Articles | Volume 16, issue 24
Research article 15 Dec 2016
Research article | 15 Dec 2016
Investigating the impact of regional transport on PM2.5 formation using vertical observation during APEC 2014 Summit in Beijing
Yang Hua et al.
No articles found.
Yan Xiang, Tianshu Zhang, Chaoqun Ma, Lihui Lv, Jianguo Liu, Wenqing Liu, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7023–7037,Short summary
For the first time, a vertical observation network consisting of 13 aerosol lidars and more than 1000 ground observation stations were combined with a data assimilation technique to reveal key processes driving the 3-D dynamic evolution of PM2.5 concentrations during extreme heavy aerosol pollution on the North China Plain.
Lin Huang, Song Liu, Zeyuan Yang, Jia Xing, Jia Zhang, Jiang Bian, Siwei Li, Shovan Kumar Sahu, Shuxiao Wang, and Tie-Yan Liu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for GMDShort summary
Accurate estimation of emissions is the prerequisite for effectively controlling air pollution, while current methods either lack sufficient data or representation of nonlinearity. Here we proposed a novel deep learning method to model the dual relationship between emission and pollutant concentration. The emission can be updated through backpropagating the gradient of the loss function measuring the deviation between simulations and observations, resulting in a better model performance.
Sunling Gong, Hongli Liu, Bihui Zhang, Jianjun He, Hengde Zhang, Yaqiang Wang, Shuxiao Wang, Lei Zhang, and Jie Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2999–3013,Short summary
Surface concentrations of PM2.5 in China have had a declining trend since 2013 across the country. This research found that the control measures of emission reduction are the dominant factors in the PM2.5 declining trends in various regions. The contribution by the meteorology to the surface PM2.5 concentrations from 2013 to 2019 was not found to show a consistent trend, fluctuating positively or negatively by about 5% on the annual average and 10–20% for the fall–winter heavy-pollution seasons.
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Runlong Cai, Chenxi Li, Xu-Cheng He, Chenjuan Deng, Yiqun Lu, Rujing Yin, Chao Yan, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2287–2304,Short summary
Growth rate determines the survival probability of atmospheric new particles and hence their impacts. We clarify the impacts of coagulation on the values retrieved by the appearance time method, which is widely used for growth rate evaluation. A new formula with coagulation correction is proposed based on derivation and tested using both models and atmospheric data. We show that the sub-3 nm particle growth rate in polluted environments may be overestimated without the coagulation correction.
Jia Xing, Siwei Li, Yueqi Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Dian Ding, Zhaoxin Dong, Yun Zhu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14347–14359,Short summary
Quantifying emission changes is a prerequisite for assessment of control effectiveness in improving air quality. However, traditional bottom-up methods usually take months to perform and limit timely assessments. A novel method was developed by using a response model that provides real-time estimation of emission changes based on air quality observations. It was successfully applied to quantify emission changes on the North China Plain due to the COVID-19 pandemic shutdown.
Lubna Dada, Ilona Ylivinkka, Rima Baalbaki, Chang Li, Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Lei Yao, Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Rujing Yin, Chenjuan Deng, Biwu Chu, Tuomo Nieminen, Yonghong Wang, Zhuohui Lin, Roseline C. Thakur, Jenni Kontkanen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Mikko Sipilä, Tareq Hussein, Pauli Paasonen, Federico Bianchi, Imre Salma, Tamás Weidinger, Michael Pikridas, Jean Sciare, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11747–11766,Short summary
We rely on sulfuric acid measurements in four contrasting environments, Hyytiälä, Finland; Agia Marina, Cyprus; Budapest, Hungary; and Beijing, China, representing semi-pristine boreal forest, rural environment in the Mediterranean area, urban environment, and heavily polluted megacity, respectively, in order to define the sources and sinks of sulfuric acid in these environments and to derive a new sulfuric acid proxy to be utilized in locations and during periods when it is not measured.
Jenni Kontkanen, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Lubna Dada, Ying Zhou, Jing Cai, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Simo Hakala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Zhuohui Lin, Yongchun Liu, Yonghong Wang, Chao Yan, Tuukka Petäjä, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11329–11348,Short summary
To estimate the impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles on air quality, knowledge of size distributions of particles emitted from anthropogenic sources is needed. We introduce a new method for determining size-resolved particle number emissions from measured particle size distributions. We apply our method to data measured in Beijing, China. We find that particle number emissions at our site are dominated by emissions of particles smaller than 30 nm, originating mainly from traffic.
Xiao Han, Lingyun Zhu, Mingxu Liu, Yu Song, and Meigen Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9979–9996,Short summary
China is one of the largest agricultural countries in the world. Some of the major PM2.5 particles that cause the atmospheric haze and impact the climate change were converted from agricultural NH3 emission. This paper applied the numerical modeling system, coupled with a high-resolution agricultural NH3 emissions inventory, to investigate the contribution of agricultural NH3 to PM2.5 mass burden in China and obtained some interesting results.
Tiantian Wang, Yu Song, Zhenying Xu, Mingxu Liu, Tingting Xu, Wenling Liao, Lifei Yin, Xuhui Cai, Ling Kang, Hongsheng Zhang, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8727–8736,Short summary
Satellite measurements have revealed that the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) has the global maximum ammonia concentrations, with a peak from June to August. Here, we studied the reasons for this phenomenon through computer simulations. Low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions and high air temperature over the IGP weaken the swallowing of gaseous ammonia by acidic gases. Additionally, the barrier effects of the Himalayas, like a windshield, are also conducive to the accumulation of ammonia.
Tao Ma, Hiroshi Furutani, Fengkui Duan, Takashi Kimoto, Jingkun Jiang, Qiang Zhang, Xiaobin Xu, Ying Wang, Jian Gao, Guannan Geng, Meng Li, Shaojie Song, Yongliang Ma, Fei Che, Jie Wang, Lidan Zhu, Tao Huang, Michisato Toyoda, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5887–5897,Short summary
The formation mechanisms of organic matter and sulfate in winter haze in the North China Plain remain unclear. This paper presents the identification and quantification of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) in PM2.5 in Beijing winter and elucidates the heterogeneous HMS chemistry in favorable winter haze conditions. We show that the HMS not only contributes a substantial mass of organic matter, but also leads to an overestimation of sulfate in conventional measurements.
Meng Gao, Zirui Liu, Bo Zheng, Dongsheng Ji, Peter Sherman, Shaojie Song, Jinyuan Xin, Cheng Liu, Yuesi Wang, Qiang Zhang, Jia Xing, Jingkun Jiang, Zifa Wang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1497–1505,Short summary
We quantified the relative influences of anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions on PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing over the winters of 2002–2016. Meteorological conditions over the study period would have led to an increase of haze in Beijing, but the strict emission control measures have suppressed the unfavorable influences of the recent climate.
Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yiliang Liu, Yueyun Fu, Juha Kangasluoma, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Federico Bianchi, Tom V. Kokkonen, Yongchun Liu, Joni Kujansuu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1201–1216,Short summary
In this study, we focus on explaining the concentration variations in the observed particle modes, by relating them to the potential aerosol sources and sinks, and on understanding the connections between these modes. Interestingly, even in the atmospheric cocktail in urban Beijing, secondary new particle formation (NPF) drives the particle number concentration, especially in the sub-3 nm range. We found that the total number concentration is ~ 4 times higher on NPF days than on haze days.
Lifei Yin, Zhenying Xu, Mingxu Liu, Tingting Xu, Tiantian Wang, Wenling Liao, Mengmeng Li, Xuhui Cai, Ling Kang, Hongsheng Zhang, and Yu Song
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) emission of terrestrial vegetation is an important part of biogeochemical cycle. Compared with previous studies which calculate regional BVOC emissions independently, the coupled model WRF-CLM-MEGAN achieves an integrated parameterization of BVOC emissions and other land surface processes, and therefore provides a more reasonable estimate. The model could be further coupled with chemistry module to fully investigate the land-atmosphere interactions.
Jia Xing, Dian Ding, Shuxiao Wang, Zhaoxin Dong, James T. Kelly, Carey Jang, Yun Zhu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13627–13646,Short summary
The study aims at addressing the challenge in efficient quantification of the nonlinear response of air pollution to precursor emission perturbations. The newly developed observable response indicators can be easily calculated by a combination of ambient concentrations of certain species. Their capability in representing the spatial and temporal variation in PM2.5 and O3 chemistry has also been well evaluated and applied in China.
Mingchen Ma, Yang Gao, Yuhang Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, L. Ruby Leung, Cheng Liu, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Xing Chang, Hang Su, Tianqi Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12195–12207,Short summary
Ozone pollution has become severe in China, and extremely high ozone episodes occurred in summer 2017 over the North China Plain. While meteorology impacts are clear, we find that enhanced biogenic emissions, previously ignored by the community, driven by high vapor pressure deficit, land cover change and urban landscape contribute substantially to ozone formation. This study has significant implications for ozone pollution control with more frequent heat waves and urbanization growth in future.
Xiaoxiao Li, Shaojie Song, Wei Zhou, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12163–12174,Short summary
Aerosol liquid water is ubiquitous in ambient aerosol. Using long-term aerosol chemical composition to model the aerosol water in Beijing, we found that water absorbed by organics contributes a significant fraction to the total aerosol water. We emphasize the hygroscopicity of organics is highly variable and should be taken into consideration in modelling. A positive feedback loop between organic hygroscopicity and aerosol water was found as one of the driving factors of severe haze in Beijing.
Ling Qi and Shuxiao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11545–11557,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) contributes two-thirds of the climate impact of carbon dioxide, pushing methane into third place of the human contributors to global warming. This study shows that contributions from biomass burning (producing marginal lensing effect) have a strong spatial variation, from 20 % in Europe to 60 % in Africa. Thus, the inclusion of strong lensing-related absorption enhancement to all BC particles in previous estimates may lead to overestimating their positive radiative forcing.
Tuan V. Vu, Zongbo Shi, Jing Cheng, Qiang Zhang, Kebin He, Shuxiao Wang, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11303–11314,Short summary
A 5-year Clean Air Action Plan was implemented in 2013 to improve ambient air quality in Beijing. Here, we applied a novel machine-learning-based model to determine the real trend in air quality from 2013 to 2017 in Beijing to assess the efficacy of the plan. We showed that the action plan led to a major reduction in primary emissions and significant improvement in air quality. The marked decrease in PM2.5 and SO2 is largely attributable to a reduction in coal combustion.
Xionghui Qiu, Qi Ying, Shuxiao Wang, Lei Duan, Jian Zhao, Jia Xing, Dian Ding, Yele Sun, Baoxian Liu, Aijun Shi, Xiao Yan, Qingcheng Xu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6737–6747,Short summary
Current chemical transport models cannot capture the diurnal and nocturnal variation in atmospheric nitrate, which may be relative to the missing atmospheric chlorine chemistry. In this work, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with improved chlorine heterogeneous chemistry is applied to simulate the impact of chlorine chemistry on summer nitrate concentrations in Beijing. The results of this work can improve our understanding of nitrate formation.
Jing Cheng, Jingping Su, Tong Cui, Xiang Li, Xin Dong, Feng Sun, Yanyan Yang, Dan Tong, Yixuan Zheng, Yanshun Li, Jinxiang Li, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6125–6146,Short summary
We attribute Beijing’s PM2.5 abatement in 2017 (compared to 2013) to the following factors: meteorology changes (3.8 μg m−3, 12.1 % of total), regional emission reduction (7.1 μg m−3, 22.5 %), and seven specific categories of control measures in Beijing (20.6 μg m−3, 65.4 %). Our study confirms the effectiveness of clean air actions in Beijing and its surrounding regions and reveals a new generation of control measures, and strengthened regional joint protection measures should be implemented.
Junlan Feng, Yan Zhang, Shanshan Li, Jingbo Mao, Allison P. Patton, Yuyan Zhou, Weichun Ma, Cong Liu, Haidong Kan, Cheng Huang, Jingyu An, Li Li, Yin Shen, Qingyan Fu, Xinning Wang, Juan Liu, Shuxiao Wang, Dian Ding, Jie Cheng, Wangqi Ge, Hong Zhu, and Katherine Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6167–6183,Short summary
This study aims to estimate the emissions, air quality and population exposure impacts of shipping in 2015, prior to the implementation of the DECAs. It shows that ship emissions within 12 NM of the shore could account for over 55 % of the shipping impact on air pollution in the YRD in summer. Ships entering the Yangtze River and other inland waterways of Shanghai contribute 40–80 % of the ship-related air pollution and population exposure，which both have important implications regarding policy.
Zhenying Xu, Mingxu Liu, Minsi Zhang, Yu Song, Shuxiao Wang, Lin Zhang, Tingting Xu, Tiantian Wang, Caiqing Yan, Tian Zhou, Yele Sun, Yuepeng Pan, Min Hu, Mei Zheng, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5605–5613,
Lifei Yin, Pin Du, Minsi Zhang, Mingxu Liu, Tingting Xu, and Yu Song
Biogeosciences, 16, 1629–1640,Short summary
Biomass burning is an important source of trace gases and aerosols in China, with a significant contribution from small-sized crop residue fires. Compared with conventional methods for emission estimation, the approach based on fire radiative energy (FRE) provides a more reasonable estimate for small-fire emissions. By using FRE data derived from satellites, we developed a long-term biomass burning emission inventory for China with a higher resolution (daily, 1 km) than previous studies.
Haotian Zheng, Siyi Cai, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Xing Chang, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3447–3462,Short summary
The heavy air pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region is a global hot topic. We established a unit-based industrial emission inventory for the BTH region. The inventory significantly improved air quality modeling results; this improvement subsequently contributes to an accurate source apportionment of haze pollution and more precisely targeted decision making.
Yiqun Lu, Chao Yan, Yueyun Fu, Yan Chen, Yiliang Liu, Gan Yang, Yuwei Wang, Federico Bianchi, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Rujing Yin, Rima Baalbaki, Olga Garmash, Chenjuan Deng, Weigang Wang, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1971–1983,Short summary
Gaseous sulfuric acid is one of the key precursors for atmospheric new particle formation processes, but its measurement remains challenging. This work develops an estimation method for the gaseous sulfuric acid concentration in an urban environment in China using multiple atmospheric variables that are easier to measure. The consideration of the heterogeneous formation of HONO and the subsequent photo-production of OH radicals improves the performance of the estimation method.
Xiaoxiao Li, Sabrina Chee, Jiming Hao, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Jingkun Jiang, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1555–1570,Short summary
We performed lab experiments to explore the role of relative humidity, RH, in atmospheric monoterpene oxidation and new particle formation. These studies will provide insights into the most important steps in the process, while also more accurately representing the real atmosphere. We found that the detected compounds did not change with RH, and in fact could mostly be fully explained by the autoxidation of organic peroxy radicals followed by bimolecular reactions with other peroxy radicals.
Shaojie Song, Meng Gao, Weiqi Xu, Yele Sun, Douglas R. Worsnop, John T. Jayne, Yuzhong Zhang, Lei Zhu, Mei Li, Zhen Zhou, Chunlei Cheng, Yibing Lv, Ying Wang, Wei Peng, Xiaobin Xu, Nan Lin, Yuxuan Wang, Shuxiao Wang, J. William Munger, Daniel J. Jacob, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1357–1371,Short summary
Chemistry responsible for sulfate production in northern China winter haze remains mysterious. We propose a potentially key pathway through the reaction of formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide that has not been accounted for in previous studies. The special atmospheric conditions favor the formation and existence of their complex, hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS).
Yan Ren, Hongsheng Zhang, Wei Wei, Bingui Wu, Xuhui Cai, and Yu Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1041–1057,Short summary
During the heavy pollution process, there are overestimations regarding the exchange between the atmosphere and surface since the normal calculation of turbulent fluxes includes the impact of sub-mesoscale motion. The intermittent turbulence intensity is closely related to the concentration of PM2.5. The intermittency is weaker over the complex surface condition than over the flat terrain, and urbanization reduces the degree of weakening in turbulent exchange during the heavy pollution process.
Ge Zhang, Yang Gao, Wenju Cai, L. Ruby Leung, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Minghuai Wang, Huayao Shan, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 565–576,Short summary
Based on observed data, this study reveals a distinct seesaw feature of abnormally high and low PM2.5 concentrations in December 2015 and January 2016 over North China. The mechanism of the seesaw pattern was found to be linked to a super El Niño and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). During the mature phase of El Niño in December 2015, the weakened East Asian winter monsoon favors strong haze formation; however, the circulation pattern was reversed in the next month due to the phase change of the AO.
Mingxu Liu, Xin Huang, Yu Song, Tingting Xu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Lin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xuejun Liu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17933–17943,
Runlong Cai, Indra Chandra, Dongsen Yang, Lei Yao, Yueyun Fu, Xiaoxiao Li, Yiqun Lu, Lun Luo, Jiming Hao, Yan Ma, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Takafumi Seto, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16587–16599,Short summary
Significant influences of transport on measured aerosol size distributions are commonly observed. We propose a method for estimating the contributions of transport to nanoparticles during new particle formation events. This method was used to analyze new particle formation events in Southeast Tibet, Fukue Island, and urban Beijing. The changes in the contributions of transport have a good correlation with the changes in wind speed and direction, indicating the feasibility of the method.
Wei Wei, Hongsheng Zhang, Bingui Wu, Yongxiang Huang, Xuhui Cai, Yu Song, and Jianduo Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12953–12967,Short summary
Heavy particulate pollution events have frequently occurred in the North China Plain. Using the intermittency factor, we found that the turbulence during the transport stage is intermittent and not locally generated. Turbulence results from the wind shear of low-level jets and then transports downward, causing intermittent turbulence at lower levels. The intermittent turbulence contributes positively to the vertical dispersion of particulate matter and improves the air quality near the surface.
Runlong Cai, Dongsen Yang, Lauri R. Ahonen, Linlin Shi, Frans Korhonen, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Tuukka Petäjä, Jun Zheng, Juha Kangasluoma, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4477–4491,Short summary
We tested the performance of four inversion methods to recover sub-3 nm aerosol size distributions using the particle size magnifier (PSM). The PSM is widely used in new particle formation study; however, the inversion methods used in previous studies may report false particle concentrations. Due to the results, we suggest using the expectation–maximization algorithm to address the PSM inversion problem. We also gave practical suggestions on PSM operation based on the inversion analysis.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Song Guo, Yuchen Wang, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Wenfei Zhu, Rongzhi Tang, Xiao Li, Ying Liu, Michael Le Breton, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Yusheng Wu, Zhijun Wu, Yu Song, Shengrong Lou, Mattias Hallquist, and Jianzhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10693–10713,Short summary
The overall characteristics and concentrations of organosulfates (OSs) and nitrooxy-OSs (NOSs) were determined in summer in Beijing. This study provided direct observational evidence that OSs form via acid-catalyzed aqueous-phase reactions in the presence of acidic sulfate aerosols, and monoterpene NOSs form via nighttime NO3 oxidation. Using OSs and NOSs as examples, this work highlights the formation pathways of SOA via anthropogenic–biogenic interactions and organic–inorganic reactions.
Yi Tang, Shuxiao Wang, Qingru Wu, Kaiyun Liu, Long Wang, Shu Li, Wei Gao, Lei Zhang, Haotian Zheng, Zhijian Li, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8279–8291,Short summary
In this study, 3-year measurements of atmospheric Hg were carried out at a rural site in East China. A significant downward trend was observed during the sampling period. This study used a new approach that considers both cluster frequency and the Hg concentration associated with each cluster, and we calculated that atmospheric Hg from the whole region of China has caused a 70 % decline of GEM concentration at the Chongming monitoring site due to strict air pollution control policies in China.
Chandra Venkataraman, Michael Brauer, Kushal Tibrewal, Pankaj Sadavarte, Qiao Ma, Aaron Cohen, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Joseph Frostad, Zbigniew Klimont, Randall V. Martin, Dylan B. Millet, Sajeev Philip, Katherine Walker, and Shuxiao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8017–8039,
Jia Xing, Dian Ding, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Carey Jang, Wenjing Wu, Fenfen Zhang, Yun Zhu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7799–7814,Short summary
NOx is the common precursor for both PM2.5 and O3 pollution, while the effectiveness of NOx controls for reducing PM2.5 and O3 are largely influenced by the ambient levels of NH3 and VOCs. This study developed a new method to quantify the nonlinear effectiveness of emission controls for reducing PM2.5 and O3. The new method not only substantially reduces the computational burden but also provides a series of quantitative indicators to quantify the nonlinear control effectiveness.
Qianqian Huang, Xuhui Cai, Jian Wang, Yu Song, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7573–7593,Short summary
Air stagnation index is a vital meteorological measure of the atmosphere's ability to dilute air pollutants. We propose a Boundary-layer air Stagnation Index (BSI) based on daily maximal ventilation, real latent instability and precipitation. The BSI is positively correlated with API during 2000–2012, tracks the day-by-day variation of PM2.5 concentration during January 2013 in Beijing well, and successfully represents the improved air quality during November and December in 2017.
Shaojie Song, Meng Gao, Weiqi Xu, Jingyuan Shao, Guoliang Shi, Shuxiao Wang, Yuxuan Wang, Yele Sun, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7423–7438,Short summary
Severe haze events occur frequently over northern China, especially in winter. Acidity plays a critical role in the formation of secondary PM2.5 and its toxicity. Using field measurements of gases and particles to critically evaluate two thermodynamic models routinely employed to determine particle acidity, we found that China's winter haze particles are generally within a moderately acidic range (pH 4–5) and not highly acidic (0) or neutral (7) as has been previously reported in the literature.
Xing Chang, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Siyi Cai, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4843–4858,Short summary
The Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region in China has been suffering from a severe particulate matter pollution, and the inter-city transport of the pollutant plays an important role. The current research quantitatively assesses the transport process. We identify three transport pathways. The southwest–northwest one happens in both winter and summer. The transport is stronger at 300–1000 m, or 1–2 days before a pollution peak. The result may guide the joint emission control along the transport pathway.
Xiaoxiao Li, Yan Ma, Hui Chen, Youling Jiang, Xin Ma, Rujin Yin, Dongsen Yang, Xiaowen Shi, Jiming Hao, Jingkun Jiang, and Jun Zheng
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The ACSM calibration method using a constant RIE with reference to inorganic salt standards may be oversimplified to reflect the SOA properties in the real atmosphere. In this work, a Q-ACSM was calibrated with SOA standards generated from both anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs in ppbv level inside a smog chamber. The sensitivity of the Q-ACSM to SOA was found to be anti-correlated with the aerosol oxidation state regardless of the VOC precursors, indicating that a variable RIE shall be applied.
Qian Yu, Yao Luo, Shuxiao Wang, Zhiqi Wang, Jiming Hao, and Lei Duan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 495–509,Short summary
This study provides high-quality direct observation data of a clean and a contaminated site in subtropical south China and quantifies the natural forest Hg emission. We find that clean and contaminated forests present a net GEM source with annual average values of 6.67 and 0.30 ng m-2 h-1, respectively; daily variations of GEM fluxes showed a source in the daytime with a peak at 13:00, and as a sink or balance at night; and higher atmospheric GEM concentration restricted the forest GEM emission.
Lin Zhang, Youfan Chen, Yuanhong Zhao, Daven K. Henze, Liye Zhu, Yu Song, Fabien Paulot, Xuejun Liu, Yuepeng Pan, Yi Lin, and Binxiang Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 339–355,Short summary
Substantial differences exist in current estimates of agricultural ammonia emissions in China, hindering understanding of their environmental consequences. This study applies both bottom-up and top-down methods to better quantify agricultural ammonia sources in China using observations from satellite and surface networks interpreted by a chemical transport model. Our estimate of annual Chinese anthropogenic ammonia emission is 11.7 tg (teragram) for 2008 with a strong seasonality peak in summer.
Chengzhi Xing, Cheng Liu, Shanshan Wang, Ka Lok Chan, Yang Gao, Xin Huang, Wenjing Su, Chengxin Zhang, Yunsheng Dong, Guangqiang Fan, Tianshu Zhang, Zhenyi Chen, Qihou Hu, Hang Su, Zhouqing Xie, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14275–14289,Short summary
Vertical profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficient and NO2 and HCHO concentrations were retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurement, while vertical distribution of O3 was obtained using ozone lidar. The measured O3 vertical distribution indicates that the ozone production not only occurs at surface level but also at higher altitudes (about 1.1 km), which are not directly related to horizontal and vertical transportation but are mainly influenced by the abundance of VOCs in the lower troposphere.
Runlong Cai and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12659–12675,Short summary
Widely used formulae underestimate the atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) rate when intense NPF events are analyzed. This is caused by the underestimation or neglect of the coagulation scavenging effect. To address this issue, a new formula was theoretically derived. Aerosol down to ~ 1 nm was measured in Beijing and used together with data reported in the literature to test the new formula and others. Implications for NPF rates in various atmospheric environments are discussed.
Runlong Cai, Dongsen Yang, Yueyun Fu, Xing Wang, Xiaoxiao Li, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Jun Zheng, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12327–12340,Short summary
The governing factors for new particle formation (NPF) events in Beijing were analyzed. The roles of gaseous precursors and aerosol surface area were illustrated. It appears that the abundance of gaseous precursors in Beijing is high enough to have nucleation; however, it is aerosol surface area that determines the occurrence of NPF events in Beijing. Aerosol loading thresholds (in the form of aerosol surface area and PM2.5 concentration) for predicting NPF days in Beijing were suggested.
Bin Zhao, Wenjing Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Jia Xing, Xing Chang, Kuo-Nan Liou, Jonathan H. Jiang, Yu Gu, Carey Jang, Joshua S. Fu, Yun Zhu, Jiandong Wang, Yan Lin, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12031–12050,Short summary
Using over 1000 chemical transport model simulations in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, we find that the emissions of primary inorganic PM2.5 make the largest contribution to PM2.5 concentrations and thus should be prioritized in PM2.5 control strategies. Among the precursors, PM2.5 concentrations are primarily sensitive to the emissions of NH3, NMVOC+IVOC, and POA, and the sensitivities increase substantially for NH3 and NHx with the increase in emission reduction ratio.
Qingru Wu, Wei Gao, Shuxiao Wang, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10423–10433,Short summary
Iron and steel production (ISP) is one of the most significant atmospheric Hg emission sources in China. Atmospheric Hg emissions from ISP increased from 11.5 t in 2000 to 32.75 t in 2015 with a peak of 35.65 t in 2013. In the coming years, emissions from ISP are expected to decrease. Although sinter/pellet plants and blast furnaces were the largest two emission processes, emissions from roasting plants and coke ovens accounted for 22 %–34 % of ISP’s emissions.
Jia Xing, Jiandong Wang, Rohit Mathur, Shuxiao Wang, Golam Sarwar, Jonathan Pleim, Christian Hogrefe, Yuqiang Zhang, Jingkun Jiang, David C. Wong, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9869–9883,Short summary
The assessment of the impacts of aerosol direct effects (ADE) is important for understanding emission reduction strategies that seek co-benefits associated with reductions in both particulate matter and ozone. This study quantifies the ADE impacts on tropospheric ozone by using a two-way coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry model. Results suggest that reducing ADE may have the potential risk of increasing ozone in winter, but it will benefit the reduction of maxima ozone in summer.
Leiming Zhang, Seth Lyman, Huiting Mao, Che-Jen Lin, David A. Gay, Shuxiao Wang, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Xinbin Feng, and Frank Wania
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9133–9144,Short summary
Future research needs are proposed for improving the understanding of atmospheric mercury cycling. These include refinement of mercury emission estimations, quantification of dry deposition and air–surface exchange, improvement of the treatment of chemical mechanisms in chemical transport models, increase in the accuracy of oxidized mercury measurements, better interpretation of atmospheric mercury chemistry data, and harmonization of network operation.
Qianqian Huang, Xuhui Cai, Yu Song, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7793–7805,Short summary
Air stagnation is an important meteorological measure of unfavorable air conditions, and previous studies have found that stagnation events are usually related to air pollution episodes. China is currently experiencing heavy air pollution, but to our knowledge, little is known about air stagnation in the country. In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of air stagnation climatology in China based on sounding and surface observations across the country.
Huan Yao, Yu Song, Mingxu Liu, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Douglas Lowe, Gordon McFiggans, Tingting Xu, Pin Du, Jianfeng Li, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Chun Zhao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5205–5219,
Qiao Ma, Siyi Cai, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Randall V. Martin, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Jingkun Jiang, Wei Zhou, Jiming Hao, Joseph Frostad, Mohammad H. Forouzanfar, and Richard T. Burnett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4477–4491,Short summary
In order to quantitatively identify the contributions of coal combustion to airborne fine particles, we developed an emission inventory using up-to-date information and conducted simulations using an atmospheric model. Results show that coal combustion contributes 40 % of the airborne fine-particle concentration on national average in China. Among the subsectors of coal combustion, industrial coal burning is the dominant contributor, which should be prioritized when policies are applied.
Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Jung-Hun Woo, Kebin He, Zifeng Lu, Toshimasa Ohara, Yu Song, David G. Streets, Gregory R. Carmichael, Yafang Cheng, Chaopeng Hong, Hong Huo, Xujia Jiang, Sicong Kang, Fei Liu, Hang Su, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 935–963,Short summary
An anthropogenic emission inventory for Asia is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) projects by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. The total Asian emissions in 2010 are estimated as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.5 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC, 28.7 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC, and 17.3 Pg CO2.
Jianlin Hu, Peng Wang, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, Jianjun Chen, Xinlei Ge, Xinghua Li, Jingkun Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Jie Zhang, Yu Zhao, and Yingyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 77–92,Short summary
An annual simulation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations in China with updated SOA formation pathways reveals that SOA can be a significant contributor to PM2.5 in major urban areas. Summer SOA is dominated by emissions from biogenic sources, while winter SOA is dominated by anthropogenic emissions such as alkanes and aromatic compounds. Reactive surface uptake of dicarbonyls throughout the year and isoprene epoxides in summer is the most important contributor.
Biwu Chu, Xiao Zhang, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Yele Sun, Jingkun Jiang, Junhua Li, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14219–14230,Short summary
The interactive effects between inorganic and organic species under highly complex pollution conditions remain uncertain and were studied in a smog chamber. This study indicated that the synergistic formation of secondary inorganic and organic aerosol might increase the secondary aerosol load in the atmosphere and contribute haze pollution in eastern China. These synergistic effects were related to the heterogeneous process on aerosol surface and need to be considered in air quality models.
Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, Yu Gu, Cenlin He, Wee-Liang Lee, Xing Chang, Qinbin Li, Shuxiao Wang, Hsien-Liang R. Tseng, Lai-Yung R. Leung, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5841–5852,Short summary
We examine the impact of buildings on surface solar fluxes in Beijing by accounting for their 3-D structures. We find that inclusion of buildings changes surface solar fluxes by within ±1 W m−2, ±1–10 W m−2, and up to ±100 W m−2 at grid resolutions of 4 km, 800 m, and 90 m, respectively. We can resolve pairs of positive-negative flux deviations on different sides of buildings at ≤ 800 m resolutions. We should treat building-effect on solar fluxes differently in models with different resolutions.
Lei Zhang, Shuxiao Wang, Qingru Wu, Fengyang Wang, Che-Jen Lin, Leiming Zhang, Mulin Hui, Mei Yang, Haitao Su, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2417–2433,
Yaning Kang, Mingxu Liu, Yu Song, Xin Huang, Huan Yao, Xuhui Cai, Hongsheng Zhang, Ling Kang, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoyuan Yan, Hong He, Qiang Zhang, Min Shao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2043–2058,Short summary
The multi-year (1980–2012) comprehensive ammonia emissions inventories were compiled for China on 1 km × 1 km grid. Various realistic parameters (ambient temperature, wind speed, soil acidity, synthetic fertilizer types, etc.) were considered in these inventories to synthetically refine the emission factors of ammonia volatilization according to local agricultural practice. This paper shows the interannual trend and spatial distribution of ammonia emissions in details over recent decades.
A. Stohl, B. Aamaas, M. Amann, L. H. Baker, N. Bellouin, T. K. Berntsen, O. Boucher, R. Cherian, W. Collins, N. Daskalakis, M. Dusinska, S. Eckhardt, J. S. Fuglestvedt, M. Harju, C. Heyes, Ø. Hodnebrog, J. Hao, U. Im, M. Kanakidou, Z. Klimont, K. Kupiainen, K. S. Law, M. T. Lund, R. Maas, C. R. MacIntosh, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, D. Olivié, J. Quaas, B. Quennehen, J.-C. Raut, S. T. Rumbold, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Ø. Seland, K. P. Shine, R. B. Skeie, S. Wang, K. E. Yttri, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10529–10566,Short summary
This paper presents a summary of the findings of the ECLIPSE EU project. The project has investigated the climate and air quality impacts of short-lived climate pollutants (especially methane, ozone, aerosols) and has designed a global mitigation strategy that maximizes co-benefits between air quality and climate policy. Transient climate model simulations allowed quantifying the impacts on temperature (e.g., reduction in global warming by 0.22K for the decade 2041-2050) and precipitation.
B. Zhao, S. X. Wang, J. Xing, K. Fu, J. S. Fu, C. Jang, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Dong, Y. Gao, W. J. Wu, J. D. Wang, and J. M. Hao
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 115–128,
S. X. Wang, B. Zhao, S. Y. Cai, Z. Klimont, C. P. Nielsen, T. Morikawa, J. H. Woo, Y. Kim, X. Fu, J. Y. Xu, J. M. Hao, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6571–6603,
Z. Cheng, S. Wang, X. Fu, J. G. Watson, J. Jiang, Q. Fu, C. Chen, B. Xu, J. Yu, J. C. Chow, and J. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4573–4585,
X. Fu, S. X. Wang, Z. Cheng, J. Xing, B. Zhao, J. D. Wang, and J. M. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1239–1254,
L. Zhang, S. X. Wang, L. Wang, and J. M. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10505–10516,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Determination of free amino acids, saccharides, and selected microbes in biogenic atmospheric aerosols – seasonal variations, particle size distribution, chemical and microbial relationsPhysical and chemical properties of urban aerosols in São Paulo, Brazil: links between composition and size distribution of submicron particlesSubstantial changes in gaseous pollutants and chemical compositions in fine particles in the North China Plain during the COVID-19 lockdown period: anthropogenic vs. meteorological influencesMeasurement report: Molecular composition, optical properties, and radiative effects of water-soluble organic carbon in snowpack samples from northern Xinjiang, ChinaSignificant contrasts in aerosol acidity between China and the United StatesIncrease in secondary organic aerosol in an urban environmentCarbonaceous aerosol composition in air masses influenced by large-scale biomass burning: a case study in northwestern VietnamThe role of coarse aerosol particles as a sink of HNO3 in wintertime pollution events in the Salt Lake ValleyMolecular characterization of gaseous and particulate oxygenated compounds at a remote site in Cape Corsica in the western Mediterranean BasinAircraft measurements of aerosol and trace gas chemistry in the eastern North AtlanticImpacts of the COVID-19 lockdown on air pollution at regional and urban background sites in northern ItalyMeasurement report: Fourteen months of real-time characterisation of the submicronic aerosol and its atmospheric dynamics at the Marseille–Longchamp supersiteTrends, composition, and sources of carbonaceous aerosol at the Birkenes Observatory, northern Europe, 2001–2018Enhancement of nanoparticle formation and growth during the COVID-19 lockdown period in urban BeijingChemical composition and source attribution of sub-micrometre aerosol particles in the summertime Arctic lower troposphereIn-depth characterization of submicron particulate matter inter-annual variations at a street canyon site in northern EuropeMeasurement report: Firework impacts on air quality in Metro Manila, Philippines, during the 2019 New Year revelryChemical composition of PM2.5 in October 2017 Northern California wildfire plumesAtmospheric conditions and composition that influence PM2.5 oxidative potential in Beijing, ChinaOrganic aerosol volatility and viscosity in the North China Plain: contrast between summer and winterDisparities in particulate matter (PM10) origins and oxidative potential at a city scale (Grenoble, France) – Part 1: Source apportionment at three neighbouring sitesMeasurement report: Comparison of wintertime individual particles at ground level and above the mixed layer in urban BeijingAerosol characteristics at the Southern Great Plains site during the HI-SCALE campaignA two-component parameterization of marine ice-nucleating particles based on seawater biology and sea spray aerosol measurements in the Mediterranean SeaSeasonal variations in the highly time-resolved aerosol composition, sources and chemical processes of background submicron particles in the North China PlainConcerted measurements of lipids in seawater and on submicrometer aerosol particles at the Cabo Verde islands: biogenic sources, selective transfer and high enrichmentsMeasurement report: Long-range transport patterns into the tropical northwest Pacific during the CAMP2Ex aircraft campaign: chemical composition, size distributions, and the impact of convectionIdentification and source attribution of organic compounds in ultrafine particles near Frankfurt International AirportSource apportionment and impact of long-range transport on carbonaceous aerosol particles in central Germany during HCCT-2010Measurement report: PM2.5-bound nitrated aromatic compounds in Xi'an, Northwest China – seasonal variations and contributions to optical properties of brown carbonCompositions and mixing states of aerosol particles by aircraft observations in the Arctic springtime, 2018Measurement report: Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 during typical biomass burning season at an agricultural site of the North China PlainMeasurement report: Spatial variations in ionic chemistry and water-stable isotopes in the snowpack on glaciers across Svalbard during the 2015–2016 snow accumulation seasonOrganosulfates in atmospheric aerosols in Shanghai, China: seasonal and interannual variability, origin, and formation mechanismsMeasurement report: Hydrolyzed amino acids in fine and coarse atmospheric aerosol in Nanchang, China: concentrations, compositions, sources and possible bacterial degradation stateSulfuric acid–amine nucleation in urban BeijingPersistent residential burning-related primary organic particles during wintertime hazes in North China: insights into their aging and optical changesConcentrations, particle-size distributions, and dry deposition fluxes of aerosol trace elements over the Antarctic Peninsula in austral summerDisparities in particulate matter (PM10) origins and oxidative potential at a city-scale (Grenoble, France) – Part II: Sources of PM10 oxidative potential using multiple linear regression analysis and the predictive applicability of multilayer perceptron neural network analysisCharacteristics, primary sources and secondary formation of water-soluble organic aerosols in downtown BeijingLarge seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic sulfur compounds in the Arctic atmosphere (Svalbard; 78.9° N, 11.9° E)Measurement report: Effects of photochemical aging on the formation and evolution of summertime secondary aerosol in BeijingIncreased new particle yields with largely decreased probability of survival to CCN size at the summit of Mt. Tai under reduced SO2 emissionsEnhancement of secondary aerosol formation by reduced anthropogenic emissions during Spring Festival 2019 and enlightenment for regional PM2.5 control in BeijingLinking marine phytoplankton emissions, meteorological processes, and downwind particle properties with FLEXPARTHighly time-resolved measurements of element concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5: comparison of Delhi, Beijing, London, and KrakowAtmospheric evolution of emissions from a boreal forest fire: the formation of highly functionalized oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing organic compoundsConcerted measurements of free amino acids at the Cabo Verde islands: high enrichments in submicron sea spray aerosol particles and cloud dropletsInvestigating three patterns of new particles growing to the size of cloud condensation nuclei in Beijing's urban atmosphereCultivable, halotolerant ice nucleating bacteria and fungi in coastal precipitation
Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, Magdalena Okuljar, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Giorgia Demaria, Thanaporn Liangsupree, Elisa Zagatti, Juho Aalto, Kari Hartonen, Jussi Heinonsalo, Jaana Bäck, Tuukka Petäjä, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8775–8790,Short summary
Altogether, 84 size-segregated aerosol samples from four particle size fractions were collected at the Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations, Hyytiälä, Finland, in autumn 2017 for the clarification of the complex interrelationships between airborne and particulate chemical traces, amino acids and saccharides, gene copy numbers (16S and 18S for bacteria and fungi, respectively), gas-phase chemistry, and the particle size distribution.
Djacinto Monteiro dos Santos, Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Samara Carbone, Patrick Schlag, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8761–8773,Short summary
The metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP), with very extensive biofuel use, has unique atmospheric chemistry among world megacities. In this study, we examine the complex relationships between aerosol chemical composition and particle size distribution. Our findings provide a better understanding of the dynamics of the physicochemical properties of submicron particles and highlight the key role of secondary organic aerosol formation in the pollution levels in São Paulo.
Rui Li, Yilong Zhao, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, Meng Peng, and Chunying Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8677–8692,Short summary
Based on a random forest model, the strict lockdown measures significantly decreased primary components such as Cr (−67 %) and Fe (−61 %) in PM2.5 (p < 0.01), whereas the higher relative humidity (RH) and NH3 level and the lower air temperature (T) remarkably enhanced the production of secondary aerosol including SO42− (29 %), NO3− (29 %), and NH4+ (21 %) (p < 0.05). The natural experiment suggested that the NH3 emission should be strictly controlled.
Yue Zhou, Christopher P. West, Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Xiaoying Niu, Hui Wen, Jiecan Cui, Tenglong Shi, Wei Pu, Xin Wang, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8531–8555,Short summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in seasonal snow of northwestern China. We applied complementary multimodal analytical techniques to investigate bulk and molecular-level composition, optical properties, and sources of WSOC. For the first time, we estimated the extent of radiative forcing due to WSOC in snow using a model simulation and showed the profound influences of WSOC on the energy budget of midlatitude seasonal snowpack.
Bingqing Zhang, Huizhong Shen, Pengfei Liu, Hongyu Guo, Yongtao Hu, Yilin Chen, Shaodong Xie, Ziyan Xi, T. Nash Skipper, and Armistead G. Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8341–8356,Short summary
Extended ground-level measurements are coupled with model simulations to comprehensively compare the aerosol acidity in China and the United States. Aerosols in China are significantly less acidic than those in the United States, with pH values 1–2 units higher. Higher aerosol mass concentrations and the abundance of ammonia and ammonium in China, compared to the United States, are leading causes of the pH difference between these two countries.
Marta Via, María Cruz Minguillón, Cristina Reche, Xavier Querol, and Andrés Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8323–8339,Short summary
Atmospheric pollutants have been measured in an urban environment by means of state-of-the-art techniques, allowing the origin and the sources of pollution to be identified. Recent years are shown to be increasingly dominated by non-directly emitted particulate matter. Knowledge about the sources of atmospheric pollutants is necessary to design effective mitigation policies.
Dac-Loc Nguyen, Hendryk Czech, Simone M. Pieber, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Martin Steinbacher, Jürgen Orasche, Stephan Henne, Olga B. Popovicheva, Gülcin Abbaszade, Guenter Engling, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Nhat-Anh Nguyen, Xuan-Anh Nguyen, and Ralf Zimmermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8293–8312,Short summary
Southeast Asia is well-known for emission-intense and recurring wildfires and after-harvest crop residue burning during the pre-monsoon season from February to April. We describe a biomass burning (BB) plume arriving at remote Pha Din meteorological station, outline its carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) constituents based on more than 50 target compounds and discuss possible BB sources. This study adds valuable information on chemical PM composition for a region with scarce data availability.
Amy Hrdina, Jennifer G. Murphy, Anna Gannet Hallar, John C. Lin, Alexander Moravek, Ryan Bares, Ross C. Petersen, Alessandro Franchin, Ann M. Middlebrook, Lexie Goldberger, Ben H. Lee, Munkh Baasandorj, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8111–8126,Short summary
Wintertime air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley is primarily composed of ammonium nitrate, which is formed when gas-phase ammonia and nitric acid react. The major point in this work is that the chemical composition of snow tells a very different story to what we measured in the atmosphere. With the dust–sea salt cations observed in PM2.5 and particle sizing data, we can estimate how much nitric acid may be lost to dust–sea salt that is not accounted for and how much more PM2.5 this could form.
Vincent Michoud, Elise Hallemans, Laura Chiappini, Eva Leoz-Garziandia, Aurélie Colomb, Sébastien Dusanter, Isabelle Fronval, François Gheusi, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Thierry Léonardis, Nadine Locoge, Nicolas Marchand, Stéphane Sauvage, Jean Sciare, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8067–8088,Short summary
A multiphasic molecular characterization of oxygenated compounds has been carried out during the ChArMEx field campaign using offline analysis. It leads to the identification of 97 different compounds in the gas and aerosol phases and reveals the important contribution of organic acids to organic aerosol. In addition, comparison between experimental and theoretical partitioning coefficients revealed in most cases a large underestimation by the theory reaching 1 to 7 orders of magnitude.
Maria A. Zawadowicz, Kaitlyn Suski, Jiumeng Liu, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome Fast, Fan Mei, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Stephen Springston, Yang Wang, Rahul A. Zaveri, Robert Wood, Jian Wang, and John E. Shilling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7983–8002,Short summary
This paper describes the results of a recent field campaign in the eastern North Atlantic, where two mass spectrometers were deployed aboard a research aircraft to measure the chemistry of aerosols and trace gases. Very clean conditions were found, dominated by local sulfate-rich acidic aerosol and very aged organics. Evidence of long-range transport of aerosols from the continents was also identified.
Jean-Philippe Putaud, Luca Pozzoli, Enrico Pisoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Friedrich Lagler, Guido Lanzani, Umberto Dal Santo, and Augustin Colette
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7597–7609,Short summary
To determine the impact of the COVID lockdown on air quality in northern Italy, measurements of atmospheric pollutants (NO2, PM10, O3, NO, SO2 ) were compared to the output of a model ignoring the lockdown. We found that NO2 decreased on average by −30 % to −40 %. Unlike NO2, PM10 was not significantly affected due to the compensation of decreased emissions from traffic by increased emissions from domestic heating and/or by changes in atmospheric chemistry enhancing secondary aerosol formation.
Benjamin Chazeau, Brice Temime-Roussel, Grégory Gille, Boualem Mesbah, Barbara D'Anna, Henri Wortham, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7293–7319,Short summary
The temporal trends in the chemical composition and particle number of the submicron aerosols in a Mediterranean city, Marseille, are investigated over 14 months. Fifteen days were found to exceed the WHO PM2.5 daily limit (25 µg m−3) only during the cold period, with two distinct origins: local pollution events with an increased fraction of the carbonaceous fraction due to domestic wood burning and long-range pollution events with a high level of oxygenated organic aerosol and ammonium nitrate.
Karl Espen Yttri, Francesco Canonaco, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Hans Gundersen, Anne-Gunn Hjellbrekke, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, André S. H. Prévôt, David Simpson, Sverre Solberg, Jason Surratt, Kjetil Tørseth, Hilde Uggerud, Marit Vadset, Xin Wan, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7149–7170,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosol sources and trends were studied at the Birkenes Observatory. A large decrease in elemental carbon (EC; 2001–2018) and a smaller decline in levoglucosan (2008–2018) suggest that organic carbon (OC)/EC from traffic/industry is decreasing, whereas the abatement of OC/EC from biomass burning has been less successful. Positive matrix factorization apportioned 72 % of EC to fossil fuel sources and 53 % (PM2.5) and 78 % (PM10–2.5) of OC to biogenic sources.
Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Fangqun Yu, Ying Wang, Junting Zhong, Yangmei Zhang, Xinyao Hu, Can Xia, Sinan Zhang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7039–7052,Short summary
In this work, we revealed the changes of PNSD and NPF events during the COVID-19 lockdown period in Beijing, China, to illustrate the impact of reduced primary emission and elavated atmospheric oxidized capicity on the nucleation and growth processes. The subsequent growth of nucleated particles and their contribution to the aerosol pollution formation were also explored, to highlight the necessity of controlling the nanoparticles in the future air quality management.
Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Megan D. Willis, Hannes Schulz, Daniel Kunkel, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Julia Burkart, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6509–6539,Short summary
We present in situ observations of vertically resolved particle chemical composition in the summertime Arctic lower troposphere. Our analysis demonstrates the strong vertical contrast between particle properties within the boundary layer and aloft. Emissions from vegetation fires and anthropogenic sources in northern Canada, Europe, and East Asia influenced particle composition in the free troposphere. Organics detected in Arctic aerosol particles can partly be identified as dicarboxylic acids.
Luis M. F. Barreira, Aku Helin, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Milla Friman, Leena Kangas, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Anu Kousa, Liisa Pirjola, Topi Rönkkö, Sanna Saarikoski, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6297–6314,Short summary
We present results from the long-term measurements (5 years) of highly time-resolved atmospheric PM1 composition at an urban street canyon site. Overall, the results increased knowledge of the variability of PM1 concentration, composition, and sources in a traffic site and the implications for urban air quality. The investigation of pollution episodes showed that both local and long-range-transported pollutants can still cause elevated PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations in northern Europe.
Genevieve Rose Lorenzo, Paola Angela Bañaga, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Mojtaba AzadiAghdam, Avelino Arellano, Grace Betito, Rachel Braun, Andrea F. Corral, Hossein Dadashazar, Eva-Lou Edwards, Edwin Eloranta, Robert Holz, Gabrielle Leung, Lin Ma, Alexander B. MacDonald, Jeffrey S. Reid, James Bernard Simpas, Connor Stahl, Shane Marie Visaga, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6155–6173,Short summary
Firework emissions change the physicochemical and optical properties of water-soluble particles, which subsequently alters the background aerosol’s respirability, influence on surroundings, ability to uptake gases, and viability as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). There was heavy aerosol loading due to fireworks in the boundary layer. The aerosol constituents were largely water-soluble and submicrometer in size due to both inorganic salts in firework materials and gas-to-particle conversion.
Yutong Liang, Coty N. Jen, Robert J. Weber, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5719–5737,Short summary
This article reports the molecular composition of smoke particles people in SF Bay Area were exposed to during northern California wildfires in Oct. 2017. Major components are sugars, acids, aromatics, and terpenoids. These observations can be used to better understand health impacts of smoke exposure. Tracer compounds indicate which fuels burned, including diterpenoids for softwood and syringyls for hardwood. A statistical analysis reveals a group of secondary compounds formed in daytime aging.
Steven J. Campbell, Kate Wolfer, Battist Utinger, Joe Westwood, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sarah S. Steimer, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Nicholas Straw, Steven Thomson, Atallah Elzein, Yele Sun, Di Liu, Linjie Li, Pingqing Fu, Alastair C. Lewis, Roy M. Harrison, William J. Bloss, Miranda Loh, Mark R. Miller, Zongbo Shi, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5549–5573,Short summary
In this study, we quantify PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP), a metric widely suggested as a potential measure of particle toxicity, in Beijing in summer and winter using four acellular assays. We correlate PM2.5 OP with a comprehensive range of atmospheric and particle composition measurements, demonstrating inter-assay differences and seasonal variation of PM2.5 OP. Using multivariate statistical analysis, we highlight specific particle chemical components and sources that influence OP.
Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Ying Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Eleni Karnezi, Spyros N. Pandis, Conghui Xie, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Jiang Zhu, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5463–5476,Short summary
Here aerosol volatility and viscosity at a rural site (Gucheng) and an urban site (Beijing) in the North China Plain (NCP) were investigated in summer and winter. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) in winter in the NCP is more volatile than that in summer due to enhanced primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. We also found that OA existed mainly as a solid in winter in Beijing but as semisolids in Beijing in summer and Gucheng in winter.
Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Gaëlle Uzu, Véronique Jacob, Trishalee Cañete, Steve Micallef, Cécile Trébuchon, Rémy Slama, Olivier Favez, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5415–5437,Short summary
This study focuses on fully discriminating the origins of particulates by tackling specific secondary organic aerosol (SOA) sources that are difficult to resolve using traditional datasets, especially at a city scale. This is done through the use of additional fit-for-purpose tracers in the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model, which can be obtained using simpler and more targeted techniques, and the comparison of the PMF models from sites in close range but with different urban typologies.
Wenhua Wang, Longyi Shao, Claudio Mazzoleni, Yaowei Li, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Janarjan Bhandari, Jiaoping Xing, Xiaolei Feng, Mengyuan Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5301–5314,Short summary
We compared the characteristics of individual particles at ground level and above the mixed-layer height. We found that the particles above the mixed-layer height during haze periods are more aged compared to ground level. More coal-combustion-related primary organic particles were found above the mixed-layer height. We suggest that the particles above the mixed-layer height are affected by the surrounding areas, and once mixed down to the ground, they might contribute to ground air pollution.
Jiumeng Liu, Liz Alexander, Jerome D. Fast, Rodica Lindenmaier, and John E. Shilling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5101–5116,Short summary
To bridge the gaps in modeling and observational results due to insufficient understanding of aerosol properties, co-located measurements of aerosols and trace gases were conducted at SGP during the HI-SCALE campaign. Organic aerosols at the SGP site exhibited to be highly oxidized, and biogenic emissions appear to largely control the formation of organic aerosols. Seasonal variations of sources and meteorological impacts likely resulted in the highly oxygenated feature of aerosols.
Jonathan V. Trueblood, Alessia Nicosia, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Matteo Rinaldi, Evelyn Freney, Melilotus Thyssen, Ingrid Obernosterer, Julie Dinasquet, Franco Belosi, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Araceli Rodriguez-Romero, Gianni Santachiara, Cécile Guieu, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4659–4676,Short summary
Sea spray aerosols (SSAs) can be an important source of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) that impact cloud properties over the oceans. In the Mediterranean Sea, we found that the INPs in the seawater surface microlayer increased by an order of magnitude after a rain dust event that impacted iron and bacterial abundances. The INP properties of SSA (INPSSA) increased after a 3 d delay. Outside this event, INPSSA could be parameterized as a function of the seawater biogeochemistry.
Jiayun Li, Liming Cao, Wenkang Gao, Lingyan He, Yingchao Yan, Yuexin He, Yuepeng Pan, Dongsheng Ji, Zirui Liu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4521–4539,Short summary
For the first time, we investigated the highly time-resolved chemical characterization, sources and evolution of atmospheric submicron aerosols at a regional background site in the North China Plain (NCP) using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer and evaluated the seasonal differentials of photochemical and aqueous-phase processing on SOA composition and oxidation degree of OA. The results will help to understand air pollution in the NCP on a regional scale.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Sanja Frka, Christian Stolle, Tobias Spranger, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Blaženka Gašparović, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4267–4283,Short summary
To investigate the source of lipids and their representatives in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements of seawater and submicrometer aerosol particle sampling were carried out on the Cabo Verde islands. This field study describes the biogenic sources of lipids, their selective transfer from the ocean into the atmosphere and their enrichment as part of organic matter. A strong enrichment of the studied representatives of the lipid classes on submicrometer aerosol particles was observed.
Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Ewan Crosbie, Michael Shook, Jeffrey S. Reid, Maria Obiminda L. Cambaliza, James Bernard B. Simpas, Luke Ziemba, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Phu Nguyen, F. Joseph Turk, Edward Winstead, Claire E. Robinson, Jian Wang, Jiaoshi Zhang, Yang Wang, Subin Yoon, James Flynn, Sergio L. Alvarez, Ali Behrangi, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3777–3802,Short summary
This study characterizes long-range transport from major Asian pollution sources into the tropical northwest Pacific and the impact of scavenging on these air masses. We combined aircraft observations, HYSPLIT trajectories, reanalysis, and satellite retrievals to reveal distinct composition and size distribution profiles associated with specific emission sources and wet scavenging. The results of this work have implications for international policymaking related to climate and health.
Florian Ungeheuer, Dominik van Pinxteren, and Alexander L. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3763–3775,Short summary
We analysed the chemical composition of ultrafine particles from 10–56 nm near Frankfurt Airport based on cascade impactor samples. We used an offline non-target screening to determine size-resolved molecular fingerprints. Unambiguous attribution of two homologous ester series to jet engine oils enables a new strategy of source attribution and explains the majority of the detected compounds. In addition, we identified additives of jet oils and a detrimental thermal transformation product.
Laurent Poulain, Benjamin Fahlbusch, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Zhijun Wu, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Wolfram Birmili, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3667–3684,Short summary
We present results from source apportionment analysis on the carbonaceous aerosol particles, including organic aerosol (OA) and equivalent black carbon (eBC), allowing us to distinguish local emissions from long-range transport for OA and eBC sources. By merging online chemical measurements and considering particle number size distribution, the different air masses reaching the sampling place were described and discussed, based on their respective chemical composition and size distribution.
Wei Yuan, Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Ting Wang, Jing Duan, Jie Guo, Haiyan Ni, Yang Chen, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Ulrike Dusek, Colin O'Dowd, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3685–3697,Short summary
We characterized the seasonal variations in nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) in composition, sources, and their light absorption contribution to brown carbon (BrC) aerosol in Xi'an, Northwest China. Our results show that secondary formation and vehicular emission were dominant sources in summer (~80 %), and biomass burning and coal combustion were major sources in winter (~75 %), and they indicate that the composition and sources of NACs have a profound impact on the light absorption of BrC
Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Sho Ohata, Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, and Makoto Koike
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3607–3626,Short summary
Aerosol particles influence the Arctic climate by interacting with solar radiation, forming clouds, and melting surface snow and ice. Individual-particle analyses using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and model simulations provide evidence of biomass burning and anthropogenic contributions to the Arctic aerosols by showing a wide range of compositions and mixing states depending on sampling altitude. Our results reveal the aerosol aging processes and climate influences in the Arctic.
Linlin Liang, Guenter Engling, Chang Liu, Wanyun Xu, Xuyan Liu, Yuan Cheng, Zhenyu Du, Gen Zhang, Junying Sun, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3181–3192,Short summary
A unique episode with extreme biomass burning (BB) impact, with daily concentration of levoglucosan as high as 4.37 µg m-3, was captured at an area upwind of Beijing. How this extreme BB pollution event was generated and what were the chemical properties of PM2.5 under this kind severe BB pollution level in the real atmospheric environment were both presented in this measurement report. Moreover, the variation of the ratios of BB tracers during different BB pollution periods was also exhibited.
Elena Barbaro, Krystyna Koziol, Mats P. Björkman, Carmen P. Vega, Christian Zdanowicz, Tonu Martma, Jean-Charles Gallet, Daniel Kępski, Catherine Larose, Bartłomiej Luks, Florian Tolle, Thomas V. Schuler, Aleksander Uszczyk, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3163–3180,Short summary
This paper shows the most comprehensive seasonal snow chemistry survey to date, carried out in April 2016 across 22 sites on 7 glaciers across Svalbard. The dataset consists of the concentration, mass loading, spatial and altitudinal distribution of major ion species (Ca2+, K+, Na2+, Mg2+, NH4+, SO42−, Br−, Cl− and NO3−), together with its stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition (δ18O and δ2H) in the snowpack. This study was part of the larger Community Coordinated Snow Study in Svalbard.
Yao Wang, Yue Zhao, Yuchen Wang, Jian-Zhen Yu, Jingyuan Shao, Ping Liu, Wenfei Zhu, Zhen Cheng, Ziyue Li, Naiqiang Yan, and Huayun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2959–2980,Short summary
Organosulfates (OSs) are important constituents and tracers of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the atmosphere. Here we characterized the OS species in ambient aerosols in Shanghai, China. We find that the contributions of OSs and SOAs to organic aerosols have increased in recent years and that OS production was largely controlled by the oxidant level (Ox), particularly in summer. We infer that mitigation of Ox pollution can effectively reduce the production of OSs and SOAs in eastern China.
Ren-Guo Zhu, Hua-Yun Xiao, Li Luo, Hongwei Xiao, Zequn Wen, Yuwen Zhu, Xiaozheng Fang, Yuanyuan Pan, and Zhenping Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2585–2600,Short summary
Amino acids (AAs), as important organic nitrogen compounds, play key roles in the nitrogen cycles, climate change and public health. The sources and transformation of AAs in two size-segregated aerosol particles were explored. This study presents the first isotopic evidence that the sources of AAs for fine and coarse aerosol particles may be similar. And the potentially significant role of bacterial degradation processes in aerosol protein degradation state was suggested.
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dantong Liu, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zongbo Shi, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2251–2265,Short summary
We found that large numbers of light-absorbing primary organic particles with high viscosity, especially tarballs, from domestic coal and biomass burning occurred in rural and even urban hazes in the winter of North China. For the first time, we characterized the atmospheric aging process of these burning-related primary organic particles by microscopic analysis and further evaluated their light absorption enhancement resulting from the “lensing effect” of secondary inorganic coatings.
Songyun Fan, Yuan Gao, Robert M. Sherrell, Shun Yu, and Kaixuan Bu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2105–2124,Short summary
Aerosol sampling was carried out at Palmer Station in the west Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer of 2016–2017. This study generated new data on the concentrations and particle-size distributions of aerosol trace elements in the marine atmosphere over this region. Measurement data allowed estimating the dry deposition fluxes. The new results are critically important to understanding the properties of aerosol particles and regional biogeochemical cycles.
Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Stephan Houdier, Rémy Slama, Camille Rieux, Alexandre Albinet, Steve Micallef, Cécile Trébluchon, and Gaëlle Uzu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
With an enhanced source apportionment obtained in a companion paper, this paper acquires more understanding of the spatiotemporal associations of the sources of PM to oxidative potential (OP), an emerging health-based metric. Multilayer perceptron neural network analysis was used to apportion OP from PM sources. Results showed that such methodology is as robust as the linear classical inversion and permits an improvement in the OP prediction when local features or non-linear effects occur.
Qing Yu, Jing Chen, Weihua Qin, Siming Cheng, Yuepeng Zhang, Yuewei Sun, Ke Xin, and Mushtaq Ahmad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1775–1796,Short summary
Water-soluble organic aerosols have significant impacts on haze formation, climate change and human health. This study investigated the characteristics of WSOC in PM2.5 in Beijing to compare the source contributions of different WSOC fractions and the influencing factors for different secondary components in WSOC. Our results help to propose control measures for WSOC during severe haze episodes and underline the importance of SOA properties and heterogeneous reactions in different seasons.
Sehyun Jang, Ki-Tae Park, Kitack Lee, Young Jun Yoon, Kitae Kim, Hyun Young Chung, Silvia Becagli, Bang Yong Lee, Rita Traversi, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Radovan Krejci, and Ove Hermansen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study provides comprehensive datasets encompassing seasonal and interannual variations in sulfate and MSA concentration in aerosol particles in the Arctic atmosphere. As oxidation products of DMS have important roles in new particle formation and growth, we focused on factors affecting their variability and the branching ratio of DMS oxidation. We found the strong correlation between the ratio and the light condition and chemical property of atmospheric particles. We believe that our study.
Tianzeng Chen, Jun Liu, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, Peng Zhang, Jinzhu Ma, Yongchun Liu, Cheng Zhong, Pengfei Liu, Yafei Wang, Yujing Mu, and Hong He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1341–1356,Short summary
Effects of photochemical aging on the formation and evolution of summertime secondary aerosol were systematically investigated in a suburb of Beijing. Higher PM1 concentration accompanied longer photochemical age (ta). Sulfate and more-oxidized OOA formation were significantly sensitive to the increase in ta, and their contributions were greatly enhanced at elevated ta levels. Our results suggested that photochemical aging process played a crucial role in PM1 and O3 pollution in summertime.
Yujiao Zhu, Likun Xue, Jian Gao, Jianmin Chen, Hongyong Li, Yong Zhao, Zhaoxin Guo, Tianshu Chen, Liang Wen, Penggang Zheng, Ye Shan, Xinfeng Wang, Tao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1305–1323,Short summary
This work investigates the long-term changes in new particle formation (NPF) events under reduced SO2 emissions at the summit of Mt. Tai during seven campaigns from 2007 to 2018. We found the NPF intensity increased 2- to 3-fold in 2018 compared to 2007. In contrast, the probability of new particles growing to CCN size largely decreased. Changes to biogenic VOCs and anthropogenic emissions are proposed to explain the distinct NPF characteristics.
Yuying Wang, Zhanqing Li, Qiuyan Wang, Xiaoai Jin, Peng Yan, Maureen Cribb, Yanan Li, Cheng Yuan, Hao Wu, Tong Wu, Rongmin Ren, and Zhaoxin Cai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 915–926,Short summary
The unexpected increase in surface ozone concentration was found along with the reduced anthropogenic emissions during the 2019 Chinese Spring Festival in Beijing. The enhanced atmospheric oxidation capacity could promote the formation of secondary aerosols, especially sulfate, which offset the decrease in PM2.5 mass concentration. This phenomenon was likely to exist throughout the entire Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region to be a contributing factor to the haze during the COVID-19 lockdown.
Kevin J. Sanchez, Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, Georges Saliba, Chia-Li Chen, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Michael A. Shook, Ewan C. Crosbie, Luke D. Ziemba, Matthew D. Brown, Taylor J. Shingler, Claire E. Robinson, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Edward L. Winstead, Carolyn Jordan, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Jack Porter, Thomas G. Bell, Eric S. Saltzman, Michael J. Behrenfeld, and Richard H. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 831–851,Short summary
Models describing atmospheric airflow were combined with satellite measurements representative of marine phytoplankton and other meteorological variables. These combined variables were compared to measured aerosol to identify upwind influences on aerosol concentrations. Results indicate that phytoplankton production rates upwind impact the aerosol mass. Also, results suggest that the condensation of mass onto short-lived large sea spray particles may be a significant sink of aerosol mass.
Pragati Rai, Jay G. Slowik, Markus Furger, Imad El Haddad, Suzanne Visser, Yandong Tong, Atinderpal Singh, Günther Wehrle, Varun Kumar, Anna K. Tobler, Deepika Bhattu, Liwei Wang, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Ru-Jin Huang, Jaroslaw Necki, Junji Cao, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 717–730,Short summary
We present a simple conceptual framework based on elemental size distributions and enrichment factors that allows for a characterization of major sources, site-to-site similarities, and local differences and the identification of key information required for efficient policy development. Absolute concentrations are by far the highest in Delhi, followed by Beijing, and then the European cities.
Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, Tori N. Hass-Mitchell, Samar G. Moussa, Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, Patrick Lee, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 255–267,Short summary
Forest fires are an important source of reactive organic gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. We analyzed organic aerosols collected from an aircraft above a boreal forest fire and reported an increasing contribution from compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur as the plume aged, with sulfide and ring-bound nitrogen functionality. Our results demonstrated chemistry that is important in biomass burning but also in urban/developing regions with high local nitrogen and sulfur emissions.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Anja Engel, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 163–181,Short summary
To investigate the sources of free amino acids (FAAs) in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements (the simultaneous investigation of seawater, size-segregated aerosol particles and cloud water) were performed at the Cabo Verde islands. This study describes the transfer of FAAs as part of organic matter from the ocean into the atmosphere on a molecular level. In the investigated marine environment, a high enrichment of FAAs in submicron aerosol particles and in cloud droplets was observed.
Liya Ma, Yujiao Zhu, Mei Zheng, Yele Sun, Lei Huang, Xiaohuan Liu, Yang Gao, Yanjie Shen, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 183–200,Short summary
In this study, we investigate three patterns of new particles growing to CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) size, i.e., one-stage growth and two-stage growth-A and growth-B patterns. Combining the observations of gaseous pollutants and measured or modeled particulate chemical species, the three growth patterns were discussed regarding the spatial heterogeneity, formation of secondary aerosols, and evaporation of semivolatile particulates as was the survival probability of new particles to CCN size.
Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Meredith A. Fish, Julie Dinasquet, Gavin C. Cornwell, M. Dale Stokes, Michael D. Burkart, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties by triggering droplet freezing at relative humidities below or temperatures above the freezing point of water. The ocean is a significant INP source, yet the specific identities of marine INPs remain largely unknown. Here we identify 14 ice nucleating microbes from aerosol and precipitation samples collected at a coastal site in Southern California, two or more of which are marine.
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Tang, G., Zhu, X., Hu, B., Xin, J., Wang, L., Münkel, C., Mao, G., and Wang, Y.: Impact of emission controls on air quality in Beijing during APEC 2014: lidar ceilometer observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12667–12680, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-12667-2015, 2015.
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The characteristics of three PM2.5 pollution episodes were analyzed during the APEC Summit at a rural site outside of Beijing. It was found that meteorological conditions on the ground could not explain the pollution process, while vertical parameters helped improve the understanding of heavy pollution processes. Our research suggests that regional transport of air pollutants contributes significantly to severe secondary particle pollution, even when local emission is controlled effectively.
The characteristics of three PM2.5 pollution episodes were analyzed during the APEC Summit at a...