of fire-induced aerosols on SLB. Different aerosols have different impacts on sea wind (SW) and land wind (LW) respectively. Totally, aerosols cause the decrease of SW, partially offset by the warming effect of black carbon (BC). The large scale cooling effect of aerosols on sea surface temperature (SST) and the burst of BC contribute to the slump of LW.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Paul Ginoux, and Jerry Shen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13369–13395,Short summary
We present a satellite-derived global dust climatological record over the last two decades, including the monthly mean visible dust optical depth (DAOD) and vertical distribution of dust extinction coefficient at a 2º × 5º spatial resolution derived from CALIOP and MODIS. In addition, the CALIOP climatological dataset also includes dust vertical extinction profiles. Based on these two datasets, we carried out a comprehensive comparative study of the spatial and temporal climatology of dust.
Patrick Chazette, Alexandre Baron, and Cyrille Flamant
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Within the framework of the international EUREC4A project, horizontal lidar measurements were carried out over Barbados from the French research aircraft ATR-42. These measurements highlighted the strong heterogeneity of the aerosol field and therefore of the associated optical properties. This heterogeneity varies according to meteorological conditions and could significantly modulate the climatic impact of aerosols trapped over the tropical Atlantic.
Isabelle Chiapello, Paola Formenti, Lydie Mbemba Kabuiku, Fabrice Ducos, Didier Tanré, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12715–12737,Short summary
The Mediterranean atmosphere is impacted by a variety of particle pollution, which exerts a complex pressure on climate and air quality. We analyze the 2005–2013 POLDER-3 satellite advanced aerosol data set over the Western Mediterranean Sea. Aerosols' spatial distribution and temporal evolution suggests a large-scale improvement of air quality related to the fine aerosol component, most probably resulting from reduction of anthropogenic particle emissions in the surrounding European countries.
Sujung Go, Alexei Lyapustin, Gregory L. Schuster, Myungje Choi, Paul Ginoux, Mian Chin, Olga Kalashnikova, Oleg Dubovik, Jhoon Kim, Arlindo da Silva, Brent Holben, and Jeffrey S. Reid
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This paper presents a retrieval algorithm of iron oxides species (hematite, goethite) content in the atmosphere from observation of EPIC satellite instrument. Our results display variations within the published range of hematite, goethite both spatially and temporally over the main dust source regions. It implies single-viewing satellite instruments may provide essential information in shortwave dust direct radiative effects study of climate modeling.
Hongbin Yu, Qian Tan, Lillian Zhou, Yaping Zhou, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Claire L. Ryder, Robert C. Levy, Yaswant Pradhan, Yingxi Shi, Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Peter R. Colarco, Dongchul Kim, Lorraine A. Remer, Tianle Yuan, Olga Mayol-Bracero, and Brent N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12359–12383,Short summary
This study characterizes a historic African dust intrusion into the Caribbean Basin in June 2020 using satellites and NASA GEOS. Dust emissions in West Africa were large albeit not extreme. However, a unique synoptic system accumulated the dust near the coast for about 4 d before it was ventilated. Although GEOS reproduced satellite-observed plume tracks well, it substantially underestimated dust emissions and did not lift up dust high enough for ensuing long-range transport.
Yuqin Liu, Tao Lin, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Lamei Shi, Yiyi Huang, Xian Wu, Hao Zhou, Jiahua Zhang, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12331–12358,Short summary
The four-dimensional variation of aerosol properties over the BTH, YRD and PRD (east China) were investigated using satellite observations from 2007 to 2020. Distinct differences between the aerosol optical depth and vertical distribution of the occurrence of aerosol types over these regions depend on season, aerosol loading and meteorological conditions. Day–night differences between the vertical distribution of aerosol types suggest effects of boundary layer dynamics and aerosol transport.
Ákos Horváth, James L. Carr, Olga A. Girina, Dong L. Wu, Alexey A. Bril, Alexey A. Mazurov, Dmitry V. Melnikov, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12189–12206,Short summary
We give a detailed description of a new technique to estimate the height of volcanic eruption columns from near-limb geostationary imagery. Such oblique angle observations offer spectacular side views of eruption columns protruding from the Earth ellipsoid and thereby facilitate a height-by-angle estimation method. Due to its purely geometric nature, the new technique is unaffected by the limitations of traditional brightness-temperature-based height retrievals.
Ákos Horváth, Olga A. Girina, James L. Carr, Dong L. Wu, Alexey A. Bril, Alexey A. Mazurov, Dmitry V. Melnikov, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12207–12226,Short summary
We demonstrate the side view plume height estimation technique described in Part 1 on seven volcanic eruptions from 2019 and 2020, including the 2019 Raikoke eruption. We explore the strengths and limitations of the new technique in comparison to height estimation from brightness temperatures, stereo observations, and ground-based video footage.
Daniel Pérez-Ramírez, David N. Whiteman, Igor Veselovskii, Richard Ferrare, Gloria Titos, María José Granados-Muñoz, Guadalupe Sánchez-Hernández, and Francisco Navas-Guzmán
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12021–12048,Short summary
This paper shows how aerosol hygroscopicity enhances the vertical profile of aerosol backscattering and extinction. The study is possible thanks to the large set of remote sensing instruments and focuses on the the Baltimore–Washington DC metropolitan area during hot and humid summer days with very relevant anthropogenic emission aerosol sources. The results illustrate how the combination of aerosol emissions and meteorological conditions ultimately alters the aerosol radiative forcing.
Lin Tian, Lin Chen, Peng Zhang, and Lei Bi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11669–11687,Short summary
The result shows dust aerosols from the Taklimakan Desert have higher aerosol scattering during dust storm cases of this paper, and this caused higher negative direct radiative forcing efficiency (DRFEdust) than aerosols from the Sahara. The microphysical properties and particle shapes of dust aerosol significantly influence DRFEdust. The satellite-based equi-albedo method has a unique advantage in DRFEdust estimation: it could validate the results derived from the numerical model directly.
África Barreto, Emilio Cuevas, Rosa D. García, Judit Carrillo, Joseph M. Prospero, Luka Ilić, Sara Basart, Alberto J. Berjón, Carlos L. Marrero, Yballa Hernández, Juan José Bustos, Slobodan Ničković, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this study, we categorise the different patterns of dust transport over the subtropical North Atlantic and, for the first time, robustly describe the dust vertical distribution in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) over this region. Our results revealed the important role that both dust and water vapour play in the radiative balance in summer and winter and confirm the role of the SAL on the formation of mid-level clouds as a result of the activation of heterogeneous ice nucleation processes.
Zhixin Xue, Pawan Gupta, and Sundar Christopher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11243–11256,Short summary
Frequent and widespread wildfires in the northwestern United States and Canada have become the
new normalduring the Northern Hemisphere summer months, which degrades particulate matter air quality in the United States significantly. Using satellite data, we show that smoke aerosols caused significant pollution changes over half of the United States. We estimate that nearly 29 states have increased PM2.5 during the fire-active year when compared to fire-inactive years.
Konstantin Baibakov, Samuel LeBlanc, Keyvan Ranjbar, Norman T. O'Neill, Mengistu Wolde, Jens Redemann, Kristina Pistone, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, Tak W. Chan, Michael J. Wheeler, Leonid Nichman, Connor Flynn, and Roy Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10671–10687,Short summary
We find that the airborne measurements of the vertical extinction due to aerosols (aerosol optical depth, AOD) obtained in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) can significantly exceed ground-based values. This can have an effect on estimating the AOSR radiative impact and is relevant to satellite validation based on ground-based measurements. We also show that the AOD can marginally increase as the plumes are being transported away from the source and the new particles are being formed.
Hossein Dadashazar, David Painemal, Majid Alipanah, Michael Brunke, Seethala Chellappan, Andrea F. Corral, Ewan Crosbie, Simon Kirschler, Hongyu Liu, Richard H. Moore, Claire Robinson, Amy Jo Scarino, Michael Shook, Kenneth Sinclair, K. Lee Thornhill, Christiane Voigt, Hailong Wang, Edward Winstead, Xubin Zeng, Luke Ziemba, Paquita Zuidema, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10499–10526,Short summary
This study investigates the seasonal cycle of cloud drop number concentration (Nd) over the western North Atlantic Ocean (WNAO) using multiple datasets. Reasons for the puzzling discrepancy between the seasonal cycles of Nd and aerosol concentration were identified. Results indicate that Nd is highest in winter (when aerosol proxy values are often lowest) due to conditions both linked to cold-air outbreaks and that promote greater droplet activation.
Qingyang Xiao, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Cuihong Chen, Xiaomeng Huang, Huizheng Che, Xiaoye Zhang, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9475–9496,Short summary
We used both statistical methods and a chemical transport model to assess the contribution of meteorology and emissions to PM2.5 during 2000–2018. Both methods revealed that emissions dominated the long-term PM2.5 trend with notable meteorological effects ranged up to 37.9 % of regional annual average PM2.5. The meteorological contribution became more beneficial to PM2.5 control in southern China but more unfavorable in northern China during the studied period.
Jose Antonio Benavent-Oltra, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Roberto Román, Hassan Lyamani, Daniel Pérez-Ramírez, María José Granados-Muñoz, Milagros Herrera, Alberto Cazorla, Gloria Titos, Pablo Ortiz-Amezcua, Andrés Esteban Bedoya-Velásquez, Gregori de Arruda Moreira, Noemí Pérez, Andrés Alastuey, Oleg Dubovik, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Francisco José Olmo-Reyes, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9269–9287,Short summary
In this paper, we use the GRASP algorithm combining different remote sensing measurements to obtain the aerosol vertical and column properties during the SLOPE I and II campaigns. We show an overview of aerosol properties retrieved by GRASP during these campaigns and evaluate the retrievals of aerosol properties using the in situ measurements performed at a high-altitude station and airborne flights. For the first time we present an evaluation of the absorption coefficient by GRASP.
Michaël Sicard, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, María-Ángeles López-Cayuela, Albert Ansmann, Adolfo Comerón, María-Paz Zorzano, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, and Constantino Muñoz-Porcar
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This paper completes the companion paper of Córdoba-Jabonero et al. (2021). We estimate the total direct radiative effect produced by mineral dust particles during the June 2019 mega-heatwave at 2 sites in Spain and Germany. The results show that the dust particles in the atmosphere contribute to cool the surface (les radiation reaches the surface), and that the heatwave (parametrized by high surface and air temperatures) contributes to reduce this cooling.
Victor Trees, Ping Wang, and Piet Stammes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8593–8614,Short summary
Given the time and location of a point on the Earth's surface, we explain how to compute the wavelength-dependent obscuration during solar eclipses. We restore the top-of-atmosphere reflectances and the absorbing aerosol index in the partial Moon shadow during the solar eclipses on 26 December 2019 and 21 June 2020 measured by TROPOMI. This correction method resolves eclipse anomalies and allows for study of the effect of solar eclipses on the composition of the Earth's atmosphere from space.
Yan Yu and Paul Ginoux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8511–8530,Short summary
Despite Australian dust’s critical role in the regional climate and surrounding marine ecosystems, the controlling factors of its spatiotemporal variations are not fully understood. This study establishes the connection between large-scale climate variability and regional dust emission, leading to a better understanding of the spatiotemporal variation in dust activity and improved prediction of dust's climate and ecological influences.
Aurélien Chauvigné, Fabien Waquet, Frédérique Auriol, Luc Blarel, Cyril Delegove, Oleg Dubovik, Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Philippe Goloub, Rodrigue Loisil, Marc Mallet, Jean-Marc Nicolas, Frédéric Parol, Fanny Peers, Benjamin Torres, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8233–8253,Short summary
This work presents aerosol above-cloud properties close to the Namibian coast from a combination of airborne passive remote sensing. The complete analysis of aerosol and cloud optical properties and their microphysical and radiative properties allows us to better identify the impacts of biomass burning emissions. This work also gives a complete overview of the key parameters for constraining climate models in case aerosol and cloud coexist in the troposphere.
Jing Wei, Zhanqing Li, Rachel T. Pinker, Jun Wang, Lin Sun, Wenhao Xue, Runze Li, and Maureen Cribb
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7863–7880,Short summary
This study developed a space-time Light Gradient Boosting Machine (STLG) model to derive the high-temporal-resolution (1 h) and high-quality PM2.5 dataset in China (i.e., ChinaHighPM2.5) at a 5 km spatial resolution from the Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager aerosol products. Our model outperforms most previous related studies with a much lower computation burden in terms of speed and memory, making it most suitable for real-time air pollution monitoring in China.
Stephanie Bohlmann, Xiaoxia Shang, Ville Vakkari, Elina Giannakaki, Ari Leskinen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Sanna Pätsi, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7083–7097,Short summary
Measurements of the multi-wavelength Raman polarization lidar PollyXT and a Halo Photonics StreamLine Doppler lidar have been combined with measurements of pollen type and concentration using a traditional pollen trap at the rural forest site in Vehmasmäki, Finland. Depolarization ratios were measured at three wavelengths. High depolarization ratios were detected during an event with high birch and spruce pollen concentrations and a wavelength dependence of the depolarization ratio was observed.
Jesús Abril-Gago, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Maria João Costa, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Michaël Sicard, Diego Bermejo-Pantaleón, Daniele Bortoli, María José Granados-Muñoz, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, Adolfo Comerón, Pablo Ortiz-Amezcua, Vanda Salgueiro, Marta María Jiménez-Martín, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A validation of Aeolus reprocessed optical products is presented through an intercomparison with ground-based measurements taken several ACTRIS/EARLINET in Western Europe. Case studies are first presented, followed by a statistical analysis. The stations are located in a hot spot between Africa and the rest of Europe, which guarantees a variety of aerosol types, from mineral dust layers to continental/anthropogenic aerosol, and allow us to test Aeolus performance under different scenarios.
Yan Xiang, Tianshu Zhang, Chaoqun Ma, Lihui Lv, Jianguo Liu, Wenqing Liu, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7023–7037,Short summary
For the first time, a vertical observation network consisting of 13 aerosol lidars and more than 1000 ground observation stations were combined with a data assimilation technique to reveal key processes driving the 3-D dynamic evolution of PM2.5 concentrations during extreme heavy aerosol pollution on the North China Plain.
Nick Schutgens, Oleg Dubovik, Otto Hasekamp, Omar Torres, Hiren Jethva, Peter J. T. Leonard, Pavel Litvinov, Jens Redemann, Yohei Shinozuka, Gerrit de Leeuw, Stefan Kinne, Thomas Popp, Michael Schulz, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6895–6917,Short summary
Absorptive aerosol has a potentially large impact on climate change. We evaluate and intercompare four global satellite datasets of absorptive aerosol optical depth (AAOD) and single-scattering albedo (SSA). We show that these datasets show reasonable correlations with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) reference, although significant biases remain. In a follow-up paper we show that these observations nevertheless can be used for model evaluation.
Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, Michaël Sicard, María-Ángeles López-Cayuela, Albert Ansmann, Adolfo Comerón, María-Paz Zorzano, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, and Constantino Muñoz-Porcar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6455–6479,Short summary
The particular pathway of dust outbreaks defines the aerosol scenario and short-wave (SW) dust direct radiative effect (DRE). The synergetic use of POLIPHON method with continuous P-MPL measurements allows SW DRE of coarse (Dc) and fine (Df) dust particles to be evaluated separately. A dust-induced cooling effect is found, and despite Dc usually being dominant in intense dust events, the Df contribution to the total DRE can be significant, being higher at the top of atmosphere than on surface.
Alejandro Baró Pérez, Abhay Devasthale, Frida A.-M. Bender, and Annica M. L. Ekman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6053–6077,Short summary
We study the impacts of above-cloud biomass burning plumes on radiation and clouds over the southeast Atlantic using data derived from satellite observations and data-constrained model simulations. A substantial amount of the aerosol within the plumes is not classified as smoke by the satellite. The atmosphere warms more with increasing smoke aerosol loading. No clear influence of aerosol type, loading, or moisture within the overlying aerosol plumes is detected on the cloud top cooling rates.
Ville Vakkari, Holger Baars, Stephanie Bohlmann, Johannes Bühl, Mika Komppula, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, and Ewan James O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5807–5820,Short summary
The depolarization ratio is a valuable parameter for aerosol categorization from remote sensing measurements. Here, we introduce particle depolarization ratio measurements at the 1565 nm wavelength, which is substantially longer than previously utilized wavelengths and enhances our capabilities to study the wavelength dependency of the particle depolarization ratio.
Tongqiang Liu, Qianshan He, Yonghang Chen, Jie Liu, Qiong Liu, Wei Gao, Guan Huang, Wenhao Shi, and Xiaohong Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5377–5391,Short summary
The variation in aerosol 355 nm lidar ratio and its influence factors were analyzed in Shanghai. About 90 % of the lidar ratio was distributed in 10 sr–80 sr, with an average of 41.0±22.5 sr, and the lidar ratio decreased with the increase in height. Due to aerosol radiative effects, the vertical slope of the lidar ratio presented a decreasing trend with increasing atmospheric turbidity. A large lidar ratio above 1 km was related to biomass burning aerosols and high relative humidity.
Yikun Yang, Chuanfeng Zhao, Quan Wang, Zhiyuan Cong, Xingchuan Yang, and Hao Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4849–4868,Short summary
The occurrence frequency of different aerosol types and aerosol optical depth over the Arctic, Antarctic and Tibetan Plateau (TP) show distinctive spatiotemporal differences. The aerosol extinction coefficient in the Arctic and TP has a broad vertical distribution, while that of the Antarctic has obvious seasonal differences. Compared with the Antarctic, the Arctic and TP are vulnerable to surrounding pollutants, and the source of air masses has obvious seasonal variations.
Ying-Chieh Chen, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Qilong Min, Sarah Lu, Pay-Liam Lin, Neng-Huei Lin, Kao-Shan Chung, and Everette Joseph
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4487–4502,Short summary
In this study, we integrate satellite and surface observations to statistically quantify aerosol impacts on low-level warm-cloud microphysics and drizzle over northern Taiwan. Our result provides observational evidence for aerosol indirect effects. The frequency of drizzle is reduced under polluted conditions. For light-precipitation events (≤ 1 mm h-1), however, higher aerosol concentrations drive raindrops toward smaller sizes and thus increase the appearance of the drizzle drops.
Gemine Vivone, Giuseppe D'Amico, Donato Summa, Simone Lolli, Aldo Amodeo, Daniele Bortoli, and Gelsomina Pappalardo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4249–4265,Short summary
We developed a methodology to retrieve the atmospheric boundary layer height from elastic and multi-wavelength lidar observations that uses a new approach based on morphological image processing techniques. The intercomparison with other state-of-the-art algorithms shows on average 30 % improved performance. The algorithm also shows excellent performance with respect to the running time, i.e., just few seconds to execute the whole signal processing chain over 72 h of continuous measurements.
Xingchuan Yang, Chuanfeng Zhao, Yikun Yang, and Hao Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3803–3825,Short summary
We investigate the spatiotemporal distributions of aerosol optical properties and major aerosol types, along with the vertical distribution of the major aerosol types over Australia based on multi-source data. The results of this study provide significant information on aerosol optical properties in Australia, which can help to understand their characteristics and potential climate impacts.
Xingchuan Yang, Chuanfeng Zhao, Yikun Yang, Xing Yan, and Hao Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3833–3853,Short summary
Using long-term multi-source data, this study shows significant impacts of fire events on aerosol properties over Australia. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the total was 26 % of the annual average but larger (30–43 %) in September–December; smoke and dust are the two dominant aerosol types at different heights in southeastern Australia for the 2019 fire case. These findings are helpful for understanding aerosol climate effects and improving climate modeling in Australia in future.
Fanny Peers, Peter Francis, Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Keith N. Bower, Michael I. Cotterell, Ian Crawford, Nicholas W. Davies, Cathryn Fox, Stuart Fox, Justin M. Langridge, Kerry G. Meyer, Steven E. Platnick, Kate Szpek, and Jim M. Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3235–3254,Short summary
Satellite observations at high temporal resolution are a valuable asset to monitor the transport of biomass burning plumes and the cloud diurnal cycle in the South Atlantic, but they need to be validated. Cloud and above-cloud aerosol properties retrieved from SEVIRI are compared against MODIS and measurements from the CLARIFY-2017 campaign. While some systematic differences are observed between SEVIRI and MODIS, the overall agreement in the cloud and aerosol properties is very satisfactory.
Konstantinos Michailidis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Nikolaos Siomos, Dimitris Balis, Olaf Tuinder, L. Gijsbert Tilstra, Lucia Mona, Gelsomina Pappalardo, and Daniele Bortoli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3193–3213,Short summary
The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the GOME-2 instrument aboard the MetOp-A, MetOp-B and MetOp-C platforms to deliver accurate geometrical features of lofted aerosol layers. For this purpose, we use archived ground-based data from lidar stations available from the EARLINET database. We show that for this well-developed and spatially well-spread aerosol layer, most GOME-2 retrievals fall within 1 km of the exact temporally collocated lidar observation.
Martin Radenz, Patric Seifert, Holger Baars, Athena Augusta Floutsi, Zhenping Yin, and Johannes Bühl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3015–3033,
Maria Mylonaki, Elina Giannakaki, Alexandros Papayannis, Christina-Anna Papanikolaou, Mika Komppula, Doina Nicolae, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Aldo Amodeo, Holger Baars, and Ourania Soupiona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2211–2227,Short summary
We introduce an automated aerosol type classification method, SCAN. The output of SCAN is compared with two aerosol classification methods: (1) the Mahalanobis distance automatic aerosol type classification and (2) a neural network aerosol typing algorithm. A total of 97 free tropospheric aerosol layers from four EARLINET stations in the period 2014–2018 were classified.
Mayumi Yoshida, Keiya Yumimoto, Takashi M. Nagao, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Maki Kikuchi, and Hiroshi Murakami
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1797–1813,Short summary
We developed a new aerosol satellite retrieval algorithm combining a numerical aerosol forecast. This is the first study that utilizes the assimilated model forecast of aerosol as an a priori estimate of the retrieval. Aerosol retrievals were improved by effectively incorporating both model and satellite information. By using the assimilated forecast as an a priori estimate, information from previous observations can be propagated to future retrievals, thus leading to better retrieval accuracy.
Yan Yu, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Michael J. Garay, Huikyo Lee, Myungje Choi, Gregory S. Okin, John E. Yorks, James R. Campbell, and Jared Marquis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1427–1447,Short summary
Given the current uncertainties in the simulated diurnal variability of global dust mobilization and concentration, observational characterization of the variations in dust mobilization and concentration will provide a valuable benchmark for evaluating and constraining such model simulations. The current study investigates the diurnal cycle of dust loading across the global tropics, subtropics, and mid-latitudes by analyzing aerosol observations from the International Space Station.
Ansmann, A., Seifert, P., Tesche, M., and Wandinger, U.: Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajökull/Grimsvötn volcanic plumes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9399–9415, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-9399-2012, 2012.
Ashpole, I. and Washington, R.: An automated dust detection using SEVIRI: A multiyear climatology of summertime dustiness in the central and western Sahara, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D08202, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD016845, 2012.
Ashpole, I. and Washington, R.: A new high-resolution central and western Saharan summertime dust source map from automated satellite dust plume tracking, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 6981–6995, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50554, 2013.
Ben-Ami, Y., Koren, I., Rudich, Y., Artaxo, P., Martin, S. T., and Andreae, M. O.: Transport of North African dust from the Bodélé depression to the Amazon Basin: a case study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7533–7544, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-7533-2010, 2010.
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Crouvi, O., Schepanski, K., Amit, R., Gillespie, A. R., and Enzel, Y.: Multiple dust sources in the Sahara Desert: The importance of sand dunes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L13401, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052145, 2012.
Dansie, A. P., Wiggs, G. F. S., and Thomas, D. S. G.: Iron and nutrient content of wind-erodible sediment in the ephemeral river valleys of Namibia, Geomorphology, 290, 335–346, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2017.03.016, 2017.
Drake, N. A., Handley, R., O'Loingsigh, T., Brooks, N., and Bryant, R.: Identifying Saharan dust sources using remote sensing: a comparison of TOMS AI, Meteosat IDDI and a new MODIS Dust Index, Geophysical Research Abstracts (EGU Conference 2008), Volume 10, available at: http://hdl.handle.net/10072/40935, 2008.
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Formenti, P., Schütz, L., Balkanski, Y., Desboeufs, K., Ebert, M., Kandler, K., Petzold, A., Scheuvens, D., Weinbruch, S., and Zhang, D.: Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8231–8256, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-8231-2011, 2011.
Gebhart, K. A., Schichtel, B. A., and Barna, M. G.: Directional biases in back trajectories caused by model and input data., J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc., 55, 1649–1662, https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2005.10464758, 2005.
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Harrison, S. P., Kohfeld, K. E., Roelandt, C., and Claquin, T.: The role of dust in climate changes today, at the last glacial maximum and in the future, Earth-Sci. Rev., 54, 43–80, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-8252(01)00041-1, 2001.
Haywood, J., Francis, P., Osborne, S., Glew, M., Loeb, N., Highwood, E., Tanré, D., Myhre, G., Formenti, P., and Hirst, E.: Radiative properties and direct radiative effect of Saharan dust measured by the C-130 aircraft during SHADE: 1. Solar spectrum, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8577, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002687, 2003.
Hsu, N. C., Tsay, S.-C., King, M. D., and Herman, J. R.: Aerosol Properties Over Bright-Reflecting Source Regions, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 42, 557–569, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2004.824067, 2004.
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Kaufman, Y. J., Tanré, D., Remer, L. A., Vermote, E. F., Chu, A., and Holben, B. N.: Operational remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol over land from EOS moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 102, 17051–17067, https://doi.org/10.1029/96JD03988, 1997.
Kaufman, Y. J., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., Tanré, D., Ginoux, P., and Fan, S.: Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10S12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004436, 2005.
Kim, D., Chin, M., Remer, L. A., Diehl, T., Bian, H., Yu, H., Brown, M. E., and Stockwell, W. R.: Role of surface wind and vegetation cover in multi-decadal variations of dust emission in the Sahara and Sahel, Atmos. Environ., 148, 282–296, https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ATMOSENV.2016.10.051, 2017.
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Northern African mineral dust provides the Amazon Basin with essential nutrients, although the process is still poorly understood. In our study, we utilise high-resolution satellite data to analyse northern African dust sources of the 2015–2017 winter dust seasons. We find that the majority of dust is emitted from palaeolake and palaeoriver systems. Specifically, palaeorivers have been mostly overlooked to date. Furthermore, we find that dune fields do not produce much dust.
Northern African mineral dust provides the Amazon Basin with essential nutrients, although the...