Articles | Volume 17, issue 24
Research article 21 Dec 2017
Research article | 21 Dec 2017
Characterizing energy budget variability at a Sahelian site: a test of NWP model behaviour
Anna Mackie et al.
No articles found.
Caterina Mogno, Paul I. Palmer, Christoph Knote, Fei Yao, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10881–10909,Short summary
We use a 3-D atmospheric chemistry model to investigate how seasonal emissions sources and meteorological conditions affect the surface distribution of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and organic aerosol (OA) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain. We find that all seasonal mean values of PM2.5 still exceed safe air quality levels, with human emissions contributing to PM2.5 all year round, open fires during post- and pre-monsoon, and biogenic emissions during monsoon. OA contributes up to 30 % to PM2.5.
Mark Lunt, Alistair Manning, Grant Allen, Tim Arnold, Stéphane Bauguitte, Hartmut Boesch, Anita Ganesan, Aoife Grant, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, Simon O'Doherty, Paul Palmer, Joseph Pitt, Chris Rennick, Daniel Say, Kieran Stanley, Ann Stavert, Dickon Young, and Matt Rigby
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We present an evaluation of the UK's methane emissions between 2013 and 2020 using a network of tall tower measurement sites. We find emissions that are consistent in both magnitude and trend with the UK's reported emissions with a declining trend driven by a decrease in emissions from England. The impact of various components of the modelling setup on these findings are explored through a number of sensitivity studies.
Margaret R. Marvin, Paul I. Palmer, Barry G. Latter, Richard Siddans, Brian J. Kerridge, Mohd Talib Latif, and Md Firoz Khan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1917–1935,Short summary
We use an atmospheric chemistry model in combination with satellite and surface observations to investigate how biomass burning affects tropospheric ozone over Southeast Asia during its fire seasons. We find that nitrogen oxides from biomass burning were responsible for about 30 % of the regional ozone formation potential, and we estimate that ozone from biomass burning caused more than 400 excess premature deaths in Southeast Asia during the peak burning months of March and September 2014.
James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Doug P. Finch, Shona E. Wilde, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15743–15759,Short summary
Efforts to prevent the COVID-19 virus spreading across the globe have included travel restrictions and the closure of workplaces, leading to a significant drop in emissions of primary air pollutants. This provides for a unique opportunity to examine how air pollutant concentrations respond to an abrupt and prolonged reduction. We examine how NO2 and O3 have been affected at several urban measurement sites in the UK. We look at the change in NO2 compared to previous years and the effect on O3.
Antoine Berchet, Espen Sollum, Rona L. Thompson, Isabelle Pison, Joël Thanwerdas, Grégoire Broquet, Frédéric Chevallier, Tuula Aalto, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Richard Engelen, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Christoph Gerbig, Christine Groot Zwaaftink, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Stephan Henne, Sander Houweling, Ute Karstens, Werner L. Kutsch, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Guillaume Monteil, Paul I. Palmer, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Elise Potier, Christian Rödenbeck, Marielle Saunois, Marko Scholze, Aki Tsuruta, and Yuanhong Zhao
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We present here a Community Inversion Framework (CIF) to help rationalize development efforts and leverage the strengths of individual inversion systems into a comprehensive framework. The CIF is a programming protocol to allow various inversion bricks to be exchanged among researchers. The ensemble of bricks makes a flexible, transparent and open-source python-based tool. We describe the main structure and functionalities and demonstrate it in a simple academic case.
Robert J. Parker, Alex Webb, Hartmut Boesch, Peter Somkuti, Rocio Barrio Guillo, Antonio Di Noia, Nikoleta Kalaitzi, Jasdeep S. Anand, Peter Bergamaschi, Frederic Chevallier, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Coleen Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Voltaire A. Velazco, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, and Debra Wunch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3383–3412,Short summary
This work presents the latest release of the University of Leicester GOSAT methane data and acts as the definitive description of this dataset. We detail the processing, validation and evaluation involved in producing these data and highlight its many applications. With now over a decade of global atmospheric methane observations, this dataset has helped, and will continue to help, us better understand the global methane budget and investigate how it may respond to a future changing climate.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone Alin, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Almut Arneth, Vivek Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Selma Bultan, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Wiley Evans, Liesbeth Florentie, Piers M. Forster, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Ian Harris, Kerstin Hartung, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Vassilis Kitidis, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Adam J. P. Smith, Adrienne J. Sutton, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3269–3340,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2020 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Richard J. Bantges, Helen E. Brindley, Jonathan E. Murray, Alan E. Last, Jacqueline E. Russell, Cathryn Fox, Stuart Fox, Chawn Harlow, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Keith N. Bower, Bryan A. Baum, Ping Yang, Hilke Oetjen, and Juliet C. Pickering
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12889–12903,Short summary
Understanding how ice clouds influence the Earth's energy balance remains a key challenge for predicting the future climate. These clouds are ubiquitous and are composed of ice crystals that have complex shapes that are incredibly difficult to model. This work exploits new measurements of the Earth's emitted thermal energy made from instruments flown on board an aircraft to test how well the latest ice cloud models can represent these clouds. Results indicate further developments are required.
Ruqian Miao, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Yele Sun, Paul I. Palmer, Manish Shrivastava, Jianping Guo, Qiang Zhang, Yuhan Liu, Zhaofeng Tan, Xuefei Ma, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12265–12284,Short summary
In this study we evaluated the model performances for simulating secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and organic aerosol (OA) in PM2.5 in China against comprehensive datasets. The potential biases from factors related to meteorology, emission, chemistry, and atmospheric removal are systematically investigated. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of modeling PM2.5, which is important for studies on the effectiveness of emission control strategies.
Mark F. Lunt, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Christopher M. Taylor, Hartmut Boesch, and Robert J. Parker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14721–14740,Short summary
Using data from the GOSAT satellite between 2010 and 2016 and a Bayesian inversion approach, we estimate monthly emissions of methane from tropical Africa. We find an increase in methane emissions during this period, driven in part by rising emissions from South Sudan. Using ancillary data we attribute this short-term emissions rise to an increase in the extent of the Sudd wetlands driven by increased outflow from the East African lakes.
Sean Crowell, David Baker, Andrew Schuh, Sourish Basu, Andrew R. Jacobson, Frederic Chevallier, Junjie Liu, Feng Deng, Liang Feng, Kathryn McKain, Abhishek Chatterjee, John B. Miller, Britton B. Stephens, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, David Schimel, Ray Nassar, Christopher W. O'Dell, Tomohiro Oda, Colm Sweeney, Paul I. Palmer, and Dylan B. A. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9797–9831,Short summary
Space-based retrievals of carbon dioxide offer the potential to provide dense data in regions that are sparsely observed by the surface network. We find that flux estimates that are informed by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) show different character from that inferred using surface measurements in tropical land regions, particularly in Africa, with a much larger total emission and larger amplitude seasonal cycle.
Joseph R. Pitt, Grant Allen, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Martin W. Gallagher, James D. Lee, Will Drysdale, Beth Nelson, Alistair J. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8931–8945,Short summary
This paper presents a new method to assess inventory estimates of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions for large cities and their surrounding regions. A case study using data sampled by a research aircraft around London was used to test the method. We found that the UK national inventory agrees with our observations for CO but needed lower emissions for CH4 to agree with the measured data. Repeated studies could help determine how these emissions vary on different timescales.
Christophe Bellisario, Helen E. Brindley, Simon F. B. Tett, Rolando Rizzi, Gianluca Di Natale, Luca Palchetti, and Giovanni Bianchini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7927–7937,Short summary
We explore the possibility of inferring far-infrared downwelling radiances from mid-infrared observations to better constrain radiation schemes in climate models. Our results imply that while it is feasible to use this type of approach, the quality of the extension will be strongly dependent on the noise characteristics of the observations and on the accurate characterisation of the atmospheric state.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Jamie R. Banks, Anja Hünerbein, Bernd Heinold, Helen E. Brindley, Hartwig Deneke, and Kerstin Schepanski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6893–6911,Short summary
Saharan dust storms may be observed over the desert using false-colour infrared satellite imagery; in one widely used scheme dust displays characteristic pink colours. Simulating satellite imagery using a dust transport model, we confirm that water vapour is a major control on the apparent colour of dust in the false-colour imagery and that dust displays its deepest colours when it is at a high altitude and when the atmosphere is dry. Water vapour can obscure the presence of low-altitude dust.
Paul I. Palmer, Emily L. Wilson, Geronimo L. Villanueva, Giuliano Liuzzi, Liang Feng, Anthony J. DiGregorio, Jianping Mao, Lesley Ott, and Bryan Duncan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2579–2594,Short summary
We describe the potential impact of a new, low-cost, portable ground instrument (the mini-LHR) that measures methane and carbon dioxide in the atmospheric column. This region is key in quantifying the global carbon budget but has geographical gaps in measurements left by ground-based networks and space-based observations. A deployment of 50 mini-LHRs would add new data products in the Amazon, the Arctic, and southern Asia and significantly improve knowledge of regional and global carbon budgets.
Emily D. White, Matthew Rigby, Mark F. Lunt, T. Luke Smallman, Edward Comyn-Platt, Alistair J. Manning, Anita L. Ganesan, Simon O'Doherty, Ann R. Stavert, Kieran Stanley, Mathew Williams, Peter Levy, Michel Ramonet, Grant L. Forster, Andrew C. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4345–4365,Short summary
Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from the terrestrial biosphere on a national scale is important for evaluating land use strategies to mitigate climate change. We estimate emissions of CO2 from the UK biosphere using atmospheric data in a top-down approach. Our findings show that bottom-up estimates from models of biospheric fluxes overestimate the amount of CO2 uptake in summer. This suggests these models wrongly estimate or omit key processes, e.g. land disturbance due to harvest.
Carole Helfter, Neil Mullinger, Massimo Vieno, Simon O'Doherty, Michel Ramonet, Paul I. Palmer, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3043–3063,Short summary
We present a novel approach to estimate the annual budgets of carbon dioxide (881.0 ± 128.5 Tg) and methane (2.55 ± 0.48 Tg) of the British Isles from shipborne measurements taken over a 3-year period (2015–2017). This study brings independent verification of the emission budgets estimated using alternative products and investigates the seasonality of these emissions, which is usually not possible.
Sarah Connors, Alistair J. Manning, Andrew D. Robinson, Stuart N. Riddick, Grant L. Forster, Anita Ganesan, Aoife Grant, Stephen Humphrey, Simon O'Doherty, Dave E. Oram, Paul I. Palmer, Robert L. Skelton, Kieran Stanley, Ann Stavert, Dickon Young, and Neil R. P. Harris
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas & reducing its emissions is a vital part of climate change mitigation to limit global temperature increase to 1.5 °C or 2.0 °C. This paper explains a way to estimate emitted methane over a sub-national area by combining measurements & computer dispersion modelling in a so-called
inversiontechnique. Compared with the current national inventory, our results show lower emissions for Cambridgeshire, possibly due to waste sector emission differences.
Oscar B. Dimdore-Miles, Paul I. Palmer, and Lori P. Bruhwiler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17895–17907,Short summary
The Arctic is experiencing warming trends higher than the global mean. Arctic ecosystems are a large store of carbon. As the soil organic carbon thaws and decomposes, some fraction of this store will eventually be released to the atmosphere as methane. We show that a previously used measurement-based metric to identify changes in Arctic methane emissions does not reliably quantify these changes because it neglects the effect of atmospheric transport. A better metric will combine data and models.
Christopher W. O'Dell, Annmarie Eldering, Paul O. Wennberg, David Crisp, Michael R. Gunson, Brendan Fisher, Christian Frankenberg, Matthäus Kiel, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Lukas Mandrake, Aronne Merrelli, Vijay Natraj, Robert R. Nelson, Gregory B. Osterman, Vivienne H. Payne, Thomas E. Taylor, Debra Wunch, Brian J. Drouin, Fabiano Oyafuso, Albert Chang, James McDuffie, Michael Smyth, David F. Baker, Sourish Basu, Frédéric Chevallier, Sean M. R. Crowell, Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Mavendra Dubey, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Rigel Kivi, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Christof Petri, Coleen M. Roehl, Mahesh K. Sha, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Te, Osamu Uchino, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6539–6576,
Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Robyn Butler, Stephen J. Andrews, Elliot L. Atlas, Lucy J. Carpenter, Valeria Donets, Neil R. P. Harris, Ross J. Salawitch, Laura L. Pan, and Sue M. Schauffler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14787–14798,Short summary
We infer surface fluxes of bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromoform (CH2Br2) from CAST and CONTRAST aircraft observations over the western Pacific, using a tagged version of the GEOS-Chem global 3-D atmospheric chemistry model and a Maximum A Posteriori inverse model. Using the aircraft data, we estimate the regional fluxes about 20–40 % smaller than the prior inventories by Ordóñez et al. (2012). We find no evidence to support a robust linear relationship between CHBr3 and CH2Br2 oceanic emissions.
Robyn Butler, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Stephen J. Andrews, Elliot L. Atlas, Lucy J. Carpenter, Valeria Donets, Neil R. P. Harris, Stephen A. Montzka, Laura L. Pan, Ross J. Salawitch, and Sue M. Schauffler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13135–13153,Short summary
Natural sources of short-lived bromoform and dibromomethane are important for determining the inorganic bromine budget in the stratosphere that drives ozone loss. Two new modelling techniques describe how different geographical source regions influence their atmospheric variability over the western Pacific. We find that it is driven primarily by open ocean sources, and we use atmospheric observations to help estimate their contributions to the upper tropospheric inorganic bromine budget.
Neil Humpage, Hartmut Boesch, Paul I. Palmer, Andy Vick, Phil Parr-Burman, Martyn Wells, David Pearson, Jonathan Strachan, and Naidu Bezawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5199–5222,Short summary
We present an overview of the GreenHouse gas Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST) instrument, a novel shortwave infrared grating spectrometer designed for remote sensing of total column greenhouse gas concentrations from an aircraft. Using laboratory measurements we show that the GHOST design is able to achieve its science objectives. We conclude by describing GHOST's maiden flights on board the NASA Global Hawk UAV during CAST/ATTREX and show some of the initial results.
Paul I. Palmer, Simon O'Doherty, Grant Allen, Keith Bower, Hartmut Bösch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sarah Connors, Sandip Dhomse, Liang Feng, Douglas P. Finch, Martin W. Gallagher, Emanuel Gloor, Siegfried Gonzi, Neil R. P. Harris, Carole Helfter, Neil Humpage, Brian Kerridge, Diane Knappett, Roderic L. Jones, Michael Le Breton, Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Matthiesen, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Sebastian O'Shea, Robert J. Parker, Carl J. Percival, Joseph Pitt, Stuart N. Riddick, Matthew Rigby, Harjinder Sembhi, Richard Siddans, Robert L. Skelton, Paul Smith, Hannah Sonderfeld, Kieran Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Angelina Wenger, Emily White, Christopher Wilson, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11753–11777,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) experiment. GAUGE was designed to quantify nationwide GHG emissions of the UK, bringing together measurements and atmospheric transport models. This novel experiment is the first of its kind. We anticipate it will inform the blueprint for countries that are building a measurement infrastructure in preparation for global stocktakes, which are a key part of the Paris Agreement.
Jamie R. Banks, Kerstin Schepanski, Bernd Heinold, Anja Hünerbein, and Helen E. Brindley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9681–9703,Short summary
Satellite observations are used to visualize dust storms over the Sahara, and specific infrared channel combinations can highlight dust with distinctive pink colours. Using output from a dust-atmosphere model to simulate satellite imagery, we explore the consequences of particle size, shape, and refractive index for the colour of dust in the imagery. Particles with a radius of ~ 1.5 microns perturb the colour the most and an assumption of spherical dust appears to be insufficient.
Jake J. Gristey, J. Christine Chiu, Robert J. Gurney, Cyril J. Morcrette, Peter G. Hill, Jacqueline E. Russell, and Helen E. Brindley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5129–5145,
Luke Surl, Paul I. Palmer, and Gonzalo González Abad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4549–4566,Short summary
We used observations of HCHO formaldehyde columns from the OMI satellite instrument and the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model to investigate how and why HCHO varies over India. We find that emissions of biogenic VOC from forests are the most powerful driver, with forests' response to seasonal temperature variations causing variation over time. Human-driven emissions of VOC and burning of vegetation have detectable, but more limited, impacts.
Liang Feng, Paul I. Palmer, Hartmut Bösch, Robert J. Parker, Alex J. Webb, Caio S. C. Correia, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Lucas G. Domingues, Dietrich G. Feist, Luciana V. Gatti, Emanuel Gloor, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Yi Liu, John B. Miller, Isamu Morino, Ralf Sussmann, Kimberly Strong, Osamu Uchino, Jing Wang, and Andreas Zahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4781–4797,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry and transport and an ensemble Kalman filter to simultaneously infer regional fluxes of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) directly from GOSAT retrievals of XCH4:XCO2, using sparse ground-based CH4 and CO2 mole fraction data to anchor the ratio. Our results show that assimilation of GOSAT data significantly reduced the posterior uncertainty and changed the a priori spatial distribution of CH4 emissions.
Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Seungun Lee, Gonzalo González Abad, Thomas P. Kurosu, Paul I. Palmer, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4673–4686,Short summary
A geostationary satellite can measure daytime hourly HCHO columns. Atmospheric conditions such as synoptic meteorology and the presence of other gases and aerosols may affect HCHO measurements. We examine the effects of their temporal variation on the HCHO measurement of a geostationary satellite in East Asia. We find that the hourly variation of other species could be important. Especially the inclusion of hourly aerosol variation in the retrieval could lead to improving HCHO measurements.
Jamie R. Banks, Helen E. Brindley, Georgiy Stenchikov, and Kerstin Schepanski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3987–4003,Short summary
From an 11-year analysis of satellite measurements of atmospheric dust presence over the Red Sea, it is clear that there is a strong north–south gradient in dust activity and a pronounced interannual variability in this activity. Analysing two commonly used satellite retrieval methods to quantify dust presence, we find that under the most extreme dust storm conditions the measured dust optical thicknesses can diverge strongly between the two methods.
Eleonora Aruffo, Fabio Biancofiore, Piero Di Carlo, Marcella Busilacchio, Marco Verdecchia, Barbara Tomassetti, Cesare Dari-Salisburgo, Franco Giammaria, Stephane Bauguitte, James Lee, Sarah Moller, James Hopkins, Shalini Punjabi, Stephen J. Andrews, Alistair C. Lewis, Paul I. Palmer, Edward Hyer, Michael Le Breton, and Carl Percival
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5591–5606,Short summary
During the BORTAS aircraft campaign, we measured NO2 and their oxidtation products (as peroxy nitrates) with a custom laser-induced fluorescence instrument. Because of the high correlation between known pyrogenic tracers (i.e., carbon monoxide) and peroxy nitrates, we provide two methods to use these species for the identification of biomass burning (BB) plumes. Using an artifical neural network, we improved the BB identification taking into account of a meteorological parameter (pressure).
Dennis Booge, Christa A. Marandino, Cathleen Schlundt, Paul I. Palmer, Michael Schlundt, Elliot L. Atlas, Astrid Bracher, Eric S. Saltzman, and Douglas W. R. Wallace
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11807–11821,Short summary
Isoprene, a biogenic trace gas, is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol/cloud condensation nuclei. Here, we use isoprene and related field measurements from three different ocean data sets together with remotely sensed satellite data to model global marine isoprene emissions. Our findings suggest that there is at least one missing oceanic source of isoprene and possibly other unknown factors in the ocean or atmosphere influencing the atmospheric values.
J. M. Barlow, P. I. Palmer, and L. M. Bruhwiler
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
We report significant changes in the amplitude of the atmospheric CH4 seasonal cycle at sites over the Arctic. All corresponding evidence points to a persistent increase in wetlands. We show using a global 3-d chemistry transport model that reductions in North American and European fossil fuel emissions could explain a large portion of the amplitude decrease, but we still require significant, persistent emissions from wetlands to reconcile observed trends in the seasonal cycle.
R. Hossaini, P. K. Patra, A. A. Leeson, G. Krysztofiak, N. L. Abraham, S. J. Andrews, A. T. Archibald, J. Aschmann, E. L. Atlas, D. A. Belikov, H. Bönisch, L. J. Carpenter, S. Dhomse, M. Dorf, A. Engel, W. Feng, S. Fuhlbrügge, P. T. Griffiths, N. R. P. Harris, R. Hommel, T. Keber, K. Krüger, S. T. Lennartz, S. Maksyutov, H. Mantle, G. P. Mills, B. Miller, S. A. Montzka, F. Moore, M. A. Navarro, D. E. Oram, K. Pfeilsticker, J. A. Pyle, B. Quack, A. D. Robinson, E. Saikawa, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Sala, B.-M. Sinnhuber, S. Taguchi, S. Tegtmeier, R. T. Lidster, C. Wilson, and F. Ziska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9163–9187,
Marcella Busilacchio, Piero Di Carlo, Eleonora Aruffo, Fabio Biancofiore, Cesare Dari Salisburgo, Franco Giammaria, Stephane Bauguitte, James Lee, Sarah Moller, James Hopkins, Shalini Punjabi, Stephen Andrews, Alistair C. Lewis, Mark Parrington, Paul I. Palmer, Edward Hyer, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3485–3497,Short summary
Boreal fire emissions have little effect on ozone concentrations but evident impact on some NOx reservoirs as peroxy nitrates that we quantified. This should be taken into account since NOx reservoirs can be efficiently transported and may influence the ozone budget far away from the fire emission. The study is based on observations carried out on board the BAe 146 aircraft during BORTAS in Canada. We used a custom laser-induced fluorescence system to measure NO2 and NOx reservoirs.
John H. Marsham, Douglas J. Parker, Martin C. Todd, Jamie R. Banks, Helen E. Brindley, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Alexander J. Roberts, and Claire L. Ryder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3563–3575,Short summary
The roles of water, clouds and airborne dust in controlling the heating of the Sahara are uncertain, which has major implications for the West African monsoon. Observations from the Fennec project, with satellite data, show that total atmospheric water content provides a far stronger control on total radiative heating than dust does, but dust provides the stronger control on surface heating. Therefore major heating errors in global models are likely due to known errors in water transport.
L. Feng, P. I. Palmer, R. J. Parker, N. M. Deutscher, D. G. Feist, R. Kivi, I. Morino, and R. Sussmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1289–1302,Short summary
There is an on-going debate on the larger European biospheric uptake inferred from GOSAT XCO2 retrievals than those inferred from in situ data. Using a set of 15 experiments, we found that the elevated uptake over Europe could largely be explained by mis-fitting data due to regional XCO2 biases: 50–80 % of the elevated European uptake is due to retrievals outside the immediate European; and a varying monthly bias of up to 0.5 ppm for XCO2 retrievals over Europe could explain most of the remainder.
J. R. Pitt, M. Le Breton, G. Allen, C. J. Percival, M. W. Gallagher, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. J. O'Shea, J. B. A. Muller, M. S. Zahniser, J. Pyle, and P. I. Palmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 63–77,Short summary
We present details of an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS) used to make airborne measurements of N2O and CH4, including its configuration for use on board an aircraft. Two different methods to correct for the influence of water vapour on the measurements are evaluated. We diagnose a sensitivity of the instrument to changes in pressure, introduce a new calibration procedure to account for this effect, and assess its performance.
J. M. Barlow, P. I. Palmer, L. M. Bruhwiler, and P. Tans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13739–13758,Short summary
The major results from our analysis include (1) a significant revision to previously reported estimates of phase changes in the seasonal cycle atmospheric CO2, which are more closely related to changes in the terrestrial biosphere; and (2) an indirect observation that is consistent with high northern latitude ecosystems progressively taking up more CO2 during spring and early summer.
H. Lindqvist, C. W. O'Dell, S. Basu, H. Boesch, F. Chevallier, N. Deutscher, L. Feng, B. Fisher, F. Hase, M. Inoue, R. Kivi, I. Morino, P. I. Palmer, R. Parker, M. Schneider, R. Sussmann, and Y. Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13023–13040,Short summary
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration varies seasonally mainly due to plant photosynthesis in the Northern Hemisphere. We found that the satellite GOSAT can capture this variability from space to within 1ppm. We also found that models can differ by more than 1ppm. This implies that the satellite measurements could be useful in evaluating models and their prior estimates of carbon dioxide sources and sinks.
R. J. Parker, H. Boesch, K. Byckling, A. J. Webb, P. I. Palmer, L. Feng, P. Bergamaschi, F. Chevallier, J. Notholt, N. Deutscher, T. Warneke, F. Hase, R. Sussmann, S. Kawakami, R. Kivi, D. W. T. Griffith, and V. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4785–4801,Short summary
Atmospheric CH4 is an important greenhouse gas. Long-term global observations are necessary to understand its behaviour, with satellite observations playing a key role. The "proxy" retrieval method is one of the most successful but relies on the contribution from atmospheric CO2 models. This work assesses the significance of the uncertainty from the model CO2 within the retrieval and determines that despite this uncertainty the data are still valuable for determining sources and sinks of CH4.
S. Osipov, G. Stenchikov, H. Brindley, and J. Banks
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9537–9553,Short summary
The radiative effect of dust over the Arabian Peninsula for different surfaces and for a range of optical depths is calculated and tested using satellite and ground-based observations.
C. L. Ryder, J. B. McQuaid, C. Flamant, P. D. Rosenberg, R. Washington, H. E. Brindley, E. J. Highwood, J. H. Marsham, D. J. Parker, M. C. Todd, J. R. Banks, J. K. Brooke, S. Engelstaedter, V. Estelles, P. Formenti, L. Garcia-Carreras, C. Kocha, F. Marenco, H. Sodemann, C. J. T. Allen, A. Bourdon, M. Bart, C. Cavazos-Guerra, S. Chevaillier, J. Crosier, E. Darbyshire, A. R. Dean, J. R. Dorsey, J. Kent, D. O'Sullivan, K. Schepanski, K. Szpek, J. Trembath, and A. Woolley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8479–8520,Short summary
Measurements of the Saharan atmosphere and of atmospheric mineral dust are lacking but are vital to our understanding of the climate of this region and their impacts further afield. Novel observations were made by the Fennec climate programme during June 2011 and 2012 using ground-based, remote sensing and airborne platforms. Here we describe the airborne observations and the contributions they have made to furthering our understanding of the Saharan climate system.
S. Gonzi, P. I. Palmer, R. Paugam, M. Wooster, and M. N. Deeter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4339–4355,
M. D. Jolleys, H. Coe, G. McFiggans, J. W. Taylor, S. J. O'Shea, M. Le Breton, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. Moller, P. Di Carlo, E. Aruffo, P. I. Palmer, J. D. Lee, C. J. Percival, and M. W. Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3077–3095,Short summary
Particulate emissions in the form of organic aerosol from boreal forest fires in Canada have been measured during an aircraft measurement campaign. Ratios of the amount of aerosol emitted relative to gas species such as CO were calculated and show high levels of variability throughout the campaign. This variability is affected by both changes in fire conditions, as fires tended to die down later in the measurement period, and by changes to the aerosol due to chemical reactions in the atmosphere.
D. P. Finch, P. I. Palmer, and M. Parrington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13789–13800,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to quantify the CO sources responsible for the observed CO during the BORTAS-B campaign over Canada in 2011. We found the largest source was biomass burning from Ontario, with smaller sources from fossil fuel emissions from Asia and NE US. We develop an age-of-emission metric and show values in BORTAS-B are consistent with a slowing of photochemistry in plumes. Indirect evidence suggests this slowing is due to aerosols within the plumes.
J. W. Taylor, J. D. Allan, G. Allen, H. Coe, P. I. Williams, M. J. Flynn, M. Le Breton, J. B. A. Muller, C. J. Percival, D. Oram, G. Forster, J. D. Lee, A. R. Rickard, M. Parrington, and P. I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13755–13771,Short summary
We present a case study of BC wet removal by examining aerosol properties in three biomass burning plumes, one of which passed through a precipitating cloud. Nucleation scavenging preferentially removed the largest and most coated BC-containing particles. Calculated single-scattering albedo (SSA) showed little variation, as a large number of non-BC particles were also present in the precipitation-affected plume.
A. Fraser, P. I. Palmer, L. Feng, H. Bösch, R. Parker, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. B. Krummel, and R. L. Langenfelds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12883–12895,Short summary
Satellite measurements of CO2 and CH4 can be subject to regional systematic errors that can consequently compromise their ability to infer robust flux estimates of these two gases. We develop a method to use retrieved ratios of CH4 and CO2 that are less affected by systematic error. We show that additional in situ data are needed to anchor these observed ratios so they can simultaneously infer fluxes of CO2 and CH4. We argue the ratio data will provide a more faithful description of true fluxes.
J. E. Franklin, J. R. Drummond, D. Griffin, J. R. Pierce, D. L. Waugh, P. I. Palmer, M. Parrington, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, J. W. Taylor, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. A. Walker, L. Chisholm, T. J. Duck, J. T. Hopper, Y. Blanchard, M. D. Gibson, K. R. Curry, K. M. Sakamoto, G. Lesins, L. Dan, J. Kliever, and A. Saha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8449–8460,
S. J. O'Shea, G. Allen, M. W. Gallagher, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. M. Illingworth, M. Le Breton, J. B. A. Muller, C. J. Percival, A. T. Archibald, D. E. Oram, M. Parrington, P. I. Palmer, and A. C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12451–12467,
D. Griffin, K. A. Walker, J. E. Franklin, M. Parrington, C. Whaley, J. Hopper, J. R. Drummond, P. I. Palmer, K. Strong, T. J. Duck, I. Abboud, P. F. Bernath, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, K. R. Curry, L. Dan, E. Hyer, J. Kliever, G. Lesins, M. Maurice, A. Saha, K. Tereszchuk, and D. Weaver
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10227–10241,
M. Parrington, P. I. Palmer, A. C. Lewis, J. D. Lee, A. R. Rickard, P. Di Carlo, J. W. Taylor, J. R. Hopkins, S. Punjabi, D. E. Oram, G. Forster, E. Aruffo, S. J. Moller, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, and R. J. Leigh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7321–7341,
M. D. Gibson, J. R. Pierce, D. Waugh, J. S. Kuchta, L. Chisholm, T. J. Duck, J. T. Hopper, S. Beauchamp, G. H. King, J. E. Franklin, W. R. Leaitch, A. J. Wheeler, Z. Li, G. A. Gagnon, and P. I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7199–7213,
P. I. Palmer, M. Parrington, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, P. F. Bernath, T. J. Duck, D. L. Waugh, D. W. Tarasick, S. Andrews, E. Aruffo, L. J. Bailey, E. Barrett, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, K. R. Curry, P. Di Carlo, L. Chisholm, L. Dan, G. Forster, J. E. Franklin, M. D. Gibson, D. Griffin, D. Helmig, J. R. Hopkins, J. T. Hopper, M. E. Jenkin, D. Kindred, J. Kliever, M. Le Breton, S. Matthiesen, M. Maurice, S. Moller, D. P. Moore, D. E. Oram, S. J. O'Shea, R. C. Owen, C. M. L. S. Pagniello, S. Pawson, C. J. Percival, J. R. Pierce, S. Punjabi, R. M. Purvis, J. J. Remedios, K. M. Rotermund, K. M. Sakamoto, A. M. da Silva, K. B. Strawbridge, K. Strong, J. Taylor, R. Trigwell, K. A. Tereszchuk, K. A. Walker, D. Weaver, C. Whaley, and J. C. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6239–6261,
A. Fraser, P. I. Palmer, L. Feng, H. Boesch, A. Cogan, R. Parker, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, R. L. Langenfelds, S. O'Doherty, R. G. Prinn, L. P. Steele, M. van der Schoot, and R. F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5697–5713,
C. J. Hardacre, P. I. Palmer, K. Baumanns, M. Rounsevell, and D. Murray-Rust
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5451–5472,
D. A. Belikov, S. Maksyutov, M. Krol, A. Fraser, M. Rigby, H. Bian, A. Agusti-Panareda, D. Bergmann, P. Bousquet, P. Cameron-Smith, M. P. Chipperfield, A. Fortems-Cheiney, E. Gloor, K. Haynes, P. Hess, S. Houweling, S. R. Kawa, R. M. Law, Z. Loh, L. Meng, P. I. Palmer, P. K. Patra, R. G. Prinn, R. Saito, and C. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1093–1114,
A. C. Lewis, M. J. Evans, J. R. Hopkins, S. Punjabi, K. A. Read, R. M. Purvis, S. J. Andrews, S. J. Moller, L. J. Carpenter, J. D. Lee, A. R. Rickard, P. I. Palmer, and M. Parrington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 851–867,
C. L. Ryder, E. J. Highwood, P. D. Rosenberg, J. Trembath, J. K. Brooke, M. Bart, A. Dean, J. Crosier, J. Dorsey, H. Brindley, J. Banks, J. H. Marsham, J. B. McQuaid, H. Sodemann, and R. Washington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 303–325,
Related subject area
Subject: Radiation | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Photovoltaic power potential in West Africa using long-term satellite dataA semi-empirical potential energy surface and line list for H216O extending into the near-ultravioletGlobal distribution and 14-year changes in erythemal irradiance, UV atmospheric transmission, and total column ozone for2005–2018 estimated from OMI and EPIC observationsBiomass-burning-induced surface darkening and its impact on regional meteorology in eastern ChinaAir pollution slows down surface warming over the Tibetan PlateauEstimation of hourly land surface heat fluxes over the Tibetan Plateau by the combined use of geostationary and polar-orbiting satellitesEstimations of global shortwave direct aerosol radiative effects above opaque water clouds using a combination of A-Train satellite sensorsUncertainty of atmospheric microwave absorption model: impact on ground-based radiometer simulations and retrievalsSimulated and observed horizontal inhomogeneities of optical thickness of Arctic stratusNet radiative effects of dust in the tropical North Atlantic based on integrated satellite observations and in situ measurementsComparison of global observations and trends of total precipitable water derived from microwave radiometers and COSMIC radio occultation from 2006 to 2013Scale dependence of cirrus horizontal heterogeneity effects on TOA measurements – Part I: MODIS brightness temperatures in the thermal infraredAerosol scattering effects on water vapor retrievals over the Los Angeles BasinDirectional, horizontal inhomogeneities of cloud optical thickness fields retrieved from ground-based and airbornespectral imagingAirborne observations of far-infrared upwelling radiance in the ArcticRetrieval of aerosol optical depth from surface solar radiation measurements using machine learning algorithms, non-linear regression and a radiative transfer-based look-up tableMicrowave signatures of ice hydrometeors from ground-based observations above Summit, GreenlandShortwave direct radiative effects of above-cloud aerosols over global oceans derived from 8 years of CALIOP and MODIS observationsRetrieving high-resolution surface solar radiation with cloud parameters derived by combining MODIS and MTSAT dataInstantaneous longwave radiative impact of ozone: an application on IASI/MetOp observationsA method to retrieve super-thin cloud optical depth over ocean background with polarized sunlightAirborne observations and simulations of three-dimensional radiative interactions between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floesDeriving polarization properties of desert-reflected solar spectra with PARASOL dataUsing IASI to simulate the total spectrum of outgoing long-wave radiancesInvestigation of the "elevated heat pump" hypothesis of the Asian monsoon using satellite observationsImproved retrieval of direct and diffuse downwelling surface shortwave flux in cloudless atmosphere using dynamic estimates of aerosol content and type: application to the LSA-SAF projectSurface-sensible and latent heat fluxes over the Tibetan Plateau from ground measurements, reanalysis, and satellite dataInfluence of local surface albedo variability and ice crystal shape on passive remote sensing of thin cirrusCombining MODIS, AVHRR and in situ data for evapotranspiration estimation over heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan PlateauModeling polarized solar radiation from the ocean–atmosphere system for CLARREO inter-calibration applicationsHIRS channel 12 brightness temperature dataset and its correlations with major climate indicesPerformance of the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) for temperature, water vapor, and trace gas retrievals: recent updates evaluated with IASI case studiesMulti-satellite aerosol observations in the vicinity of cloudsCLARA-SAL: a global 28 yr timeseries of Earth's black-sky surface albedoQuantitative comparison of the variability in observed and simulated shortwave reflectanceRegional radiative impact of volcanic aerosol from the 2009 eruption of Mt. RedoubtAirborne hyperspectral observations of surface and cloud directional reflectivity using a commercial digital cameraDirect and semi-direct radiative forcing of smoke aerosols over cloudsValidity of satellite measurements used for the monitoring of UV radiation risk on healthStatistics of vertical backscatter profiles of cirrus cloudsUsing surface remote sensors to derive radiative characteristics of Mixed-Phase Clouds: an example from M-PACEDetermination of land surface heat fluxes over heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan Plateau by using the MODIS and in situ dataCirrus cloud-temperature interactions in the tropical tropopause layer: a case studyCharacteristics of water-vapour inversions observed over the Arctic by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and radiosondesUse of satellite erythemal UV products in analysing the global UV changesEffects of absorbing aerosols in cloudy skies: a satellite study over the Atlantic OceanSpectrally-invariant behavior of zenith radiance around cloud edges simulated by radiative transferAssessment of the calibration performance of satellite visible channels using cloud targets: application to Meteosat-8/9 and MTSAT-1RDownscaling of METEOSAT SEVIRI 0.6 and 0.8 μm channel radiances utilizing the high-resolution visible channelTesting remote sensing on artificial observations: impact of drizzle and 3-D cloud structure on effective radius retrievals
Ina Neher, Susanne Crewell, Stefanie Meilinger, Uwe Pfeifroth, and Jörg Trentmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12871–12888,Short summary
Photovoltaic power is one current option to meet the rising energy demand with low environmental impact. Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) is the fuel for photovoltaic power installations and needs to be evaluated to plan and dimension power plants. In this study, 35 years of satellite-based GHI data are analyzed over West Africa to determine their impact on photovoltaic power generation. The major challenges for the development of a solar-based power system in West Africa are then outlined.
Eamon K. Conway, Iouli E. Gordon, Jonathan Tennyson, Oleg L. Polyansky, Sergei N. Yurchenko, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10015–10027,Short summary
Water vapour has a complex spectrum and absorbs from the microwave to the near-UV where it dissociates. There is limited knowledge of the absorption features in the near-UV, and there is a large disagreement for the available models and experiments. We created a new ab initio model that is in good agreement with observation at 363 nm. At lower wavelengths, our calculations suggest that the latest experiments overestimate absorption. This has implications for trace gas retrievals in the near-UV.
Jay Herman, Alexander Cede, Liang Huang, Jerald Ziemke, Omar Torres, Nickolay Krotkov, Matthew Kowalewski, and Karin Blank
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8351–8380,Short summary
The amount of erythemal irradiance reaching the Earth's surface has been calculated from ozone, aerosol, and reflectivity data obtained from OMI and DSCOVR/EPIC satellite instruments showing areas with high levels of solar UV radiation. Changes in erythemal irradiance, cloud transmission, aerosol transmission, and ozone absorption have been estimated for 14 years 2005–2018 in units of percent per year for 191 locations, mostly large cities, and from EPIC for the entire illuminated Earth.
Rong Tang, Xin Huang, Derong Zhou, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6177–6191,Short summary
Biomass-burning-induced large areas of dark char (i.e.
surface darkening) could influence the radiative energy balance. During the harvest season in eastern China, satellite retrieval shows that surface albedo was significantly decreased. Observational evidence of meteorological perturbations from the surface darkening is identified, which is further examined by model simulation. This work highlights the importance of burning-induced albedo change in weather forecast and regional climate.
Aolin Jia, Shunlin Liang, Dongdong Wang, Bo Jiang, and Xiaotong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 881–899,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays a vital role in regional and global climate change due to its location and orography. After generating a long-term surface radiation (SR) dataset, we characterized the SR spatiotemporal variation along with temperature. Evidence from multiple data sources indicated that the TP dimming was primarily driven by increased aerosols from human activities, and the cooling effect of aerosol loading offsets TP surface warming, revealing the human impact on regional warming.
Lei Zhong, Yaoming Ma, Zeyong Hu, Yunfei Fu, Yuanyuan Hu, Xian Wang, Meilin Cheng, and Nan Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5529–5541,Short summary
Fine-temporal-resolution turbulent heat fluxes at the plateau scale have significant importance for studying diurnal variation characteristics of atmospheric boundary and weather systems in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its surroundings. Time series of land surface heat fluxes with high temporal resolution over the entire TP were derived. The derived surface heat fluxes proved to be in good agreement with in situ measurements and were superior to GLDAS flux products.
Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Mark A. Vaughan, Jens Redemann, Stuart A. Young, Zhaoyan Liu, Yongxiang Hu, Ali H. Omar, Samuel LeBlanc, Yohei Shinozuka, John Livingston, Qin Zhang, and Kathleen A. Powell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4933–4962,Short summary
Significant efforts are required to estimate the direct radiative effects of aerosols above clouds (DAREcloudy). We have used a combination of passive and active A-Train satellite sensors and derive mainly positive global and regional DAREcloudy values (e.g., global seasonal values between 0.13 and 0.26 W m-2). Despite differences in methods and sensors, the DAREcloudy values in this study are generally higher than previously reported. We discuss the primary reasons for these higher estimates.
Domenico Cimini, Philip W. Rosenkranz, Mikhail Y. Tretyakov, Maksim A. Koshelev, and Filomena Romano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15231–15259,Short summary
The paper presents a general approach to quantify the uncertainty related to atmospheric absorption models. These models describe how the atmosphere interacts with radiation, and they have general implications for atmospheric sciences. The presented approach contributes to a better understanding of the total uncertainty affecting atmospheric radiative properties, thus reducing the chances of systematic errors when observations are exploited for weather forecast or climate trend derivations.
Michael Schäfer, Katharina Loewe, André Ehrlich, Corinna Hoose, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13115–13133,Short summary
Airborne observed horizontal fields of cloud optical thickness are compared with semi-idealized large eddy simulations of Arctic stratus. The comparison focuses on horizontal cloud inhomogeneities and directional features of the small-scale cloud structures. Using inhomogeneity parameters and autocorrelation analysis it is investigated, if the observed small-scale cloud inhomogeneities can be represented by the model. Forcings for cloud inhomogeneities are investigated in a sensitivity study.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Seiji Kato, Ping Yang, Peter Colarco, Lorraine A. Remer, and Claire L. Ryder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11303–11322,Short summary
Mineral dust is the most abundant atmospheric aerosol component in terms of dry mass. In this study, we integrate recent aircraft measurements of dust microphysical and optical properties with satellite retrievals of aerosol and radiative fluxes to quantify the dust direct radiative effects on the shortwave and longwave radiation at both the top of the atmosphere and the surface in the tropical North Atlantic during summer months.
Shu-Peng Ho, Liang Peng, Carl Mears, and Richard A. Anthes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 259–274,Short summary
In this study, we compare 7 years of atmospheric total precipitable water (TPW) derived from multiple microwave radiometers to collocated TPW estimates derived from COSMIC radio occultation under various atmospheric conditions over the oceans. Results show that these two TPW trends from independent observations are larger than previous estimates and are a strong indication of the positive water vapor–temperature feedback on a warming planet.
Thomas Fauchez, Steven Platnick, Kerry Meyer, Céline Cornet, Frédéric Szczap, and Tamás Várnai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8489–8508,Short summary
This study presents impact of cirrus cloud horizontal heterogeneity on simulated thermal infrared brightness temperatures at the top of the atmosphere for spatial resolutions ranging from 50 m to 10 km. The cirrus is generated by the 3DCLOUD code and the radiative transfer by the 3DMCPOL code. Brightness temperatures are mostly impacted by the horizontal transport effect and plane-parallel bias at high and coarse spatial resolutions, respectively, with a minimum around 100 m–250 m.
Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Qiong Zhang, Vijay Natraj, Jack S. Margolis, Run-Lie Shia, Sally Newman, Dejian Fu, Thomas J. Pongetti, Kam W. Wong, Stanley P. Sander, Paul O. Wennberg, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2495–2508,Short summary
We propose a novel approach to describing the scattering effects of atmospheric aerosols using H2O retrievals in the near infrared. We found that the aerosol scattering effect is the primary contributor to the variations in the wavelength dependence of the H2O SCD retrievals and the scattering effects can be derived using H2O retrievals from multiple bands. This proposed method could potentially contribute towards reducing biases in greenhouse gas retrievals from space.
Michael Schäfer, Eike Bierwirth, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Frank Werner, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2359–2372,Short summary
Cloud optical thickness fields, retrieved from solar spectral radiance measurements, are used to investigate the directional structure of horizontal cloud inhomogeneities with scalar one-dimensional inhomogeneity parameters, two-dimensional auto-correlation functions, and two-dimensional Fourier analysis. The investigations reveal that it is not sufficient to quantify horizontal cloud inhomogeneities by one-dimensional inhomogeneity parameters; two-dimensional parameters are necessary.
Quentin Libois, Liviu Ivanescu, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Hannes Schulz, Heiko Bozem, W. Richard Leaitch, Julia Burkart, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, Amir A. Aliabadi, and Éric Girard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15689–15707,Short summary
The first airborne measurements performed with the FIRR are presented. Vertical profiles of upwelling spectral radiance in the far-infrared are measured in the Arctic atmosphere for the first time. They show the impact of the temperature inversion on the radiative budget of the atmosphere, especially in the far-infrared. The presence of ice clouds also significantly alters the far-infrared budget, highlighting the critical interplay between water vapour and clouds in this very dry region.
Jani Huttunen, Harri Kokkola, Tero Mielonen, Mika Esa Juhani Mononen, Antti Lipponen, Juha Reunanen, Anders Vilhelm Lindfors, Santtu Mikkonen, Kari Erkki Juhani Lehtinen, Natalia Kouremeti, Alkiviadis Bais, Harri Niska, and Antti Arola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8181–8191,Short summary
For a good estimate of the current forcing by anthropogenic aerosols, knowledge in past is needed. One option to lengthen time series is to retrieve aerosol optical depth from solar radiation measurements. We have evaluated several methods for this task. Most of the methods produce aerosol optical depth estimates with a good accuracy. However, machine learning methods seem to be the most applicable not to produce any systematic biases, since they do not need constrain the aerosol properties.
Claire Pettersen, Ralf Bennartz, Mark S. Kulie, Aronne J. Merrelli, Matthew D. Shupe, and David D. Turner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4743–4756,Short summary
We examined four summers of data from a ground-based atmospheric science instrument suite at Summit Station, Greenland, to isolate the signature of the ice precipitation. By using a combination of instruments with different specialities, we identified a passive microwave signature of the ice precipitation. This ice signature compares well to models using synthetic data characteristic of the site.
Zhibo Zhang, Kerry Meyer, Hongbin Yu, Steven Platnick, Peter Colarco, Zhaoyan Liu, and Lazaros Oreopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2877–2900,Short summary
The frequency of occurrence and shortwave direct radiative effects (DRE) of above-cloud aerosols (ACAs) over global oceans are investigated using 8 years of collocated CALIOP and MODIS observations. We estimated that ACAs have a global ocean annual mean diurnally averaged cloudy-sky DRE of 0.015 W m−2 (range of −0.03 to 0.06 W m−2) at TOA. The DREs at surface and within atmosphere are −0.15 W m−2 (range of −0.09 to −0.21 W m−2), and 0.17 W m−2 (range of 0.11 to 0.24 W m−2), respectively.
Wenjun Tang, Jun Qin, Kun Yang, Shaomin Liu, Ning Lu, and Xiaolei Niu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2543–2557,Short summary
In this paper, we develop a new method to quickly retrieve high-resolution surface solar radiation (SSR) over China by combining MODIS and MTSAT data. The RMSEs of the retrieved SSR at hourly, daily, and monthly scales are about 98.5, 34.2, and 22.1 W m−2. The accuracy is comparable to or even higher than other two satellite radiation products. Finally, we derive an 8-year high-resolution SSR data set (hourly, 5 km) from 2007 to 2014, which would contribute to studies of land surface processes.
S. Doniki, D. Hurtmans, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, H. M. Worden, K. W. Bowman, and P.-F. Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12971–12987,
W. Sun, R. R. Baize, G. Videen, Y. Hu, and Q. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11909–11918,Short summary
A method is reported for retrieving super-thin cloud optical depth with polarized light. It is found that near-backscatter p-polarized light is sensitive to clouds, but not to ocean conditions. Near-backscatter p-polarized intensity linearly relates to super-thin cloud optical depth. Based on these findings, super-thin cloud optical depth can be retrieved with little effect from surface reflection.
M. Schäfer, E. Bierwirth, A. Ehrlich, E. Jäkel, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8147–8163,
W. Sun, R. R. Baize, C. Lukashin, and Y. Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7725–7734,
E. C. Turner, H.-T. Lee, and S. F. B. Tett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6561–6575,
M. M. Wonsick, R. T. Pinker, and Y. Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8749–8761,
X. Ceamanos, D. Carrer, and J.-L. Roujean
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8209–8232,
Q. Shi and S. Liang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5659–5677,
C. Fricke, A. Ehrlich, E. Jäkel, B. Bohn, M. Wirth, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1943–1958,
Y. Ma, Z. Zhu, L. Zhong, B. Wang, C. Han, Z. Wang, Y. Wang, L. Lu, P. M. Amatya, W. Ma, and Z. Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1507–1515,
W. Sun and C. Lukashin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10303–10324,
L. Shi, C. J. Schreck III, and V. O. John
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6907–6920,
M. J. Alvarado, V. H. Payne, E. J. Mlawer, G. Uymin, M. W. Shephard, K. E. Cady-Pereira, J. S. Delamere, and J.-L. Moncet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6687–6711,
T. Várnai, A. Marshak, and W. Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3899–3908,
A. Riihelä, T. Manninen, V. Laine, K. Andersson, and F. Kaspar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3743–3762,
Y. L. Roberts, P. Pilewskie, B. C. Kindel, D. R. Feldman, and W. D. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3133–3147,
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We compare the balance of solar and thermal radiation at the surface and the top of the atmosphere from a forecasting model to observations at a site in Niamey, Niger, in the Sahel. To interpret the energy budgets we examine other factors, such as cloud properties, water vapour and aerosols, which we use to understand the differences between the observation and model. We find that some differences are linked to lack of ice in clouds, underestimated aerosol loading and surface temperatures.
We compare the balance of solar and thermal radiation at the surface and the top of the...