Articles | Volume 12, issue 1
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Attribution and evolution of ozone from Asian wild fires using satellite and aircraft measurements during the ARCTAS campaign
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
NOAA/NESDIS/STAR, Madison, WI, USA
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA
Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA, USA
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA
Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA
University of New Hampshire – EOS, Durham, NH, USA
NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA
School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA
Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Biomass burning CO, PM and fuel consumption per unit burned area estimates derived across Africa using geostationary SEVIRI fire radiative power and Sentinel-5P CO dataCharacterization of errors in satellite-based HCHO ∕ NO2 tropospheric column ratios with respect to chemistry, column-to-PBL translation, spatial representation, and retrieval uncertaintiesEvaluation of transport processes over North China Plain and Yangtze River Delta using MAX-DOAS observationsEstimation of biomass burning emission of NO2 and CO from 2019–2020 Australia fires based on satellite observationsQuantifying daily NOx and CO2 emissions from Wuhan using satellite observations from TROPOMI and OCO-2Estimation of OH in urban plumes using TROPOMI-inferred NO2 ∕ CODiagnosing ozone–NOx–VOC sensitivity and revealing causes of ozone increases in China based on 2013–2021 satellite retrievalsTowards sector-based attribution using intra-city variations in satellite-based emission ratios between CO2 and COMeasurement report: Evolution and distribution of NH3 over Mexico City from ground-based and satellite infrared spectroscopic measurementsSource Mechanisms and transport Patterns of tropospheric BrO: Findings from long-term MAX-DOAS Measurements at two Antarctic StationsMeasurement Report: Spatiotemporal variability of peroxy acyl nitrates (PANs) over Mexico City from TES and CrIS satellite measurementsPeculiar COVID-19 effects in the Greater Tokyo Area revealed by spatiotemporal variabilities of tropospheric gases and light-absorbing aerosolsQuantifying NOx emissions in Egypt using TROPOMI observationsSatellite quantification of oil and natural gas methane emissions in the US and Canada including contributions from individual basinsEvaluating NOx emissions and their effect on O3 production in Texas using TROPOMI NO2 and HCHOInvestigating the global OH radical distribution using steady-state approximations and satellite dataAir quality impacts of COVID-19 lockdown measures detected from space using high spatial resolution observations of multiple trace gases from Sentinel-5P/TROPOMIQuantifying methane emissions from the global scale down to point sources using satellite observations of atmospheric methaneEstimating Enhancement Ratios of Nitrogen Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Carbon Dioxide using Satellite ObservationsInfluence of convection on the upper-tropospheric O3 and NOx budget in southeastern ChinaOzone pollution during the COVID-19 lockdown in the spring of 2020 over Europe, analysed from satellite observations, in situ measurements, and modelsExploiting satellite measurements to explore uncertainties in UK bottom-up NOx emission estimatesQuantifying urban, industrial, and background changes in NO2 during the COVID-19 lockdown period based on TROPOMI satellite observationsBiomass burning pollution in the South Atlantic upper troposphere: GLORIA trace gas observations and evaluation of the CAMS modelVariability of nitrogen oxide emission fluxes and lifetimes estimated from Sentinel-5P TROPOMI observationsA new method for inferring city emissions and lifetimes of nitrogen oxides from high-resolution nitrogen dioxide observations: a model studyQuantification of CH4 emissions from waste disposal sites near the city of Madrid using ground- and space-based observations of COCCON, TROPOMI and IASIChanges in satellite retrievals of atmospheric composition over eastern China during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdownsImpact of the COVID-19 pandemic related to lockdown measures on tropospheric NO2 columns over Île-de-FranceQuantification of CH4 coal mining emissions in Upper Silesia by passive airborne remote sensing observations with the Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) instrument during the CO2 and Methane (CoMet) campaignA sulfur dioxide Covariance-Based Retrieval Algorithm (COBRA): application to TROPOMI reveals new emission sourcesChanges in biomass burning, wetland extent, or agriculture drive atmospheric NH3 trends in select African regionsSpatial distributions of XCO2 seasonal cycle amplitude and phase over northern high-latitude regionsRecent ozone trends in the Chinese free troposphere: role of the local emission reductions and meteorologyDirect estimates of biomass burning NOx emissions and lifetimes using daily observations from TROPOMITwenty years of ground-based NDACC FTIR spectrometry at Izaña Observatory – overview and long-term comparison to other techniquesOMI-observed HCHO in Shanghai, China, during 2010–2019 and ozone sensitivity inferred by an improved HCHO ∕ NO2 ratioGlobal distribution of methane emissions: a comparative inverse analysis of observations from the TROPOMI and GOSAT satellite instrumentsA satellite-data-driven framework to rapidly quantify air-basin-scale NOx emissions and its application to the Po Valley during the COVID-19 pandemicComparative assessment of TROPOMI and OMI formaldehyde observations and validation against MAX-DOAS network column measurementsSO2 and BrO emissions of Masaya volcano from 2014 to 2020Measurement report: An assessment of the impact of a nationwide lockdown on air pollution – a remote sensing perspective over IndiaVariability of NO2 concentrations over China and effect on air quality derived from satellite and ground-based observationsEstimating lockdown-induced European NO2 changes using satellite and surface observations and air quality modelsSpatial and temporal changes of the ozone sensitivity in China based on satellite and ground-based observationsLong-term trends in air quality in major cities in the UK and India: a view from spaceStructure, dynamics, and trace gas variability within the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone in the extreme El Niño of 2015–2016Systematic detection of local CH4 anomalies by combining satellite measurements with high-resolution forecastsCOVID-19 lockdown-induced changes in NO2 levels across India observed by multi-satellite and surface observations2010–2015 North American methane emissions, sectoral contributions, and trends: a high-resolution inversion of GOSAT observations of atmospheric methane
Hannah M. Nguyen, Jiangping He, and Martin J. Wooster
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2089–2118,Short summary
This work presents novel advances in the estimation of open biomass burning emissions via the first fully "top-down" approach to exploit satellite-derived observations of fire radiative power and carbon monoxide over Africa. We produce a 16-year record of fire-generated CO emissions and dry matter consumed per unit area for Africa and evaluate these emissions estimates through their use in an atmospheric model, whose simulation output is then compared to independent satellite observations of CO.
Amir H. Souri, Matthew S. Johnson, Glenn M. Wolfe, James H. Crawford, Alan Fried, Armin Wisthaler, William H. Brune, Donald R. Blake, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Tijl Verhoelst, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Corinne Vigouroux, Bavo Langerock, Sungyeon Choi, Lok Lamsal, Lei Zhu, Shuai Sun, Ronald C. Cohen, Kyung-Eun Min, Changmin Cho, Sajeev Philip, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1963–1986,Short summary
We have rigorously characterized different sources of error in satellite-based HCHO / NO2 tropospheric columns, a widely used metric for diagnosing near-surface ozone sensitivity. Specifically, the errors were categorized/quantified into (i) an inherent chemistry error, (ii) the decoupled relationship between columns and the near-surface concentration, (iii) the spatial representativeness error of ground satellite pixels, and (iv) the satellite retrieval errors.
Yuhang Song, Chengzhi Xing, Cheng Liu, Jinan Lin, Hongyu Wu, Ting Liu, Hua Lin, Chengxin Zhang, Wei Tan, Xiangguang Ji, Haoran Liu, and Qihua Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1803–1824,Short summary
Using the MAX-DOAS network, we successfully analyzed three typical transport types (regional, dust, and transboundary long-range transport), emphasizing the unique advantages provided by the network in monitoring pollutant transport. We think that our findings provide the public with a thorough understanding of pollutant transport phenomena and a reference for designing collaborative air pollution control strategies.
Nenghan Wan, Xiaozhen Xiong, Gerard J. Kluitenberg, J. M. Shawn Hutchinson, Robert Aiken, Haidong Zhao, and Xiaomao Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 711–724,Short summary
This study used new TROPOMI measurements of NO2 and CO to characterize regional biomass burning characteristics and efficiency. We found that the NO2 / CO emission ratio was consistent with recent studies over temperate forest fires but slightly lower in savanna vegetation fires. Our results can help identify the relative contribution of smoldering and flaming activities as well as their impacts on the regional atmospheric composition and air quality.
Qianqian Zhang, K. Folkert Boersma, Bin Zhao, Henk Eskes, Cuihong Chen, Haotian Zheng, and Xingying Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 551–563,Short summary
We developed an improved superposition column model and used the latest released (v2.3.1) TROPOMI satellite NO2 observations to estimate daily city-scale NOx and CO2 emissions. The results are verified against bottom-up emissions and OCO-2 XCO2 observations. We obtained the day-to-day variation of city NOx and CO2 emissions, allowing policymakers to gain real-time information on spatial–temporal emission patterns and the effectiveness of carbon and nitrogen regulation in urban environments.
Srijana Lama, Sander Houweling, K. Folkert Boersma, Ilse Aben, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16053–16071,Short summary
Hydroxyl radical (OH) is the important chemical species that determines the lifetime of some greenhouse gases and trace gases. OH plays a vital role in air pollution chemistry. OH has a short lifetime and is extremely difficult to measure directly. OH concentrations derived from the chemistry transport model (CTM) have uncertainties of >50 %. Therefore, in this study, OH is derived indirectly using satellite date in urban plumes.
Jie Ren, Fangfang Guo, and Shaodong Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15035–15047,Short summary
O3–NOx–VOC sensitivity in China is diagnosed by deriving regional satellite HCHO / NO2 thresholds between O3 production regimes. VOC-limited regimes are found widely over megacity clusters and developed cities. VOCs and NOx emissions are tracked with satellite HCHO and NO2 to evaluate O3 responses to precursors changes. The significant reduction in NOx emissions without effective VOC control since the Clean Air Action Plan in 2013 is responsible for the increase in O3 concentrations in China.
Dien Wu, Junjie Liu, Paul O. Wennberg, Paul I. Palmer, Robert R. Nelson, Matthäus Kiel, and Annmarie Eldering
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14547–14570,Short summary
Prior studies have derived the combustion efficiency for a region/city using observed CO2 and CO. We further zoomed into the urban domain and accounted for factors affecting the calculation of spatially resolved combustion efficiency from two satellites. The intra-city variability in combustion efficiency was linked to heavy industry within Shanghai and LA without relying on emission inventories. Such an approach can be applied when analyzing data from future geostationary satellites.
Beatriz Herrera, Alejandro Bezanilla, Thomas Blumenstock, Enrico Dammers, Frank Hase, Lieven Clarisse, Adolfo Magaldi, Claudia Rivera, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Camille Viatte, Martin Van Damme, and Michel Grutter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14119–14132,Short summary
This work investigates atmospheric ammonia (NH3), a key trace gas with consequences for the environment and human health, in Mexico City. The results from the ground-based and satellite instruments show the variability and spatial distribution of NH3 over this region. NH3 in Mexico City has been increasing for the past 10 years and most of its sources are urban. This work contributes to a better understanding of NH3 sources and variability in urban and remote areas.
Udo Frieß, Karin Kreher, Richard Querel, Holger Schmithüsen, Dan Smale, Rolf Weller, and Ulrich Platt
Reactive bromine compounds, emitted by the sea ice during polar spring, play an important role in the atmospheric chemistry of the coastal regions of Antarctica. We investigate the sources and impacts of reactive bromine in detail using many years of measurements at two Antarctic sites, located at opposite sides of the Antarctic continent. Using a multitude of meteorological observations, we were able to identify the main triggers and source regions for reactive bromine in Antarctica.
Madison J. Shogrin, Vivienne H. Payne, Susan S. Kulawik, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, and Emily V. Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We evaluate the spatiotemporal variability of peroxy acyl nitrates (PANs), important photochemical pollutants, over Mexico City using satellite observations. PANs exhibit a seasonal cycle that maximizes in spring. Wildfires contribute to observed interannual variability, and the satellite indicates several areas of frequent outflow. Recent changes in NOx emissions are not accompanied by changes in PANs. This work demonstrates analysis approaches that can be applied to other megacities.
Alessandro Damiani, Hitoshi Irie, Dmitry A. Belikov, Shuei Kaizuka, Hossain Mohammed Syedul Hoque, and Raul R. Cordero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12705–12726,Short summary
We analyzed the variabilities in tropospheric gases and aerosols within the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. Beyond highlighting air quality changes caused by the pandemic during the lockdown, we found that the degree of weekly cycling of most gases and aerosols was enhanced during the whole of 2020. The changes were unprecedented in recent years and potentially related to coincident reduced mobility in Japan, which, in contrast to other countries, was anomalously low on weekends in 2020.
Anthony Rey-Pommier, Frédéric Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Grégoire Broquet, Theodoros Christoudias, Jonilda Kushta, Didier Hauglustaine, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11505–11527,Short summary
Emission inventories for air pollutants can be uncertain in developing countries. In order to overcome these uncertainties, we model nitrogen oxide emissions in Egypt using satellite retrievals. We detect a weekly cycle reflecting Egyptian social norms, an annual cycle consistent with electricity consumption and an activity drop due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, discrepancies with inventories remain high, illustrating the needs for additional data to improve the potential of our method.
Lu Shen, Ritesh Gautam, Mark Omara, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Tia R. Scarpelli, Alba Lorente, David Lyon, Jianxiong Sheng, Daniel J. Varon, Hannah Nesser, Zhen Qu, Xiao Lu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Steven P. Hamburg, and Daniel J. Jacob
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11203–11215,Short summary
We use 22 months of TROPOMI satellite observations to quantity methane emissions from the oil (O) and natural gas (G) sector in the US and Canada at the scale of both individual basins as well as country-wide aggregates. We find that O/G-related methane emissions are underestimated in these inventories by 80 % for the US and 40 % for Canada, and 70 % of the underestimate in the US is from five O/G basins, including Permian, Haynesville, Anadarko, Eagle Ford, and Barnett.
Daniel L. Goldberg, Monica Harkey, Benjamin de Foy, Laura Judd, Jeremiah Johnson, Greg Yarwood, and Tracey Holloway
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10875–10900,Short summary
TROPOMI measurements offer a valuable means to validate emissions inventories and ozone formation regimes, with important limitations. Lightning NOx is important to account for in Texas and can contribute up to 24 % of the column NO2 in rural areas and 8 % in urban areas. Modeled NO2 in urban areas agrees with TROPOMI NO2 to within 20 % in most circumstances, with a small underestimate in Dallas (−13 %) and Houston (−20 %). Near Texas power plants, the satellite appears to underrepresent NO2.
Matilda A. Pimlott, Richard J. Pope, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry G. Latter, Diane S. Knappett, Dwayne E. Heard, Lucy J. Ventress, Richard Siddans, Wuhu Feng, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10467–10488,Short summary
We present a new method to derive global information of the hydroxyl radical (OH), an important atmospheric oxidant. OH controls the lifetime of trace gases important to air quality and climate. We use satellite observations of ozone, carbon monoxide, methane and water vapour in a simple expression to derive OH around 3–4 km altitude. The derived OH compares well to model and aircraft OH data. We then apply the method to 10 years of satellite data to study the inter-annual variability of OH.
Pieternel F. Levelt, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Ilse Aben, Maite Bauwens, Tobias Borsdorff, Isabelle De Smedt, Henk J. Eskes, Christophe Lerot, Diego G. Loyola, Fabian Romahn, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Nicolas Theys, Michel Van Roozendael, J. Pepijn Veefkind, and Tijl Verhoelst
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10319–10351,Short summary
Using the COVID-19 lockdown periods as an example, we show how Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI trace gas data (NO2, SO2, CO, HCHO and CHOCHO) can be used to understand impacts on air quality for regions and cities around the globe. We also provide information for both experienced and inexperienced users about how we created the data using state-of-the-art algorithms, where to get the data, methods taking meteorological and seasonal variability into consideration, and insights for future studies.
Daniel J. Jacob, Daniel J. Varon, Daniel H. Cusworth, Philip E. Dennison, Christian Frankenberg, Ritesh Gautam, Luis Guanter, John Kelley, Jason McKeever, Lesley E. Ott, Benjamin Poulter, Zhen Qu, Andrew K. Thorpe, John R. Worden, and Riley M. Duren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9617–9646,Short summary
We review the capability of satellite observations of atmospheric methane to quantify methane emissions on all scales. We cover retrieval methods, precision requirements, inverse methods for inferring emissions, source detection thresholds, and observations of system completeness. We show that current instruments already enable quantification of regional and national emissions including contributions from large point sources. Coverage and resolution will increase significantly in coming years.
Cameron G. MacDonald, Joshua L. Laughner, Jacob K. Hedelius, Ray Nassar, Jon-Paul Mastrogiacomo, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We use three satellites measuring carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to calculate atmospheric enhancements of these gases from 27 urban areas. We calculate enhancement ratios between the species and compare those to ratios derived from four globally gridded anthropogenic emission inventories. We find that the global inventories generally underestimate CO emissions in many North American and European cities relative to our observed enhancement ratios.
Xin Zhang, Yan Yin, Ronald van der A, Henk Eskes, Jos van Geffen, Yunyao Li, Xiang Kuang, Jeff L. Lapierre, Kui Chen, Zhongxiu Zhen, Jianlin Hu, Chuan He, Jinghua Chen, Rulin Shi, Jun Zhang, Xingrong Ye, and Hao Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5925–5942,Short summary
The importance of convection to the ozone and nitrogen oxides (NOx) produced from lightning has long been an open question. We utilize the high-resolution chemistry model with ozonesondes and space observations to discuss the effects of convection over southeastern China, where few studies have been conducted. Our results show the transport and chemistry contributions for various storms and demonstrate the ability of TROPOMI to estimate the lightning NOx production over small-scale convection.
Juan Cuesta, Lorenzo Costantino, Matthias Beekmann, Guillaume Siour, Laurent Menut, Bertrand Bessagnet, Tony C. Landi, Gaëlle Dufour, and Maxim Eremenko
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4471–4489,Short summary
We present the first comprehensive study integrating satellite observations of near-surface ozone pollution, surface in situ measurements, and a chemistry-transport model for quantifying the role of anthropogenic emission reductions during the COVID-19 lockdown in spring 2020. It confirms the occurrence of a net enhancement of ozone in central Europe and a reduction elsewhere, except for some hotspots, linked with the reduction of precursor emissions from Europe and the Northern Hemisphere.
Richard J. Pope, Rebecca Kelly, Eloise A. Marais, Ailish M. Graham, Chris Wilson, Jeremy J. Harrison, Savio J. A. Moniz, Mohamed Ghalaieny, Steve R. Arnold, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4323–4338,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are potent air pollutants which directly impact on human health. In this study, we use satellite nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data to evaluate the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the UK official NOx emissions inventory, with reasonable agreement. We also derived satellite-based NOx emissions for several UK cities. In the case of London and Birmingham, the NAEI NOx emissions are potentially too low by >50%.
Vitali Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Nickolay Krotkov, Fei Liu, and Henk Eskes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4201–4236,Short summary
The COVID-19 lockdown had a large impact on anthropogenic emissions and particularly on nitrogen dioxide (NO2). A new method of isolation of background, urban, and industrial components in NO2 is applied to estimate the lockdown impact on each of them. From 16 March to 15 June 2020, urban NO2 declined by −18 % to −28 % in most regions of the world, while background NO2 typically declined by less than −10 %.
Sören Johansson, Gerald Wetzel, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Norbert Glatthor, Michael Höpfner, Anne Kleinert, Tom Neubert, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, and Jörn Ungermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3675–3691,Short summary
We present GLORIA airborne cross sections of PAN, C2H6, HCOOH, CH3OH, and C2H4 in the South Atlantic UTLS in September/October 2019. Filamentary structures and a large plume were observed. Backward trajectories indicate that measured pollutants come from South America and central Africa. Comparisons to CAMS show structural agreement of the measured distributions. PAN absolute VMRs agree with the GLORIA measurements, C2H6 and HCOOH are simulated too low, and CH3OH and C2H4 are too high.
Kezia Lange, Andreas Richter, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2745–2767,Short summary
In this study, we investigated short time variability of NOx emissions and lifetimes on a global scale. We combined 2 years of satellite Sentinel-5P TROPOMI tropospheric NO2 column data with wind data. Fifty NOx sources distributed around the world are analyzed. The retrieved emissions show a clear seasonal dependence. NOx lifetime shows a latitudinal dependence but only a week seasonal dependence. NOx emissions show a clear weekly pattern which in contrast is not visible for NOx lifetimes.
Fei Liu, Zhining Tao, Steffen Beirle, Joanna Joiner, Yasuko Yoshida, Steven J. Smith, K. Emma Knowland, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1333–1349,Short summary
In this work, we present a novel method to infer NOx emissions and lifetimes based on tropospheric NO2 observations together with reanalysis wind fields for cities located in polluted backgrounds. We evaluate the accuracy of the method using synthetic NO2 observations derived from a high-resolution model simulation. Our work provides an estimate for uncertainties in satellite-derived emissions inferred from chemical transport model (CTM)-independent approaches.
Qiansi Tu, Frank Hase, Matthias Schneider, Omaira García, Thomas Blumenstock, Tobias Borsdorff, Matthias Frey, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Alba Lorente, Carlos Alberti, Juan J. Bustos, André Butz, Virgilio Carreño, Emilio Cuevas, Roger Curcoll, Christopher J. Diekmann, Darko Dubravica, Benjamin Ertl, Carme Estruch, Sergio Fabián León-Luis, Carlos Marrero, Josep-Anton Morgui, Ramón Ramos, Christian Scharun, Carsten Schneider, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Carlos Toledano, and Carlos Torres
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 295–317,Short summary
We use different methane ground- and space-based remote sensing data sets for investigating the emission strength of three waste disposal sites close to Madrid. We present a method that uses wind-assigned anomalies for deriving emission strengths from satellite data and estimate their uncertainty to 9–14 %. The emission strengths estimated from the remote sensing data sets are significantly larger than the values published in the official register.
Robert D. Field, Jonathan E. Hickman, Igor V. Geogdzhayev, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Susanne E. Bauer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18333–18350,Short summary
In this study, we examined changes in atmospheric composition over China from satellite measurements during the COVID lockdowns of 2020. We found that interpreting changes in 2020 depended strongly on the background period and whether trends were accounted for. In most cases, pollution levels in 2020 were lower than during the previous few years when pollution levels appear to have stabilized.
Andrea Pazmiño, Matthias Beekmann, Florence Goutail, Dmitry Ionov, Ariane Bazureau, Manuel Nunes-Pinharanda, Alain Hauchecorne, and Sophie Godin-Beekmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18303–18317,Short summary
UV-Visible Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales (SAOZ) NO2 tropospheric columns were evaluated to quantify the impact of the lockdown in limiting the COVID-19 propagation. Meteorological conditions and NO2 trends were considered. The negative anomaly in tropospheric columns in 2020, attributed to the lockdown (17 March–10 May and related emissions reductions), was 56 % at Paris and 46 % at a suburban site. A similar anomaly was found in the Airparif data of surface concentrations.
Sven Krautwurst, Konstantin Gerilowski, Jakob Borchardt, Norman Wildmann, Michał Gałkowski, Justyna Swolkień, Julia Marshall, Alina Fiehn, Anke Roiger, Thomas Ruhtz, Christoph Gerbig, Jaroslaw Necki, John P. Burrows, Andreas Fix, and Heinrich Bovensmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17345–17371,Short summary
Quantification of anthropogenic CH4 emissions remains challenging, but it is essential for near-term climate mitigation strategies. We use airborne remote sensing observations to assess bottom-up estimates of coal mining emissions from one of Europe's largest CH4 emission hot spots located in Poland. The analysis reveals that emissions from small groups of shafts can be disentangled, but caution is advised when comparing observations to commonly reported annual emissions.
Nicolas Theys, Vitali Fioletov, Can Li, Isabelle De Smedt, Christophe Lerot, Chris McLinden, Nickolay Krotkov, Debora Griffin, Lieven Clarisse, Pascal Hedelt, Diego Loyola, Thomas Wagner, Vinod Kumar, Antje Innes, Roberto Ribas, François Hendrick, Jonas Vlietinck, Hugues Brenot, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16727–16744,Short summary
We present a new algorithm to retrieve sulfur dioxide from space UV measurements. We apply the technique to high-resolution TROPOMI measurements and demonstrate the high sensitivity of the approach to weak SO2 emissions worldwide with an unprecedented limit of detection of 8 kt yr−1. This result has broad implications for atmospheric science studies dealing with improving emission inventories and identifying and quantifying missing sources, in the context of air quality and climate.
Jonathan E. Hickman, Niels Andela, Enrico Dammers, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Martin Van Damme, Courtney A. Di Vittorio, Money Ossohou, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Susanne E. Bauer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16277–16291,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) gas emitted from soils and biomass burning contributes to particulate air pollution. We used satellite observations of the atmosphere over Africa to show that declines in NH3 concentrations over South Sudan's Sudd wetland in 2008–2017 are related to variation in wetland extent. We also find NH3 concentrations increased in West Africa as a result of biomass burning and increased in the Lake Victoria region, likely due to agricultural expansion and intensification.
Nicole Jacobs, William R. Simpson, Kelly A. Graham, Christopher Holmes, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Qiansi Tu, Matthias Frey, Manvendra K. Dubey, Harrison A. Parker, Debra Wunch, Rigel Kivi, Pauli Heikkinen, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, and Thorsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16661–16687,Short summary
Spatial patterns of carbon dioxide seasonal cycle amplitude and summer drawdown timing derived from the OCO-2 satellite over northern high latitudes agree well with corresponding estimates from two models. The Asian boreal forest is anomalous with the largest amplitude and earliest seasonal drawdown. Modeled land contact tracers suggest that accumulated CO2 exchanges during atmospheric transport play a major role in shaping carbon dioxide seasonality in northern high-latitude regions.
Gaëlle Dufour, Didier Hauglustaine, Yunjiang Zhang, Maxim Eremenko, Yann Cohen, Audrey Gaudel, Guillaume Siour, Mathieu Lachatre, Axel Bense, Bertrand Bessagnet, Juan Cuesta, Jerry Ziemke, Valérie Thouret, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16001–16025,Short summary
The IASI observations and the LMDZ-OR-INCA model simulations show negative ozone trends in the Central East China region in the lower free (3–6 km column) and the upper free (6–9 km column) troposphere. Sensitivity studies from the model show that the Chinese anthropogenic emissions contribute to more than 50 % in the trend. The reduction in NOx emissions that has occurred since 2013 in China seems to lead to a decrease in ozone in the free troposphere, contrary to the increase at the surface.
Xiaomeng Jin, Qindan Zhu, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15569–15587,Short summary
We describe direct estimates of NOx emissions and lifetimes for biomass burning plumes using daily TROPOMI retrievals of NO2. Satellite-derived NOx emission factors are consistent with those from in situ measurements. We observe decreasing NOx lifetime with fire intensity, which is due to the increase in NOx abundance and radical production. Our ﬁndings suggest promise for applying space-based observations to track the emissions and chemical evolution of reactive nitrogen from wildfires.
Omaira E. García, Matthias Schneider, Eliezer Sepúlveda, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Emilio Cuevas, Ramón Ramos, Jochen Gross, Sabine Barthlott, Amelie N. Röhling, Esther Sanromá, Yenny González, Ángel J. Gómez-Peláez, Mónica Navarro-Comas, Olga Puentedura, Margarita Yela, Alberto Redondas, Virgilio Carreño, Sergio F. León-Luis, Enrique Reyes, Rosa D. García, Pedro P. Rivas, Pedro M. Romero-Campos, Carlos Torres, Natalia Prats, Miguel Hernández, and César López
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15519–15554,Short summary
This paper analyses the potential of ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar observations to monitor atmospheric gaseous composition and investigate multiple climate processes. To this end, this work reviews the FTIR programme of one of most relevant ground-based FTIR stations at a global scale, the subtropical Izaña Observatory (IZO, Spain), going over its history during its first 20 years of operation (1999–2018) and exploring its great value for long-term climate research.
Danran Li, Shanshan Wang, Ruibin Xue, Jian Zhu, Sanbao Zhang, Zhibin Sun, and Bin Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15447–15460,Short summary
Satellite-observed HCHO / NO2 ratios are usually used to infer the O3 formation sensitivity regime. However, it only provides the one ratio around overpass time per day. In order to better characterize the O3 formation during the daytime, we proposed to introduce the surface-observed hourly O3 concentration increment and HCHO / NO2 to correct the satellited-observed HCHO / NO2. Moreover, the temporal and spatial variations of HCHO VCDs and the influencing factors in Shanghai were investigated.
Zhen Qu, Daniel J. Jacob, Lu Shen, Xiao Lu, Yuzhong Zhang, Tia R. Scarpelli, Hannah Nesser, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Joannes D. Maasakkers, A. Anthony Bloom, John R. Worden, Robert J. Parker, and Alba L. Delgado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14159–14175,Short summary
The recent launch of TROPOMI offers an unprecedented opportunity to quantify the methane budget from a top-down perspective. We use TROPOMI and the more mature GOSAT methane observations to estimate methane emissions and get consistent global budgets. However, TROPOMI shows biases over regions where surface albedo is small and provides less information for the coarse-resolution inversion due to the larger error correlations and spatial variations in the number of observations.
Kang Sun, Lingbo Li, Shruti Jagini, and Dan Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13311–13332,Short summary
We bridge the gap between satellite column observations and emissions by accounting for the dynamic lifetime of pollutants due to wind dispersion and the chemical lifetime due to chemical reactions. Applying it to the Po Valley air basin, we derive the monthly emissions of nitrogen oxides using satellite nitrogen dioxide observations. We further quantify the COVID-19-driven decline of emissions and estimate a 22 % decrease in nitrogen oxide emissions due to the pandemic in 2020.
Isabelle De Smedt, Gaia Pinardi, Corinne Vigouroux, Steven Compernolle, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Folkert Boersma, Ka-Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Pascal Hedelt, François Hendrick, Hitoshi Irie, Vinod Kumar, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Bavo Langerock, Christophe Lerot, Cheng Liu, Diego Loyola, Ankie Piters, Andreas Richter, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Fabian Romahn, Robert George Ryan, Vinayak Sinha, Nicolas Theys, Jonas Vlietinck, Thomas Wagner, Ting Wang, Huan Yu, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12561–12593,Short summary
This paper assess the performances of the TROPOMI formaldehyde observations compared to its predecessor OMI at different spatial and temporal scales. We also use a global network of MAX-DOAS instruments to validate both satellite datasets for a large range of HCHO columns. The precision obtained with daily TROPOMI observations is comparable to monthly OMI observations. We present clear detection of weak HCHO column enhancements related to shipping emissions in the Indian Ocean.
Florian Dinger, Timo Kleinbek, Steffen Dörner, Nicole Bobrowski, Ulrich Platt, Thomas Wagner, Martha Ibarra, and Eveling Espinoza
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9367–9404,Short summary
Monitoring magnitude or chemical composition of volcanic gas emissions can help to forecast volcanic eruptions and provides empirical data on the impact of volcanoes on the chemistry in the local and global atmosphere. This study reports and discusses continuous time series of the sulfur and bromine emission fluxes of Masaya from 2014 to 2020. We observed an annual cyclicity in the BrO / SO2 molar ratio, possibly caused by the annual variability in the atmospheric humidity.
Mahesh Pathakoti, Aarathi Muppalla, Sayan Hazra, Mahalakshmi D. Venkata, Kanchana A. Lakshmi, Vijay K. Sagar, Raja Shekhar, Srinivasulu Jella, Sesha Sai M. V. Rama, and Uma Vijayasundaram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9047–9064,Short summary
Generally, atmospheric pollutants exhibit seasonal and annual variations with space and time in addition to episodic events. Hence it is important to quantify the changes that occurred due to episodic events such as lockdown in this case. Therefore in our study, we intended to show the lockdown-induced changes of tropospheric NO2, carbon monoxide (CO), and AOD in addition to the effect of inter-annual variability on these pollutants. Further observed changes were statistically evaluated.
Cheng Fan, Zhengqiang Li, Ying Li, Jiantao Dong, Ronald van der A, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7723–7748,Short summary
Emission control policy in China has resulted in the decrease of nitrogen dioxide concentrations, which however leveled off and stabilized in recent years, as shown from satellite data. The effects of the further emission reduction during the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 resulted in an initial improvement of air quality, which, however, was offset by chemical and meteorological effects. The study shows the regional dependence over east China, and results have a wider application than China only.
Jérôme Barré, Hervé Petetin, Augustin Colette, Marc Guevara, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Laurence Rouil, Richard Engelen, Antje Inness, Johannes Flemming, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Dene Bowdalo, Frederik Meleux, Camilla Geels, Jesper H. Christensen, Michael Gauss, Anna Benedictow, Svetlana Tsyro, Elmar Friese, Joanna Struzewska, Jacek W. Kaminski, John Douros, Renske Timmermans, Lennart Robertson, Mario Adani, Oriol Jorba, Mathieu Joly, and Rostislav Kouznetsov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7373–7394,Short summary
This study provides a comprehensive assessment of air quality changes across the main European urban areas induced by the COVID-19 lockdown using satellite observations, surface site measurements, and the forecasting system from the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for weather and seasonal variability when calculating such estimates.
Wannan Wang, Ronald van der A, Jieying Ding, Michiel van Weele, and Tianhai Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7253–7269,Short summary
We developed a method to determine the type of photochemical regime of ozone formation by using only satellite observations of formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide as well as ozone measurements on the ground. It was found that many cities in China, because of their high level of air pollution, are in the so-called VOC-limited photochemical regime. This means that the current reductions of nitrogen dioxide resulted in higher levels of photochemical smog in these cities.
Karn Vohra, Eloise A. Marais, Shannen Suckra, Louisa Kramer, William J. Bloss, Ravi Sahu, Abhishek Gaur, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, and Pierre-F. Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6275–6296,Short summary
We find satellite observations of atmospheric composition generally reproduce variability in surface air pollution, so we use their long record to estimate air quality trends in major UK and Indian cities. Our trend analysis shows that pollutants targeted with air quality policies have not declined in Delhi and Kanpur but have in London and Birmingham, with the exception of a recent and dramatic increase in reactive volatile organics in London. Unregulated ammonia has increased only in Delhi.
Saginela Ravindra Babu, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Ghouse Basha, Shantanu Kumar Pani, and Neng-Huei Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5533–5547,Short summary
The present study explores the detailed structure, dynamics, and trace gas variability in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone (ASMA) in the extreme El Niño of 2015/16. The results find the structure of the ASMA shows strong spatial variability between July and August. A West Pacific mode of the anticyclone is noticed in August. A significant lowering of tropospheric tracers and strong increase in stratospheric tracers are found. The tropopause temperatures also exhibit a warming in the ASMA.
Jérôme Barré, Ilse Aben, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Nicolas Bousserez, Peter Dueben, Richard Engelen, Antje Inness, Alba Lorente, Joe McNorton, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Gabor Radnoti, and Roberto Ribas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5117–5136,Short summary
This study presents a new approach to the systematic global detection of anomalous local CH4 concentration anomalies caused by rapid changes in anthropogenic emission levels. The approach utilises both satellite measurements and model simulations, and applies novel data analysis techniques (such as filtering and classification) to automatically detect anomalous emissions from point sources and small areas, such as oil and gas drilling sites, pipelines and facility leaks.
Akash Biswal, Vikas Singh, Shweta Singh, Amit P. Kesarkar, Khaiwal Ravindra, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip S. Dhomse, Richard J. Pope, Tanbir Singh, and Suman Mor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5235–5251,Short summary
Satellite and surface observations show a reduction in NO2 levels over India during the lockdown compared to business-as-usual years. A substantial reduction, proportional to the population, was observed over the urban areas. The changes in NO2 levels at the surface during the lockdown appear to be present in the satellite observations. However, TROPOMI showed a better correlation with surface NO2 and was more sensitive to the changes than OMI because of the finer resolution.
Joannes D. Maasakkers, Daniel J. Jacob, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Tia R. Scarpelli, Hannah Nesser, Jianxiong Sheng, Yuzhong Zhang, Xiao Lu, A. Anthony Bloom, Kevin W. Bowman, John R. Worden, and Robert J. Parker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4339–4356,Short summary
We use 2010–2015 GOSAT satellite observations of atmospheric methane over North America in a high-resolution inversion to estimate methane emissions. We find general consistency with the gridded EPA inventory but higher oil and gas production emissions, with oil production emissions twice as large as in the latest EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory. We find lower wetland emissions than predicted by WetCHARTs and a small increasing trend in the eastern US, apparently related to unconventional oil/gas.
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